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1 - Prehistoric Times

Question Answer
Historical Vocabulary
Period of the human past before writing was invented prehistory
The story of the human past history
Development that separates prehistory from recorded history writing
Folktales that explain the past legends
The way of life of a people culture
The number of people who live in a given area population
Person who studies the human past historian
The study of people, their environments, and their resources geography
Scientist who studies the earth geologist
Scientists who studies the remains of ancient peoples and civilizations archaeologist
Society centered around cities civilization
Any surviving object made by early people artifact
Large, extended kinship unit clan
Digging into the earth to find ancient remains excavation
To decode an ancient language decipher
Careful hunting for facts or evidence research
Idea about how something happened theory
To determine how old a historical find is date
Scientist who studies languages and written records Philologist
Scientist who studies the origin and development of human beings Anthropologist
Term for father-related society patrilineal
Term for mother-related society matrilineal
Scientist who studies fossilized remains of early life Paleontologist

The Ages of Prehistory

Period when the northern continents were buried under ice and snow Ice Age
Before the birth of Christ B.C.
Anno Domini, the years after the birth of Christ A.D.
First period of human history Stone Age
What C.E. stands for Common Era
What B.C.E. stands for Before the Common Era
Huge, slowly moving masses of ice and snow glaciers
Years in between glacial times Interglacial Periods
Exceptionally long period of time eon
Period of time figured from some particular date era
The Old Stone Age Paleolithic Age
The New Stone Age Neolithic Age
Period of 1,000 years millennium
These were formerly used to date archaeological sites tree rings
Radioactive element used to date ancient objects Carbon-14
The shift from food hunting and gathering to food producing Neolithic Revolution
When the Stone Age ended 3000 B.C.E.
When the Neolithic Age began 8000 B.C.E.
Years of the Paleolithic Age 2.5 Million to 8000 B.C.E.
When the last Ice Age ended 8000 B.C.E.

Our Human Ancestors

Continent where the earliest humanlike remains have been found Africa
Muscular prehistoric people who were not ancestors of modern humans Neanderthals
Prehistoric people who closely resembled modern humans Cro-Magnons
Characteristic that allowed humans to use their hands freely erect posture
Skill that allowed humans to pass along knowledge language
Characteristic that allowed
The facial characteristics humans
that made to store and use
a Neanderthal more information
different from a Cro-than animals Sloping forehead, thick eyebrow
large brain
Magnon heavy jaw, large nose or receding chin
different from a Cro-Magnon
"Skillful human" Homo habilis
"Upright human" Homo erectus
"Wise Human" Homo sapiens
Prehistoric dweller on a Southeast Asian island Java man
Prehistoric dweller of China Peking man
When Homo sapiens emerged 100,000 years ago
When Cro-Magnon people emerged 40,000 years ago
The color of this depended on the climate where people lived skin
People who have lived in Australia since prehistoric times Aborigines
A 3.5 million-year-old female humanlike skeleton found in Ethiopia Lucy
River in western Germany where Neanderthal remains were first found Neanderthals
Term for creatures that walk upright Hominids

Prehistoric Life
Earliest (Paleolithic) ways of getting food gathering & hunting
A shaped stone fool
Earliest clothing material animal skin
Resource used both for cooking and as a weapon fire
Neanderthal shelters caves
Huge wooly creature, often hunted mammoth
How Neanderthals disposed of their dead burial
Prehistoric wall art cave paintings
Neolithic ways of securing food farming & herding
New, Neolithic living arrangement villages
Neolithic invention used for cooking and food storage pottery
Neolithic clothing material cloth
Neolithic material that began to replace stone metal
Neolithic invention that was the basis of transportation wheel
Neolithic invention that was a machine to weave cloth loom
Material mixed with clay to produce pottery straw or dung
People who wandered from place to place, as Old Stone Age people did Nomads
Hardened lava from volcanoes, used as mirrors Obsidian
Methods of shaping stone in the Old Stone Age chipping
Methods of shaping stone in the New Stone Age grinding
Neanderthal religious belief about death life after death
First domesticated animal dog
Mobile way of life that depended on large herds of livestock Pastoralism

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2 - Mesopotamia: The Fertile Crescent
Question Answer
River Valley Life
Wide, fertile river mouth delta
Highly developed form of culture civilization
Recurring river valley events that enriched the soil floods
Population centers cities
Groups of people identified by their status classes
Geographical areas where the earliest civilizations developed river valleys
Soft metal used by early cultures copper
Mixture of copper and tin that gave its name to an age bronze
Strong metal first used widely by the Hittites that gave its name to an age iron
Method of watering crops during dry seasons irrigation
Devices used for flood control dikes
Cooperative system that developed as people worked together government
Economic system created by surplus products trade
Principle occupation of the earliest river valley dwellers farming
Devices developed to reckon and mark time calendars
Invention spurred by the need for records writing
Two projects that required group cooperation in river valleys irrigation & flood control
Vital transportation method developed by the Sumerians wheeled vehicles
New system in which certain people specialized in specific types of work division of labor
Simplified picture of a thing pictogram
Picture that stands for an idea ideogram
Picture that stands for a sound phonogram

Cultural Developments
Principle building material in Sumer clay brick
Sumerian writing material clay
System that linked the different parts of both the Assyrian empire and the Persian empire roads
Form of money used for Persian trade coins
Basic political division in Sumer-made up of a city and its surrounding lands and villages city-state
Sumerian wedge-shaped writing cuneiform
Architectural element invented by Sumerians arch
Governors of Sumerian cities priests
The Babylonian collection of laws Code of Hammurabi
Group of states or nations under one ruler, first created by Sargon empire
Artisan's device for shaping jugs and bowls, first used by Sumerians potter's wheel
Vast Assyrian collection of clay tablets (one of the world's first) library
Divisions of the Assyrian empire provinces
Chaldean studies of the stars and planets astronomy & astrology
Kingship passed down from father to son hereditary kingship
Owned of each Sumerian city's land city's god
Pyramid-temple at the center of each Sumerian city ziggurat
Sumerian development in mathematics algebra
Basic principle of justice under Babylonian law retribution
Basic principle of Hittite justice payment of damages
Belief in a number of gods, common among ancient people polytheism
Persian provinces satrapies

Mesopotamian Places
The "land between the rivers" Mesopotamia
Easternmost Mesopotamia's twin rivers Tigris
Westernmost of Mesopotamia's twin rivers Euphrates
Principal city of the Babylonian empire Babylon
Arc of rich-soil land where Mesopotamia was located Fertile Crescent
The two Far Eastern lands that trade with Mesopotamia India & China
Mesopotamia's twin rivers emptied into this body of water Persian Gulf
Present-day country that includes most of Mesopotamia Iraq
Southern Mesopotamia, home of the earliest known civilization Sumer
Capital city of the Assyrian empire Nineveh
Western boundary of the Babylonian empire Mediterranean Sea
Hanging Gardens
One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, located in Babylon of Babylon
Capital city of Persia Persepolis
Present-day country that includes Persia Iran
African country that traded with Mesopotamia Egypt
Area where Mesopotamia's twin rivers began Armenia
Great city-state of Sumer Ur
Easternmost boundary of the Persian empire at its peak Indus River
Famous Persian transportation route Royal Highway
Desert land to the south of Mesopotamia Arabia

Mesopotamian People
People who created the earliest known civilization Sumerians
Warlike people from Asia Minor who were the first conquerors of Babylon Hittites Assyrians
Warfare specialists who destroyed Babylon and created a huge empire Cyrus the Great
First ruler of the Persian empire scribes
Mesopotamian writers Persians
People who created the mightiest Mesopotamian empire Gilgamesh
Sumerian priest-king who was the hero of the world's oldest written story Sargon
Ruler who joined Sumer and Akkad, creating the world's first empire Hammurabi
Ruler of the first Babylonian empire Chaldeans
People who captured Ninevah and rebuilt Babylon Nebuchadnezzae
Ruler of the second Babylonian empire Medes
Former allies defeated by the Persians around 550 B.C.E. Darius
Ruler of the Persian empire at its peak Xerxes
Son of Darius who invaded Greece Zoroaster
Great Persian religious leader
Class of people who had more rights in Babylonia than in other Mesopotamian countries women
Major occupation of the Assyrians warfare
Assyrian king who created a notable early library Ashurbanipal
Son of the first Persian ruler; he conquered Egypt Cambyses
Supreme god of the Assyrians Assur

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3 - Egyptian Civilization
Question Answer
Geography and Sites
Continent Egypt is part of Africa
Egypt's major river Nile
Body of water into which Egypt's major river empties Mediterranean Sea
Region formed by the mouth of Egypt's major river Nile Delta
Type of land that bordered Egypt's river valley desert
Colossal statue of a crouching lion with a human head Sphinx
Largest of the Egyptian kings' tombs Great Pyramid
Ancient kingdom of southern Egypt Upper Egypt
Ancient kingdom of northern Egypt Lower Egypt
New Kingdom capital city in central Egypt Thebes
Series of great waterfalls in Egypt's major river cataracts
Site of the Great Pyramid, plus other pyramids Giza
Land to the south that became part of Egypt during the empire Nubia
Type of resource scarce in Egypt, usually traded for minerals
This kept many Egyptian manuscripts and artifacts preserved for centuries dry climate
Body of water on Egypt's eastern boundary Red Sea
Total length of Egypt's major river 4,000 miles
Two Middle Eastern areas that became part of Egypt's empire during the New Kingdom Syria & Palestine
Land that joined Egypt with western Asia Isthmus of Suez
Capital of the Old Kingdom Memphis
Great center for advanced study Heliopolis
New capital city established by Ikhnaton Tell el Amerna

Religious status of the Egyptian ruler god
Tombs built to house the deathless rulers pyramids
This process preserved bodies for the afterlife mummification
Buildings constructed to honor gods, especially Amon-Re temples
God of the sun Re
God of the underworld; personification of the Nile Osiris
Fertility goddess wife of Osiris Isis
New single god decreed by Ikhnaton Aten
Collection of magic spells to help achieve life after death Book of the Dead
Pharaohs' burial places during the Middle Kingdom tombs cut into cliffs
Each god's symbol, revered and mummified sacred animal
Major preoccupation of Egyptian religion life after death
Sacred insect scarab
God of Thebes Amon
Chief Egyptian god Amon-Re
Son of Re, also of Osiris and Isis Horus
Where all the pyramids were built West bank of the Nile
Monster that devoured sinful souls Eater of the Dead
Device used by god Osiris to judge a soul scale
Belief in a single god monotheism
Belief in a number of gods polytheism
A sacred bull worshipped by the ancient Egyptians Hapi

Government and Rulers

Boy-king whose unopened tomb was discovered in C.E. 1922 Tutankhamen
Hereditary groups who took some power away from Egyptian rulers priests & nobles
Egyptian ruler pharaoh
Type of marriage practiced by Egyptian rulers brother-sister marriage
A series of rulers from a single family; ancient Egypt had 31 of these over 2600 years dynasty
Ruler who united northern and southern Egypt in 3000 B.C.E. Menes
New name of the ruler who established belief in a single god Ikhnaton
Wife and sister of Ikhnaton Nefertiti
Last strong ruler of ancient Egypt Ramses II
First era of ancient Egyptian history the Pyramid Age Old Kingdom
Second era of ancient Egyptian history Middle Kingdom
Third era of ancient Egyptian history; a period of conquest New Kingdom
Leader who conquered Egypt in 332 B.C.E. Alexander the Great
Original owner of all Egyptian land pharaoh
King entombed in the Great Pyramid Khufu
Man who discovered King Tut's tomb Howard Carter
Prince who drove out the Hyksos and began the New Kingdom Ahmose
Female ruler who expanded trade and public building Hatshepsut
Ruler who expanded Egyptian ruler into Syria and Palestine Thutmose III
Southern Kingdom that ruled Egypt from 750 to 670 B.C.E. Kush
Asian people who ruled Egypt from 1700 B.C.E to 1600 B.C.E. Hyksos
People who conquered Egypt in 670 B.C.E. Assyrians

Ancient Egyptian system of writing hieroglyphic system
Paperlike Egyptian writing material papyrus
Artifact that showed how to decipher Egyptian writing Rosetta Stone
Economic basis of Egyptian power and wealth agriculture
Source of wealth for Egypt in addition to agriculture trade
Healing science in which Egyptians became proficient medicine
centers of government and religion cities
Material Egyptians used to write with ink
Building material of Egyptian villagers mud-brick
Animal introduced to Egypt by the invading Hyksos horse
Hereditary writing and recordkeeping professional scribe
Time of year when the river flood began June
Mathematical skill developed by the Egyptians outside the city geometry
Type of calendar developed by Egyptians 365-day calendar
Important crop in both ancient and modern Egypt cotton
Devices used to build the pyramids ramps & levers
Home of wealthy Egyptians outside the city estates
Storage buildings for grain from good harvests granaries
The two building materials for the pyramids granite & limestone
Approximate number of pyramids built 80

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4 - Civilization in Ancient India and China
Question Answer
Family members whom Shang people revered ancestors
Persons for whom ancient Chinese developed contempt foreigners
What the Chinese considered all foreigners to be barbarians
Ruling families in China dynasties
Bandit leaders who controlled large areas of China warlords
Living family members who were most respected in China elders
Class of people who lived in Chinese cities rich
Class of people who lived outside of Chinese cities poor
People who civilization flourished in India between 2500 to 1500 B.C.E. Harappans
Indo-Europeans who invaded northern India around 1500 B.C.E. Aryans
Type of people that Aryans were- definitely not city dwellers nomads
First historical dynasty of China Shang
Class OF people just below the Shang rulers nobles
Stone Age inhabitant of China Peking man
Most admired members of early Aryan society warriors
Aryan priests Brahmins
Physical characteristic of Aryans that separated them from the people they conquered light skin or height
Legendary first dynasty of China Xia
People who overthrew China's first historical dynasty Zhou
Officials in charge of the Shang calendar priest-astronomers
Legendary found of Xia kingdom Yu

