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Virtualization

What is Virtualization? Todays x86 computer hardware was designed to run a single operating system and a single application, leaving most machines vastly underutilized. Virtualization lets you run multiple virtual machines on a single physical machine, with each virtual machine sharing the resources of that one physical computer across multiple environments. Different virtual machines can run different operating systems and multiple applications on the same physical computer. Virtualization is software technology which uses a physical resource such as a server and divides it up into virtual resources called virtual machines (VM's). Virtualization lets you run multiple virtual machines on a single physical machine, with each virtual machine sharing the resources of that one physical computer across multiple environments. Different virtual machines can run different operating systems and multiple applications on the same physical computer. Virtualization allows users to consolidate physical resources, simplify deployment and administration, and reduce power and cooling requirements. While virtualization technology is most popular in the server world, virtualization technology is also being used in data storage such as Storage Area Networks, and inside of operating systems such as Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V.

Virtualization Advantages:

Server consolidation Server consolidation is the management of the total computer server complement to eliminate multiple, individual servers and maximize available resources by loading several different applications on the same server. There are four things to consider when looking at server consolidation: hardware, redundancy, operating system, and maximizing efficiency. The purpose of server consolidation is to decrease the number of individual servers and maximize available resources. Make an inventory list of all your servers, operating system, software installed, versions and their primary function and user group. If possible, review the total traffic load, peak times and overall user demand.

Reduced power and cooling As virtualization rapidly achieves mainstream status in todays data centers, it is heightening demand for servers optimized to meet the unique challenges of hosting virtual machines and reducing datacenter size. Organizations looking to maximize the benefits of virtualization are experiencing optimal results using servers specifically designed for virtualized infrastructures. High availability

Traditional high-availability solutions are costly, hard to implement and difficult to manage. With VMware vSphere, you can increase the baseline level of availability for all your applications and ensure service level agreements are met. Slash planned downtime, prevent unplanned downtime and recover rapidly from outages as you:

Eliminate planned downtime for common maintenance operations Provide higher availability independent of hardware, operating system, and applications Recover rapidly from server failures with automatic restart of systems Disaster recovery disaster recovery made easy with virtualization because due to virtualization the infrastructure size is made small and it helps to maintain disaster recovery easy and as everything is virtualized the entire data is in the form of files so disaster recovery is easier in virtualization

Popular virtualization products


VMware Esx server Microsoft Hyper-V Citrix Xen server

Vmware is the Most popular Virtualization technology in the world .The server used for virtualization in Vmware is Esx server

How Does Virtualization Work?


The VMware virtualization platform is built on a business-ready architecture. Use software such as VMware vSphere to transform or virtualize the hardware resources of an x86-based computerincluding the CPU, RAM, hard disk and network controllerto create a fully functional virtual machine that can run its own operating system and applications just like a real computer. Each virtual machine contains a complete system, eliminating potential conflicts. VMware virtualization works by inserting a thin layer of software directly on the computer hardware or on a host operating system. This contains a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor that allocates hardware resources dynamically and transparently. Multiple operating systems run concurrently on a single physical computer and share hardware resources with each other. By encapsulating an entire machine, including CPU, memory, operating system, and network devices, a virtual machine is completely compatible with all standard x86 operating systems, applications, and device drivers. You can safely run several operating systems and applications at the same time on a single computer, with each having access to the resources it needs when it needs them.

What is a Virtual Infrastructure?


A virtual infrastructure lets you share your physical resources of multiple machines across your entire infrastructure. A virtual machine lets you share the resources of a single physical computer across multiple virtual machines for maximum efficiency. Resources are shared across multiple virtual machines and applications. Your business needs are the driving force behind dynamically mapping the physical resources of your infrastructure to applicationseven as those needs evolve and change. Aggregate your x86 servers along with network and storage into a unified pool of IT resources that can be utilized by the applications when and where theyre needed. This resource optimization drives greater flexibility in the organization and results in lower capital and operational costs.

A virtual infrastructure consists of the following components:


Bare-metal hypervisors to enable full virtualization of each x86 computer. Virtual infrastructure services such as resource management and consolidated backup to optimize available resources among virtual machines Automation solutions that provide special capabilities to optimize a particular IT process such as provisioning or disaster recovery.

Decouple your software environment from its underlying hardware infrastructure so you can aggregate multiple servers, storage infrastructure and networks into shared pools of resources. Then dynamically deliver those resources, securely and reliably, to applications as needed. This pioneering approach lets our customers use building blocks of inexpensive industry-standard servers to build a self-optimizing datacenter and deliver high levels of utilization, availability, automation and flexibility.

