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Coordinated school health (CSH) is a strategy recommended by CDC for improving students' health and learning in our nation

s schools. Framework for Coordinating School Health CDC has proposed a framework for planning and coordinating school health activities. This coordinated school health framework centers around eight critical, interrelated components: y y y y y y y y Health education Physical education Health services ental health and social services Nutrition services Healthy and safe environment Family and community involvement Staff wellness

Individually, each of these components can contribute to students health and well-being. However, when all of the individual components work together to support the adoption of health-enhancing behaviors, students health and learning are improved. What are the Goals of School Health? Ultimately, school health has four interrelated goals: y y y y Improve health knowledge, attitudes, and skills Improve health behaviors and health outcomes Improve educational outcomes Improve social outcomes

These goals are most effectively and efficiently achieved when all the goals are addressed simultaneously through a coordinated approach. A. Health Education A planned, sequential, curriculum that addresses the physical, mental, emotional and social dimensions of health. The curriculum is designed to motivate and assist students to maintain and improve their health, prevent disease, and reduce health-related risk behaviors. It allows students to develop and demonstrate increasingly sophisticated health-related knowledge, attitudes, skills, and practices. The comprehensive curriculum includes a variety of topics such as:

Social and Emotional Health Nutrition Physical Activity Safety, including Violence Prevention Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Prevention Personal Health and Wellness Disease Prevention including HIV Comprehensive health education is a building block approach to creating a healthy future for today's children. Qualified professionals that provides health education: y y y y y y health educators, teachers, school counselors, school health nurses, registered dietitians, and community health care professionals

Key Elements of a comprehensive health education program: The following are key elements of comprehensive health education, which itself are part of an overall coordinated school health program: 1. A documented, planned, and sequential program of health instruction for students in grades kindergarten through twelve. 2. A curriculum that addresses and integrates education about a range of categorical health problems and issues at developmentally appropriate ages. 3. Activities that help young people develop the skills they need to avoid: tobacco use; dietary patterns that contribute to disease; sedentary lifestyle; sexual behaviors that result in HIV infection, other STDs and unintended pregnancy; alcohol and other drug use; and behaviors that result in unintentional and intentional injuries. 4. Instruction provided for a prescribed amount of time at each grade level.

5. Management and coordination by an education professional trained to implement the program. 6. Instruction from teachers who are trained to teach the subject. 7. Involvement of parents, health professionals, and other concerned community members. 8. Periodic evaluation, updating, and improvement. Physical Education - Phys. Ed. or P.E. - Course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting . Is unique to the school curriculum as it is the only program that provides students with opportunities to learn motor skills, develop fitness, and gain understanding about the importance of physical activity. Will be provided challenging instructional program that will advance the knowledge, confidence, skills, and motivation needed to engage in a lifelong, healthy, active lifestyle. The benefits gained from physical activity include: y y y y Disease prevention Decreased morbidity and premature mortality Increased mental health and self-esteem. Additionally, physical education incorporates concepts of Math, Reading /Language, Arts and Science into the physical education realm.

Physical Education has 5 components: 1. Cardiovascular Fitness is the ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to deliver oxygenrich blood to working to working muscles during sustained physical activity. 2. Muscular Strength is the amount force a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a heavy resistance. 3. Muscular Endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat a movement many times or hold a particular position for an extended period of time. 4. Flexibility is a degree to which an individual muscle will lengthen.

5. Body Composition is the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean mass. Health Services Health Services refers to services provided for students to appraise, protect and promote Health. These services are designed to: y y y y y y ensure early intervention , access and referral to primary health care services, foster appropriate use of primary health care services, prevent and control communicable disease and other health problems, provide emergency care for illness and injury, promote and provide optimum sanitary conditions for a safe school facility and school environment, and provide educational and counseling opportunities for promoting and maintaining individual, family, and community health.

Qualified professionals provide these services: y y y y y y y physicians, nurses, dentists, health educators, Psychiatrists School counselors and other allied health personnel

Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services Services provided to improve students' mental, emotional, and social health. These services include individual and group assessments, interventions, and referrals. All students receive these services, including developmental classroom guidance activities and preventative educational programs, in an effort to enhance and promote academic, personal, and social growth. Students who may have special needs are served through the administration and interpretation of psychometric and psychoeducational tests, observational assessments, individual and group counseling sessions, crisis intervention for emergency mental health needs, family/home consultation, and/or referrals to outside community-based agencies when appropriate. Qualified professionals that are utilized to provide coordinated "wrap around" services that contribute to the mental, emotional, and social health of students, their families and the school environment are:

y y y

counselors, psychologists, and social workers, along with school health nurses.

Nutrition Services Nutrition services support the Coordinated School Health Program by introducing healthy eating patterns and concepts to students, reinforcing nutrition concepts introduced in the health education curriculum, and contributing to students' overall health and readiness to learn in the school community. Nutrition services assure access to a variety of nutritious, affordable and appealing meals in school that accommodate the health and nutrition needs of all students. Each school's nutrition program also offers a learning laboratory for classroom nutrition and health education that helps students develop skills and habits in selecting nutritionally appropriate foods, and serves as a resource and link with nutrition-related community services and educational programs. Qualified professionals that provide this service are: y y experienced, knowledgeable school food supervisors and registered dietitians

Health School Environment Factors that influence the physical environment include: y y the school building and the area surrounding it, any biological or chemical agents that are detrimental to health, and physical conditions such as temperature, noise, and lighting.