River whose valley was the site of India's first civilization Indus
Northernmost of China's two greatest rivers Huang He
Southernmost of China's two greatest rivers Yangtze
Major body of water on China's eastern boundary Pacific Ocean
Major Indian river that flows southeasterly Ganges
"China's sorrow" or "the great sorrow" Huang He
Large sea on China's eastern boundary Yellow Sea
Desert in the north of China Gobi
Major pass through India's northwestern mountains Khyber Pass
Body of water into which the Indus River empties Arabian Sea
Mountains northeast of India and southwest of China Himalayas
One of ancient India's large cities, in ruins today Mohenjo-Daro
Geographic term for India, rather than "country" subcontinent
wide deserts, high mountains,
One of the three geographical factors that kept Eastern peoples isolated and large bodies of water
Chinese term for the land of the two major river valleys Middle Kingdom
India's northwestern mountain range Hindu Kush
Broad area populated by the spreading Aryans Indus-Ganges plain
Capital city of an early Chinese dynasty Anyang
Large river south of China's two greatest rivers Si
Mountains to the northwest of China Tien Shan

Early Indian Culture

What the Aryans did to the Harappan cities destroyed them
Indian social structure that began under the Aryans Structures used to control the rivers caste system
Structures used to control the rivers dikes & dams
India's seasonal wind monsoon
Most Harappan gods were of this gender female
Harappan improvement in brick making firing
Unique feature of Harappan cities' design city planning
Crop used to make cloth, first grown by Harappans cotton
"Modern" system that kept Harappan cities sanitary sewer system
Center of each Harappan city citadel
Grain-storage buildings in Harappan cities granaries
Main crop of the Aryans on the central Indian plain barley
Harappan cities were built on this feature as another form of flood protection mounds
How streets were laid out in Harappan cities grid
Artifacts that contain most of the known examples of Harappan writing seals
The Aryan period in Indian history, from 1500 to 1000 B.C.E. Vedic Age
Written language of the Aryans Sanskrit
The Aryans' collections of sacred knowledge Vedas
Huge watertight tank in a Harappan city Great Bath
Indus Valley religion animism or polytheism
Basic unit of earliest Aryan society tribe
Greatest, longest Indian epic Mahahbarata

Early Chinese Culture

Source of our knowledge about earliest Chinese history legends
Structures used to contain a river's high water levels dikes
The northern river sometimes did this when flooding change course
Material produced for wealthy people's clothing silk
Creatures that produced silk silkworms
Legendary creatures that were driven out of China's river valleys dragons & serpents
millet, wheat,
Two grains grown by the ancient Chinese barley, rice
Material used for war chariots, weapons, and works of art bronze
Forces in nature that the Shang worshipped spirits
Improved metal used by the Zhou for weapons and tools iron
Strongest connection among Chinese people family ties
Main economic base of the Shang dynasty agriculture
Type of calendar used by the Shang, adjusted as necessary lunar calendar
Building material that was abundant along the Chinese rivers clay
Ancient Chinese term for divine right to rule Mandate of Heaven
Centers of early Chinese cities palace & temple
Items that were inscribed with questions for ancestors bones
Writing as an art, practiced by the ancient Chinese calligraphy
Number of written characters a well-educated Chinese had to know 10,000
Material that gave the Huang He silt
gap between rich
Social and economic division that weakened the Shang dynasty and poor

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5 - Ancient Greece
Question Answer
Origins and Geography
Ancient seafaring people of Crete Minoans
Primary occupation of the Minoans sea trade
Ocean south of Greece that surrounds Crete Mediterranean
Geographic features that separated Greek city-states mountains
Geographic feature of Italy's northern border Alps
Legendary ruler of Bronze Age Crete Minos
People who replaced the Minoans as the chief power of the Aegean world Mycenans
Ten-year conflict between the Myceneans and the people of Troy Trojan War
Epic poem about the Trojan War Iliad
People who conquered the Myceneans around 1000 B.C.E. Dorians
Sea that separated Greece and Asia Minor Aegean
Sea that formed Greece's western border Adriatic
Most famous of Alexander's new cities, in Egypt Alexandria
Economic activity made necessary by Greek geography trade
Major city of ancient Crete Knossos
Mountainous land north of Greece Macedonia
Peninsula on which Greece is located Balkan Peninsula
Southern portion of ancient Greece Peloponnesus
Region of Greek city-states in Asia Minor and on Aegean islands Ionia
Italy's central mountain range Apennnes
Large island at the toe of Italy Sicily

Politics and Society

Geographic and political center of Greek life city-state
Earliest form of city-state government monarchy
Form of government developed in Athens democracy
Lowest Athenian class slaves
People of Athens who spent their lives secluded at home women
Sole occupation of male Spartan citizens military service
Greek word for the city-state polis
Fortified hilltop at a city's center acropolis
A city's open meeting area, usually the marketplace agora
Form of government in Sparta aristocracy
Set of principles and rules for governing; Athens had one constitution
Spartan slaves helots
Where male Spartan citizens lived from age 7 to age 30 military barracks
Fate of unhealthy or imperfect Spartan babies abandoned to die
Fate of Athenian debtors, abolished by Solon sold into slavery
What Athenian girls were taught household management
The five governing officials of Sparta overseers
One of the two ruling bodies in Sparta Assembly
Body of Athenian citizens that passed laws Assembly
Athenian body that proposed laws and handled daily affairs Council of Four Hundred
Spartan form of money iron bars

The Era of City-States

South-central, militaristic city-state Sparta
Attican city-state that developed as a democracy Athens
Wars with a powerful empire of Asia Minor in 490-479 B.C.E. Persian Wars
Leader who sailed an army across the Aegean to Greece in 490 B.C.E. Darius
Persian leader who sent his army back to Greece in 480 B.C.E. Xerxes
Statesman who led Athens to its greatest heights Pericles
Athenian leader who drew up a code of laws Draco
Athenian leader whose name today means a wise lawmaker Solon
Athenian leader who established nearly complete democracy Cleisthenes
Battle in which the Greeks defeated the Persians in 490 B.C.E. Battle of Marathon
Defensive alliance led by Athens Delian League
Thirty-year war between Athens and Sparta Peloponnesian War
Event in addition to war that destroyed Athens plague
City-state that overthrew Spartan rule in 371 B.C.E. Thebes
Greek rulers who seized power by force, often backed by the poor tyrants
Mountain pass defended by Spartans in 480 B.C.E. Thermopylae
Sea battle in which Athenians defeated Persians in 480 B.C.E. Battle of Salamis
Final, decisive battle that ended the wars in 479 B.C.E. Battle of Plateau
Athenian ruler who introduced land reform and was supported by the lower classes Pisistratus
Athenian warships triremes

The Hellenistic Age

Ruler of Macdeon who united the Greek city-states Phillip II
Phillip's son and successor Alexander the Great
Empire conquered by Alexander Persia
Northern African country conquered by Alexander Egypt
Culture spread by Alexander Greek culture
Athenian orator who vigorously opposed Phillip Demosthenes
Cause of Phillip's death assassination
Alexander's Greek tutor Aristotle
Easternmost extent of Alexander's empire Indus River
Cause of Alexander's death fever
Structure in Egypt's Alexandria; one of the Seven Wonder of the Ancient World Pharos
unite Greek city-states or
Phillip's ambition in life to spread Greek culture
City-state where Phillip was held hostage as a youth Thebes
unification or
Alexander's major influence on the world the spread of Greek culture
Special infantry formation of the Greek and Macedonian armies phalanx
Battle in which Phillip gained control of Greece Battle of Chaeronea
Alexander's age when he came to power 20
Northern portion of Alexander's empire at its division Macedonia
Southern portion of Alexander's empire at its division Egypt
Eastern portion of Alexander's empire at its division Persia
Alexandria's renowned center of learning museum

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6 - Ancient Rome
Question Answer
Origins and Geography
Number of hills on which Rome was built seven
Rome's river Tiber
The Italian peninsula extended into this sea Mediterranean
Creature who cared for Rome's legendary twins as infants she-wolf
Sea on Italy's east coast Adriatic
Legendary twins who fought to become Rome's first king Romulus and Remus
Invading people who founded Rome Lains
Northern people who took over Rome from its founders Etruscans
People who established city-states on islands south of Italy Greeks
Etruscan method of making marshes useful drainage
Bridge-building element Latins borrowed from Etruscans arch
Etruscan system of government monarchy
River Caesar was ordered not to cross on his way back to Rome Rubicon
Western boundary of the Roman Empire at its height Atlantic Ocean
Southern boundary of the Roman Empire at its height Sahara Desert
Northern land invaded by Caesar, secured under Claudius Britain
Region north of Rome, today's France Gaul
Body of water on the eastern and northern boundaries of the
Roman Empire at its height Black Sea
The two rivers that were the northern boundary of the Roman Empire at its height Rhine and the Danube
Palatine or the
One of Rome's two main hills Capitoline hill
Source of Etruscans' written language Greek alphabet

Government and Society

Roman form of government in which the citizens who voted held power republic
Roman upper class patricians
Roman lower class plebeians
Extended period of peace that Augustus brought to Rome Pax Romana
Popular public meeting places for both men and women bathhouses
Popular public entertainment staged by the government free public games
Professional public fighters gladiators
Rulers who held absolute power for no more than six months dictators
Joint officials who were chief executives and military leaders consuls
Rome's main public square Forum
Basic unit of the Roman army legion
Elected officials who protected plebeians' rights tribunes
Class that expanded as the large estates grew slaves
Class that was driven from the countryside to the cities small farmers
laws should be fair and
Basic principles of Roman law apply to all people equally
Water-transporting systems aqueducts
Roman road improvement paved highways
Basic occupation of people in the Roman Empire during the peaceful years agriculture
Method of succession developed during the empire adoption of heirs
Type of housing for Rome's lower classes apartment buildings
gap between rich
Social and economic division that weakened both the republic and the empire and poor

Famed soldier and politician who became sole ruler and was later assassinated Julius Caesar
Ides of March
The day Caesar was assassinated (March 15th, 44 B.C.E.)
Caesar's top general, who fell in love with Cleopatra Mark Anthony
Caesar's grandnephew and political heir Octavian
"Exalted One," Octavian's new title Augustus
Octavian's status as absolute ruler of the Roman Empire emperor
Emperor blamed for the Roman fire of C.E. 64 Nero
Tiberius and
Brothers who were "reformer" tribunes Gaius Gracchus
Senator and general who opposed Marius and seized Rome Sulla
Co-ruler defeated by Caesar in Greece Pompey
One of Caesar's two close friends who became his killers Brutus or Cassius
Famous general who extended the empire to its greatest size;
the second Good Emperor Trajan
The third Good emperor, who had a defensive wall built in Britain Hadrian
Last of the Good Emperors; a Stoic philosopher Marcus Aurelius
Tiberius and
Adopted son and successor of Augustus Gaius Gracchus
Insane successor of Tiberius Caligula
Succession of five wise and able rulers Good Emperors
Old lawyer/ruler who adopted his successor in C.E. 96 Nerva
Orator and politician who supported Pompey Cicero
Conflict that broke out while Marius and Sulla were contending for power civil war

Expansion, Decline, and Fall

General of Carthage who invaded Italy in 218 B.C.E. Hannibal
Mountain range crossed by Hannibal and his troops Alps
Large animals that crossed the mountains with Hannibal elephants
New, eastern capital established by Constantine Constantinople
Peoples whose tribes invaded the Roman Empire Germans
Fierce Asiatic tribe that drove other tribes toward the empire Huns
Leader of the Huns; "the Scourge of God" Attila
Great commercial power that fought with Rome Carthage
The wars between Rome and Carthage Punic Wars
Geographic area where Carthage was located North Africa
Roman general who defeated Hannibal Scipio
Reforming ruler who divided the empire's administration into East and West Diocletian
Strong ruler who moved the capital to the East Constantine
Tribe permitted to cross the Danube into imperial territory that later sacked Rome the Visigoths
Germanic chief whose army sacked Rome Alaric
Major political reason for Rome's fall a lack of fixed succession
Major economic reason for Rome's fall expenses greater than revenues (and then inflation)
Major social reason for Rome's fall moral decline/lack of patriotism
Area north of Greece acquired by Rome in 148 B.C.E. Macedonia
The two islands to the west of Italy lost by Carthage in the First Punic War Sardinia and Corsica
What Romans did to destroy Carthaginian land plowed salt into the fields
Series of emperors enthroned and assassinated by the army Barracks Emperors

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7 - Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman Culture
Question Answer
Science and Religion
Ruler of the gods, Greek or Roman Zeus or Jupiter
Wife of the gods' ruler, Greek or Roman Hera or Juna
Greek goddess of wisdom and protector of Athens Athena
Greek sporting festival held every four years to honor Zeus Olympic Games
Greek "Father of Scientific Medicine" Hippocrates
Doctors' pledge developed by a Greek physician Hippocratic Oath
Mathematician who developed fundamental rules of geometry Euclid
Mathematician and philosopher who developed an enduring theorem about
right triangles Pythagoras
Doctor who compiled a widely used medical encyclopedia Galen
Alexandrian authority on astronomy Ptolemy
Ptolemy's theory of the universe, accepted until the 1600s geocentric theory
Scientist who developed the first two steps of the scientific method Thales of Miletus
Scientist who mastered the use of the lever and compound pulley Archimedes
Geographer who accurately calculated the earth's size Eratosthenes
Astronomers who concluded that the earth revolved around the sun Aristarchus
Scientist who believed that all matter is made up of atoms Democritus
accurate instruments
What Greek scientists lacked for observing and measuring
Aristotle's method of grouping similar plants and animals classification
Belief in a number of gods, a feature of Greek and Roman religion polytheism

Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting

Rome's great amphitheater; site of gladiator fights Colosseum
Central hill of Athens; site of exceptional temples Acropolis
Artifacts on which the best-preserved Greek paintings were found vases
Athens' renowned temple dedicated to Athena Parthenon
Greatest Greek fine art sculpture
Familiar Greek statue of an athlete by Myron Discobolus
Domed building in Rome built in honor of gods Pantheon
Baths built for thousands of bathers Baths of Caracalla
Roman oval arena; site of chariot races Circus Maximus
Roman city, destroyed by a volcano, that has yielded many preserved art treasures Pompeii
Roman architectural elements not used by the Greeks the arch and the vaulted dome
First of Greece's greatest sculptors Myron
Artist who specialized in large, formal sculpture of decline Phidias
Famed sculptor of graceful human forms Praxiteles
Style of architecture based on Greek and Roman buildings; style of the U.S. Capitol neoclassical
Roman sculpture form in which images project from a flat background has-relief
Colorful Minoan and Roman wall paintings frescoes
Minoan and Roman artworks created with small pieces of glass, stone, and/or tile mosaics