Bring Virtual Infrastructure Benefits to your Datacenter


Gain the benefits of virtualization in production-scale IT environments by building your virtual infrastructure with the leading virtualization platform from VMware. VMware Infrastructure 3 unifies discrete hardware resources to create a shared dynamic platform, while delivering builtin availability, security and scalability to applications. It supports a wide range of operating system and application environments, as well as networking and storage infrastructure. We have designed our solutions to function independently of the hardware and operating system so you have a broad platform choice. Our solutions provide a key integration point for hardware and infrastructure management vendors and partners to deliver differentiated value that can be applied uniformly across all application and operating system environments. Get More from your Existing Hardware Our customers report dramatic results when they adopt our virtual infrastructure solutions, including:

60-80% utilization rates for x86 servers (up from 5-15% in non-virtualized PCs) Cost savings of more than $3,000 annually for every workload virtualized Ability to provision new applications in minutes instead of days or weeks 85% improvement in recovery time from unplanned downtime

Choose VMware for Greater Efficiency, Control and Flexibility

Greater Efficiency with Lower Overall Cost $40K lower cost than Hyper-V for 100 VMs.

What is a Virtual Machine?

A virtual machine is a tightly isolated software container that can run its own operating systems and applications as if it were a physical computer. A virtual machine behaves exactly like a physical computer and contains it own virtual (ie, software-based) CPU, RAM hard disk and network interface card (NIC).

An operating system cant tell the difference between a virtual machine and a physical machine, nor can applications or other computers on a network. Even the virtual machine thinks it is a real computer. Nevertheless, a virtual machine is composed entirely of software and contains no hardware components.Virtual machines a formed with the collection of few files and these files are stored in the storage provide by the Esx Server whatsoever. As a result, virtual machines offer a number of distinct advantages over physical hardware.

Virtual Machines Benefits


In general, VMware virtual machines possess four key characteristics that benefit the user:

Compatibility: Virtual machines are compatible with all standard x86 computers Isolation: Virtual machines are isolated from each other as if physically separated Encapsulation: Virtual machines encapsulate a complete computing environment Hardware independence: Virtual machines run independently of underlying hardware

Compatibility
Just like a physical computer, a virtual machine hosts its own guest operating system and applications, and has all the components found in a physical computer (motherboard, VGA card, network card controller, etc). As a result, virtual machines are completely compatible with all standard x86 operating systems, applications and device drivers, so you can use a virtual machine to run all the same software that you would run on a physical x86 computer.

Isolation
While virtual machines can share the physical resources of a single computer, they remain completely isolated from each other as if they were separate physical machines. If, for example, there are four virtual machines on a single physical server and one of the virtual machines crashes, the other three virtual machines remain available. Isolation is an important reason why the availability and security of applications running in a virtual environment is far superior to applications running in a traditional, non-virtualized system.

Encapsulation
A virtual machine is essentially a software container that bundles or encapsulates a complete set of virtual hardware resources, as well as an operating system and all its applications, inside a software package. Encapsulation makes virtual machines incredibly portable and easy to manage. For example, you can move and copy a virtual machine from one location to another just like any other software file, or save a virtual machine on any standard data storage medium, from a pocket-sized USB flash memory card to an enterprise storage area networks (SANs).

Hardware Independence
Virtual machines are completely independent from their underlying physical hardware. For example, you can configure a virtual machine with virtual components (eg, CPU, network card, SCSI controller) that are completely different from the physical components that are present on the underlying hardware. Virtual machines on the same physical server can even run different kinds of operating systems (Windows, Linux, etc). When coupled with the properties of encapsulation and compatibility, hardware independence gives you the freedom to move a virtual machine from one type of x86 computer to another without making any changes to the device drivers, operating system, or applications. Hardware independence also means that you can run a heterogeneous mixture of operating systems and applications on a single physical computer

Architecture difference between Traditional and Virtual(Esx server)

App

App

App

Operating System Hard Ware


Traditional Architecture

VM1

VM2

VM3

App

App OS

App

App

App OS

App

App App OS

App

Esx Server Kernal Hard ware

Esx Server(Vmware Architecture)

Storage in Esx Server


Esx Server contains number of virtual machines in it so it need a huge storage for all the virtual machines so the general hard disk present in the Esx server box is negligible to it so we need more hard disk(storage) So we are supposed to take the huge storage for SAN(Storage Area Network) boxes.Every Esx Server has its own storage taken from the SAN box.The storage is added to the Esx server using Virtual Center Srever as Esx Server is command Line based.

