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Motivation for conduction of the Study Filtration is a more efficient method for the separation of mixtures than decantation, but it is much more time consuming. If a very small amount of solution is involved, most of the solution may be soaked up by the filter medium. Filtration methods are used in home, in research laboratories, in industrial processes, and in controlling environmental pollution. For example, a coffee filter is used to separate brewed coffee from the grounds. On an industrial scale, filtration is used by the oil, gas, food and beverage, and pharmaceutical industries, among others. Municipalities use filtration techniques when treating sewage and purifying water. Filtration cleans up river streams or other water streams. Furnaces use filtration to prevent the furnace elements from fouling with particulates. Pneumatic conveying systems often employ filtration to stop or slow the flow of material that is transported, through the use of a baghouse.

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Background of the Study

The history of water treatment dates back, approximately, to the thirteenth century B.C. in Egypt. However, modern filtration began much later. John Gibb's slow sand filter, built in 1804 in Scotland, was the first filter used for treating potable water in large quantities. Slow sand filters spread rapidly, with the first one in the United States built in Richmond, VA, in 1832. A set of slow sand filters adapted from English designs was built in 1870 in Poughkeepsie, NY, and is still in operation.

The history of water filters is indelibly tied to the history of water, itself. As human industry has grown and water has become more contaminated, water filters have emerged over the centuries in response to the growing recognition of the need for pure, clean water to drink and the realization that such water does not occur naturally.

Water has greatly affected humanity and civilization for millennia. Because water is so absolutely vital to our body systems, we, as living beings, are entirely dependent upon water. In fact, this simple substance, more than any other factor, guided the formation of civilization. Early civilizations were clustered around water sources, and it was water that initiated the first substantial agriculture in the Fertile Crescent, leading to more complex and sedentary civilizations. For centuries, water availability guided the type of foodstuff that could be grown in an area. Water was also the impetus and guiding force behind the first cross-cultural interactions. Early trade was completely dependent upon water, for transportation of goods and sustenance of people and animals.

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Throughout the centuries, as technology developed, people have gradually gained more control of water. They have been able to transport water to arid lands, stop and redirect rivers, and even determine when, where, and how much rain will fall. Even with increased control of water resources, water still continues to dominate the political, economic, and social structure of all nations. This statement can be verified by looking at political struggles within the United States over water resources or throughout the Middle East over access to limited water. Concerning conflict in the Middle East, former World Bank Vice President Ismail Serageldin stated in 2000, "Many of the wars of this [20th] century were about oil, but the wars of the next century will be about water" (Smith, 2000).

In modern times, concerns over water quality remain supreme. Over the years, scientists have discovered more and more contaminants in fresh water sources, and these same scientists have noted a strong correlation between drinking water contamination and many significant health problems. Due to the rampant impurity of water and the crucial, physiological need for clean, fresh drinking water, several treatment alternatives have emerged throughout the history of water treatment. Water filtration, one of the more viable and prominent of these treatment alternatives, has something of a remarkable past. Historians believe that the use of water filters began more than 4000 years ago! In the next several pages, the fascinating history of water filters will be addressed. Read on to learn more about this interesting history.

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II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES  The summary of some of related literature relevant to our study  The relevance of these related articles is that these could be a guide for households about the importance of water and to be educated on how water must be treated properly.

Filtration in Water and Wastewater Analysis

As simple as it looks, the filtration media and how it works is more complex that what meets the eye. - L.P. Raman Filtration is widely accepted as a way of producing quality water. As simple as it looks, the filtration media and how it works is a complex process. In general, filtration media is classified as depth filters or screen filters. Depth filters retain particles in the matrix of the filter media and along the direction of fluid flow. In contrast, screen filters (also known as membrane filters) retain particles on the surface of the filters. While depth filters are rated based on the size of the particles they retain, membrane filters are usually rated by pore sizes. Filtration Media Construction Materials Filtration media is made from natural materials such as cotton and wood pulp or from synthetic polymers such as polypropylene. In-organic materials such as glass micro fiber,