Literature and Theater

Where Greek plays were performed amphitheaters
Form of literature and entertainment invented by the Greeks drama
Drama about people's suffering tragedy
Plays that focus on humor comedy
Epic poet credited with composing the Iliad and the Odyssey Homer
Semilegendary slave and fable writer Aesop
Female lyric poet from the island of Lesbos Sappho
Earliest and greatest writer of Greek stage comedies Aristophanes
The language of ancient Romans Latin
Roman epic poem about Aeneas, modeled after the Iliad Aeniad
Roman epic poet, author of the Aeneid Virgil
Roman poet who wrote odes, satires, and epistles Horace
Author of love lyrics and legends in verse Ovid
Roman development in writing Latin
Father of Greek tragedy Aeschylus
Writer of tragedies including Oedipus Rex Sophocies
Most realistic of the three great writers of tragedy Euripedes
Family of languages that developed from Latin Romance languages

Philosophy and History

Greek study of the meaning of life and the nature of the world philosophy
Questioning philosopher condemned to death by poison Socrates
Student of Socrates, founder of a renowned school Plato
Student of Plato, brilliant philosopher, scientist, and logician Aristotle
Plato's book about ideal state or government The Republic
Step-by-step questioning to arrive at a final conclusion, the truth Socratic Method
Roman historian who wrote an account about early Germans Tacitus
Renowned Roman lawyer, politician, and orator Cicero
Roman emperor, military leader, and author of the Stoic Meditations Marcus Aurelius
The "Father of History," the first great Western historian Herodotus
Famous historian of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides
Greek ideal of aesthetics and thought Golden Mean
Plato's school Academy
Aristotle's school Lyceum
Roman who wrote a multivolume history of Rome Livy
Author of the Commentaries on the Gallic war, later emperor Julius Caesar
Greek author of Parallel Lives Plutarch
Roman schools of advanced studies rhetoric schools
Philosophy that focused on living a vice-free life Stoicism
Philosophy that focused on virtuous conduct and the absence of pain Epicureanism

Online Flash Cards
8 - Near Eastern Worlds and the Rise of Christianity
Question Answer
The Phoenicians
Main occupation of Phoenicians sea trading
Timber used to build Phoenician ships and for trade cedar
Basic political division in Phoenicia city-states
Landforms that physically separated the different groups of Phoenicians mountains
Phoenicians used these to protect their cities walls
Centers of activity in a Phoenician city port
A skill the Phoenicians were renowned for seafaring, trading, and shipbuilding
Early Phoenician herding peoples who came from the desert Canaanites
Early rulers of Phoenician city-states kings/ high priests
Expensive Phoenician item much sought after in trade purple dye
Phoenicia's permanent settlements in faraway places colonies
Phoenicia's most important contribution to Western culture alphabet
Phoenicians spread this throughout the Mediterranean world Middle Eastern culture
Egyptian method of preserving dead bodies, adopted by the Phoenicians embalming
Continent that Phoenicians may have sailed around Africa
Phoenician kings had to share power with these bodies councils of merchants
Shellfish that was the source of Phoenicia's purple dye murex
A Phoenician princess, who was the legendary founder of Carthage Dido
Natural resource Phoenicia lacked and had to trade for minerals
Phoenician gods Baals
Large Mediterranean island with a Phoenician colony, a center of trade Silicy, Sardinia, Malta, Cyprus

The Hebrews
Religion of the Hebrews Judaism
The Hebrews' different idea about God one god only
Leader who brought the Hebrews out of Egypt Moses
God's laws as given to Moses Ten Commandments
Land Moses led the Hebrews to Promised Land
The Hebrews' God Yahweh
Leader who brought the Hebrews to Canaan in about 1900 B.C.E. Abraham
The Hebrews' journey out of Egypt Exodus
Binding agreement between God and Abraham covenant
The two main occupations of the Hebrews in Canaan farming and sheepherding
King who established Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and wrote many psalms David
Wise king who built a huge temple at Jerusalem Solomon
Spiritual leaders who delivered messages from God to the people prophets
Jewish teachers rabbis
Most sacred Hebrew text; its five books record the early history and laws of
the Hebrews Torah
Portion of the Bible that tells the story of the Hebrews Old Testament
Peoples the Hebrews fought for Canaan Canaanites or Philistines
The Hebrew people's 12 divisions tribes
Leaders of the 12 tribes judges
First king of the Hebrews Saul
Ethical basis of Jewish society social justice or the rule of law
Elijah, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Jeremiah,
Three Hebrew prophets who have books of the Bible named after them (7) Ezekiel

Christ, the Messiah Jesus
People among whom Christianity began Jews
How Jesus was put to death crucifixion
People who controlled Palestine when Jesus lived Romans
The savior the Jews waited for Messiah
The archbishop of Rome, head of the Latin church pope
Main message of Jesus love one another
"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" Golden Rule
Rising from the dead, as Jesus is said to have done resurrection
What Jesus said his relationship to God was Son of God
Religious practice early Christians refused to follow honoring the emperor as a god
Title that some Jews gave Jesus, which alarmed the Romans King of the Jews
The Latin churches as a group, after the split of C.E. 1504 Roman Catholic Church
The Greek churches as a group, after the split of C.E. 1504 Eastern Orthodox Church
Portion of the Bible that tells about the life and teachings of Jesus New Testament
The four books of the Bible about the life of Jesus Gospels
Roman emperor in power during Jesus' life Augustus
First Christian missionary to the gentiles; a former persecutor of Christians Paul
Disaster that was blamed on the Christians Great Roman Fire of C.E. 64
Roman emperor who encourages the growth of Christianity Constantine I
Decree that made Christianity legal in C.E. 313 Edict of Milan
Emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire Theodosius

Near Eastern Places

Village birthplace of Jesus Bethlehem
Town where Jesus grew up Nazareth
Western boundary of Phoenicia and Palestine Mediterranean Sea
Loose union of city-states; nation of seafarers Phoenicia
Land the Hebrews left under the leadership of Moses Egypt
Body of water the Hebrews crossed during their exodus Red Sea
Hebrew capital city; site of Solomon's temple Jerusalem
Land where Christianity developed and Hebrews lived Palestine
Phoenicia's city-states (4) Tyre, Sidon, Bablos, Berytus (Beirut)
Phoenicia's greatest colony Carthage
Area where Carthage was located North Africa
Land the Hebrews first settled in and later returned to Canaan
Mountain where Moses received the Ten Commandments from God Mount Sinai
Northern Hebrew kingdom Israel
Southern Hebrew kingdom Judah
Palestine's major river Jordan
Land to which the people of Judah were forced to move in 586 B.C.E. Babylon
Modern country that includes part of Phoenicia Lebanon or Syria
Modern country that includes part of Palestine Israel or Jordan
Mountains that bordered Phoenicia on the east Lebanon Mountains
Modern country where Carthage once was located Tunisia
Land the Hebrews first migrated from Ur, in Mesopotamia
Desert land the Hebrews first came to after leaving Egypt Sinai Peninsula or Desert

Online Flash Cards
9 - Early Cultures in Europe
Question Answer
The Germans
Primary occupation of German men warrior
Members of German society who did most of the work women and slaves
Basic unit of German society clan (tribe)
German tribe that used its kingdom in North Africa as a base for pirate raids Vandals
Form of government set up by invading Germans kingdom
Fierce nomadic people from Asia who invaded Europe Huns
Term formerly used for the Early Middle Ages Dark Ages
River valley along the Roman Empire's border where many Germans settled Danube
Chief German god Woden
God of war and thunder Thor
East Goths, driven westward by the Huns Ostrogoths
West Goths; they capture and plundered Rome Visigoths
A German tribe gave its name to this word; the willful and senseless
destruction of property vandalism
European country occupied by Romans, then Vandals, then Visitgoths Spain
State of European society after the German invasions destroyed the Roman
Empire anarchy
Why the Germans didn't write their own history they had no written language
Where German warriors expected to spend their afterlife Valhalla
Visitgoth king who led the sack of Rome in 410 Alaric
Source of German law people
German tibe that moved across the Alps into northern Italy Lombards
German tribe that moved into central Gaul Burgundians

The Franks
Religion the Frankish king and his warriors converted to Christianity
Institution that supported the Franks after they converted Church
Modern-day country that takes its name from the Franks France
Religion the invading Arabs hoped to spread throughout Europe Islam
English translation of both Charlemagne and Karl der Grosse Charles the Great
River along which the Franks lived Rhine
King who first brought all Franks under one rule Clovis
Two characterisitcs shared by most Franks that helped them to feel united common religion and language
Modern country that developed from the Western Frankish kingdom France
Modern country that developed from the Eastern Frankish kingdom Germany
Leader who defeated the invading Arabs Charles Martel
Battle of 732 in which the invading Arabs were defeated Battle of Tours
First Frankish king personally crowned by the pope Pepin (the Short or III)
Frankish king who became "Emperor of the Romans" Charlemagne
Lombards, Saxons, Slavs, Avars, Arabs
The invading peoples defeated by Charlemagne (Muslims)
Charlemagne made this available even to some lower-class children education
Charlemagne's only surviving son Louis the Pious
Agreement that ivided the empire among Charlemagne's three grandsons Treaty of Verdun
Capital of the Frankish kingdom under Clovis Paris
Charlemagne's capital city Aix-la-Chapelle
Asian invaders who reminded Europeans of the Huns Magyars

Britain and Ireland

Early inhabitants of Britain, who were conquered by Romans Celts
Three Germanic tribes that invaded Britain around 450 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
Tribe that gave its name to England Angles
Lands the Celts fled to from Britain Wales, Western Scotland, and Ireland
Famed missionary who brought Christianity to Ireland St.Patrick
Status of most English people peasant class
The two peoples of northern Britain (modern Scotland) Picts and Scots
Body of water crossed bythe tribes that invaded Britain North Sea
Centers of culture in Ireland monastaries
Head missionary to Anglo-Saxons St. Augustine
Center of the Christian churhc in England, as established by Augustine Canterbury
King of Wessex who fought the invading Vikings Alfred the Great
English term for invading Vikings Danes
Epic Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf
Local districts of England shires
Officials who governed local districts in England sheriffs
Body of water between Britain and Ireland Irish Sea
Important kingdom in northern England Northumbria
Important kingdom in central England Mercia
Important kingdom in southern England Wessex
Pope who decided to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity Gregory I
Anglo-Saxon king who allowed the missionaries to teach about Christianity Ethelbert, king of Kent
Northeastern region of England ruled by the Vikings Danelaw

The Vikings
Europeans' term for Vikings Norsemen (Northmen)
Far northern Europe Scandinavia
A characterisitc of Vikings that terrified Europeans brutal and pitiless in fighting
What the Vikings used much of their abundant timber for shipbuilding
Occupation of seafaring Vikings in addition to raiding trade
Primary occupation of Viking men warrior
An advantage of Viking raids for Europeans opening of trade routes, learning shipping skills
The three kingdoms of the Vikings Norway
Vikings had none of these for their children schools
King of the gods Odin (Wotan)
God of thunder and lightning Thor
Body of water crossed by Viking raiders heading toward Russia Batlic Sea
Norwegian adventurer who founded a colony on Greenland Eric the Red
The two North Atlantic islands colonized by Norwegian Vikings Greenland and Iceland
Eric the Red's son, who saield to North America Leif Eriksson
Vikings' name for the sport on the coast of North America where they landed Vinland
Body of water the Vikings crossed to get to Greenland and North America Atlantic Ocean
Viking letters of the alphabet runes
Heroic or mythic poems of the Vikings Eddas
Heroic stories of the Vikings sagas
Danish ruler who became king of England Canute
Area of France where Danes settled in large numbers Normady

Online Flash Cards
10 - The Rise and Spread of Islam
Question Answer
Peoples and Places of the Arab Empire
Peninsula on which the early Arabs lived Arabia
Climate of the early Arabs' homeland desert
Birthplace of Muhammad Mecca
Christians' term for the Muslim people who conquered Spain the Moors
Major occupation of Arabian nomads herding
Nomads of Arabia the Bedouins
City to which Muhammad fled and established his leadership Medina
City captured by Muhammad that became the center of Islam Mecca
Body of water on the west coast of Arabia the Red Sea
Continent whose northern border was conquered by the Arabs Africa
Western European country that became part of the Arab Empire Spain
Empire to the east of Arabia taken over by the Arabs the Persian Empire
Empire to the north of the Arab Empire extending from Asia Minor into Europe the Byzantine Empire
Near Eastern countries to the north of Arabia taken over by the Arab Empire Palestine and Syria
African country to the west of Arabia that became part of the Arab Empire Egypt
River on which Baghdad was built the Tigris
Wealthy businesswoman who married Muhammad Khadijah
Original name of the city of Medina Yathrib
New capital of the Umayyad caliphs, in Syria Damascus
New capital built by the Abbasid caliphs Baghdad
Spanish cities that were centers of learning under the Arabs Cordoba and Toledo

Governing the Arab Empire

Founder of the Arab Empire Muhammad
How the Arabs treated people they conquered generously/tolerantly
Official language of the Arab Empire Arabic
Term for a successor of Muhammad a caliph
The first 100 years in power of the Abbasids, 750-850 the Golden Age of Islam
Muhammad's early profession a camel driver (or caravan trader)
Method of choosing the first caliphs by election
How the title of caliph was passed on after the early caliphs by heredity
Source of income for the Arab Empire taxes
Battle in which the Arabs were turned back from their invasion of Europe the Battle of Tours
Muhammad's daughter, who established her own dynasty in North Africa and western Arabia Fatima
Muhammad's loyal friend, follower, and first successor Abu Bakr
Muhammad's son-in-law, the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs Ali
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 the Hijrah (Hegira)
Dynasty that ruled as hereditary caliphs for 90 years the Umayyad
Group of Muslims who favored caliphs chosen only from Muhammad's own family the Shi'ites
Group of Muslims who favored electing any eligible, pious Muslim as caliph the Sunnis
Group that defeated the Umayyads to rule the empire the Abbasids
Term for the three parts of the later empire a caliphate
Muslim body of law, incorporating religious, criminal, and civil matters the Shari'a

