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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________

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You are on your honor to do this take home test on your own. You may use any book, but you must list below the title, author, and page number for any book other than your text. You may use the internet search, but you must list below the exact web page address. You may not consult with any live person on any aspect of the class until you turn the test in. This test is due at the beginning of Class Monday, October 13, 2008. I, ______________________________________ have read the above, understand, and agree to abide by these limitations.

Signature: ________________________________ Date: __________________________


When you finish transfer your answers to the attached answer sheet

Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ Short Answer

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Figure 7.1 Using Figure 7.1, identify the following: _____1 _____2 _____3 _____4 _____5 _____6 The neural processes that convey incoming messages toward the cell body are indicated by letter __________. The metabolic center of the neuron is indicated by letter __________. The axon terminals are indicated by letter __________. The axon is indicated by letter __________. The gaps between Schwann cells are indicated by letter __________. The nucleus of the neuron is indicated by letter __________.

Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ Select the best answer from the following list: _____7 _____8 _____9

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The autonomic nervous system is also referred to as the __________ nervous system since it controls activities of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands. __________ cells form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in the PNS. That part of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the Central Nervous System (CNS) to the skeletal muscles is the __________ nervous system. Cells found in the CNS that cling to neurons and anchor them to blood vessels are called __________. (Form the BBB) The gaps between Schwann cells found at regular intervals in peripheral system neurons are called __________. Myelinated regions of the CNS are referred to as __________ matter. Bundles of nerve fibers (neuron processes) running through the CNS are called __________, whereas in the PNS they are called __________. The cell bodies of the __________ neurons are always located within the CNS. Neurons with two processes, an axon and a dendrite, are structurally classified as __________ neurons. All motor and association neurons are classified structurally as __________ neurons. When there are fewer positive ions sitting on the inner face of the neuron's plasma membrane than there are on the outer face of the tissue fluid that surrounds it, the membrane is said to be __________. A type of reflex that stimulates the skeletal muscles is called a __________ reflex. The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus collectively constitute the __________. The brain dysfunction where blood supply to a region (or regions) of the brain is blocked and vital brain tissue dies, as by a blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel, is called __________. The brain and spinal cord are protected and cushioned by three connective tissue membranes that are collectively called __________. The area in the center of the gray matter of the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid, fluid that continues down the fourth ventricle, is called the __________.
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____23 _____24

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The primary motor area of the brain allows us to consciously control our __________ muscles. Diminished effectiveness of the sympathetic nervous system that can cause a type of low blood pressure during rapid changes in body position (such as when elderly persons stand up quickly after sitting or lying down) is called __________. The perineurium is a coarse connective wrapping that defines the boundary of a fiber bundle called a(n) __________. The fissure in the brain that separates the two cerebral hemispheres is called the __________. The hypothalamus regulates the __________ gland. The large fiber tract that allows communication between the two cerebral hemispheres is called the __________. The progressive degenerative disease that results in dementia associated with a shortage of acetylcholine and structural changes in brain areas involving cognition and memory is called __________. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed from blood by the __________. A __________ is a type of traumatic brain injury that results in marked tissue destruction. The only major nerve out of the cervical plexus that supplies the diaphragm and muscles of the shoulder and neck is the __________ nerve. __________ disease results from a degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra. The __________ is a connective tissue wrapping around fasicles of neuron fibers. Sweat glands that produce perspiration when stimulated are innervated only by the __________ fibers. The only pair of cranial nerves to extend to the thoracic and abdominal cavities is the __________ nerves. Cranial nerve III is known as the __________ nerve. The __________ division of the ANS activates when we are frightened or stressed. One of the last areas of the CNS to mature is the __________, which regulates body temperature. The cranial nerve responsible for controlling tongue movements is the __________ nerve, number __________.
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____41 _____42 Each spinal nerve divides into a dorsal and a ventral __________.

