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What is Stone ?

Stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and or mineraloids. It is used for its resistance to weather or its aesthetic appeal walls and decorative purposes. The products including Sandstone, Limestones, Slatestones, Quartzite, Marbles, Cobbles, Pebbles and Stripes. These stones have found their application in interiors & exteriors flooring, pavements, wall claddings and around the swimming pools. With various finishes like Polish, Antic, Sand Blasted, Honed etc, these stones impart an elegant look.

Types of Stones

I. II. III.

Sedimentary Stones Metamorphic Stones Igneous Stones

IV.

Man Made Stones

I. Sedimentary Stones
These stones came from organic elements such as glaciers, rivers, oceans, and plants. Tiny sedimentary pieces broke off form these elements and accumulated to form rock beds. They were bonded through millions of years of heat and pressure. Major types of sedimentary stones are:

Limestone

Rock

Application

Mainly consisting of calcite, it does not show much graining or crystalline structure. It has a smooth granular surface and varies in hardness. Some dense limestone can be polished and is more likely to stain than marble. Common colors are black, grey, white, yellow or brown. Limestone is known to contain lime from sea water, and that's why the nomenclature.

Limestone formed on the sea floor from sediment and the bodies of primitive sea creatures. As you are working, you can find small fossilized creatures like crynoids and braciopods in the stone. Limestone is composed primarily of the mineral calcite, or calcium carbonate. Limestone is easy to carve and will hold small detail work, but is also strong enough to support undercutting. While it does not have the innate beauty of the more colorful stones, a wide variety of textures can be created that can really bring the stone to life. There is a definite 'grain' or bed (formed as the layers of sediment stacked upon each other on the sea floor) in limestone. The stone breaks fairly predictably along the bed lines, but less cooperatively going across the bed. (Think of opening a phone book with the pages, compared to trying to tear it across the pages.) Limestone can be polished, but the polish will not last long outdoors. Limestone seems to survive acid rain better than marble, so is a good choice for outdoor sculpture.

Sandstone

Rock

Application

Sandstone is a sedimentary stone that is typically the result of quartzite stone being eroded and redeposited by either wind or water. Sandstone mostly consists of quartz, silica, iron oxide and calcium carbonate and are durable, weather, acid and thermal resistant and have crushing strength. Sandstones

are most highly craftable and manageable, they can at most take a honed polish, and are used as garden and commercial landscapes, exterior wall claddings, panels, pillars, sculptures, arches,etc. They come in an array of colors & shades and can be chiseled and dressed to a smooth surface in various attractive shapes. Sandstone is formed from sedimentary sand held together by silica or calcium carbonate. Sandstone also has a distinct bed direction, and large chips can be broken off when going with the bed. It contains silica, so a respirator must be worn.

Soapstone

Rock

Application

It is a very soft stone made of a variety of talc. It is a dense mineral that wears well and is often resistant to oxide. Soapstone is soft enough to carve with a knife. It is composed of talc and has a slippery, soapy feel. It will take a polish and hold fine texture detail. It is a good choice for your first stone carving. Prolonged exposure to talc dust can cause respiratory

problems, so wear a respirator.

II. Metamorphic Stones


These stones originates as a result of natural change from one type of stone to another type by the mixed action of heat, pressure and minerals. The change may be a development of a crystalline formation, a texture change, or a color change.

Marble

Rock

Application

The term "Marble" is derived from the Latin word "Marmar" which itself comes from the Greek root "Marmarous" meaning thereby a shining stone. Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from the recrystallization of limestone softened from heat and pressure. Main constituents are calcium and dolomite. Hardness ranges from 2.5 to 5 on the MOH scale. Marble is usually heavily veined and shows lots of grains. Dimensional marble specifications include smooth textures, ease in crafting sculptures,

hence highly manageable. It is a reasonably strong and durable stone. It takes good polish, popularly used as wall claddings, floors, skirtings, table tops, treads and risers, sculptures, artifacts, etc. Marble is classified into three categories:
a. Dolomite: If it has more than 40% magnesium carbonate. b. Magnesium: If it has between 5% and 40% magnesium. c. Calcite: If it has less than 5% magnesium carbonate.

Marble has been the most preferred stone for carving since the time of the ancient Greeks. Marble is moderately hard to work. It will hold very fine detail. Marbles from the United States comes in over 250 colors. When brought to a high polish, its crystalline structure sparkles. It does not hold up well outdoors. Acid rain begins to deteriorate the surface within a few years.