Islamic Culture
Type of mathematics invented by Muslim scholars algebra
Type of numbers introduced to Europeans by Arab mathematicians Arabic numerals
Health-care field in which Arabs excelled medicine
Things that could not be pictured by Islamic artists living creatures
Artistic use of flowing Arabic script calligraphy
Muslim scientists who tried to turn tin and lead into silver and gold alchemists
Muslim scientists who gave many stars their names astronomers
Muslim scientists who determined the earth might be round geographers
Popular collection of Persian tales The Thousand and One Nights (The Arabian Nights)
European country that became a point of contact for Europeans and Muslim culture Spain
Events that brought Europeans into contact with Muslim culture the Crusades
Slender towers built next to mosques minarets
Navigation instrument perfected by Muslim scientists the astrolabe
Arab encyclopedia of medicine used in European medical schools for 500 years the Canon on Medicine
Famed Persian scholar, astronomer, and poet, author of the Rubaiyat Omar Khayyam
Great physician and author of collection of medical knowledge al-Razi, or Avicenna
Weapons from Damascus that became world famous steel swords
Revered Muslim shrine in Jerusalem built in the 600s using Byzantine domes and arches the Dome of the Rock
Library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad, a center for scholars the House of Wisdom

Religious Beliefs
The one God of Islam Allah
Muslim book of scriptures, the sacred word of God as revealed to Muhammad the Qur'an
Muslim house of worship a masjid (or mosque)
Muhammad's status a prophet (the last and greatest)
Food forbidden to Muslims pork
Beverage forbidden to Muslims liquor (alcoholic beverages)
Number of times per day Muslims must pray five
Position in which Muslims must pray facing Mecca
Muslims must do this for the needy. give alms (charity)
What Muslims must do during the daylight hours of the holy month fast
Men learned in Islamic faith and law mullahs
Muhammad believed Allah was the same god that these two religious groups worshipped. the Jews and Christians
Pilgrimage to Mecca a hajj
Heavenly creature whose voice spoke to Muhammad the angel Gabriel
Holy shrine of Mecca that contains a sacred cubelike black structure the Ka'aba
What the word Islam means "submission to God"
Islamic creed that Muslims must recite "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet."
Muslim prayer leader an imam
Muslim holy month Ramadan
Meaning of the word Muslim "one who submits"
Event that marks the first year of the Muslim calendar the Hijrah (Hegira)

Online Flash Cards
11 - The Byzantine and Eastern Empires
Question Answer
Byzantine Territory and People
Emperor who moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome Constantine
Capital city of the Byzantine Empire Constantinople
Ancient city, site of Constantinople, that gave the empire its name Byzantium
City Constantinople was patterned after Rome
Empire that the Byzantine Empire was originally part of the Roman Empire
Greatest of the Byzantine emperors Justinian
Sea south of Russia whose entrance Constantinople controlled the Black Sea
Western sea whose entrance Constantinople commanded the Aegean (or Mediterranean)
Justinian's wife, a steely advisor Theodora
Magnificent Byzantine church whose name means "Holy Wisdom" Hagia Sophia
European country won back by Justinian's army Italy
Coastline recaptured by Justinian's army North Africa
People from the West who attacked the empire Christians
People from the East who attacked the empire Muslims (Arabs, Turks)
Major non-European portion of the empire Asia Minor
Strategic strait on which Constantinople was located the Bosporus
People who captured Constantinople in 1453 the Ottoman Turks
Present-day name of Constantinople Istanbul
Commander of the Byzantine army under Justinian Belisarius
Leading missionary of the Byzantine Empire St. Cyril
Emperor who banned the use of icons Leo III
People defeated by Justinian's army to secure the empire's eastern borders the Persians

Byzantine Culture
Major unifying force of the empire Christianity
Important arteries that passed through Constantinople trading routes
Pictures made of many bits of colored stone or glass mosaics
Small religious pictures kept in homes and in churches icons
Central figure of Constantinople's magnificent church a dome
Approximate number of years the Byzantine Empire existed 1,000
The Church in the East, after the split of 1054 the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox Church
Source of the emperor's power, according to the emperor God
Class of people whose rights were expanded at Theodora's urging women
Constantinople's public arena that often filled with rowdy fans the Hippodrome
Common spoken language Greek
Head of the church in Constantinople the patriarch
The Church in the West, after the split of 1054 the Roman Catholic Church
Head of the Eastern Orthodox Church the emperor
People who spread Christianity to neighboring lands missionaries
Religious official with whom the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church clashed the pope
Uniform body of civil law, based on Roman law and legal opinions the Justinian Code
The two major defenses of Constantinople the sea and the city's huge walls
Learning and culture preserved and passed on by the Byzantine Empire Greek and Roman learning and culture
An inflammable liquid that was the secret weapon of the Byzantine navy Greek fire

Important People of the Eastern Empires

People who settled much of Eastern Europe the Slavs
Northern warriors and traders who settled in Russia, also called Varangians the Vikings (or Rus)
Central Asian people who took control of Russia the Mongols
Greatest leader of the Mongols, grandfather of the destroyer of Kiev Genghis Khan
Term for the Russian ruler, adopted by Ivan III the tsar (czar)
People who were formerly free peasants the serfs
Viking who became the Prince of Novgorod Rurik
Prince of Kiev who chose Eastern Orthodox Christianity as Russia's official religion Vladimir I
Missionary who gave the Russians their alphabet St. Cyril
Scholarly ruler who organized the first Russian code of law Yaroslav the Wise
Term for a Mongol leader khan
Class of Russian people who became socially isolated during Mongol rule women
Prince of Moscow who ended Mongol control of Russia in 1478 Ivan the Great (Ivan III)
Successor of Ivan III who added much territory to Russia but became mentally unstable Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV)
Nomadic, freedom-loving settlers who expanded Russia to the west the cossacks
Band of Vikings who gave their name to Russia the Rus
Early ruler of the Kievan state Oleg
Local princes and nobles who helped to rule Russia the boyars
First Russian ruler to convert to Christianity Princess Olga
Term for the group of Mongols who overran Russia the Golden Horde
Prince of Moscow who defeated the Mongols in 1378 Dmitry

Landmarks of the Eastern Empires

Northern body of water crossed by the Vikings to reach Russia the Baltic Sea
Body of water that was Russia's gateway to the Mediterranean the Black Sea
Vast grassy plains of eastern Europe the steppes
The European and Asian landmass Eurasia
Original home of the Mongols the central Asian plains
Main physical characteristic of the northern region of early Russia dense forest
River at the eastern edge of early Russia the Volga
River that flowed past Kiev and into the Black Sea the Dnieper
Landbound sea of Russia the Caspian Sea
Northern Russian town; home of Rurik Novgorod
Southernmost town on the trading route through Russia Kiev
Mountains that separated Europe and Asia the Urals
Trading post that grew during the Mongol occupation Moscow
Mountains that separated Eastern Europe and Russia the Carpathians
Mountains that bordered Russia on the south the Caucasus
Source of much early Russian culture Byzantium
Eastern European country to the west of Russia; bordered the Baltic Sea Poland
Eastern European country to the west of Russia; south of Poland Hungary
Center of the Russian branch of the Eastern Orthodox Church Moscow
Central Russian river that flowed into the Sea of Azov the Don

Online Flash Cards
12 - Empires of India and China
Question Answer
Indian People, Politics, and Places
Rulers of northern Indian states rajahs
Hero and/or heroine of the Ramayana Rama and/or Sita
Major river of northeastern India the Ganges River
Major river of northwestern India the Indus River
"Great" Persian ruler who briefly controlled northeastern India around 500 B.C.E. Alexander the Great
Dynasty that ruled the first great Indian empire the Maurya dynasty
Rulers who controlled India during a "golden age" from C.E. 320 to about 550 the Gupta
Feature of both Maurya and Gupta rule that ensured peace and prosperity a strong central government
Plateau region of southern India conquered by Maurya forces the Deccan
Most honored Maurya ruler, who converted to Buddhism and promoted peace Asoka
People whose kingdoms were located in the southernmost part of India the Tamil
River of central India the Narbada
First ruler of the Gupta Empire Chandragupta
Founder, in 321 B.C.E., of the first great Indian empire Chandragupta Maurya
Asoka's advisor, who wrote a hard-headed book on how to rule Kautilya
Site of renowned Buddhist monastery-university Nalanda
Maurya and Gupta capital city Pataliputra
Dynasty that ruled central India in and between the Maurya and Gupta empires the Andrha dynasty
Greek ambassador who wrote detailed descriptions of Chandra Gupta's capital Megasthenes
Fierce invaders who threatened northern India late in the Gupta era the Hunas
Indian playwright of the Gupta era Kalidasa

Indian Religion and Culture

Major religion of India that developed slowly over a long period of time Hinduism
The rebirth of the soul in another being reincarnation
Social class system closely woven into Hinduism the caste system
Cause of human suffering, renounced by Buddha desire
Members of lowes class in the Indian social system the Untouchables (pariahs, outcasts)
According to Hinduism, the actions of a person's life that affect her or him in the next life karma
Birth name of the founder of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama
State of complete happiness and peace in Buddhism nirvana
The three gods of the Hindu trinity Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
Meaning of the title Buddha "The Enlightened One"
People largely responsible for spreading Buddhism missionaries and/or traders
Characteristic of the earth proved by Indian astronomers roundness
The three essential advances in mathematics invented in India modern (Arabic) numerals, the decimal system, zero
Way to protect people against communicable disease, perfected by early Indian physicians inoculation
Central focus of Indian life the family (or the village)
Sacred mounds said to contain remains of the Buddha stupas
Group that opposed Buddhism in India the Brahmins
The road to enlightenment, according to Buddha the Eightfold Path
Basic essence that permeates everything in the world, according to Hinduism brahman
The two major schools that Buddhism split into Mahayana and Theravada

Chinese Government and Politics

Massive structure built to guard against invasion the Great Wall of China
System of choosing governmental officials the civil service system (or civil service exams)
"Useless" items burned by the thousands by the first emperor books
Northern Chinese River the Huang He (Yellow River)
Central Chinese river the Yangtze
Dynasty that replaced the Zhou dynasty and gave China its name the Qin dynasty
Dynasty founded by the general Liu Bang in 202 B.C.E. that lasted for over 400 years the Han dynasty
People killed by the hundreds by the first emperor Confucian scholars
Original social status of the first Han emperor a peasant
People who were forced to leave their homes and live in the empire's capital city noble families
Area to the northeast colonized by Han China Manchuria, Korea
Area to the south colonized by Han China Vietnam
Cause of peasant revolts high taxes, harsh laws, and/or forced labor
People hired as government officials during the Han era Confucian scholars
Policy toward conquered people promoted by the Han government assimilation
Emperor Liu Bang's honorable title Gaozu
Han "Warrior Emperor" who greatly expanded the empire Wudi
Female ruler of the Han dynasty the Empress Lu
"First Emperor;" he unified China Shi Huangdi
People who threatened China from the north the Xiongnu (nomads)

Chinese Thought and Culture

Invention in C.E. 105 that made books more widely available paper
China's most valuable trade item silk
Basis of the Chinese economy farming
The Chinese philosopher K'ung Fu-tse "Confucius"
One-wheeled cart invented during the Han period, still used worldwide the wheelbarrow
Needle-based medical treatment developed by Han era physicians acupuncture
Steering mechanism for ships invented by Han sailors the rudder
Caravan trading route from China across central Asia to the Mediterranean area the Silk Road
The foundation of Chinese society the family
Institution that Confucius hoped to reform government
Founder of the philosophy of Daoism Laozi
Religion introduced to China during the Han dynasty Buddhism
How the ruler should govern, according to Confucius virtuously (by good example)
A son or daughter's most important duty, according to Confucius filial piety (respect for parents)
Goal of Daoists to live in harmony with nature
Written collection of the sayings of Confucius the Analects
Belief that a ruler should enforce strict laws with harsh punishments legalism
Book that set out the philosophy of Daoism The Way of Virtue
Indescribable force that governs the universe, according to Laozi dao
China's "Grand Historian" Sima Qian

Online Flash Cards
13 - Kingdoms, Empires, and States of Africa
Question Answer
Geography of Africa
Vast desert that separates northern and southern Africa the Sahara
Dry grasslands of Africa savannas
Term for Africa south of the Sahara sub-Saharan
Sea that borders northern Africa the Mediterranean
Body of water that borders western Africa the Atlantic Ocean
Densely wooded region that receives enormous amounts of rain a rain forest
Inhospitable environment that makes up about 40 percent of the African continent desert
Location of earliest, and great, civilization of Africa the Nile River Valley
Region of Africa between the Sahara and the tropical rain forest the Sudan
Desert of southern Africa the Kalahari
Major river of western Africa the Niger
Major river of central Africa the Congo
Mali trading city, center of Muslim learning Timbuktu
Ocean that borders eastern Africa the Indian Ocean
Enormous lake named by Europeans for a British monarch Lake Victoria
Eastern boundary of the Sahara Desert the Red Sea
Long, deep gash in the earth in eastern Africa where the first humans appeared the Great Rift Valley
Major river of southern Africa the Zambezi
Lake on the eastern edge of western Africa Lake Chad
Large, elongated lake in eastern Africa Lake Tanganyika
Savanna region that borders the southern edge of the Sahara Desert the Sahel

