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Power Quality

Training Courses

Distributed Energy Sources and Power Quality,

Energy storage systems

LPQIVES is co-financed by:

LPQIVES is a programme of:

LPQI is part of:
Module 9

Distributed Energy Sources and Power Quality,

Energy storage systems

The aim of this module is to provide the user a detailed overview of the distributed energy sources
in the context of power quality. Great majority of such energy sources are integrated with the grid
on different voltage levels. They may produce a lot of power quality related problems then. The
consequences, standards and methods which mitigate power quality problems are the essential
part of this module. High penetration levels of DER especially Renewable Energy Sources may
require energy storage systems. Such configurations require also power quality considerations and
are also the content of this module.

1.1 General aims

This module’s general aim is to provide the attendants the basic knowledge about DER definitions,
types and power quality phenomena which need to be solved. Methods to keep the power quality
parameters and reliability under control when interconnecting DER with the electrical system are
described. Energy storage techniques to balance the intermittence of RES and available solutions
are also described.
The aim is achieved through 7 didactic sections, as follows:
− Section 1: Definition of DER, RES and embedded generation (wind energy, photovoltaic and
fuel cells applications, etc.), available technologies and applications like base and emergency
supply, peak shaving, green power etc.;
− Section 2: Standards on Integration of DER with electric power system, national and
international (IEEE 1547, IEC 61400, Technical Guidelines);
− Section 3: DER & Power Quality - Regulations and Rules between Customers and Network
Operators; Economic Aspects;
− Section 4: Power Quality Causes and Problems: power electronics converters,
voltage control, harmonics and interharmonics;
- Section 5: Power Quality Measurement and Solutions: methods, active and passive filters as
an example solution;
− Section 6: Integration with the grid: methods, modules, impact on power quality and reliability;
voltage control, system restoration, fault level, technology requirements, grid solutions;
practical examples and experience;
− Section 7: Energy storage systems - balancing the load, power flows control;

1.2 Target groups

This module’s target group includes: DER investors and users, designers, experts, grid operators
and utility staff, and all those who wish to expand their knowledge in DER and especially DER
system integration PQ related issues.
The pathway of learning consists of a 2 days course, subdivided in sections (with different
duration), with these contents and related aims.

1st day
Contents Introduction to DER, standards and regulations by grid connection and use of
DER, rules between customer and network operator
Aims The aim of the first day lessons is to introduce the basic knowledge related to
DER and the key concept of standards and regulations,
2nd day
Contents DER & Power Quality measurement, problems and solutions,
energy storage systems.
Aims The second day lessons aim is to provide the attendants some practical
information and tools recognizing and identifying Power Quality problems by
using of DER and the choice of protecting measures. The last section of the
course will be dedicated to the possible solutions and explain something more
about energy storage systems

Below there’s a detailed overview of the course contents.

2.1 Pathway of learning flow chart

Time progression
General notes:
− each day there will be one Lunch break (90 mins) and on the second day also a coffee break
which will divide the lesson into parts no longer than 2 hours;
− at the beginning of the course the lecturer will explain the course aims;
− the course will be divided into theoretical and practical sections;
− at the end of the lessons, a user satisfaction survey will help the lecturer in monitoring the course

First day:

30 mins Participants registration and course introduction

60 mins Section 1: DER definitions

− Definition of DER, RES and embedded generation, available technologies
and applications like base and emergency supply, peak shaving, green power
Modality: Lesson

30 mins Coffe break

90 mins Section 2: Standards on Integration of DER with electric power system, national
and international (IEEE 1547, IEC 61400, Technical Guidelines);
- IEEE 1547
- IEC 61400 (Wind generation)
- National Technical Guidelines (e.g. for Germany: VWEW,
Eigenerzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz. Richtlinie für Anschluss
und Parallelbetrieb von Eigenerzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz)
Modality: Lesson

60 mins Section 3: Regulations and Rules between Customers and Network Operators
− Salaries and costs
- Technical service and support
Modality: Lesson and discussion

Second day:

120 mins Section 4: Power Quality Causes and Problems

− Power Electronic Converters (converters topology)
− Voltage control, harmonics and interharmonics, etc.
- Voltage dips and swells by poor dynamics properties of DG (fuel cell)
- Overvoltages and undervoltages

Modality: Lesson and discussion

60 mins Section 5: Power Quality Measurement and Solutions IP1547/D07

− Methods of Power Quality Measurement
− Power Quality Monitoring
− Power Quality solutions: active and passive filters, suitable transformer
Modality: Lesson and discussion

30 mins Coffe break
60 mins Section 6: Integration with the grid: methods: practical examples and experience
− Control aspects; power import / export modes
− Impact on power quality and reliability
− System restoration, fault level
− Technology requirements
− Grid solutions
Modality: Lesson and discussion

60 mins Section 7: Energy storage systems

− Load balance
− Control of power flow
Modality: Lesson

60 mins Final discussion; end of the course; user’s questionnaire; knowledge test;
Confirmations of attendance

Teaching methods are summarized in three main moments:
− knowledge transfer (Lesson)
topics exposure by the lecturer with the help of slides and eventually other electronic tools
(animations, data sheets, didactic movies…);
− deepening/learning verification (Discussion)
general discussion stimulated by the lecturer (also during the lesson) to verify knowledge
transfer and to eventually deepen particular topics;
− practical training (and eventually laboratory activities)
group work (~ 6 persons/group) for topics deepening, practical problems solution and case
studies overview under the supervision of the lecturer.

During all the sections, the lecturer will always attend, with teaching and/or activity coordination


The didactic tools which will be used by the lecturers will be:
− Blackboard
− Video-projector
− Notebook
− Microphone

The lecture room will be suitable to allow the use of all the above listed didactic tools and to enable
group work for the attendants.