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The __________ nerve, the largest nerve in the body, splits into the common fibular and tibial nerves. K. hypoglossal; XII L. hypothalamus M. involuntary N. longitudinal fissure O. meninges P. motor Q. multipolar R. nodes of Ranvier S. oculomotor T. orthostatic hypotension U. Parkinson's V. perineurium W. phrenic X. pituitary Y. polarized Z. ramus AA. Schwann BB. sciatic CC. Precentral gyrus DD. somatic (2X) EE. sympathetic (2X) FF. tracts; nerves GG. vagus HH. white

A. B. C. D. E.

F. G. H. I. J.

Alzheimer's disease astrocytes bipolar central canal cerebrovascular accident (CVA), commonly called a stroke choroid plexuses contusion corpus callosum diencephalon fascicle

Multiple Choice _____43 The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves C) brain and cranial nerves D) spinal cord and spinal nerves E) brain and spinal cord The peripheral nervous system consists of: A) spinal nerves only B) the brain only C) cranial nerves only D) the brain and spinal cord E) the spinal and cranial nerves Which cell type is NOT in the CNS: A) astrocytes B) microglia C) Schwann cells D) ependymal cells E) oligodendrocytes The Schwann cell forms a myelin sheath around the: A) dendrites B) cell body C) nucleus D) axon E) nodes of Ranvier

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____47

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The neuron processes that normally receive incoming stimuli are called: A) axons B) dendrites C) neurolemmas D) Schwann cells E) satellite cells Collections of nerve cell bodies inside the CNS are called: A) ganglia B) tracts C) nerves D) nuclei E) tracts or ganglia Which one of the following best describes the waxy-appearing material called myelin: A) an outer membrane on a neuroglial cell B) a lipid-protein (lipoprotein) cell membrane on the outside of axons C) a mass of white lipid material that surrounds the cell body of a neuron D) a mass of white lipid material that insulates the axon of a neuron E) a mass of white lipid material that surrounds the dendrites of a neuron Which of the following sensory receptors is a touch receptor: A) Golgi tendon organ B) Meissner's corpuscle C) Pacinian corpuscle D) naked nerve endings E) muscle spindles A neuron with a cell body located in the CNS whose primary function is connecting other neurons is called a(n): A) efferent neuron B) afferent neuron C) association neuron D) glial cell E) satellite cell White matters refers to myelinated fibers in the: A) CNS B) PNS C) ANS D) SNS E) both ANS and SNS Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are: A) myelinated B) unmyelinated C) sensory D) motor E) cerebral
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____54 Bipolar neurons are commonly: A) motor neurons B) called neuroglia C) found in ganglia D) found in the eye and nose E) more abundant in adults than in children An A) B) C) D) E) action potential: is essential for nerve impulse propagation involves the influx of negative ions to depolarize the membrane involves the outflux of negative ions to depolarize the membrane involves the outflux of positive ions to depolarize the membrane is initiated by potassium ion movements

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Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the following ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid: A) sodium B) chloride C) calcium D) potassium E) magnesium An A) B) C) D) E) action potential is caused by an influx of these ions into the cell: potassium sodium calcium magnesium both potassium and sodium

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The ability to respond to a stimulus is termed: A) polarized B) irritability C) depolarized D) conductivity E) all-or-none response The diffusion of potassium ions out of a neuron causes it to experience: A) an action potential B) depolarization C) repolarization D) a graded potential E) a nerve impulse

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____60

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Which one of the following is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential: 1. the membrane becomes depolarized 2. sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward 3. the membrane becomes repolarized 4. potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward while sodium is actively transported out of the cell A) 3, 2, 4, 1 B) 2, 1, 4, 3 C) 2, 1, 3, 4 D) 1, 2, 4, 3 E) 4, 1, 3, 2 Which one of the following describes saltatory conduction: A) occurs only if the myelin sheath is continuous B) occurs only if nodes of Ranvier are lacking C) occurs only in the absence of axon hillocks D) is faster than conduction on an unmyelinated fiber E) is slower than conduction on an unmyelinated fiber The gap between two communicating neurons is termed: A) synaptic cleft B) cell body C) effector D) Schwann cell E) node of Ranvier The substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called: A) an ion B) nerve glue C) a neurotransmitter D) the sodium-potassium pump E) an action potential Which of the following is the correct sequence in a typical reflex arc: A) effector, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, receptor B) receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector C) effector, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, receptor D) receptor, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, effector E) receptor, afferent neuron, efferent neuron, integration center, effector Muscles and glands are: A) receptors B) effectors C) myelinated D) part of the peripheral nervous system E) part of the central nervous system