Culture and Trade

Precious metal mined in western Africa's forested regions gold
Commodity that Arab merchants brought to the African kingdoms from the Sahara salt
Religion brought to Africa by Arab traders Islam
Family members venerated by most traditional African societies ancestors
Trade item derived from elephants that was much in demand ivory
Pack animals that made cross-Sahara caravans possible camels
Widespread activity that created a rich mix of cultures in Africa trade
The language of trade and business in western Africa Arabic
Bantu language with many Arabic words Swahili
Rock buildings carved in Ethiopia in the early 1200s churches
Widespread African religious belief centered around spirits in daily life animism
Basis of the Nubian written language an alphabet
Religion of the ancient kingdom of Aksum and of modern-day Ethiopia Christianity
Group of families that claimed a common ancestor a lineage
Beautiful multi-colored fabric worn by Ashanti kings and chiefs kente cloth
Common African currency that came from the sea cowrie shells
Art form that was a specialty of Benin artists bronze and/or brass sculpture
West African storytellers who passed on a society's oral history griots
Ancient culture of northern Nigeria that smelted iron and produced a distinctive sculpture Nok
Term for the continuing spread of the Sahara desertification
Unique language of Aksum Geez

Original inhabitants of North Africa, fiercely independent desert dwellers the Berbers
West African farmers and herders - spread widely S and E between 500 B.C.E. and C.E. 1500 the Bantu
Great Mali ruler who gave away vast amounts of gold on his hajj to Mecca Mansa Musa
Muslim rulers of East African city-states sultans
Mali's first great ruler, who ousted the ruler who had killed all his brothers Sundiata
N. African traveler/historian - wrote in detail about his journeys through Islamic Africa (1300s) Ibn Battuta
People who developed city-states with clay-walled capital cities the Hausa
People who called their ruler ghana, or war chief the Soninke
City-state dwellers whose chiefs all traced their descent from the first ruler of Ife the Yoruba
First great ruler of Songhai, who established the empire Sunni Ali
Second great ruler of Songhai, a Muslim who ruled during the 1500s Askia Muhammad
Spanish Muslim architect who introduced Arabic styles to Mali as-Sahili
Powerful king of Aksum who conquered Kush and converted to Christianity Ezana
King of Kush who founded Egypt's twenty-fifth dynasty Piankhi
People who lived a stateless society from the ninth through the nineteenth centuries the Igbo, Efe, San, Tiv, and Nuer
Queen of the Hausa city-state of Zazzau (Zaria) renowned for her military conquests Amina
Ethiopian king who had Christian churches carved downward into mountains King Lalibela
Muslim scholar known in the West as Leo Africanus Hassan ibn Muhammad
Two groups of N. African Berber Muslim reformers - established dynasties in the 11th/12th cent.
the Almoravids and the Almohads

Places and Politics

Region south of Egypt along the upper Nile River Nubia
Ancient kingdom of Nubia, which conquered Egypt Kush
Mali trading city, center of Muslim learning Timbuktu
This kingdom's Red Sea port city was Adulis. Aksum
Present-day state where the ancient kingdom of Nubia was located Sudan
Nation ruled by Nubians at times Egypt
North African country that conquered the Songhai Empire Morocco
Earliest kingdom of the western Sudan, it flourished from the 700s to the mid-1000s. Ghana
Kingdom that controlled much of western African from the 1200s until about 1500 Mali
Capital of Morocco under Berber Muslim dynasties Marrakesh
Kingdom that flourished around 1500 in present-day Zaire Kongo
Impressive 60-acre stone city in southern Africa abandoned by 1450 Great Zimbabwe
Ancient city in West Africa near the Niger River, at least as old as 250 B.C.E. Djenne-Djeno
West African empire that flourished in the 1400s and 1500s, overthrown by Moroccans in 1591 Songhai
Rain-forest kingdom of the Guinea coast - flourishing when the Portuguese arrived in 1483 Benin
Beautiful, wealthiest, and most powerful city-state of East Africa from the 1200s to the 1400s Kilwa
Saharan village where houses were made from salt blocks Taghaza
Prosperous capital city of the kingdom of Songhai Gao
Capital of wealthy kingdom of Ghana in the mid-1000s Kumbi Saleh
Second capital of Kush, an iron-making center Meroe

Online Flash Cards
14 - The Americas
Question Answer
Geography of the Americas
South American river with a huge rain-forested basin the Amazon River
The first inhabitants of the Americas migrated from this continent. Asia
Era when people first migrated to the Americas over a temporary land bridge the Ice Age
Ocean that forms the western border of North and South America the Pacific Ocean
Great river of North America, one of the world's three longest the Mississippi
Geographic area that lies between North America and South America Central America
Present-day nation where the Mayan and Aztec states were centered Mexico
Mexican peninsula, home to the Mayan civilization the Yucatan Peninsula
Great mountain range of western North America the Rocky Mountains
South American mountains that were home to the Incas the Andes Mountains
Human migrants came to the Americas when a land bridge replaced part of this body of water the Bering Strait
Narrow land bridge that connects Central and South America the Isthmus of Panama
The two present-day nations where the Inca state existed Peru or Chile
The southern tip of South America Tierra del Fuego
Mountain basin 7,000 feet above sea level, in central Mexico the Mexican Valley
Name for the temporary land bridge that formed between Siberia and Alaska Beringia
Site in Chile with evidence of human life in 10,500 B.C.E. Monte Verde
Great mountain range of Mexico the Sierra Madre

Early Mesoamerica
Most important food crop of Mesoamerica maize (corn)
Chianampas, used by early farmers to grow crops in shallow lakes floating gardens
Unique and colossal Olmec monuments sculpted heads
Time-tracking device developed by several early Mesoamerican cultures the calendar
Body of water whose shoreline formed a boundary of Olmec lands the Gulf of Mexico
People who developed Mesoamerica's first known civilization the Olmec
Writing system developed by the Zapotec people hieroglyphics
Typical terrain of Peru's coastal plain harsh desert
Teotihuacan's giant structure, larger than Egypt's Great Pyramid the Pyramid of the Sun
Warlike people of central Mexico who ruled an empire based on conquest (900 - early 1200s) the Toltec
Culture that flourished on Peru's north coast from about 100 to 700 the Moche
City-state - first major civilization of central Mexico, centered around a monumental city Teotihuacan
First civilization of the Andes Mountains the Chavin culture
People of Peru who created huge drawings that can only be seen from the air the Mazca
Civilization that flourished in southern Mexico's Oaxaca Valley (c. 500 B.C.E. to C.E. 600) the Zapotec
The Feathered Serpent, a snake-bird god common to various Mesoamerican cultures Quetzalcoatl
Site of important Olmec remains San Lorenzo or La Venta
The first large urban center in the Americas, developed by the Zapotec Monte Alban
Toltec capital city Tula

North American Cultures

Cone-shaped tents of the Plains Indians tepees
Besides hunting, a major pastime of the Plains Indians fighting
Animal that was the basis of Plains Indians' existence the buffalo
American Indians of the southwestern U.S., whose name was based on their adobe homes the Pueblos
Basis of the Pueblo economy farming
Basis of the Plains Indian economy hunting
Late migrants from Siberia who settled in the Arctic the Inuit
Basis of northwestern American Indian economy fishing
Great wooden carvings that symbolized tribal history for northwestern American Indians totem poles
Purpose of the mounds constructed by certain American Indians burial places
Type of Anasazi canyon housing found at southwestern sites such as Mesa Verde cliff dwellings
Organization formed by five eastern American Indian tribes the Iroquois League
Elaborate feasting and gift-giving ceremony of northwestern tribes the potlatch
Large underground chamber used by southwestern peoples for religious ceremonies the kiva
Midwestern and southern American Indians who practiced a unique building style the Mound Builders
Great center of the Mississippian people in Illinois, featuring at least 60 mounds Cahokia
People of the southwest who built large stone and adobe villages later called pueblos the Anasazi
"Vanished" farmers of the desert southwest who lived in today's Arizona the Hohokams
The two legendary founders of the Iroquois alliance Hiawatha and Deganawidah

Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas

People of the Yucatan, southern Mexico, and northern Central America the Maya
Wandering warriors who settled in central Mexico the Aztecs
People who destroyed the Aztec and Inca empires the Spanish explorers
People of the Andes Mountains who created an empire the Incas
Important and deadly aspect of the Aztec religion human sacrifice (on a massive scale)
Basis of the Mayan economy agriculture
What conquered peoples were required to do for the Aztecs pay tribute
Basis of Incan religion sun worship
Type of communication unknown to the Incas a written language
Cause of the Incan empire's decline civil war
Now-ruined Incan city, isolated atop a high mountain Machu Pichu
Capital city of the Incas Cuzco
Renowned Mayan city, huge buildings, on the Yucatan Peninsula (many tourists today) Chichen Itza
Aztec capital city in Lake Texcoco Tenochtitlan
Advanced feature of Mayan mathematics the concept of zero
Type of temples built by Mayans stepped pyramids
Largest Mayan city, located in present-day Guatemala Tikal
Transportation network of 14,000 miles built by the Incas the road system
Deity from whom the Inca ruler descended Inti, the sun god
Chief Aztec deity, the sun god Huitzilopochtli
Incan ruler who created the empire in the 1400s Pachacuti
Knotted, colored strings used by Incans to keep records quipu
Structures that recorded important events in Mayan history carved stone pillars

Online Flash Cards
15 - East Asia: Empires and Kingdoms
Question Answer
China: People, Places, and Politics
Region of China often invaded by nomadic outsiders northern China
Dynasty of 618 to 907 that greatly expanded the empire the Tang Dynasty
Waterway that linked the Huang He and Yangtze rivers the Grand Canal
Dynasty that lost control of northern China the Song Dynasty
Mongol emperor who ruled all of China Kublai Khan
Dynasty that replaced the Mongols the Ming dynasty
Italian merchant who served at Kublai Khan's court for many years Marco Polo
Brief dynasty that reunited northern and southern China the Sui dynasty
First great Tang emperor Tang Tiazong (Li Shimin)
The three neighboring lands that became tributary states to China Vietnam, Tibet, and Korea
Tang-era ruler who was China's only female emperor Wu Zhao
China's Mongol dynasty the Yuan dynasty
Muslim admiral who led an enormous Chinese fleet on seven extensive voyages Zheng He
People who won control of western Chinese lands by winning the Battle of Talus in 751 the Arabs
First emperor of the Sui dynasty Sui Wendi
Tang capital city Chang'an
New Song capital city in the south Hangzhou
Scholarly general who founded the Song dynasty Song Taizi (or Zhao Kuangyin)
Peasant leader who founded the Ming dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang (or Hongwu)
Empire established by Manchurian people in northern China in the early 1100s the Jin Empire

China: Culture and Society

New strains of this staple produced two crops per year instead of just one. rice
A mix of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal first used for fireworks in Tang China gunpowder
New type of currency issued by the Song government paper money
China's largest social class peasants
Test for becoming a Tang or Song government official a civil service examination'
New product from Southeast Asia that Chinese soon drank, produced, and exported tea
Common causes of peasant revolts high taxes and/or forced labor
China's wealthy, powerful upper class gentry
Body of knowledge that formed the basis of the Chinese civil service examination Confucian learning
Class of people considered inferior by Confucian standards merchants
Painful procedure that resulted in the highly desirable "lily foot" footbinding
Artistic writing skill mastered by the scholar-gentry class calligraphy
Shiny, hard, white pottery prized as the world's finest ceramic porcelain
Floating magnetized needle first used by Chinese sailors the magnetic compass
Palace complex of 9,000 rooms built by a Ming emperor the Forbidden City
Improved time-telling device invented during the Tang era the mechanical clock
Individual characters arranged in frames that allowed for multiple prints moveable type
Graceful temple form with multiple stories and upcurved eaves the pagoda
New food crop(s) introduced to China from the Americas corn and/or sweet potatoes
Type of literature produced by Li Bo and Du Fu poetry

Korea and Southeast Asia

Religion(s) brought to Southeast Asia from India Hinduism and Buddhism
Southeast Asian country controlled by China for 1,000 years Vietnam
Korea's northern neighbor China (or Manchuria)
Main characteristic of Korea's terrain mountainous
Country from which Korea borrowed many ideas and customs China
Religion that missionaries brought to Korea from China Buddhism
Strait that connects the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea the Strait of Malacca or the Sunda Strait
Empire that was Southeast Asia's main power from 800 to the 1200s the Khmer Empire
Huge city-and-temple complex built by the Khmer in the 1100s Angkor Wat
Capital city of Vietnam's Ly Dynasty Hanoi
River that forms part of Korea's northern border the Yalu River
Harsh people who occupied and ruled Korea from 1231 until the 1350s the Mongols
Body of water that forms Korea's eastern boundary the Sea of Japan
Body of water that forms Korea's western boundary the Yellow Sea
Island location of the Sailendra kingdom Java
Island where the capital city of the Srivijaya Empire was located Sumatra
First Korean dynasty; it united the Korean peninsula the Shilla (or Silla) dynasty
Dynasty from which the modern name Korea developed the Koryu (or Koryo) dynasty
Unique Korean pottery famous for its milky green glaze celadon
Third Korean dynasty; it ruled from 1392 to 1910 the Choson (or Yi) dynasty
Capital city of Korea's Koryo dynasty Kaesong

Japanese Civilization
Main characteristic of Japan's terrain mountainous
Supreme military commander the shogun
Religion brought to Japan from China around 550 Buddhism
Warriors pledged to serve their local lord the samurai
Country from which early Japan borrowed many ideas and customs China
Long novel by Lady Murasaki Shikibu that told the story of Prince Genji The Tale of Genji
Warrior lords who pledged to support their shogun daimyo
Largest island of Japan Honshu
Large northern island of Japan Hokkaido
Large southern island of Japan Kyushu or Shikoku
Ancient religion of Japan Shinto
People whose naval invasion the Japanese defeated in 1274 and 1281 the Mongols
Second Japanese imperial capital Heiankyo (or Kyoto)
Social and political system in Japan from about 800 to 1600 feudalism
Ritual suicide practiced by samurai hari-kari (or seppuku)
Asian country invaded by Japan in 1592 Korea
Term for an island chain like Japan archipelago
Type of writing introduced into Japan from Korea around 405 Chinese
Military dynasty founded by Minamoto that ruled during the 1200s the Kamakura Shogunate
Line of shoguns who ruled from 1603 to 1868 the Tokugawa Shogunate
Violent era of disorder, from the mid-1400s to the mid-1500s the "Warring States Period"
First Japanese imperial capital Nara
Samurai code of honor bushido