Marble deposits of the state can be broadly divided in four groups (trade names):

White Marble Pink Marble Green Marble Other Marble

White Marble White marble is available in Makrana ( District Nagaur ) in huge quantity, which is often called Makrana stone in laymen term. The marble deposit of Makrana is about 12 km. in length and 1.6 km. in length and 1.6 km. in width. Well known deposits are found in Kumari, Dungari, Bhermata Y Chancer area. The deposit of Chancer area is considered to be the finest one and quarri3es of this area have gone upto a considerable depath of 15 to 60 meters. Now a days, because of deep mining and other factors, mining in Makrana area has become uneconomical. Further, good quality material has also been exhauseted. Hence the need for developing new areas where marble is available, close to surface was felt. Soon in Rajnagar (Udaipur District) huge deposit of white marble was discovered by the State Department of Mines & Geology. Although marble deposit in Udaipur district are known since long back when palaces and monuments in and around Udaipur were built with local marble but in recent years this district has received more attention and mining activity in this district has developed rapidly. In Udaipur district white marble is mainly available in Rajnagar, Amet, Saprao, Marchana, Agaria, Parvati etc. Apart from Udaipur district white marble in huge quantity is also available in Tripura Sundri (District Banswara). This marble is fine grained and has varities which are pure white or that have pinkish or yellowish shades. Some varities resemble to Italian Marble. Pink Marble Babarmal area of Udaipur district is the only main producer of Pink Marble in the state. The area is situated at 25 km South of Udaipur city on Jaisamand road. This belt is about 5.20 km in length and 30 to 100 meters in width . This marble is some what hard, hence require more time in cutting. Besides this, small quantity of pinkish marble is also found in Makrana and Abu Road area.

Green Marble Green marble is found in keshriya ji about 60 km south of Udaipur. There is great craze of this marble because it has white jali with light or dark green base which shines very good after polishing Block recovery is very little as lot of cracks are found and hence it is generally used for making chips and crazy. This variety is actually serpentine rock but in trade it is known as green marble.

Other Marble Others types of marble are found in different parts of Rajasthan. Yellow marble which actually shally lime stone and takes good polish is available in Jaisalmer. Marble deposits of Bhainsalana in Jaipur district is known for its black strips. In Pali, Marble deposits exists near Bar and Sendra. It is mainly pink coloured with various shade and strips . Different types of marble is also found in Ajmer, Jahazpur, Bundi. etc. but the deposits are very small. In Rajasthan mining is mostly done by open cast method. Only in Makrana at Chancer area underground mining method has been adopted where it has been mines upto 100 meters depth but, the deposit is of spotless white marble. Mining does not come under the head of industry hence it is deprived of the benefits available to an industry, Moreover, financing institutions are also reluctant to finance the mines. Therefore, mechanised mining is not developing rapidly. To increase the marble production it becomes necessary to mechanise the mine and minimise the use of explosives to reduce the breakage so that it can cope-up with the increasing demand of marble blocks by the diamond gang saw and other conventional machines.

Slate

Rock

Application

Slate is a very fine grained metamorphic rock derived from the sedimentary rock 'shale'. Slate is composed mostly of mica, chlorite and quartz. Characteristically, the rock may slit into relatively thinner slabs and can break easily. Some slates take very good polish, are extremely beautiful and more cost effective than most other wall and floor coverings. Slate has a fine to medium grained surface texture. It renders a very graceful, natural finish to any building or home.

III. Igneous Stones


These rocks are mainly formed through volcanic material such as magma. Underneath the earth's surface, liquid magma cooled and solidified. Mineral gases and liquids penetrated into the stone and created new crystalline formations with various colors.

Granite

Rock

Application

The term "Granite" is derived from the Latin word "Granum" meaning "grain" because of its granular nature. Granite is an Igneous Stone, primarily made of Quartz(35%), Feldspar(45%) & Potassium. Dimensional granite specifications include high load bearing capacity, amenability to cutting without secondary flaws, ability to yield thin and large slabs and - above all - durability. Granite is a very strong and durable stone. It takes heavy gloss polish, popularly used as architectural stone for interior and exterior walls, floors and monumental stone.

Different Kinds Of Granite:

Black Granite This is definitely one of most popular choices in modern home decorating, because of its effective hue. However, dont get fooled by dark-colored granite, thinking it to be the black one, as in reality, there is no

true black granite available. This is because the infinitely varying textures render it next to impossible to attain the true black appearance. This can be attributed to the combination of quartz, feldspar or microline. The major sources for black granite lie in the quarries of India, Australia, South Africa and Sweden. The base texture is somewhat same and the overall visual pattern is also consistent. The high quartz present in black granite give it a well-textured appearance. White Granite Just like the black granite, white granite is also a misleading name, because the true form of white granite is again not available. This is because of the chemical compositions and stratifications involved. The commercially available white granite is always a variant with slightly distorted shade of a white base, with grey and black combination or a shade of ivory. The leading producers of white granite are China, Italy and Brazil. Blue Granite Also known as Azul granite, these rocks have a predominant blue color, as you might expect from the name. It is the second most popular choice, right next to black granite for the variety that you get with them. These are not solidly blue and normally contain heavy patterns of whites and other shades of blue, black and gray. Brazil and Spain are the primary locations for this type of granite. If you are looking to refurbish your home in a designer avatar, blue granite is the right choice. Green Granite Green is the most fashionable color in this age of environmental thinking. One more thing that makes green one of the hottest granite colors is the innumerable variations provided by this hue; arguably the

