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Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.1

All strengthening mechanisms Decrease ductility (f) Increase strength (y, ut)

All operate by impeding dislocation motion Types Grain size strengthening Solid solution hardening operate in Strain hardening 1-phase* alloys a.k.a. cold work
requires a Dispersion strengthening Precipitation hardening second phase**

* **

That is, a pure material or a solid solution That is, a region of the material whose composition and crystal structure are different from the rest of the material

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.2

GRAIN SIZE STRENGTHENING Definition: strengthening by reduction in grain size Mechanism: y, polyxtal > y, 1-xtal slip in any one grain is constrained by presence or absence of slip in neighboring grains In general, slip across grain boundary involves Discontinuity of slip planes Change in slip direction

For many materials, y as d (grain size) according to: ky d

y = o +

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING

p. 11.3

Definition: strengthening by addition of dissolved impurites Mechanism: Dissolved impurities distort lattice Substitutional Interstitial Dislocation mobility |r| as distortion

strengthening effect increases as (r = rhost rimpurity) amount of dissolved impurities

(r more significant than amount) Continuous solid solutions show maximum strengthening at an intermediate composition
Ref.: D. R. Askeland, The Science and Engineering of Materials, 2nd ed. PWS Kent, 1990

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms SOLID SOLUTION HARDENING (cont.)

p. 11.4

a.

Distortion of lattice (strain field) around a substitutional defect of a different size than that of the host atom.

b.

The strain field around a dislocation can be partially cancelled by the strain field around a substitutional defect the defects attract each other.
rev. 3/3/98

Callister, Figure 7.17


EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

Strengthening Mechanisms SOLID SOLUTION HARDENING (end)

p. 11.5

The effects of several alloying elements on the yield strength of copper. (From D. R. Askeland, The Science and Engineering of Materials, 2d ed. PWS Kent, 1990.) Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire rev. 3/3/98 EMSE 201

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.6

STRAIN HARDENING (a.k.a. cold work) Definition: strengthening by low-temperature plastic deformation Mechanism: Plastic deformation creates dislocations Upon repeated or extensive deformation, dislocations multiply, move, and (on average) repel each other dislocation mobility Effects:
y ut

until y ut

f until material behaves in a brittle manner

Youngs modulus unchanged


(from D. R. Askeland, The Science and Engineering of Materials, 2nd ed. PWS Kent, 1990)

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.7

STRAIN HARDENING IN LOW-CARBON STEELS Callister fig. 7.20 Stack of - curves vs. increasing %cw

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.8

EFFECT of COLD WORK ON STEEL, BRASS, & COPPER Percent of cold work A O Af A O 100

Callister, Figure 7.19


EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms STRAIN HARDENING (end) Forming processes that entail cold work: Forging compressive shaping Rolling forming sheet from plates Extrusion forcing material through die to give continuous length with constant cross section Drawing forming wire from rod Deep drawing Stretch forming Bending

p. 11.9

Note: Bent metal is stronger than unbent surroundings difficult to unbend because of strain hardening.

Callister, Fig. 12.2


EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.10

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, & GRAIN GROWTH Heat treatment of a cold-worked metal can return mechanical properties (f, y, ut) to pre-c.w. levels, while retaining the dimensional changes that resulted from c.w. Why? Recall that Plastic deformation creates dislocations Dislocations store some of the work per unit volume of plastic deformation (area under the - curve, d) Matter tends toward lower-energy states

If dislocations are given enough thermal energy (kB T) & time,

they will rearrange so as to annihilate each other. Results: Lowers the internal energy of the material Erases the effect of c.w. on mechanical properties

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.11

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, & GRAIN GROWTH (cont.) Figure 7-15, Askeland schematic diagrams of microstructures during recovery, recrystallizn, & grain growth

(from D. R. Askeland, The Science and Engineering of Materials, 2d ed. PWSKent, Boston, 1990.)

Callister, Figure 7.22 Upon heating, a cold-worked metal (a) undergoes b) Recovery dislocations line up to outline a subgrain structure within original grains; a.k.a. stress relief anneal Recrystallization dislocations coalesce & annihilate to form the grain boundaries of new, smaller grains within the original grains

c)

At higher temperatures and/or longer times, d) Grain growth large grains swallow small grains Driving force: reduction of total grain boundary area

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.12

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, & GRAIN GROWTH (cont.) Effects of recovery: No change in dislocation density Little or no change in mechanical properties
Electrical conductivity Corrosion resistance rise to pre-c.w. levels

Effects of recrystallization:
Ductility strength return to pre-c.w. levels

Because subgrains are smaller than original grains, some grain-size strengthening may be observed The greater the initial %c.w., the faster recrystallization proceeds the lower the temperature needed to achieve recrystallization in a given time

Effects of grain growth: generally Lose refined subgrain structure considered Gain little in properties undesirable overannealing

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.13

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, & GRAIN GROWTH (cont.) Figure 7-14, Askeland properties vs. % CW for brass; properties vs. annealing T for brass Callister, Figure 7.22

Main consequence for metals processing: Cycle of 1) cold work followed by a recrystallization 2) heat treatment

may be repeated to achieve large area reduction


EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.14

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, & GRAIN GROWTH (end) Callister, Fig. 7.22 microstructures and properties vs. annealing T

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms DISPERSION STRENGTHENING

p. 11.15

Definition: strengthening by a dispersed second phase, usu. obtained via deliberate addition of particulates, whiskers, Mechanism: dislocation movement is impeded across grain boundaries between different phases Examples (see Callister, 17.3): 14 wt% Al2O 3 in Al SAP composite 1-2 wt% ThO2 in Ni - 20% Cr TD nickel WC in Co cemented carbide cutting tools Clay in polyethylene (E, ut )

Effect is most pronounced with Ductile matrix Hard second phase Large number of second phase particles Rounded second phase (sharp particles act as stress concentrators) Small second phase high surface area of second phase per unit volume
EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.16

PRECIPITATION HARDENING Definition: strengthening (usu. of a metal alloy) via precipitation of small particles, usu. from a supersaturated solid solution (in which case it is also called age hardening) Mechanism: dislocation movement is impeded across grain boundaries between different phases Can occur in certain alloys on heat treatment artificial aging, e. g. Al-4%Cu alloys (see Callister, 11.7-11.9); at room temperature natural aging

Similar to dispersion strengthening in effects of particle nature & distribution on strength

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98

Strengthening Mechanisms

p. 11.17

STRENGTH IN A EUTECTIC ALLOY A eutectic composition exhibits several strengthening mechanisms simultaneously: Solid solution strengthening B in and A in a kind of dispersion strengthening alternating lamella of and constitute a kind of composite formed in situ Grain size strengthening faster solidification narrower lamellae Eutectic composition may exhibit the maximum strength obtainable in an alloy system

EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 1998 Mark R. De Guire

rev. 3/3/98