Online Flash Cards
16 - Europe: Feudalism, the Church, and the Crusades
Question Answer
Feudal Life
Medieval farming estate, including a village a manor
Noble's home and fortress made of stone a castle
Body of water that protected some castles a moat
Heavy door of a castle that could be raised or lowered a drawbridge
Code of conduct developed for medieval knights the code of chivalry
Popular board game played by nobles and ladies chess
Below-ground area where prisoners were kept in a castle a dungeon
Political condition that favored the development of feudalism no strong central government (or weak kings)
Major obligation of a vassal to a lord military aid and service
Payment owed by a vassal if the lord was captured in battle ransom
Mock battles, the great sport of feudal knights tournaments
A fight between two armored knights on horseback a joust
Floor covering for a medieval manor house or castle straw
Castle room where everyone lived and ate the great hall
Grant of land a fief
Body of vassals that decided legal cases the lord's court
Wooden building built to provide protection to everyone on the lord's manor the manor house
High wooden fence that surrounded a noble's house a palisade
Tall, strong tower of a castle the keep
Payment given by a bride's family to the husband-to-be a dowry
Condition of a field left unplanted every third year fallow

Feudal People
Person who granted land in exchange for military services a lord
Class of peple who were lords and vassals nobles
People who farmed the land and provided services for nobles peasants
Peasants who were bound to the land serfs
Noble warrior on horseback a knight
Weak rulers who granted land from royal estates to powerful lords kings
Class of medieval religious leaders the clergy
Lesser lord who held land in return for a pledge of services and loyalty a vassal
Legal possession and use of land passed to this person when a lord or vassal died. the oldest son
Peasants who rented land from the lord freemen
First stage of learning to be a knight, beginning at the age of seven a page
A knight's assistant a squire
The last strong king in Europe before feudalism developed Charlemagne
Poet-musicians at feudal castles who sang about romantic love troubadours
Wandering musical entertainers minstrels
Group of nonfarming freemen necessary to village economy skilled workers (or artisans)
Manor official who made sure the peasants worked hard in the fields a bailiff
Head of a medieval university a chancellor
Manor people that the lord's lady was obligated to care for the poor and the sick
Person who kept one third of the manor's land for himself the lord

The Medieval Church

Organization that provided the only stable central authority in medieval Europe the Church
Local Church official a parish priest
Official language of the Church Latin
Spiritual head of the Church in western Europe the pope
Religious communities of nuns nunneries (or convents)
Religious communities of monks monasteries
Skills possessed by Church officials and very few other members of medieval society reading and writing
Large church headed by a bishop a cathedral
Ultimate punishment for heresy burning at the stake
Banishment from the Church excommunication
Head of a monastery an abbot
Religious order dedicated to reform, whose members preached among the people the Franciscans or the Dominicans
Responsibility taken over by the Church that benefitted the less fortunate social welfare
The laws of the Church canon law
The search for heresy by the Spanish Church the Inquisition
False doctrines or denial of the truth of dogma heresy
Contributions of 10 percent of one's income to the Church a tithe
First pope to become a powerful earthly ruler Gregory I (the Great)
Set of standards to regulate lives of monks, developed around 530 the Benedictine Rule
Pope who attempted to rid the Church of control by kings and feudal lords Gregory VII
Agreement of 1122 giving both the pope and the king a part in selecting bishops the Concordat of Worms
The buying and selling of Church positions simony

The Crusades
Land conquered by the Arabs that the crusaders sought to recapture Palestine (the Holy Land)
Religion of the Arabs Islam
Muslim people who took over the Holy Land from the Arabs the Seljuk Turks
Empire that appealed to the pope for protection from the Turks the Byzantine Empire
Holy city recaptured by the crusaders in 1099 Jerusalem
Tragic crusade of 1212 the Children's Crusade
Pope who called on the feudal lords to wage a holy war (a crusade) to regain the Holy Land Urban II
War cry of the crusaders "God wills it!"
Emblem of the crusaders, sewn onto their tunics a red cross
The things a crusader would be forgiven for or declared free from debts, taxes, sins, and criminal punishment
Crusade led by nobles that was successful the First Crusade
What the crusaders did when they recaptured the holy city massacred the inhabitants
The three kings who conducted the Third Crusade Richard/Lion-Hearted (Eng), F. Barbarossa (Ger), Ph. Augu
Muslim leader who recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 Salah al-Din (Saladin)
Main political effect of the crusades an increase in the power of kings
Site of Church council where the pope pleaded for a crusade Clermont
Crusade led by Louis VII of France and the Holy Emperor Conrad III; begun in 1147 the Second Crusade
Term for the Third Crusade, 1189-1192 the Crusade of Three Kings
Pope who called for a Fourth Crusade in 1198 Innocent III
City looted by crusaders in 1204 Constantinople

Online Flash Cards
17 - The High and Late Middle Ages in Europe
Question Answer
Towns and Trade
European country where trade first began to revive Italy
Demand developed in Europe for luxury goods from this region the East
The first large trading centers of the Middle Ages developed at these locations seaports
Sea that connected western Europe with the Near East the Mediterranean
New class of people who provided financial services bankers
Associations of merchants and artisans guilds
Epidemic that swept through Europe in the 1300s the Black Death (bubonic plague)
Important Italian trading port on the Adriatic Venice
Important trading center on the Black Sea Constantinople
Type of trading route that connected northern Italy with northern Europe an overland route
Events that stimulated demand for Eastern goods the Crusades
People who determined the value of coins from different regions moneychangers
New settlements that grew up at locations important for trade towns
System that town dwellers did not fit into the feudal system
Person in trading for a trade an apprentice
Skilled worker who worked for a master for daily wages a journeyman
New class made up of merchants, master craftsmen, and skilled workers the middle class
Living conditions in medieval towns crowded and/or unsanitary
Area on the northwest coast of Europe that became the earliest Atlantic trading center Flanders
Product of Flanders in great demand throughout Europe woolen cloth

Medieval Culture in the Towns

Language of scholars and clergy Latin
Popular poet who wrote one of the first books in English Geoffrey Chaucer
Chaucer's series of stories written in English The Canterbury Tales
Guilds of teachers and students universities
Legendary king, subject of a popular English national epic King Arthur
Languages of the common people the vernacular (English, Italian, French, German, Spanish)
Popular medieval dramas miracle (or mystery) plays
Famed poet who wrote in Italian Dante Aligheri
Dante's greatest work, a poem in Italian The Divine Comedy
Attempt to change base metals to gold; forerunner of the science of chemistry alchemy
Style of church architecture using round arches, domes, thick walls, and small windows Romanesque
Style of church architecture w/ pointed arches, high spires, and large stained-glass windows Gothic
Rows of supporting ribs outside the walls of Gothic churches flying buttresses
Site of great universities that specialized in theology and the liberal arts Paris and Oxford
Attempt of medieval scholars to reconcile faith and reason scholasticism
Medieval scholar who taught in Paris and stressed reason Peter Abelard
Dominican scholar-monk who stressed both faith and reason Thomas Aquinas
French national epic about a brave member of Charlemagne's army The Song of Roland
Hero who starred in the German epic the Nibelungenlied Siegfried
Site of great university that specialized in law Bologna
Site of great university that specialized in medicine Salerno

France and Germany Emerge from Feudalism

Political subdivisions of France provinces
Assembly of French nobles, clergy, and townspeople that advised the king the Estates-General
Long war between England and France that began in 1337 the Hundred Years' War
New weapon used by English archers against the French the longbow
New weapon that made castles obsolete for defense the cannon
French heroine of the Hundred Years' War Joan of Arc
French king chosen by an assembly of nobles in 987 Hugh Capet
Line of French kings established by Hugh Capet the Capetians
King who took back much French land from the English Philip Augustus (Philip II)
French king who formed the Estates-General and collected taxes regularly Philip IV, "the Fair"
French king known for honesty, just dealings, and support of the Church Louis IX, "Saint Louis"
Large new state that consisted of Germany and northern Italy the Holy Roman Empire
Powerful German ruler who became king in 936 and seized territory in northern Italy Otto I, "the Great"
King of Germany who disobeyed the pope and continued to appoint bishops Henry IV
German emperor defeated by the Italian city-states in 1176 Frederick I, "Barbarossa"
German emperor who was mostly interested in Italy Frederick II
Important battles in which the English defeated the French during their century-long war Crecy, Agincourt, or Poitiers
French king who owed his crown to Joan of Arc Charles VII
Meaning of "Barbarossa" "red beard"
League of Italian city-states formed to fight the Germans the Lombard League

England Emerges from Feudalism

Duke of Normandy who became king of England William the Conqueror
Battle in which the French forces defeated the English in 1066 the Battle of Hastings
Term for the people who took over England in 1066 the Normans
Language brought to England by the conquerors of 1066 French
Nickname for the crusading King Richard I Richard the Lion-Hearted
Population survey ordered by William the Conqueror a census
Clergyman who opposed King Henry II's plan to subject Church officals to royal
a Becket (the Archbishop of Canterbury)
Traveling judges who brought the king's law to all parts of England circuit (or royal) judges
King who caused a revolt among the nobles John
Document that lessened the king's power and strengthened nobles' rights the Magna Carta
Representative body that included members of the middle class as well as nobles and clergy Parliament
Upper house of Parliament, for nobles and bishops the House of Lords
Lower house of Parliament, for knights and townspeople the House of Commons
Groups that presented judges with names of people suspected of crimes grand juries
English king defeated by William the Conqueror Harold
Book that recorded results of the population survey the Domesday Book
French wife of Henry II Eleanor of Aquitaine
King who wanted Church officials to be tried in royal, not Church, courts Henry II
Body of important clergy and nobles that advised the king the Great Council
Law based on judges' decisions rather than statutes common law

Online Flash Cards
18 - Southwestern and Central Asia
Question Answer
The Mongol Empire
Dry grassland of Central Asia the steppe
Way of life of the Mongols of the grasslands nomadic herding
Term for a Mongol clan leader khan
The Great Khan Genghis Khan
Far eastern country conquered by the Great Khan China
Important psychological weapon employed by Genghis Khan terror
New weapons and technology Genghis Khan adopted from his enemies catapults and gunpowder
Important Russian city destroyed by the Mongols Kiev
Grandson of Genghis Khan, who ruled China Kublai Khan
Colorful term for the Mongol armies the Golden Horde
Modern name of the Mongol capital city in China Beijing
Country to the east of China that Kublai Khan's naval fleet attacked twice Japan
Genghis Khan's policy toward people once he had conquered their lands tolerance
Things other than trade goods that moved along the Eurasian trade routes bubonic plague, ideas, and/or inventions
What "Genghis Khan" translates into in English "universal ruler"
Genghis Khan's birth name Temujin
Period of stability and law and order across Eurasia under Mongol rule the Mongol Peace
Country in the southwestern area of the empire ruled by the Ilkhanate Persia
Name of the Mongol dynasty in China the Yuan Dynasty
Country in the northwestern area of the empire ruled by the Khanate of the Golden Horde Russia
Region where Kublai Khan's armies and navies suffered many defeats Southeast Asia

The Mughal Empire

English meaning of the Persian word Mughal Mongol
Area of India that often split into warring local kingdoms the northern plain
People who were second-class citizens under some Muslim rulers Hindus
Stunning tombs built for Mumtaz Mahal the Taj Mahal
Religion of the Mughals Islam
Cause of popular revolts against the Mughal rulers in the 1600s heavy taxes
Language of India's common people, a mixture of Persian and a local language Hindi
People whose invasion of India in 711 went no farther than the Indus Valley Arabs
Widespread destruction of monasteries caused a drastic decline in this religion in India. Buddhism
Chief builder of the Mughal empire, the founder's grandson, called "the Great" Akbar
Ruler who was deeply interested in the arts and built a magnificent tomb for his wife Shah Jahan
What most Mughal rulers did to secure their throne kill their rivals
Akbar's policy toward non-Muslims tolerance
Warrior leader from Central Asia whose army destroyed Delhi in 1398 Timur the Lame (or Tamerlane)
Capital of the sultanate that ruled much of northern India from 1206 to 1526 Delhi
New "soldiers' language," a blend of Persian, Arabic, and Hindi Urdu
Members of a religious group that organized into anti-Mughal military forces the Sikhs
Real ruler of India during her husband Jahangir's reign Nur Jahan
Turkish sultan whose armies invaded India about 1000 Mahmud
The last strong Mughal ruler, who had to fight many rebellions Aurangzeb
Founder of the Mughal Empire in 1526 Babur

The Seljuk and Safavid Empires

Land where the Safavid Empire was located Persia
Powerful empire to the east of the Safavid Empire the Mughal Empire
Powerful empire to the west of the Safavid Empire the Ottoman Empire
Native language of the Safavids and Seljuks Turkish
Western attacks against the Seljuks in Palestine the Crusades
Branch of Islam to which the Safavids belonged Shi'ite
Branch of Islam to which the Seljuks converted Sunni
Ancient Persian title for king adopted by Safavid and Seljuk rulers shah
Most outstanding Safavid ruler Abbas the Great
Persian trade item much in demand in the West carpets
Persian city the Seljuks took in 1055 Baghdad
Body of water that formed the southern boundary of the Safavid Empire the Persian Gulf (or Indian Ocean)
Empire that the Seljuks defeated in the Battle of Manzikeet in 1071 the Ottoman Empire
Famous Persian poet patronized by the Seljuk sultan Omar Khayyam
Invaders who crushed the remnants of the Seljuk Empire Mongols
Kurdish leader of the Seljuk military who recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 Salah al-Din (Saladin)
Most famous Seljuk sultan Malik Shah
Title of the Seljuk ruler's prime minister vizier
Persian city that was the capital of both the Seljuk and Safavid Empires Isfahan
Teenage ruler who established the Safavid Empire Isma'il
Muslim empire that the Seljuks migrated into around 970 the Abbasid Empire