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quartz, aluminum oxide and silver are also used as filter media. Table 2 shows materials of construction and types of filters these are made into. Water Analysis Lab Filters Filters used in water analysis labs generally are used for removing particulates, capturing and quantifying specified impurities or for analyzing microorganisms. Generally, laboratories use filter media in circular formats in sheet forms such as filter papers or membranes or as encapsulated devices such as syringe filters and capsules. Filter Papers Cellulose and glass micro fiber media are used for basic qualitative and quantitative measurements. The basic procedure is to take a filter paper, measure its base line weight, then filter a specified quantity of liquid through it, dry the filter paper and measure the weight again. Total suspended solids analysis is done through a similar method. Total Suspended Solids Waste Water. Total suspended solids refers to matter suspended in wastewater and is the residue left behind on a filter paper (with a retention of 2 m or less) after filtration and drying. The procedure is specified in Method 2540D of American Public Health Associations (APHA) Standard Methods of Analysis of Water and Waste Water. Depending on the volume required to be filtered, a 934-AH Glass Micro Fiber (GMF) Filter in diameter of 2.4, 4.7 or 9.0 cm is widely used for this application. With a particle retention of 1.5 m and made of binder free borosilicate glass, 934-AH has a unique GMF formulation that has high flow rates, high loading

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capacity and can withstand high temperatures. The product is designed to have no brittleness, increased strength, less fiber shedding and pin holing. Membranes Membranes are screen filters that remove particles generally in the sub-micron range. These are used for both filtration and enumeration of particles and microorganisms. Membranes used in laboratory analysis are cast membranes (mixed ester of cellulose used commonly for coliform colony counting) or sievelike track-etch membranes. In water analysis membranes are used for capturing and analyzing microorganisms on the surface of the filter. Rapid Enumeration of Microorganisms. Epifluorescent membrane assay that can be used in the field, on-line or in the laboratory using the unique surface capture effect of Black Polycarbonate Track-Etch Membrane. Black Polycarbonate Track-Etch Membranes exhibit extremely low auto fluorescence and therefore permit high visibility of microorganisms captured on the membrane surfaces. Since, essentially, all types of microorganisms, including viable, nonviable, autotrophs and anaerobes are detected by this method; it consistently yields higher counts than the traditional pour-plate, or similar culturing methods. It shows generalized work flow of this method.

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Work Flow for Epifluroscence Microscopy Step 1 Filter Sample. Use standard filtration technique. Collect microorganism on track-etch membrane. Black Polycarbonate membrane surface.

y y y y

Step 2 Stain Sample. Stain/label sample. Air dry. Mount on slide.

y y y y

Step 3 View Sample. View sample under Epifluorescence Microscope. UV excitation results in fluorescence emission. Enumerate Microorganisms.

y y y y

It shows Epifluorescence micrograph of bacteria in water. These can be rapidly counted using standard microscopy counting techniques.

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Methods Advantages. Better enumeration of microorganisms: Culture techniques underestimate the total number of microorganisms present in a sample due to the selective nature of the media which they employ.

Results in less than 30 minutes: Culture techniques require incubation times of 48-72 hours before the results become available.

y y y

Detect both non-viable and viable microorganisms. Can detect microorganisms present in clumps or micro-colonies. Time-averaged samples may be taken. Samples for microbial analysis may be collected during an entire production run. This adds an additional in-process control to the overall process quality control program.

Encapsulated Devices Filtration media are often encapsulated in a ready-to-use plastic device. Examples of encapsulated filtration devices are syringe filters, capsule filters and filter cups. Encapsulated filtration devices are widely used in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and more and find more and more applications in laboratory water filtration. These devices are easier to use and minimize cross-contamination of samples. Capsule filtration devices are widely used when collecting ground water samples. Ground Water Sampling. U.S. EPA and State Departments for Environmental Protection (DEP) protocols for groundwater specify filtering the sample when analyzing for inorganic constituents.