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____66 The three major parts of the brain stem are the: A) cerebrum, cerebellum, and diencephalon B) thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus C) dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater D) midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata E) basal nuclei, pineal body, and choroid plexus

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The elevated ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are known as __________ while the shallow grooves are termed __________. A) sulci; gyri B) gyri; sulci C) ganglia; gyri D) tracts; ganglia E) receptors; effectors The olfactory area is found within the: A) occipital lobe B) temporal lobe C) frontal lobe D) parietal lobe E) pyramidal tract Sally has a brain injury; she knows what she wants to say but can't vocalize the words. The part of her brain that deals with the ability to speak is the: A) longitudinal fissure B) gyrus C) central sulcus D) Broca's area E) primary motor area The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are housed in the: A) diencephalon B) hypothalamus C) brain stem D) pineal gland E) cerebellum Lobe that contains the primary motor area that enables voluntary control of skeletal muscle movements: A) parietal lobe B) temporal lobe C) occipital lobe D) frontal lobe E) diencephalon The pituitary gland is most closely associated with the: A) hypothalamus B) thalamus C) pineal gland D) midbrain E) medulla oblongata
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____73 Cerebrospinal fluid circulates through all of the following except: A) subarachnoid space B) corpus callosum C) cerebral aqueduct D) fourth ventricle E) lateral ventricles The area of the brain stem that plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles is the: A) thalamus B) reticular activating system (RAS) C) pineal gland D) limbic system E) cerebellum

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Control of temperature, endocrine activity, metabolism, and thirst are functions associated with the: A) medulla oblongata B) cerebellum C) hypothalamus D) thalamus E) cerebrum The vital centers for the control of visceral activities such as heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and vomiting are located in the: A) pons B) medulla oblongata C) midbrain D) cerebrum E) hypothalamus Loss of muscle coordination results from damage to the: A) cerebrum B) hypothalamus C) cerebellum D) thalamus E) midbrain Which one of the following represents the correct sequence from outermost to innermost layers of the meninges: A) pia mater, dura mater, arachnoid mater B) pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater C) arachnoid mater, dura mater, pia mater D) dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater E) dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____79 The subarachnoid space lies directly between the: A) arachnoid mater and dura mater B) arachnoid mater and pia mater C) skull and arachnoid mater D) arachnoid mater and cerebrum E) arachnoid mater and cerebellum

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The cerebrospinal fluid: A) is secreted by the arachnoid villi B) enters the four ventricles after filling and circulating through the subarachnoid space C) is secreted mostly by the ependymal cells lining the brain ventricles D) is continually formed mostly by the choroid plexuses E) is identical in composition to whole blood The blood-brain barrier is effective against the passage of: A) water B) nutrients such as glucose C) alcohol D) anesthetics E) metabolic waste such as urea Which of the following is a traumatic brain injury: A) cerebrovascular accident (CVA) B) Alzheimer's disease C) aphasia D) cerebral edema E) Parkinson's disease The gray matter of the spinal cord: A) surrounds the central canal B) contains myelinated fiber tracts C) is made up of the dorsal, lateral, and ventral columns D) surrounds the white matter of the spinal cord E) always carries sensory information to the brain Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in: A) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord B) the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord C) the thalamus D) the hypothalamus E) sympathetic ganglia