The Ottoman Empire

New weapon the Ottomans used to capture walled cities the cannon
Basis of the Ottoman soldiers' military success gunpowder
Native language of the Ottomans Turkish
Land where the Ottomans originated Central Asia
Area that the Ottomans migrated into that became the core of the empire Asia Minor
Original way of life of the Ottomans nomadic
Religion of the Ottomans Islam
Ottoman ruler and military leader who captured Constantinople in 1453 Muhammad II
New Ottoman name for the city of Constantinople Istanbul
West European city besieged by Ottomans in 1529 and 1683 Vienna
Ottoman sultan called "the Lawgiver" and "the Magnificent" Suleiman
Elite troops of slaves who were former Christians the janissaries
Term for an Ottoman ruler, meaning "overlord" or "one with power" "sultan"
European area captured by the Ottomans the Balkans (or Hungary)
Architectural masterpiece of Suleiman's reign the Mosque of Suleiman
Magnificent Christian church in Constantinople that became a magnificent mosque the Hagia Sophia
Ruler who gave his name to the Ottomans Osman
Royal architect under Suleiman Sinan
Brutal Ottoman ruler who took Mecca, Medina, and Cairo Selim the Grim
Non-Muslim religious communities millets
Council that advised the Ottoman rulers the divan
Nations who destroyed the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 Spain and Italy

Online Flash Cards
19 - The Renaissance and the Reformation
Question Answer
Renaissance Origins in Italy
Main philosophy of the Renaissance, focused on people humanism
Focus of Renaissance interest the individual
Renaissance artist, architect, and mathematician; he painted the Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) Leonardo da Vinci
Painter and sculptor noted for his large works, such as the statue of David & the Sistine Chapel Michelangelo
Country where the Renaissance began Italy
Early knowledge studied by Renaissance scholars classical (Greek and Roman) writings
Italian painter noted for his madonnas Raphael
The three most important city-states of the Italian Renaissance Florence, Venice, and the Papal States (Rome)
Notable characteristic of Renaissance art realism
New way of showing objects in art as they appeared at different distances perspective
Author of The Prince, a book advising rulers on how to keep power, by any means necessary Macchiavelli
Ruling family of Florence the Medicis
Ruler of Florence called "the Magnificent" Lorenzo de Medici
Venetian artist noted for his rich colors Titian
Florentine poet and story writer, author of The Decameron Boccaccio
"Father of humanism," Italian poet and classical scholar Petrarch
Italian who wrote a handbook on correct behavior titled The Courtier Castiglione
Sculptor who carved natural postures and revealing individual expressions Donatello
Artist who created the sculpted bronze door panels of Florence's baptistery Ghiberti

The Northern Renaissance

New machine that allowed books to be produced quickly and more cheaply the printing press
Wealthy Flemish people who were patrons of the arts merchants
Author of masterpieces of English poetic drama genre William Shakespeare
Fictional young lovers of Verona, subjects of Shakespeare tragedy Romeo and Juliet
Form of literature and entertainment especially favored by the English people the play (or the drama)
The English Renaissance reached its height during her reign. Elizabeth I
New type of painting pioneered and perfected by Flemish painters oil painting
Region where the Renaissance began in northern Europe Flanders
German who first printed books from moveable type Johann Gutenberg
Noted Spanish Renaissance author of plays, short stories, and novels, including Don Quixote Cervantes
German artist known for his engravings and woodcuts Albrecht Durer
Book by English humanist Thomas More that described an ideal society Utopia
German portrait painter of the 1500s known for his photographic-like realism Hans Holbein
Great Flemish painter of the 1500s whose favorite subjects were the countryside and peasants Pieter Brueghel
Flemish oil painters who were brothers the van Eycks (Jan and Hubert)
French writer whose comic adventure Gargantua and Pantagruel satirized outdated customs Rabelais
Dutch scholar - translated the New Testament into Greek, wrote the satire In Praise of Folly Erasmus
Spanish city that was a center for Renaissance artists and poets Toledo
Flemish painter known for his large, lush style Peter Paul Rubens

The Protestant Reformation

German monk who started the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther
Church practice that Martin Luther especially objected to the sale of indulgences
Name for people who protested the decision to condemn Luther Protestants
The only true guide to religious truth, according to Luther the Bible
Luther's list of statements about his position the Ninety-Five Theses
Religious faith chosen by most northern German rulers Lutheranism
Religious faith chosen by most southern German rulers Catholicism
French-born leader of the Protestant Movement in Switzerland John Calvin
Swiss city that was a center of Protestantism Geneva
Calvinist leader of Scotland John Knox
Calvinist church in Scotland the Presbyterian Church
French Calvinists the Huguenots
Economic reasons for rulers to oppose the Church and support Luther
the chances to take Church lands & stop paying $ to Rome
Calvin's belief about human fate; the opposite of free will predestination
Government ruled by clergy acting in God's name, as in Geneva a theocracy
The way to gain salvation, according to Luther through faith alone
Bohemian priest burned as a heretic in 1415 John Hus
English priest who declared the Bible was the authority, not the Church John Wycliffe
Dominican monk who energetically sold indulgences in Germany Johann Tetzel
Meeting that condemned Luther the Diet of Worms

English and Catholic Reformations

Leader of the Church reformation in England Henry VIII
Why Henry VII wanted to end his marriage to his first wife to have a son to succeed the throne
First wife of Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon
Language of the Church reaffirmed by the Council Latin
Second wife of Henry VIII and mother of the future queen Anne Boleyn
Protestant queen who ended the pope's authority in the English Church Elizabeth I
Religious faith of Queen Mary (Mary Tudor) Roman Catholic
National church established by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I the Church of England (Anglican Church)
The movement of reform within the Catholic Church the Counter or Catholic Reformation
Spanish noble who devoted himself to Church reform Ignatius of Loyola
Body that examined pople who disagreed with Church officials the Inquisition
New religious order founded by Loyola, or its members the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Primary aim of the Jesuits to check the spread of Protestantism
What Henry wanted the pope to do about Henry's marriage to his first wife to annul it
Meeting of Church leaders that ended some of the Church abuses the Council of Trent
How to achieve salvation, according to the Council of Trent through good works and faith
The two true guides to religious truth, according to the Church the Bible and Christian tradition
Who or what is qualified to interpret the Bible, according to the Church only the church
List of books the Church forbade Catholics to read the Index of Prohibited Books

Online Flash Cards
20 - The Age of Exploration
Question Answer
Early Exploration and the Portuguese
Navigation instrument with a magnetized needle the (magnetic) compass
Western country that controlled Europe's trade with the Far East Italy
Exotic foodstuffs that inspired European voyages to the East spices
Continent whose west coast the Portuguese explored in the 1400s Africa
Disease caused by lack of vitamin C, common among early European sailors scurvy
Term for mapmakers cartographer
Brother of the king of Portugal who promoted exploration Henry the Navigator
Type of school started by Prince Henry a navigation school
Religious reason for European exploration to spread Christianity
Europeans' name for the Moluccas, islands rich in cloves and nutmeg the Spice Islands
Feature of the caravel that made it sail more effectively triangular sails
Merchants who brought Asian goods to Mediterranean ports Muslim traders
Feature of European ships that allowed them to capture coastal trading posts cannons
Navigation instrument, perfected by the Arabs, used to measure the angle of stars and planets an astrolabe
Portuguese explorer who accidentally landed in Brazil Pedro Alvares Cabral
Countries that divided all the new Atlantic lands between themselves Spain and Portugal
Navigational tool used to determine latitude; it replaced the astrolabe the sextant
Imaginary line drawn by the pope that divided the new Atlantic lands the papal line of demarcation
Port from which many Portuguese explorers sailed Lisbon

Encounters in Asia and Africa

Portuguese name for the southern tip of Africa the Cape of Good Hope (or Cape of Storms)
Explorer who opened India to Portuguese trade Vasco da Gama
Portuguese navigator who led a fleet on an around-the-world voyage for Spain Ferdinand Magellan
Principal export from Africa via European traders slaves
Portuguese explorer who first sailed around Africa's southern tip Bartholomeu Dias
First Europeans to trade with Japan the Portuguese
Country that established trading forts along the west coast of Africa in the 1400s the Netherlands
Asian island group claimed by Spain and named for the Spanish king the Philippines
The Portuguese expelled Arab traders from this section of the African coast. East Africa
Term for the voyage of enslaved Africans to the Americas the Middle Passage
Early European traders' term for the islands of present-day Indonesia the East Indies
Far Eastern nation where the Dutch were allowed to trade once or twice a year Japan
Europeans who established a colony at Cape Town on Africa's southern tip the Dutch
Portuguese trading post in China, near Canton Macao
Island off the coast of India that was the base of Portuguese trade Goa
Port town that the Portuguese seized, giving them control of the strait with the same name Malacca
Great spice port of India where da Gama landed and traded Calicut
Far Eastern island that was the trading headquarters of the Dutch Java
Commercial group that set up trading posts in India the English East India Company
Company that controlled Dutch trade in the Far East the Dutch East India Company

Spain in the Americas

Italian explorer who sailed west from Europe to find the Spice Islands Christopher Columbus
Name given to the New World natives by Columbus (he thought he had reached the E Indies) Indians
Term for Spanish conquerors in the New World conquistadors
Metal sought by the Spanish conquerors gold
Name given by Magellan to Balboa's ocean the Pacific
Sea that Columbus explored in the New World the Caribbean
Present-day central American area taken by Cortes Mexico
Spanish explorer who invaded and conquered central America Hernando Cortes
Central American empire conquered by Cortes the Aztec Empire
Spanish tactical advantages previously unknown to the Native Americans horses and guns
Spanish explorer who conquered the Indian empire of South America Francisco Pizarro
South American Indians conquered by Pizarro the Incas
Spanish explorer who led an expedition through much of today's U.S. southwest Francisco Coronado
First European to sight the Pacific Ocean Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who found the Mississippi River Hernando de Soto
Spaniard who explored Florida Ponce de Leon
Places that imported most African slaves sent to the Americas the Caribbean Islands and Brazil
Leader of the South American Indian empire Atahualpa
Today's name for the islands Columbus arrived at the West Indies
Leader of the central American Indian empire Montezuma

The Struggle for North America

Main interest of the French in North America the fur trade
Explorer for the Netherlands who gave his name to a bay, a river, and a strait Henry Hudson
Most destructive "weapon" that Europeans brought to the Americas disease
A Spanish explorer was the first European to find this great North American river. the Mississippi
Pathway through North America to the Far East that explorers tried to find the Northwest Passage
First permanent English settlement in North America Jamestown (Virginia)
Second permanent English settlement in North America Plymouth (Massachusetts)
Italian explorer who established English claims in North America John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)
Italian who explored the Atlantic coast for France Giovanni de Verrazano
English explorer who founded a colony at Roanoke Sir Walter Raleigh
Bitter rival European nations who jockeyed for power in North America Britain and France
People who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony the Puritans
Great northern river explored by the French and the English the St. Lawrence River
First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain Quebec
Capital of Dutch settlement in North America New Amsterdam
Western region of North America claimed by France Louisiana
French explorer of North America who found a gulf and a great river Jacques Cartier
Explorer who claimed the entire Mississippi River valley for France Robert de la Salle
Two Frenchmen who explored the Mississippi Valley in 1673 Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
War led by Native American leader Metacomet in Massachusetts King Philip's War

Online Flash Cards
21 - The Rise of Monarchies
Question Answer
Muslim conquerors driven out of Spain by the Reconquista the Moors
Monarchs who united Spanish kingdoms Ferdinand and Isabella
Two groups of Spaniards ordered to convert to Catholicism Jews and Moors (Muslims)
Source of Spain's precious-metal wealth the American colonies
Huge Spanish invasion fleet destroyed by a fleet in 1588 the Armada
Church court that punished people suspected of heresy the Inquisition
Hapsburg ruler of Spain, a native of Flanders, who was also the Holy Roman Emperor
Charles I (Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire)
Native Spanish Hapsburg ruler, hardworking and devout Philip II
How Philip strengthened Spanish government a strong centralized government
Northern European country Philip tried to invade and conquer England
Type of rule established by Ferdinand and Isabella an absolute monarchy
Result of expelling non-Catholics from Spain the destruction of the middle class
Religion promoted by Ferdinand and Isabella Catholicism
Term for Philip's branch of the ruling family the Spanish Hapsburgs
Capital established by Philip Madrid
Kingdom seized by Spain in 1580 Portugal
Protestant northern European area that successfully fought for independence from Spain the Netherlands
Economic problem caused by the flood of gold and silver into Spain inflation
Empire that lost a fierce naval battle to Spain at Lepanto in 1571 the Ottoman Empire
Greek artist in Spain who painted figures with very long bodies El Greco
Brilliant court painter to Philip IV Diego Velasquez

Result of French religious conflicts a civil war
Lavish palaces built by the French king outside Paris Versailles
European language of diplomacy and nobility French
Alliances against France aimed to preserve this in Europe. the balance of power
French Protestants the Huguenots
King who ended the fighting between Protestants and Catholics Henry IV (Henry of Navarre)
Representative body that did not meet from 1614 to 1789 the Estates-General
Family that began to rule France in 1589 the Bourbons
Chief minister, churchman, actual ruler of France from 1624 to 1642 Cardinal Richelieu
Social class weakened by Richelieu and Louis XIV the nobles
"Sun King" who reportedly claimed, "I am the state." Louis XIV
Major drains on the French treasury under Louis XIV years of wars and/or costs of the court
War fought to determine the king of Spain, from which France lost territory the War of the Spanish Succession
Result of Louis XIV's recovotation of the Huguenots' religious freedom loss of skilled workers and businesspeople
Decree that granted French Protestants freedom of worship the Edict of Nantes
Queen who allowed Catholics to attack Protestants Catherine de Medici
King who let his chief minister run France Louis XIII
Louis's chief minister, a believer in mercantilism Colbert
Long war from which France gained much power the Thirty Years' War
Terrible anti-Huguenot event of 1572 the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Austria, Prussia, and Russia