Managing Esx servers

As Esx server has only Service console it is not Gui So it is only accessibled by using Commands In order to access the Esx server we use a tool named Virtual center Server.Virtual Center server is responsible for grouping all the individual Esx servers together and maintain our Virtual infrastructure very effectively Other ways to acces the Esx servers is using Putty(command line). What is VMware vCenter Server?

VMware vCenter Server, formerly known as VirtualCenter, is the centralized management tool. VMware vCenter Server allows for the management of multiple ESX servers and virtual machines (VMs) from different ESX servers through a single console application. VMware vCenter Server comes in two versions: Standard and Foundation. The Foundation edition is designed for small and medium-sized businesses that run up to three ESX servers. The Standard version, on the other hand, is for large-scale vCenter Server deployments. vCenter Server performs the following three key functions:

Visibility. vCenter Server allows you to configure ESX servers and VMs, as well as monitor performance throughout the entire infrastructure, using events and alerts. The objects in the virtual infrastructure can be securely managed with roles and permissions.

Scalability. The visibility found in vCenter Server is scalable across hundreds of ESX servers and thousands of VMs. Using Linked Mode, you can also manage multiple vCenter servers within the same vSphere client.

Automation. vCenter Server alerts can trigger actions. The Orchestrator feature in vCenter Server Standard allows you to automate hundreds of actions.

How Is VMware VirtualCenter Used in the Enterprise? VirtualCenter delivers centralized management, operational automation, resource optimization and high availability to IT environments.

Centralized management capabilities allow IT organizations

to organize, monitor, and configure the entire IT environment through a single interface resulting in lower operating costs. Rapid provisioning with deployment wizard and virtual machine templates reduces the time and effort for creating and deploying virtual machines to a few mouse clicks.

Performance monitoring capabilities, including utilization graphs of CPU, memory, Disk I/O, and Network I/O provide the detail needed to analyze the performance of physical servers, and the virtual machines they are running. Operational automation through task scheduling and alerting improves responsiveness to business needs and prioritizes actions needing the most urgent attention.

Secure access control, robust permissions mechanisms, and integration with Microsoft Active Directory guarantee authorized access to the environment and its virtual machines. Responsibilities can be delegated to tiers of system administrators. Resource optimization through performance monitoring, multiserver resource pools, and dynamic workload balancing delivers the highest virtual machine to physical server ratio while improving service levels to software applications. Automated data centerwide resource optimization with VMware DRS aligns available resources with pre-defined business priorities while streamlining labor and resource intensive operations across disparate hardware, operating system, and software applications.

Migration of live virtual machines across entirely separate

physical servers with VMware VMotion makes the maintenance of IT environments non-disruptive. High availability provided by VMware HA enables broad-based, cost-effective application failover independent of hardware and operating systems. Integration with third party systems management products through Web services APIs provided by the VMware Infrastructure

Virual center server have some features which made the Vmware virtualization strong and powerful over the world. The features of the Virtual Center Server is Vmotion Storage Vmotion Snapshot Clone Template Cluster DRS(Distributed Resource Scheduler) High Availability

Vmotion :
VMware VMotion enables the live migration of running virtual machines from one physicalserver to another with zero downtime, continuous service availability, and complete transaction integrity. VMotion is a key enabling technology for creating the dynamic, automated, and self-optimizing datacenter

How is VMware VMotion Used in the Enterprise? VMware VMotion allows users to: Perform hardware maintenance without scheduled downtime.

Proactively migrate virtual machines away from failing or underperforming servers. Automatically optimize and allocate entire pools of resources for optimal hardware utilization and alignment with business priorities. How Does VMware VMotion Work? Live migration of a virtual machine from one physical server to another with VMware VMotion is enabled by three underlying technologies. First, the entire state of a virtual machine is encapsulated by a set of files stored on shared storage such as Fibre Channel or iSCSI Storage Area Network (SAN) or Network Attached Storage (NAS). VMware vStorage VMFS allows multiple installations of VMware ESX to access the same virtual machine files concurrently. Second, the active memory and precise execution state of the virtual machine is rapidly transferred over a high speed network, allowing the virtual machine to instantaneously switch from running on the source ESX host to the destination ESX host. VMotion keeps the transfer period imperceptible to users by keeping track of on-going memory transactions in a bitmap. Once the entire memory and system state has been copied over to the target ESX host, VMotion suspends the source virtual machine, copies the bitmap to the target ESX host, and resumes the virtual machine on the target ESX host. This entire process takes less than two seconds on a Gigabit Ethernet network.