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Ground water monitoring wells are not under daily use and hence sample water contains silt and sand. Presence of particles can adversely affect the results, as the protocols often require instant acidification; samples are instantly acidified to prevent oxidation of ferrous salts to insoluble ferric salts upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Presence of sand particles in the acidification process can result in erroneous results. Figure 3 above shows a schematic of how Polycap GW ground water capsule is used. Some of the advantage of using capsule filtration for ground water collection includes: Minimization of cross contamination of samples. Savings in time for sample collection as no disassembling and reassembling of filter is required. Conclusion Filtration methods are widely used in water analysis labs. Filter papers are used in the basic quantitative methods such as those involved in total suspended solids analysis. Membranes are used as matrices for collecting and enumerating microorganism. Encapsulated filtration devices offer the convenience and ease of use for sample preparation before analysis.

y y

Making the Filtration Buying Process Easier for Your Customers

How Culligan Helps Their Dealers Become Better-Educated Consumers of Drinking Water

- By David M. Marsh If youve seen it once, youve seen it a hundred timescustomers who come to you 9 Page

looking for a home filtration system, unaware of what their specific needs are. While many consumers simply want a system that improves their waters taste and aesthetic qualities, the majority are looking for a product that will make their water healthier. But as you know, healthier is a subjective term, and without knowing the issues that are present in the customers water, providing them with a system that fits their needs isnt very easy to do.

According to the 2001 National Consumer Water Quality Survey conducted by the Water Quality Association (WQA), the media was the most frequently cited source of information about home water contaminants. When a contaminant is in the media spotlight such as arsenic is this year or MTBE the year before sales of systems that reduce that contaminant are elevated. The concern, however, is that the chances of the specific newsworthy contaminant affecting a consumers water may be slim, while in actuality something else may be present. The goal as providers of high-quality home filtration equipment then should be to encourage Americans to start taking a proactive approach to protecting and improving their homes water quality. For example, Culligan implements a program to make it easier for customers to take personal control of their water quality. Through this program, Culligan dealers encourage their customers to follow these steps.

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Study your homes water. Does your water have an unpleasant taste? If so, what does the taste resemble? Have you noticed a particular smell in your water? If so, how would you describe the odor? Does your water have a brownish color? Are there particles floating in it? If so, how large? What about the way your water feels? After bathing or showering, do you feel like a film is left on your skin? Which of these issues are you most concerned about? Be sure to report all of these observances to your dealer. Determine how much of your homes water youd like to treat. Do you simply want to improve your drinking water or would you like to improve the quality of water throughout your entire home? If your goal is to improve drinking water only, how many faucets do you and your family drinks from? Consider routine maintenance. Do you want to be responsible for the routine maintenance necessary with your filtration product or would you rather have a trained professional manage this? If you decide to do the maintenance, how often do you want to be responsible for changing the filter? Do you want to be alerted by the system of necessary filter changes or will you remember to change it regularly? Determine your monthly budget. Are you willing to spend more money to get the most advanced equipment for your specific filtration needs or would you prefer to spend less and receive a more basic model? (Be sure when considering the price of a filtration product that you break the cost out by gallon of water filtered or treated. Sometimes systems that have a more expensive price tag upfront actually save you a significant amount of money in the long term.) How much are you willing to put towards the maintenance of your product on a monthly basis? Note that your budget may need to be increased if your goal is to reduce a more complex contaminant.

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Most importantly, get your home water tested. Work with your dealer to have a comprehensive laboratory testing conducted on your homes water. Because many contaminants cannot be detected by the human senses, this is the only way to truly know what is in your homes water. In addition, the contaminants present in your homes water may change over time. Therefore, the importance of ongoing home water testing cannot be underestimated. Your dealer will analyze the data and talk with you about the results.

