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BIOL 2305/ 2101 Human Physiology

CH-12-Immune System Notes

Pathogen: Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms. They are antigens. Antigens (Ag): A substance or part of substance (both living and nonliving) that 1./ is recognized as foreign by the immune system 2./ activates the immune system 3./ reacts with immune system cells or their products. 4./ is usually a 'foreign protein'. Antibodies (Ab): Gamma Immunoglobulins (Ig): A protein molecule that is released by plasma cells ( a daughter cell of an activated B lymphocytes) and that binds to specifically to an antigen. Immunity: 1. Ability of the body to resist many agents (both living and nonliving) that can cause disease. 2. Resistance to disease. Classification of Immunity of the body: I. Innate or Non-Specific Defenses : Definition: Always prepared. Responds within minutes. Attack against all foreign substances=antigens. Types: 1st line of defense system 2nd line of defense system II. Adaptive or Specific Defenses : Definition: Respond takes longer. Attack against specific foreign substances=Antigen-Specific. Systemic. Has memory. Types: 3rd line of defense system: Humoral Immunity Cellular Immunity

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BIOL 2305/ 2101 Human Physiology I. Innate or Non-Specific Defenses 1. 1st line of defenses: physical barricades: Intact, acidic (=low pH) skin. Intact, acidic mucous membranes.

CH-12-Immune System Notes

2. 2nd line of defenses: Cellular and Chemical Defenses a./ Cellular Defenses: Phagocytes: neutrophil granulocytes macrophages (from monocytes) Natural Killer Cells: special lymphocytes, that secrete chemicals to lyse the pathogen. b./ Chemical defenses: antimicrobial proteins Interferons: antiviral proteins Complement: lyses microorganisms Fever: bacteria growth tissue repair Inflammatory Response: triggered when tissues are injured Overview of Inflammatory Response Function: 1. Prevent spread of infection 2. Disposes of cell debris and pathogens 3. Sets the stage for repair processes Steps of Inflammatory Response: Release of Chemicals from damaged tissue Vasodilation of arterioles increased blood flow to area heat and redness Increased capillary permeability increased tissue fluid swelling pain WBCs migrate to damaged tissues phagocytosis clears out pathogens and dead tissue cells Cardinal Signs: Redness, Heat, Swelling, Pain Anik Szab Hill 2 of 5

BIOL 2305/ 2101 Human Physiology II. Adaptive or Specific Defenses (3rd line)

CH-12-Immune System Notes

Antibody-mediated immunity (Humoral Immunity) Activated B Cells produce plasma cells & memory B cells plasma cells secrete antibodies into body fluids antibodies immobilize antigens until destroyed memory B cells stay in body and respond to subsequent exposures to the same antigen Cell-Mediated immunity (Cellular Immunity) Activated T Cells - manage immune response Helper T cells stimulates production of B and T cells Cytotoxic T cells attack and destroy body cells that are either infected or cancerous Suppressor T cells stop immune response

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BIOL 2305/ 2101 Human Physiology

CH-12-Immune System Notes

Overview of Antibodies Antibody Structure: Immunoglobulins: 4 polypeptide chains, joined together with disulfide bonds (S-S) Two of the chains are shorter and light (light or L chains) The other two chains are longer and heavier (heavy or H chains) Each chain has a constant ( C ) region. Each chain has a variable ( V ) region.These are the antigen-binding sites!!!

Antibody classes: 5 major immunoglobulin classes: IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE.

General Functions of Antibodies PLAN of action: Precipitation ( soluble Ag insoluble Ag) Lyses by Complement Agglutination ( Ags bound to cells clumping) Neutralization (masks dangerous parts of bacteria/virus) Once the Ags are immobilized by the PLAN, phagocytes can clean up faster!

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BIOL 2305/ 2101 Human Physiology

CH-12-Immune System Notes

Immunological Memory After Primary Exposure to Ag: 1. Cellular proliferation and differentiation occur to produce memory cells. 2. There is a lag period of 3-6 days till Ab production begins. After Secondary Exposure to Ag: 1. Faster, more prolonged, more effective immune response. 2. Within hours the memory cells can respond to Ags. This is called immunological memory.

Active Immunity: Immunity produced by an encounter with an antigen. It provides immunologic memory. 1. Naturally acquired: get sick 2. Artificially required: Vaccinations: dead or attennuated ( living, but weakened) pathogens injected into circulation.

Passive Immunity: Short-lived immunity resulting from the introduction of borrowed antibodies obtained from an immune animal or human donor. Immunologic memory is not established. 1. Naturally acquired: Mother's antibodies cross placenta and enter fetal circulation.

2. Artificially acquired: When serum such as gamma globulin is injected into the circulation. For example:anti-anti-Rh=RhoGAM

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