Third, the networks being used by the virtual machine are also virtualized by the underlying ESX host, ensuring that even after the migration, the virtual machine network identity and network connections are preserved. VMotion manages the virtual MAC address as part of the process. Once the destination machine is activated, VMotion pings the network router to ensure that it is aware of the new physical location of the virtual MAC address. Since the migration of a virtual machine with VMotion preserves the precise execution state, the network identity, and the active network connections, the result is zero downtime and no disruption to users

Svmotion(Storage Vmotion)
VMware Storage VMotion enables live migration for running virtual machine disk files from one storage location to another with no downtime or service disruption when our storage is full or any failure occurred to our storage.

How is VMware Storage VMotion Used in the Enterprise? Customers use VMware Storage VMotion to: Simplify array migrations and storage upgrades. The traditional process of moving data to new storage is cumbersome, time-consuming and disruptive. With Storage VMotion, IT organizations can accelerate migrations while minimizing or eliminating associated service disruptions, making it easier, faster and more cost-effective to embrace new storage platforms and file formats, take advantage of flexible leasing models, retire older, hard-to-manage storage arrays and to conduct storage upgrades and migrations based on usage and priority policies. Storage VMotion works with any operating system and storage hardware platform supported by VMware ESX, enabling customers to use a heterogeneous mix of datastores and file formats. Dynamically optimize storage I/O performance. Optimizing storage I/O performance often requires reconfiguration and reallocation of storage, which can be a highly disruptive process for both administrators and users and often requires scheduling downtime. With Storage VMotion, IT administrators can move virtual machine disk files to alternative LUNs that are properly configured to deliver optimal performance without the need for scheduled downtime, eliminating the time and cost associated with traditional methods. Efficiently manage storage capacity. Increasing or decreasing storage allocation requires multiple manual steps, including coordination between groups, scheduling downtime and adding additional storage. This is then followed by a lengthy migration of virtual machine disk files to the new datastore, resulting in significant service

Snapshot:
"snapshot" is a copy of the virtual machine disk file (VMDK) at a certain point in time. It preserves the disk file system and system memory of your VM by enabling you to revert to the snapshot in case something goes wrong. Snapshots can be real lifesavers when upgrading or patching applications and servers. This article will go over everything you need to know about using snapshots with VMware, including what they are, how they work and advanced techniques.Snapshot is very useful to us during the updations befor updations we took snapshot of our virtual machine state and we go through the updations.if any problem occurred with updation we can revert back to our previous state by using revert option.

Clone:
A clone is a copy of an existing virtual machine. The existing virtual machine is called the parent of the clone. When the cloning operation is complete, the clone is a separate virtual machine though it may share virtual disks with the parent virtual machine Changes made to a clone do not affect the parent virtual machine. Changes made to the parent virtual machine do not appear in a clone. A clone's MAC address and UUID are different from those of the parent virtual machine.

If you want to save the current state of the virtual machine, so you can revert to that state in case you make a mistake, take a snapshot. If you want to make a copy of a virtual machine for separate use, create a clone.

Why Make a Clone?


Installing a guest operating system and applications can be time consuming. With clones, you can make many copies of a virtual machine from a single installation and configuration process. Clones are useful when you must deploy many identical virtual machines to a group. For example: An MIS department can clone a virtual machine for each employee, with a suite of preconfigured office applications. A virtual machine can be configured with a complete development environment and then cloned repeatedly as a baseline configuration for software testing. A teacher can clone a virtual machine for each student, with all the lessons and labs required for the term. With clones you can conveniently make complete copies of a virtual machine, without browsing a host file system or worrying if you have located all the configuration files.

Clone can be taken to a virtual machine before we are doing upgradations we take a clone of a virtual machine the clone is the exact copy of that virtual machine so the upgradations are done to it if the upgradations are done successfully without any issue then the original virtual machine is deleted from the Esx server and the clone of the virtual machine is used as the virtual machine.In case the upgradation causes few issues the the clone copy is deleted and the original virtual machine is free from issue .again take a clone and perform the upgradation till it was succeded.

Template;
Template is the master copy of the virtual machine. It avoids the repetitive installation and configuration tasks to create a virtual machine. It reduces deployment time to create a virtual machine.From a template we can deploy many number of virtual machines.

Why Use Virtual Machine Templates?