Many first time buyers of home filtration equipment select products at retail rather than working with a dealer due to the misconception that theyll have to spend more money when working with a professional. However, as C.R. Hall, an independent Culligan dealer and the current president of the Water Quality Association and the Culligan Dealers Association of North America (CDANA) notes, dealers add a significant amount of value to the purchase of home filtration products, thereby actually saving the customer money across the term of ownership. Unfortunately, we as dealers often fail to effectively communicate to our customers the added benefits that we offerassistance in selecting a product, installation, sizing and maintenance. Yet when we outline all of our services, the decision to buy from a dealer suddenly is easy. For this reason, the questions above point to the benefit of working with a professional.

Another important step to helping your customer become well educated about his homes water quality is recommending that he read his Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) if he receives his water from a municipal system. CCRs are distributed annually with residents water bills. Often discarded, they provide key information about the citys

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water content, specifically, those contaminants that are present at higher than normal levels. If your customer no longer has the most recent version of this report, he may be able to find it on the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) website (, or he can contact his local municipality.

Finally, spend some time with your customer overviewing the fact that a wide variety of contaminants legally are present in his water but at specific levels. A consumer may believe that his municipality removes all traces of all contaminants. When alerted that this is not the case, he may decide to research health effects and the levels at which they are allowably present in his water. (The EPA website is a good resource for this type of information.) Based on this information, he may determine contaminants that he wants to reduce to even further levels. In addition, it will help him to better understand his CCR. However, when discussing contaminants with your customer, remember to approach the topic professionally. Never use scare tactics to encourage someone to buy. (For additional information, visit and search the article archives for ethical selling.)

Assisting your customer in becoming a better educated consumer of drinking water requires a small amount of your time, yet makes the filtration buying process easier for both of you. In addition, it establishes your business as a trusted resource, thereby ensuring a greater chance of a long-term buying relationship

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III. PURPOSE AND MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to identify some combination of values, for variable factors that affect on how to determine a better filtration process. This study aims to determine the appropriate type of filter to be used. This study was also conceptualized with the researchers desire to determine the best process of filtering water. And by using proper filtration processes in different kinds of situation in order to avoid some cases of improper misuse of water. The motivation of this study is to be a guide for households about the importance of water and to be educated on how water must be treated properly.

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Initial design The value which will be considered as benchmark and factorial design of experiments are the time duration of filtering water by pouring a certain amount of water by applying constant flow and would not cause overflowing. In order to have a consistent data, there were several trials performed.

Variable Factor Selection There were many factors that contribute to the duration of filtering water; we have chosen the factors that would vary in performing this experiment are some of the most easily monitored and adjusted. The chosen factors to vary regarding with its value are volume of water, type of filter used in the process and the type of water being filtered. Factorial Design

The factorial design used for this experiment is a two level (2k) factorial design. In the first complete trial, there are two factors with three levels. Factorial designs investigate all possible combinations of the levels of factors in each complete trial. The number of factor adjustments remains at a minimum, by approaching the trial systematically.

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Objectives of the Study The objective of this study is to determine the effects of types of water on the filtration processing time. To determine the effect of types of filtration materials on the filtration processing time. Another goal set for this study to achieve is determine the effects of volume of water to be filtered on the filtration processing time.

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Problem Statement Response Variable: Duration of filtering water (in seconds).  To know the effectiveness of the filter medium to the filtration processing time Factors of Interest: Factor A: The Type of Filter Factor B: The Type of Water to be filtered Levels: Levels (A): Cloth, Strainer, Filter Foam  Cloth an ordinary cloth used by households in filtering water from faucets or any water source  Strainer a strainer used for separating residue from water  Filter Foam a foam used in filtering water from faucets Levels (B): Clean water and Dirty (contains rust) water  Clean a clean water for drinking  Dirty a dirty water that contains rust

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Other Factor: The Volume of Water to be filtered Levels: 100 ml, 200 ml., and 300 ml. of clean and dirty water

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Hypothesized Model The three factor fixed effect model is used in the study, the hypothesized model of which is shown below: Yjkl = +

j + Yk + (

)ij + ( Y)ik + ( Y)jk + (

Y)ijk + ijkl

Where: l = 1, 2, 3, a, j = 1, 2, 3, b, k = 1, 2, 3, c, l = 1, 2, 3,n. = mean = types of filter = types of water Y = volume of water ( ) = interaction between types of filter and types of water