Each user will receive, during the registration, a folder containing:

− course program;
− lecture notes containing all or part of the lecture slides;
− LPQIVES knowledge database access personal key.

All this didactic material, and eventually some additional electronic tools, will be available also in
electronic format at:
The folder will also include a user satisfaction questionnaire and a knowledge test (which will be
both filled and submitted at the end of the course).
The user’s existing knowledge should include:

Basic Medium High
Mathematical analysis •
Statistic •
Electrical circuits •
Power systems •
Power quality •


At the end of this course the user will have learned the basic aspects related to:
− DER definitions;
− Standards on Integration of DER with electric power system, national and international;
− DER and Power Quality: causes and problems, measurements and solutions;
− Integration with the grid;
− Energy storage systems.


PR-00019, Dugan R., 2003, IEEE Electrical Insulation, PQ, reliability and DG

The distributed generation (DG) owner's reliability, measured by the sustained interruption indices,
should improve markedly if DG has been installed and operated properly. However, because this is just
one customer out of hundreds or thousands on the feeder, the improvement does not show up the utility's
traditional reliability indices. There can be a positive or negative impact on the utility-level indices in these
cases: DG can reduce the number or the duration of sustained interruptions if automated switches are
available to restore power in DG-supplied islands or to DG-supported alternate feeds; the loss of fuse-
saving on laterals can significantly degrade the utility-level indices. There is little opportunity for DG to
affect the PQ of other customers, as measured by the indices for voltage sags, which are related to faults
and interruptions. DG can still have adverse impacts on harmonics and steady-state voltage regulation,
which are other aspects of PQ. Utilities should consider tracking ASIFI, ASIDI, and other indices that are
based on load size rather than the number of customers. As a supplement to the traditional reliability
indices, these would better show the positive impacts of DG, assuming DG owners tend to be larger
PR-00012, Gomez J., 2002, IEEE Power Engineering Review, Coordinating overcurrent
protection and voltage sag in distributed generation systems

The new scenario implies that the time-voltage characteristic of a protective device changes into a zone
that modifies previous methodologies and increases the dropout susceptibility of sensitive equipment.

REP-00122 Huber P., 2002, Critical Power,

- Powering Public Networks
- The Vulnerable Public Grid
- A New Profile for Grid-Outage Risks
- Powering Critical Nodes
- Fuelling the Digital Economy
- Hard Power

Resilient Power
- Tiers of Power
- Adding Logic to the Grid: The Static Transfer Switch
- Generation and Transmission
- Distribution and Distributed Generation
- On-Site Power
- Stored Energy
- Backup Generators
- "Uninterruptible Power"
- Monitoring, Control, and Reliability-Centered Maintenance
- Resilient Design

Private Investment and the Public Interest^

- Assess Vulnerabilities
- Establish Critical-Power Standards for Facilities Used to Support Key Government Functions
- Share Safety- and Performance-Related Information, Best Practices, and Standards
- Interconnect Public and Private Supervisory Control and DataAcquisition Networks
- Secure Automated Control Systems
- Share Assets
- Enhance Interfaces Between On-Site Generating Capacity and ThePublic Grid
- Remove Obstacles

REP-00124, Dugan R., 2002, Rural Electric Power Conference, Distributed generation
impact on reliability and power quality indices

Properly sited distributed generation (DG) can increase the feeder capacity limit, but this does not
necessarily produce an improvement in system reliability or power quality, as quantified by standard
indices. The DG may have a positive impact on reliability through faster system restoration following a fault.
The DG can also improve reliability for the owner, and may reduce the severity of voltage sags near the
DG. Indices normalized to the number of customers dilute these positive benefits. The DG often has a
negative impact on reliability indices through sympathetic tripping, required changes to utility overcurrent
device settings, and increased fuse blowing. The utility cannot assume DG automatically improves system
reliability, and action may be required to ensure that reliability does not actually degrade for other


The paper discusses four vulnerabilities already present in today’s power system. These are:
- The Security of Power Delivery and Market Systems;
- The Quality of Power Supplied;
- The Reliability of Power Supplied;
- The Availability of Affordable Energy Services.
They will continue to degradate. Resolving these vulnerabilities will yield benefits in the trillions of
dollars annually. The paper discusses such solutions in terms of technologies and systems
REP-00135, 2004, ENIRDGnet, Technical assessment of DG technologies and tendencies
of technical development

The purpose of this report is to provide key information on distributed generation responding
to the waits of non-specialists who have to deal with these technologies. This document is
made of a series of concise summaries tailored for the needs of political decision makers
providing information on the peculiarity of each DG technologies and in particular on:
- The impact on the utility network operation
- The impact on the environment
- The technical / commercial maturity and the market potentials
- The economic issue
- The relevancy with the customer needs
- The regulatory barriers and policy framework requirements

REP-00136, 2003, ENIRDGnet, Guidelines for improved DG and RES related information

The objective of the report is to evaluate a sample of different sources of existing DG

and RES (renewable energy systems) related information, to identify future needs for
such information system, to establish requirements and make recommendations for the
operation of the system.

REP-00134, 2003, DGFacts, Evaluation of the quality of supply requirements specified by

existing standards, national legislation and relevant technical reports inside and outside

The aim of the DGFACTS project is to solve the set of quality of supply problems arising from the
integration of Distributed Generation into the electric Distribution networks. This report gives an
overview on Power Quality (PQ) standards applicable in different countries, and also compiles
topics of Power Quality which deserve a special attention in the framework of the project

General information is presented on the DGFACTS website at