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____85

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Which one of the following is the correct sequence of nerves that exit the spinal cord, going from superior to inferior: A) thoracic spinal nerves, cervical spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves B) cervical spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves C) thoracic spinal nerves, cervical spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves D) cervical spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves E) cervical spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves Which one of the following is the correct sequence in connective tissue sheaths, going from outermost to innermost layer: A) epineurium, endoneurium, perineurium B) epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium C) perineurium, epineurium, endoneurium D) perineurium, endoneurium, epineurium E) endoneurium, epineurium, perineurium Afferent nerves are called __________, and motor nerves are called ______. A) motor nerves; sensory nerves B) peripheral nerves; cranial nerves C) mixed nerves; motor nerves D) sensory nerves; efferent nerves E) cranial nerves; peripheral nerves The function of the olfactory nerve concerns: A) hearing B) vision C) chewing D) smell E) eye movement The nerve that contains sensory fibers that are involved in hearing is: A) cranial nerve II B) cranial nerve III C) cranial nerve V D) cranial nerve VIII E) cranial nerve IX Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the: A) lumbar plexus B) femoral plexus C) sacral plexus D) thoracic plexus E) obturator plexus

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____91

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Damage to this nerve results in "wristdrop," the inability to extend the hand at the wrist: A) phrenic B) axillary C) obturator D) radial E) femoral Which of the nerves plexuses originates from ventral rami L1-L4: A) sacral B) spinal C) lumbar D) brachial E) cervical Which of the nerve plexuses serves the shoulder and arm: A) sacral B) phrenic C) lumbar D) brachial E) cervical The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body resulting from a combination of which two nerves: A) pudendal and femoral nerves B) femoral and tibial nerves C) pudendal and common peroneal nerves D) common fibular and tibial nerves E) pudendal and tibial nerves The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are subdivisions of the: A) central nervous system B) voluntary nervous system C) autonomic nervous system D) somatic nervous system E) peripheral nervous system In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system: A) has two motor neurons B) has two afferent neurons C) stimulates its effector cells D) has both afferent and efferent fibers E) has centers in the brain and spinal cord

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____97

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Which one of these effectors is NOT directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system: A) smooth muscle B) cardiac muscle C) skeletal muscle D) most glands E) abdominal organs Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response during threatening situations is the role of the: A) sympathetic nervous system B) cerebrum C) parasympathetic nervous system D) somatic nervous system E) afferent nervous system Which of the following effects is characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system: A) decreases activity of the digestive system B) stimulates sweat glands to produce perspiration C) decreases urine output D) increases metabolic rate E) decreases heart rate

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_____100 The effects of the sympathetic nervous system are essentially opposite of the: A) central nervous system B) parasympathetic nervous system C) autonomic nervous system D) motor division E) sensory division _____101 Sympathetic division fibers leave the spinal cord in the: A) craniosacral regions, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine B) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine C) craniosacral region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine D) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine E) craniosacral region, and the preganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine _____102 Sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes: A) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure B) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure D) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure E) decreased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________

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_____103 Which one of the following statements about aging is most accurate: A) the brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life B) synaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after the age of 35 C) despite some neuronal loss, an unlimited number of neural pathways are available and ready to be developed; therefore, additional learning can occur throughout life D) learning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial proliferation E) increased efficiency of the sympathetic nervous system enhances the ability to learn True/False _____104 Myelination of nerve fibers in the central nervous system is the job of the oligodendrocyte. _____105 Oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheaths in the PNS. _____106 The nodes of Ranvier are found at regular intervals only on myelinated, peripheral nerve fibers. _____107 Cell bodies of sensory neurons are always located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system. _____108 An afferent sensory neuron carries stimuli from the central nervous system to the effector. _____109 Sensory neurons carry information away from the CNS. _____110 Bipolar neurons are rare in adults. _____111 The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell must be stimulated for conduction to take place. _____112 Reflexes are rapid, predictable, and automatic responses to stimuli. _____113 Saltatory conduction occurs due to the presence of salt (NaCl) around the neuron. _____114 A polarized neuron has fewer positive ions inside in comparison to the outside of the neuron. _____115 Difficulty in breathing may reflect damage to respiratory centers located in the cerebellum. _____116 One of the major functions of the pons is to produce releasing factors that control the function of the anterior pituitary. _____117 Part of the diencephalon structure is formed by the hypothalamus.
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 Nervous System Name:_____________________________

