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Advantages of digital communication: 1. It is fast and easier. 2. No paper is wasted. 3.

The messages can be stored in the device for longer times, without being damaged, unlike paper files that easily get damages or attacked by insects. 4. Digital communication can be done over large distances through internet and other things. 5. It is comparatively cheaper and the work which requires a lot of people can be done simply by one person as folders and other such facilities can be maintained. 6. It removes semantic barriers because the written data can be easily changed to different languages using software. 7. It provides facilities like video conferencing which save a lot of time, money and effort.

Disadvantages: 1. It is unreliable as the messages cannot be recognised by signatures. Though software can be developed for this, yet the softwares can be easily hacked. 2. Sometimes, the quickness of digital communication is harmful as messages can be sent with the click of a mouse. The person does not think and sends the message at an impulse. 3. Digital Communication has completely ignored the human touch. A personal touch cannot be established because all the computers will have the same font! 4. The establishment of Digital Communication causes degradation of the environment in some cases. "Electronic waste" is an example. The vibes given out by the telephone and cell phone towers are so strong that they can kill small birds. Infact the common sparrow has vanished due to so many towers coming up as the vibrations hit them on the head. 5. Digital Communication has made the whole wordl to be an "office." The people carry their work to places where they are supposed to relax. The whole world has been made into an office. Even in the office, digital communication causes problems because personal messages can come on your cell phone, internet, etc. 6. Many people misuse the efficiency of Digital Communicatio. The sending of hoax messages, the usage by people to harm the society, etc cause harm to the society on the whole.

What is spread spectrum? Spread Spectrum a means of signal modulation, in which the signal frequency is spread over a very wide bandwidth. The band spread is achieved by means of a code which is independent of data. A code synchronized reception at the receiver is used for dispreading the subsequent data recovery.

Advantages and Applications Spread Spectrum Communication The SS Communications are widely used today for Military, Industrial, Avionics, Scientific, and Civil uses. The applications include the following: 1. Jam-resistant communication systems 2. CDMA radios: It is useful in multiple access communications wherein many users communicate over a shared channel. Here the assignment of a unique spread spectrum sequence to each user allows him to simultaneouly transmit over a common channel with minimal mutual interference. Such access technique often simplifies the network control requirements considerably. 3. High Resolution Ranging: SS Communications is often used in high resolution ranging. It is possible to locate an object with good accuracy using SS techniques. One example where it could be used is Global Positioning System (GPS). Here an object can use signals from several satellites transmitting SS signals according to a predefined format to determine its own position accurately on the globe. 4. WLAN: Wireless LAN (Local Area Networks) widely use spread spectrum communications. IEEE 802.11 is a standard that is developed for mobile communication,

and widely implemented throughout the world. The standard defines three types of Physical Layer communications. These are: a. Infrared (IR) Communications b. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications c. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Communications. Among the three, DSSS, and FHSS are widely used. 5. Cordless Phones: Several manufacturers implement Spread Spectrum in Cordless phones. The advantages of using spread spectrum in cordless phone include the following: a. Security: Inherently, a ss communication is coded. b. Immunity to Noise: SS modulation is immune to noise when compared with other modulation schemes such as AM and FM. c. Longer Range: Due to noise immunity, it is possible to achieve a longer range of communications, for a very small transmitted power. 6. Long-range wireless phones for home and industry 7. Cellular base stations interconnection. Quantization Definition: Quantization is the process of converting a continuous analog audio signal to a digital signal with discrete numerical values. Pronunciation: kwanti'zashun Examples: In a compact disc, an analog recording is converted to a digital signal sampled at 44,100Hz and quantized with 16-bits of data per sample. Quantization is the procedure of constraining something from a relatively large or continuous set of values (such as the real numbers) to a relatively small discrete set (such as the integers). There are two substantially different classes of applications where quantization is used: The first type, which may simply be called rounding quantization, is the one employed for many applications, to enable the use of a simple approximate representation for some quantity that is to be measured and used in other calculations. This category includes the simple rounding approximations used in everyday arithmetic. This category also includes analog-to-digital conversion of a signal for a digital signal processing system (e.g., using a sound card of a personal computer to capture an audio signal) and the calculations performed within most digital filtering processes. Here the purpose is primarily to retain as much signal

fidelity as possible while eliminating unnecessary precision and keeping the dynamic range of the signal within practical limits (to avoid signal clipping or arithmetic overflow). In such uses, substantial loss of signal fidelity is often unacceptable, and the design often centers around managing the approximation error to ensure that very little distortion is introduced. The second type, which can be called ratedistortion optimized quantization, is encountered in source coding for "lossy" data compression algorithms, where the purpose is to manage distortion within the limits of the bit rate supported by a communication channel or storage medium. In this second setting, the amount of introduced distortion may be managed carefully by sophisticated techniques, and introducing some significant amount of distortion may be unavoidable. A quantizer designed for this purpose may be quite different and more elaborate in design than an ordinary rounding operation. It is in this domain that substantial ratedistortion theory analysis is likely to be applied. However, the same concepts actually apply in both use cases. The analysis of quantization involves studying the amount of data (typically measured in digits or bits or bit rate) that is used to represent the output of the quantizer, and studying the loss of precision that is introduced by the quantization process (which is referred to as the distortion). The general field of such study of rate and distortion is known as ratedistortion theory.