most in any color of granite. Though the base color of the granite remains green, granites from different parts of the world exhibit different mixes of complimentary colors. For example, while the green granite from Indian subcontinent is complimented by shades of gray and pink; the variants from Norway has a more aqueous and bluish appearance. Pink Granite Pink or rose granite is the rarest variation of granite, mainly due to the fact that the chemicals working together to give this color rarely get together in such proportions to react so. It is still relatively easy to find red color as base, but true rose as a base color is relatively unusual. The major sources for these variants are in Brazil and China. Usually base color varies from rose to lavender and the complimentary colors include white and yellow. Gold & Copper These metallic hues though not rare, are popular choices for designer constructions. These include metallic elements such as gold, copper or any other common metals in the region. Metallic granite is found around the world, but Brazil and Italy are the leaders with maximum deposits located. These usually have white, black or gray as the base color with sharp contrasting complimentary metallic hues, which aids to rich designs in home dcor.

IV. Man Made Stones


These stones are derived from unnatural mixtures such resin or cement with the additive of stone chips.

Terrazzo

Rock

Application

Marble and granite chips embedded in a cement composition.

Agglomerates or Conglomerates
Marble chips embedded in a colored resin composition.

Cultured or Faux Marble

Rock

Application

Cultured marble, a type of solid surface, is made from a mix of polyester resin and marble stone dust. It is cast or formed in a variety of standard and custom molds to make bathtubs, whirlpool decks, shower pans and wet walls, windowsills, bathroom fixtures, and vanity tops with a surface that resembles marble. Though it is a less expensive alternative to real marble, it has 4 times the strength of natural stone. Because cultured marble is made with a molding process, it allows incredible design flexibility compared with stone. For instance, only engineered composite manufacturers can make a bathroom vanity with integrated bowl (or bowls). The manufacturing process encompasses several steps.One step uses a non-porous gelcoat on the counters and sinks which seals the product and prevents later mold and bacteria growth and staining. New color trends and design flexibility are key factors when choosing engineered composites over natural stone.

MARKET SURVEY
GRANITE
NAME CAT EYE GRANITE PARADISO GRANITE CHEMA PINK GRANITE TIGER RED GRANITE RBI GRANITE BLACK GALAXY GRANITE KASHMIRI WHITE GRANITE JALAWAR GRANITE YELLOW GRANITE ROSY PINK GRANITE GREEN GRANITE TEN BROWN GRANITE BLACK PAL GRANITE JET BLACK GRANITE MEDIUM BLACK GRANITE COPPER SILK GRANITE RAJSHRI GRANITE LAKHA RED GRANITE RANIWADA GRANITE PRICE PER SQ.FT.
Rs.185

Rs.165 Rs.125 Rs.165 Rs.145 Rs.165 Rs.165 Rs.125 Rs.145 Rs.65 Rs.65 Rs.110 Rs.125 Rs.175 Rs.135 Rs.95 Rs.125 Rs.350 Rs.125

MARBLE
NAME RAJNAGAR WHITE MARBLE INDO ITALIAN MARBLE ITALIAN COMPOSITE MAKRANA PINK MARBLE GREEN MARBLE UMAN RED ITALIAN UDAYPUR GREEN MARBLE BADODA GREEN MARBLE SHAWAR MARBLE (ALWAR) PISTA MARBLE (ALWAR) WONDER MARBLE BHUTANI MARBLE JAISALMER MARBLE CHOCOLATE MARBLE ITALIAN YELLOW MARBLE MARBLE CHIPS PRICE PER SQ.FT.
Rs.65

Rs.45 Rs.350 Rs.250 Rs.65 Rs.250 Rs.125 Rs.75 Rs.25 Rs.25 Rs.75-200 Rs.50 Rs.150/BUNDLE (48 RUNNING FT.) Rs.180 Rs.160 Rs.30/BAG (1BAG=16KG)

STONE
NAME KOTA STONE DHOLPUR STONE AGRA STONE JAISALMER YELLOW STONE BHUTANI VIDASAR STONE
Rs.22

PRICE PER SQ.FT.

Rs.45 Rs.22 Rs.45 Rs.125

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express a true heartfelt gratitude to my teacher, MRS. NAMITA for her undaunted support and guidance that has ultimately led to completion of this project .I would also like to thanks my family and friends whom offered their help whenever I needed it. At last a big thanks to the ALMIGHTY GOD for helping me to keep my wisdom alive.

Thanking you

SAUMYA SHRUTI

REPORT ON STONES

SAUMYA SHRUTI IV SEMESTER

INTERIOR DESIGNING APEEJAY INSTITUTE OF DESIGN

BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.indianstonehouse.com Kriti Nagar Market Raja Garden Stone Market