( Y) = interaction between types of filter and volume of water ( Y) = interaction between types of water and volume of water ( Y) = interaction between the types of filter, types of water and volume of water = random error


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H1: at least one

Ho: j = 0 H1: at least one j 0

Ho: yk = 0 H1: at least one yk 0

Ho: ( )ij = 0 H1: at least one ( )ij 0

Ho: TY = 0 H1: at least one TY 0

Ho: (Y)jk = 0 H1: at least one (Y)jk 0

Ho: ( Y)ijk = 0 H1: at least one ( Y)ijk 0


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In doing the experiment, the processes involved were statistically designed in order to observe the effectiveness of a certain method. And accuracy must be observed in performing the process. There were three types of filter was used in filtering like cloth, strainer and filter foam. There were also three certain volumes of water involved and there were two types of water filtered with a clean and dirty water. The volume of water that would determine the effect if a certain volume could affect the filtration process. The two types of water would vary with the filtration process. And filtering of water was performed with constant flow of water and prevents overflowing in order to properly filter clean and dirty water.

Materials used: 1. Different kinds of Filter (cloth, strainer and filter foam)

2. Stopwatch 21 Page

3. Measuring cup

Process of Gathering Data

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Get a required amount of clean and dirty water to be filtered with a volume of 100, 200 and 300 ml. of water.

Randomization Procedure

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Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

A A11 A12 A13 A21 A22 A23 A31 A32 A33 A11 A12 A13 A21 A22 A23 A31 A32 A33 A11 A12 A13 A21 A22 A23 A31 A32 A33

B B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23

C C31 C32 C33 C11 C12 C13 C21 C22 C23 C31 C32 C33 C11 C12 C13 C21 C22 C23 C31 C32 C33 C11 C12 C13 C21 C22 C23

Run 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

A A11 A12 A13 A21 A22 A23 A31 A32 A33 A11 A12 A13 A21 A22 A23 A31 A32 A33 A11 A12 A13 A21 A22 A23 A31 A32 A33

B B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B11 B12 B13

C C31 C32 C33 C11 C12 C13 C21 C22 C23 C31 C32 C33 C11 C12 C13 C21 C22 C23 C31 C32 C33 C11 C12 C13 C21 C22 C23

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Pour the water into the filter with a constant flow of around 5 sec. per 100 ml of water by avoiding overflowing with a 90 of upper arm then record the duration of filtration with a stopwatch at the moment the water touches the filter medium and after the water subsides into the filter.

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Presentation of Data

Type of Water Clean Dirty (contains rust) Volume of water Types of Filter Cloth 100 ml. 10.86 11.01 9.98 31.85 200 ml. 16.23 15.61 15.90 47.74 300 ml. 21.16 20.69 21.97 63.82 100 ml. 11.79 12.07 11.88 35.74 200 ml. 18.41 18.02 17.96 54.39 300 ml. 25.28 24.91 25.79 75.98 309.52


6.33 5.99 6.15 18.47

11.92 10.63 11.10 33.65

15.58 16.08 15.82 47.48

6.64 7.03 6.88 20.55

12.73 12.85 13.09 38.67

17.96 18.88 18.35 55.19 214.01

Filter Foam

14.89 15.11 14.58 44.58

20.50 21.25 21.10 62.85

25.67 26.98 27.38 80.03

23.03 21.99 22.43 67.45

38.71 34.18 37.01 109.90

58.79 55.93 57.90 172.62 537.43








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Residual Analysis

Clean Types of Filter Cloth 100 ml. -6.34 -6.19 -7.22 -5.56 -5.90 -5.74 -14.8 -14.58 -15.11 200 ml. -0.97 -1.59 -1.3 0.03 -1.26 -0.79 -9.19 -8.44 -8.59 29.1 and


