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Introduction to computing
Introduction to computing

The “Microprocessor” is the ‘Brain’ of the computer.

Like brain a processor can process/compute the information collected from the world.

More formally,

microprocessor is a programmable integrated device

(silicon chip) that has computing & decision making capabilities

Communicates & operates in binary numbers 0 & 1, called bits (digital)

Has a fixed set of instructions in the form of binary patterns – machine language

 

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Basic Concepts
Basic Concepts
 

Microcomputer – a computer with a microprocessor as its CPU.

 

Includes memory, I/O etc.

 

Microprocessor – silicon chip which includes ALU, register circuits &

 

control circuits

 

Microcontroller – silicon chip which includes microprocessor,

 

memory & I/O in a single package.

 

Digital signal processor (DSP) - microprocessor optimized for digital

 

signal processing.

 

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Human vs Computer
Human vs Computer
 

Human Thinking/Computing Eating/breathing Processing Unit: Brain

Computer

 

Processing/Computing Supplying Electrical Power

 

 
 

Processing Unit:

Central

Memory: Brain

Processing Unit (CPU)

 
 

Memory:

RAM, ROM, Disk, CD

Input Organs: Eye, Ear, Skin, … Output Organs: Mouth (Voice), Hand Body and Soul (Mind)

ROM, Input Devices: Keyboard, Mouse, Sensors, …

 

Output Devices: Monitor, Printer, …. Hardware and Software

 

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Microprocessor in a computer board (Mother Board)
Microprocessor in a computer board
(Mother Board)
 
 
 
 

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Microprocessors Types of microcomputers Application
Microprocessors
Types of microcomputers
Application

Reprogrammable microprocessors (General-purpose) Embedded microprocessors and microcontrollers

Instruction complexity

CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computers) RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computers)

Instruction complexity CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computers) RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computers) 5

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Evolution of The Computers
Evolution of The Computers

Evolution of the computers has been characterized by increasing processor speed, decreasing component size, increasing memory size, and increasing I/O capacity and speed.

Since the size of the microprocessors become smaller,

between the components decreases and the speed increases.

the distance

However, the important gain in the speed has been obtained by changing the architecture of the microprocesors including pipelining and parallel computing.

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Application-Specific Instruction Processors (ASIPs) Processors with instruction-sets tailored to specific applications

Application-Specific Instruction Processors (ASIPs)

Processors with instruction-sets tailored to specific applications or application domains

instruction-set generation as part of synthesis

Pluses:

customization yields lower area, power etc.

Minuses:

higher h/w & s/w development overhead

design, compilers, debuggers

higher time to market

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Evolution of The Computers
Evolution of The Computers

A

critical

issue

is

to

balance

the performance of the several

components, so that the gains in one area should not be lost by a lag in

the other areas.

 

In particular, the procesor speed has increased more rapidly than the

memory access time. So there are several techniques to compansate

this mismatch such as caches, larger data paths from memory to the

microprocessors and more intelligent chips.

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3
Harvard architecture
Harvard architecture
 

address

   
   

data memory

data

PC
PC
 

address

CPU

 

program memory

data

 

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Microcomputer Architecture
Microcomputer Architecture
 
 

System Bus – wires connecting memory & I/O to microprocessor

 
 

Address Bus

 
 

Unidirectional Identifying peripheral or memory location

 

 

Data Bus

 
 

Bidirectional

Transferring data

 

Control Bus

 
 

Synchronization signals

 

Timing signals

Control signal

 

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von Neumann vs. Harvard
von Neumann vs. Harvard

Harvard can t use self-modifying code.

Harvard allows two simultaneous memory fetches.

Most DSPs use Harvard architecture for streaming data:

greater memory bandwidth;

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Memory 8 bit Word length 0000 Instruction 1 1 word instruction 0001 Instruction 2 2
Memory
8 bit
Word length
0000
Instruction 1
1 word instruction
0001
Instruction 2
2 word instruction
Instruction 2
64KByte
FFFE
FFFF
Word: no. of bits microprocessor recognizes
and processes at a time
( 4 - 64bit ).
Instruction: combination of bit patterns with
specific meaning known to microprocessor.
Program: Set of all instructions.

address

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17 5

17

21 6

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Instruction Cycle State Diagram (Updated)
Instruction Cycle State Diagram
(Updated)
 

Multiple

 

operands

Instruction Instruction Operand Instruction Operand Address Operation Address Fetch Fetch Calculation Decoding
Instruction
Instruction
Operand
Instruction
Operand
Address
Operation
Address
Fetch
Fetch
Calculation
Decoding
Calculation
Instruction complete
Fetch next instruction
For vector or
string data
No
interrupt
Operand
Interrupt
Operand
Data
Interrupt
Address
Check
Store
Operation
Calculation
Multiple
 

results

 
 

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Architecture of Intel Microprocessors
Architecture of Intel Microprocessors

Basic Internal Architecture

 

Instruction pipelining Normal operation of 8085 (no pipelining)

 

up

Fetch1

Decode1

Execute1

 

Fetch2

Decode2

Execute2

 

Bus

Busy

Idle

Busy

 

Busy

Idle

Busy

Beginning with 8086 and 8088

 

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Multiple Interrupts
Multiple Interrupts

There may be more than one interrupt sources. What happens if interrupt Y occurs while microprocessor is executing the interrupt X?

User Interrupt Program Handler X Interrupt Handler Y
User
Interrupt
Program
Handler X
Interrupt
Handler Y

Sequential interrupt processing

User

Interrupt

Program

Handler X

 
   
    Interrupt

Interrupt

Handler Y

   

Nested interrupt processing

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