The psychological environment that affects well-being of students and staff includes: y y y physical, emotional, and social conditions

Creating a healthy school environment requires the involvement of students, administrators, teachers, custodial and maintenance staff, school counselors, school nurses, nutrition services workers. School administrators have the overall responsibility for a school s physical and psychosocial environment. Superintendents have the responsibility for complying with laws, rules, and education code sections that affect the school environment. In addition, schools

need involvement of families and environmental, public health, public safety, public welfare, and other community agencies. Steps to build a healthy school environment: y y y y y y Provide leadership and administrative support Conduct a site assessment of the schools physical and social environment to determine the school s needs Establish a set of measurable goals and objectives and design activities around improving the school s physical and social environment Develop and use a data collection system for assessing and monitoring the school environment Create a school environmental health and safety team Develop, implement and enforce policies and a plan for creating and sustaining a healthy school environment that clearly define acceptable and unacceptable school conditions Designate or hire a coordinator to handle school safety and school building issues Involve the parents and community about any school construction or renovation plans and/or policies regarding school safety Emphasize the importance of communication between teachers and students which includes issues of listening to feelings and physical ailments Empower students by involving them in planning, creating, and sustaining a school culture of safety and respect Evaluate healthy school activities periodically

y y y y y

Health Promotion for Staff Opportunities for school staff to improve their health status through activities such as health assessments, health education and health-related fitness activities. These opportunities encourage school staff to pursue a healthy lifestyle that contributes to their improved health status, improved morale, and a greater personal commitment to the school's overall coordinated health program. This personal commitment often transfers into greater commitment to the health of students and creates positive role modeling. Health promotion activities have improved productivity, decreased absenteeism, and reduced health insurance costs. Action Steps for Implementing Health Promotion for Faculty and Staff y Develop school-site health promotion initiatives that go beyond individual-level risk reduction activities

y y y y

Improve methods for evaluating the health outcomes and cost effectiveness of worksite health promotion programs Address the well-being of administrators, faculty, and school support staff, including school bus drivers, food service workers, building custodians, and classroom aides Integrate health promotion and disease prevention into employee benefit plans and make such efforts compatible with the goals of managed care Establish a standing committee to assess employee and school needs, identify resources, and evaluate the impact and outcomes of school-site health promotion efforts

Actions for National, State, and Community Organizations y y y y y Offer grants or provide incentives for local schools and districts to develop, implement, and evaluate school-site health promotion programs Advocate for and support the development of school-site health promotion for faculty and staff Identify exemplary models of school-site health promotion and encourage schools to replicate them Examine and monitor the impact of school-site health promotion efforts on health benefits and ensure that such programs meet the needs of all school employees Provide technical assistance, guidelines, resources, and opportunities for networking that will help schools develop plans with measurable goals and objectives for improving faculty and staff health Offer or support statewide conferences that foster development and implementation of school-site health promotion for faculty and staff Develop guidelines and standards for school-site health promotion for faculty and staff based on model guidelines Establish integrated databases that monitor health promotion development, implementation, and evaluation results

y y y

Family/Community Involvement An integrated students, parents, community representatives, health specialists and volunteers in schools provides an integrated approach for enhancing the health and well being of students both at school and in the community. School health advisory councils, coalitions and broadlybased constituencies for school health can build support for school health programs. School administrators, teachers and school health staff in all components actively solicit family and student involvement and engage community resources, expertise and services to respond effectively to the health-related needs of students and families.

Qualified professionals that provide leadership in this area are: y y y y principals, teachers and school health staff, in partnership with students, parents and volunteers

References: Anderson, D. (1989). The Discipline and the Profession. Foundations of Canadian Physical Education, Recreation, and Sports Studies. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers. http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/physical_education.htm http://www.emc.cmich.edu/cshp/environment.htm http://www2.edc.org/makinghealthacademic/concept/actions_environment.asp http://www.emc.cmich.edu/cshp/default.htm http://www2.edc.org/makinghealthacademic/cshp.asp CDC, Coordinated School Health Program,http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/CSHP/comprehensive_ed.htm http://www.tn.gov/education/schoolhealth/

COMPONENTS OF A COORDINATED SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM


GROUP 5: CAMMAYO, JUSTINE ANTHONY CASTILLO, JONATHAN EDMUND DAVID, RAPHAEL MICHAEL DUMLAO, MARYKARL-NOVEMB LEGACION, GLADYS DIANE LIBRANDA, KATHLEEN JOYCE LIMPENGCO, GEREL JOELSON MALUBAG, JULIEAN MARQUINEZ, REGINE MAY MARQUINEZ, VANESSA GRACE VINLUAN, VALERIE