Filter Foam

Type of Water Dirty (contains rust) Volume of Water 300 ml. 100 ml. 200 ml. 300 ml. 3.96 -5.41 1.21 8.08 3.49 -5.13 0.82 7.71 4.77 -5.32 0.76 8.59 3.69 -5.25 0.84 6.07 4.19 -4.86 0.96 6.99 3.93 -5.01 1.20 6.46 -4.02 -6.66 9.02 29.1 -2.71 -7.7 4.49 26.24 -2.31 -7.26 7.32 28.21 -15.11

+/- residuals: Dij k =

= -15.11/(3.79) Dij k = -7.76

Dij k =

= 29.1/(3.79) Dij k = 14.95 Therefore, the result are not normally distributed.

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 SST = 7569.23

 = 3067.88

= 740.89

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= 2126.84

 = 767.12

 = 303.86

 SSBC = 199.50


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= 226.80

 SS subtotals (ABC) = 7432.89


ANOVA TABLE Source of Variation A (Type of Filter) B (Type of Water) C (Vol. of Water) AB AC BC ABC Error Total SS 3067.88 740.89 2126.84 767.12 303.86 199.5 226.8 136.34 7569.23 df 2 1 2 2 4 2 4 36 53 MS 1533.94 740.89 1063.42 383.56 75.97 99.75 56.7 3.79 F 404.73 195.49 280.49 101.2 20.04 26.4 14.96 *significant *significant *significant *significant *significant *significant *significant

F0.05, 1, 36 = 4.116; F0.05, 2, 36 = 3.266; F0.05, 4, 36 = 2.642

FC > Ftable 30 Page

Where: A = Type of Filter B = Type of Water C = Volume of Water AB = Interaction of Type of Filter and Type of Water AC = Interaction of Type of Filter and Volume of Water BC = Interaction of Type of Water and Volume of Water ABC = Interaction of Type of Filter, Type of Water and Volume of Water

Conclusion Based on the gathered and computed data, the conclusions are the following: A: The Type of Filter has a significant effect on the filtering processing time B: The Type of Water has a significant effect on the filtering processing time C: The Volume of Water has a significant effect on the filtering processing time AB: The interaction of Type of Filter and Type of Water has significant interaction in the filtering processing time AC: The interaction of Type of Filter and Volume of Water has significant interaction in the filtering processing time BC: The interaction of Type of Water and Volume of Water has significant interaction in the filtering processing time ABC: The interaction of Type of Filter, Type of Water and Volume of Water has significant interaction in the filtering processing time

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Decision y Reject all Ho, Accept all H1

Interpretation y Accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis since the computed F value is less than the critical F value. y Reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis since the computed F value is greater than the critical F value.

Post ANOVA (Using LSD) For Types of Filter


= 51.59 (Cloth) = 35.67 (Strainer) = 89.57 (Filter Foam) 1 vs. 2 = 15.92 1 vs. 3 = -37.98 2 vs. 3 = -53.9

LSD = t

/2, N-a 2MSe/n

= t0.025, 36 2 (3.79)/3

x = 2.0294 LSD = (2.0294)(1.59) LSD = 3.23

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1 is better than 2 3 is better than 1 3 is better than 2

Decision Based on the result of the post analysis of variance, the Filter Foam has the longest filtration processing time, so it is the best filter medium to use.

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VII. CONLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Experimental Conclusion y The type of water is a factor in the duration of filtering water regarding if the water is clean or dirty. y The volume of water is also a factor in the duration of filtering water depending with the amount of water. y The duration of filtration is longer with Filter Foam for both clean and dirty water that shows a good performance in filtering water. Recommendation The researchers of the study recommend: y For some reasons, it is best to use the Filter Foam since it gives a longer duration of filtration that can assure that the water is filtered well. y The researchers recommend for other students to have some useful studies or experimental method that could help us have some improvement to our daily living. y Rather than using different types of filter as treatment, other types of liquid samples can also be regarded for a different kind of study. y We can also consider the pressure of water from a water source as an alternative factor.

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