The first and simplest reason for using virtual machine templates is efficiency. With templates,many repetitive installation and configuration tasks can be avoided. The result is a fully installed,ready to operate (virtual) server in less time than manual installation. Consider this example:Suppose you wish to create four virtual machines all running Windows 2000 Server, and three of the four virtual machines are intended for production use, one for development purposes. Of the three production machines, one does not require a backup agent. Your effort, then, would involve no less than 17 steps, most of which are time consuming and repetitive Suppose we are in a need of 100 virtual machines with same operating system and same applications it is vise to convert a virtual machine to a Template and deploying the 100 virtual machines than to make vitual machines installing operating systems and applications in our environment refer to Figure 1, Manual Installation of Several Virtual Machines, below.

Figure 1, Manual Installation of Several Virtual Machines( generally done)

Figure 2, Template Based Deployment of Various Virtual Machines(using teplates)

Cluster:
A cluster is defined as "a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer" (per Wikipedia). A VMware ESX Cluster is no difference. Clusters are used for 3 things- 1) high availability, 2) load balancing, and 3) high performance computing. VMware ESX clusters are used for #1 and #2. With a VMware ESX Cluster, you define 2 or more physical machines that will provide resources for the hosts (or resource pools) that are assigned to that cluster. By using ESX clusters, you can achieve high availability (VM HA) and load balancing of virtual machines (called VMware DRS).Cluster groups few Esx server it combines all the resources of the Esx servers in it.

1. DRS(Distributed Resource Scheduler): VMware DRS dynamically balances computing capacity across a collection of hardware resources aggregated into logical resource pools, continuously monitoring utilization across resource pools and intelligently allocating available resources among the virtual machines based on pre-defined rules that reflect business needs and changing priorities. When a virtual machine experiences an increased load, VMware DRS automatically allocates additional resources by redistributing virtual machines among the physical servers in the resource pool. VMware DRS allows IT organizations to: Prioritize resources to the highest value applications in order to align resources with business goals Optimize hardware utilization automatically and continuously to respond to changing conditions Provide dedicated resources to business units while still profiting from higher hardware utilization through resource pooling Conduct zero-downtime server maintenance Vmotion is taken place in DRS to schedule the resources to other Esx servers if needed.

How Does VMware DRS Work?

VMware DRS aggregates computing capacity across a collection of servers into logical resource pools and intelligently allocates available resources among the virtual machines based on pre-defined rules that reflect business needs and changing priorities. VMware DRS allows users to define the rules and policies that decide how virtual machines share resources and how these resources are prioritized among multiple virtual machines. When a virtual machine experiences increased load, VMware DRS first evaluates its priority against the established resource allocation rules and policies, and if justified, allocates additional resources. Resources are allocated to the virtual machine by either migrating it to another server with more available resources or by making more space for it on the same server by migrating other virtual machines to different servers. The live migration of virtual machines to different physical servers is executed completely transparent to end-users through VMware VMotion. VMware DRS can be configured to operate in either automatic or manual mode. In automatic mode, VMware DRS determines the best possible distribution of virtual machines among different physical servers and automatically migrates virtual machines to the most appropriate physical servers. In manual mode, VMware DRS provides a recommendation for optimal placement of virtual machines, and leaves it to the system administrator to decide whether to make the change. Flexible hierarchical organization of resource pools allows administrators to match available IT resources to the needs of the business organization. Individual business units can receive dedicated IT resources while still benefiting from the efficiency of resource pooling. Robust access privileges make it possible to delegate routine infrastructure tasks for a business unit resource pool to a business unit system administrator

2 HA(High Availability) : VMware High Availability (HA) provides easy to use, cost effective high availability for applications running in virtual machines. In the event of server failure, affected virtual machines are automatically restarted on other production servers with spare capacity.

How Does VMware HA Work? VMware HA continuously monitors all servers in a resource pool and detects server failures. An agent placed on each server maintains a heartbeat with the other servers in the resource pool and a loss of heartbeat initiates the restart process of all affected virtual machines on other servers. VMware HA ensures that sufficient resources are available in the resource pool at all times to be able to restart virtual machines on different physical servers in the event of server failure. Restart of virtual machines is made possible by the Virtual Machine File System (VMFS) clustered file system which gives multiple ESX Server instances read-write access to the same virtual machine files, concurrently. VMware HA is easily configured for a resource pool through VirtualCenter Benefits : Minimize downtime and IT service disruption while eliminating the need for dedicated stand-by hardware and installation of additional software. Provide uniform high availability across the entire virtualized IT environment without the cost and complexity of failover solutions tied to either operating systems or specific applications.