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Weight Training Terms Cheating- A weight lifting term which generally means bobbing or weaving in such a manner at to create

momentum which helps a person swing a weight through a range of motion as opposed to lifting it. Range of motion (flexibility)-The distance through which a limb can travel at a given joint. Recovery Period- The rest interval time between sets or workouts. ________________________________________________ Aerobic- Exercise which causes a large amount of oxygen and blood to be circulated over a moderate period of time (at least 20 minutes). Anaerobic- Exercise without the use of oxygen. ________________________________________________ Agonist (prime mover)- A muscle that directly causes the action occurring. Antagonist- Has an effect opposite to that of the agonist; the antagonist relaxes and yields to the movement of the agonist. Synergists (Assistant movers)- Assists the agonist, usually stabilize a joint. Ex. For the biceps curl the biceps is the agonist and the triceps is the antagonist. ________________________________________________ Repetitions- The number of times an exercise is repeated (the number of complete muscle contractions. Set- A given number of repetitions. ________________________________________________ Atrophy- Decreases in muscle cell size. Hypertrophy- Increase in muscle cell size. ________________________________________________ Ballistic Stretching- Bouncing. Static Stretching- Slow sustained movement. ________________________________________________ Barbell- A six-foot long iron bar with iron plates attached. Dumbbell- A hand weight. Free Weights- The use of barbells and dumbbells as strength-training equipment. Isotonic Contraction (dynamic)- A muscle contraction with observable movement.

Isometric Contraction (static)- A muscle contraction with little or no observable movement. ________________________________________________ Resistance- In timed calisthenics, the weight of the body; in weight training, the weight moved by a muscle contraction. Maximum Resistance- Maximum weight lifted in one repetition of the exercise. ________________________________________________ Concentric- Shortening of muscle. Form of Isotonic contraction when the muscular force produced overcomes the resistance. Eccentric- Lengthening of the muscle. Form of Isotonic contraction when the muscular force produced by the muscle is insufficient to overcome the resistance. Negative resistance. ________________________________________________ Circuit Training- An organized course of exercise at a series of exercise stations placed around the gym or training area. Interval Training- Repeated periods of physical training interspersed with recovery periods. ________________________________________________ Insertion- The attachment of the other muscle tendon to the movable bone. Origin- The attachment of a muscle tendon to the stationary bone. ________________________________________________ Prone (grip)- Ventral surface (front) down, dorsal surface (back) up. Supine (grip)- Ventral surface (front) up and dorsal surface (back) down. ________________________________________________ Muscular Strength- The ability to exert force against resistance. Muscular Endurance- The ability to perform repeated muscle movements for a given period of time.