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_____118 Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and also in the subarachnoid space outside the brain. _____119 The collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord is called the cauda equina. _____120 There is no possibility of damaging the spinal cord below the third lumbar vertebra. _____121 The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve pair that contains sensory fibers. _____122 Cranial nerve XI is the accessory nerve that controls tongue movement. _____123 There are 31 pairs of cranial nerves and 12 pairs of spinal nerves. _____124 The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus. _____125 Sympathetic postganglionic fibers release norepinephrine and the preganglionic axon releases acetyocholine. _____126 In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord. _____127 Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system. _____128 Neurons in adults do not undergo mitosis. Matching _____129 Period when the interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions _____130 Specific period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability _____131 Termed a nerve impulse when transmitted _____132 Period when the neuron is at rest; it has a more negative interior in comparison to the positive exterior _____133 Local depolarization is also known as this term A) B) C) D) E) repolarization depolarization action potential polarization graded potential

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 The Nervous System Name:_____________________________

_____134 Auditory area _____135 Primary sensory cortex _____136 Somatic motor cortex _____137 Motor speech area _____138 Premotor area _____139 Visual area

A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I)

temporal lobe parietal lobe corticospinal tract frontal lobe pyramidal tract occipital lobe basal nuclei interbrain midbrain

_____140 Composed of cerebral peduncles and the corpora quadrigemina _____141 Contains centers that control heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting _____142 Gland that hangs from the hypothalamus _____143 Regulates body temperature, water balance, and metabolism _____144 Relay station for sensory impulses passing to the sensory cortex _____145 Motor control of the visceral organs

A) B) C) D) E) F)

midbrain thalamus reticular formation hypothalamus pituitary gland medulla oblongata

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 The Nervous System Name:_____________________________ _____146 Cranial nerve IV _____147 Moves eyes laterally _____148 Cranial nerve II _____149 Controls lens shape and pupil size _____150 Cranial nerve IX _____151 Promotes digestive activity and regulates heart activity _____152 Cranial nerve VII _____153 Fibers emerge from the medulla and run to the throat A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) J) K) L) Optic Vagus Trochlear Facial Abducens Accessory Glossopharyngeal Oculomotor Trigeminal Hypoglossal Vestibulocochlear Olfactory

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 7 The Nervous System Name:_____________________________ ____ 1. ____ 2. ____ 3. ____ 4. ____ 5. ____ 6. ____ 7. ____ 8. ____ 9. ____ 10. ____ 11. ____ 12. ____ 13. ____ 14. ____ 15. ____ 16. ____ 17. ____ 18. ____ 19. ____ 20. ____ 21. ____ 22. ____ 23. ____ 24. ____ 25. ____ 26. ____ 27. ____ 28. ____ 29. ____ 30. ____ 31. ____ 32. ____ 33. ____ 34. ____ 35. ____ 36. ____ 37. ____ 38. ____ 39. ____ 40. ____ 41. ____ 42. ____ 43. ____ 44. ____ 45. ____ 46. ____ 47. ____ 48. ____ 49. ____ 50. ____ 51. ____ 52. ____ 53. ____ 54. ____ 55. ____ 56. ____ 57. ____ 58. ____ 59. ____ 60. ____ 61. ____ 62. ____ 63. ____ 64. ____ 65. ____ 66. ____ 67. ____ 68. ____ 69. ____ 70. ____ 71. ____ 72. ____ 73. ____ 74. ____ 75. ____ 76. ____ 77. ____ 78.
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