Ruling family of Austria the Hapsburgs
Prussia was noted for this well-organized body. its army
"Empire" whose title was entirely meaningless the Holy Roman Empire
Russian family that came to power in 1613 and ruled for three centuries the Romanovs
Tsar Peter the Great's goal for a changed Russian society westernization
War of 1618-1648 in Germany, fought for religious and then political reasons the Thirty Years' War
War of 1756-1763 that involved almost all of Europe the Seven Years' War
First important Russian ruler Peter the Great (Peter I)
Tsar Peter the Great ordered his nobles to remove these. beards
Russian port built as Russia's "window to Europe," named for Peter the Great St. Petersburg
German princess who ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 Catherine the Great
Country partitioned out of existence by Russia, Prussia, and Austria Poland
"The Great Fritz," Frederick II of Prussia Frederick the Great
Country devastated by the Thirty Years' War Germany
Most powerful and important state within the Holy Roman Empire Austria
Religion of Austria Catholic
Religion of Prussia Protestant
All Hohenzollern possessions in northern Germany Prussia
Skillful Austrian ruler who gained her title through her husband Maria Theresa
Enduring Russian foreign policy goal set by Peter the Great to acquire warm-water seaports

Popular ruling family the Tudors
Unpopular ruling family the Stuarts
Leader of the Puritans, who ruled as Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell
Fate of King Charles I to be beheaded
What the Restoration restored, politically the monarchy
Popular form of entertainment that the Restoration restored the theater
Document that established many basic rights of the English people the Bill (Declaration) of Rights
The last Tudor monarch Elizabeth I
The first Stuart monarch James I
Type of ruler Cromwell was, essentially a military dictator
English Protestants who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church the Puritans
The second Stuart monarch, who dissolved Parliament in 1629 Charles I
James I firmly believed in this theory of a monarch's power the divine right of kings
Civil war began in 1642 when Charles I led troops against this body. the House of Commons
Country that the first Stuart monarch also ruled Scotland
Successor to the Cromwells Charles II
Reason why the English monarch had to consult Parliament to raise taxes
Term for the bloodless overthrow of King James II the Glorious Revolution
New joint rulers of England in 1688 William and Mary
Type of monarchy Great Britain became in the 1700s a limited constitutional monarchy

Online Flash Cards
22 - Commerce, Science, and Enlightenment
Question Answer
The Commercial Revolution
European region that became the new focus of trade the Atlantic coast
Steady rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available inflation
Standard that allowed the use of money all throughout Europe fixed value
Social group that the bankers and capitalists belonged to the middle class
Money paid in return for a loan interest
Italian ports that declined in importance as global trade spread Venice and Genoa
Northern European ports that increased in importance as global trade grew London and Amsterdam
Term for the economic developments of this first age of global trade the Commercial Revolution
Person who owned an interest in a company a stockholder (or shareholder)
Profit paid out for each share of stock dividends
Wealth earned, saved, and invested to produce profits capital
Taxes on imports tariffs
Term for the new global exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas etc. the Columbian Exchange
Territories important to mercantilism colonies
Trade goods that colonies were to export to their parent country precious metals and/or raw materials
Trade goods colonies were to import from the parent country manufactured goods
Banking service that developed as a safeguard for merchants banks of deposit (or bills of exchange)
Nationality that replaced the Italians as the bankers of Europe the Dutch
Economic policy based on the concept that a country's power depends mainly on its wealth mercantilism
Company in which people pooled large amounts of money to carry out a business venture a joint stock company

The Scientific Revolution

Outstanding scientist, and artist, of the Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci
Instrument invented by Galileo to confirm his ideas the telescope
Newton's theory explaining the force that holds the universe together the law of gravity (or universal gravitation)
Systematic way of investigating a problem in science the scientific method
U.S. scientist famed for his electrical experiment involving lightning and a kite Benjamin Franklin
Polish astronomer of the 1500s who revived the sun-centered model of the universe Nicholas Copernicus
Italian astronomer who showed that the sun-centered theory was correct Galileo Galilei
Internal body system first described accurately by British physician William Harvey circulation of the blood
New life-forms discovered by van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch scientist bacteria (microscopic life)
Airlike substances discovered by Joseph Black gases
Basic element of air discovered by both Lavoisier and Priestly oxygen
Dutch eyeglass-maker's new instrument that revealed the existence of "invisible" things the microscope
Fahrenheit and Celsius both developed a scale for reading this new temperature-measurer. the mercury thermometer
Method developed by British physician Edward Jenner to prevent smallpox vaccination
Great English scientist who studied the laws of motion Isaac Newton
English "father of modern chemistry" Robert Boyle
System of identifying and naming living things developed by Linnaeus classification
Pioneer in the study of anatomy Vesalius
Theory that the sun was the center of the universe the heliocentric theory
French physician who developed improved treatment to prevent infection Ambroise Pare

Ideas of the Enlightenment

What thinkers sought to be enlightened about problems of the time
Another term for the Enlightenment the Age of Reason
Law that governed human nature, to Enlightenment thinkers natural law
International language of the Enlightenment French
Scotsman who studied the source of nations' wealth Adam Smith
Enlightenment thinkers favored these over human justice. the natural laws of justice
The belief that logical thinking would discover the truth rationalism
Major focus of medieval thought that the Enlightenment turned away from religion
The source of human corruption, according to Rousseau civilization
Monumental summary of French Enlightenment ideas, compiled by Diderot the Encyclopédie (The Encyclopedia)
Source of natural wealth, according to the Physiocrats the land
"Hands-off" economic system promoted by Adam Smith laissez-faire
Educational subjects favored by Enlightenment thinkers science, modern languages, and modern history
English poet who was a strong advocate of the Enlightenment Alexander Pope
Term for French thinkers of the Enlightenment the philosophes
Condition of the newborn mind, according to Locke a tabula rasa (blank slate)
Fashionable French gatherings for intellectual conversation salons
French thinker who stressed logic and reason to achieve scientific knowledge Rene Descartes
British thinker who stressed experiements and observation to achieve scientific knowledge Francis Bacon

Enlightened Politics
Agreement between the people and their chosen leader a social contract
Rights no one could justifiably take from the people natural rights
Locke's "natural rights" the rights of life, liberty, and property
Freedoms advocated by Voltaire free speech, press, and religion
Revolutions of the 1700s influenced by Enlightenment ideas the French and American Revolutions
Key U.S. documents heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideas the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence
French writer whose ideas inspired the French revolutionaries Jean-Jacques Rousseau
English political thinker who justified the overthrow of Britain's king John Locke
English philosopher who first proposed a "social contract" Thomas Hobbes
Primary concern of Enlightenment political thinkers how people should be governed
Condition in which people lived before organizing society anarchy, or a state of nature
The most nearly perfect existing government, according to Montesquieu the English government
Division among government branches admired by Montesquieu the separation of powers
Limitations created by division of governmental powers checks and balances
Development of this type of monarchy was influenced by Montesquieu. limited monarchy
Supreme power in politics, according to Rousseau the people's will (or the general will)
Free choice of the people in government popular sovereignty
Term for rulers who supported the Enlightenment enlightened despots
French document of 1789 strongly influenced by Enlightenment ideas the Declaration of the Rights of Man

Online Flash Cards
23 - Revolution in North America
Question Answer
Steps to Revolution
Elected legislative body in each colony an assembly
Passed in 1764, it placed a tax on sweet goods brought into the colonies. the Sugar Act
Mob action that dumped tea into Boston Harbor the Boston Tea Party
Slogan about taxes, a rallying cry for colonists "no taxation without representation"
English law-making body Parliament
Rights the colonists insisted they had rights of Englishmen
War that the British paid for by raising the colonists' taxes the French and Indian War
Peace agreement that greatly expanded British control of North America the Treaty of Paris
1765 law requiring a tax on all written documents the Stamp Act
Refusal by the colonists to buy British or taxed goods a boycott
Riot in which British soldiers shot some Boston colonists the Boston Massacre
Trading company given the sole right to bring tea into the colonies the British East India Company
Harsh laws passed to punish the Massachusetts Colony the Intolerable Acts
Philadelphia meeting of delegates from 12 colonies in 1774 the First Continental Congress
The three types of the 13 British colonies royal, proprietary, and self-governing colonies
Economic theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country mercantilism
Laws that restricted colonial trade to English merchants and ships (1651-1750) the Navigation Acts
Act restating Parliament's right to pass laws on all colonial matters the Declaratory Act
Series of laws taxing colonial trade, starting in 1767 the Townshend Acts
Laws that protected the rights of French Catholics and extended Canadian boundaries the Quebec Act

Revolutionary People
Commander of the colonial army George Washington
Main author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson
King of England during the American Revolution George III
Boston silversmith who made a famous "midnight ride" Paul Revere
Slang term for a British soldier redcoat (or lobsterback)
Colonial soldiers who could be ready to fight quickly Minutemen
German soldiers paid to fight for the English Hessians
People who opposed the split with England Tories (or Loyalists)
People who favored the split with England Patriots
First man to sign the Declaration of Independence John Hancock
Frenchman who was Washington's trusted aide the Marquis de Lafayette
Prussian officer who trained American troops Baron Von Steuben
Patriot author of Common Sense Thomas Paine
British general who surrendered his army to end the war Lord Cornwallis
American ambassador to France during the war Benjamin Franklin
Man who said, "Give me liberty or give me death." Patrick Henry
Important author of the Constitution and fourth U.S. president James Madison
Leader of the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts Samuel Adams
The two outstanding Polish officers who served in the American army Casimir Pulaski and Thaddeus Kosciusko
The three men who represented America at the peace conference Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams
Colonial lawyer and Patriot who defended British soldiers after the Boston killings John Adams

Revolutionary Places
Site of the Continental Congress Philadelphia
Winter headquarters of Washington's army in 1777-8 Valley Forge
Site of famed battle in Boston Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill)
New York fort that Benedict Arnold planned to turn over to the British West Point
Colony that took the lead in disobeying British laws Massachusetts
Ocean separating England and the colonies the Atlantic
Colonial harbor closed by the British Boston Harbor
Britain gained all territory east of this river from France. the Mississippi
Massachusetts towns where colonial troops first fired on British troops Lexington and Concord
The British planned to cut the colonies in two along this river. the Hudson
Site of a major American victory in New York in 1777 Saratoga
Site of final American victory in 1781 Yorktown
City where the peace treaty was negotiated Paris
Bodies of water on the new northern boundary of the United States the Great Lakes
Spanish territory that marked the new southern boundary of the United States Florida
English settlers in this territory gained rights after the war. Canada
The two self-governing colonies Connecticut and Rhode Island
The two Canadian cities the colonists tried to seize in 1775 Quebec and Montreal
City evacuated by the British in 1776 after a colonial siege Boston
City where the American army was almost trapped New York
City where the British army spent the winter of 1777-8 Philadelphia
State that did not take part in the Constitutional Convention Rhode Island

Elements and Results of the Revolution

Document that explained why the colonies had to separate from England the Declaration of Independence
The new nation formed by the colonies the United States of America
Document that created a new form of government in 1789 the Constitution of the United States
Type of government like ancient Rome's that the U.S. Constitution established a republic
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution the Bill of Rights
British strength lay in the size and power of these forces. its army and navy
U.S. system of gov't - powers divided between central government and individual states a federal system
Group that met in 1775 and voted to declare independence the Second Continental Congress
Condition of all men, according to the Declaration "created equal and/or with unalienable rights"
Power that the Continental Congress did not have but needed the power to tax
Major European power that became an American ally in 1778 France
Agreement establishing the first postwar government the Articles of Confederation
Fighting force of each state or colony the militia
Under the Articles, the United States had none of these courts. U.S. (federal) courts
Americans' preferred way of fighting guerrilla style ("Indian style")
The three negative characteristics of the American army untrained, poorly organized, inadequately equipped
Peace agreement that settled the war in 1783 the Peace of Paris
British act divided Canada into two provinces, one mostly British and one mostly French the Constitutional Act
European countries that had claims on the North American continent in 1783 Great Britain, France, Spain, and Russia

Online Flash Cards
24 - The French Revolution and Napoleon
Question Answer
Steps to Revolution
Name for the three classes of French society the estates
Clergy and nobles did not pay these taxes
Class of people most in favor of change the middle class
Wife of the French king, charming and irresponsible Marie Antoinette
Members of the First Estate the clergy
Members of the Second Estate the nobility
Members of the Third Estate everyone, except for the clergy and nobility
The people had none of these before the Revolution. individual rights (or personal liberties)
Foreign event that strongly influenced French thinking. the American Revolution
Foreign war that drained the French treasury in the 1770s the American Revolutionary War
Body called to meet for the first time in 175 years the Estates-General
French king before and during the Revolution Louis XVI
Lack of this caused the king to call on the assembly. credit (or money)
Number of votes each estate had in the Estates-General one
Site of the costly French court Versailles
The three subdivisions of the Third Estate the bourgeoisie, manual workers, serfs and peasants
The traditional political and social system of France before the Revolution the Old Regime
Intellectual movement that strongly influenced French thinking about reform the Enlightenment
How the Third Estate insisted the Estates must meet together, not separately
What the Third Estate declared themselves to be in 1789 the National Assembly
Pledge taken by the Third Estate to write a constitution the Tennis Court Oath

Revolutionary Events
Parisian fort taken by a mob on July 14, 1789 the Bastille
Slogan of the Revolution "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Source of government authority, according to the Declaration the people
The wave of killing from 1793 to 1794 the Reign of Terror
Instrument used for execution the guillotine
Fate of Louis XVI and his wife beheading
Government of five directors under the third constitution the Directory
Leader of extreme radicals, assassinated in his bath Jean-Paul Marat
The two leaders of the radical Jacobins Robespierre and Danton
Two countries that invaded France in 1792 Austria and Prussia
The three different groups in the Legislative Assembly the radicals, moderates, and conservatives
Type of government set up by the Constitution of 1791 a constitutional (limited) monarchy
The National Assembly took away this institution's land the Church
The royal family and National Assembly moved to this city Paris
Document that stated the Revolution's principles the Declaration of the Rights of Man
French flag of three colors adopted in 1789 the tricolor
The two reforms passed by the National Assembly in August
both serfdom and tax exemptions for nobles and clergy
City government of Paris set up by radicals the Commune
Elected group that governed France from 1792 to 1795 the National Convention
Radical court that tried enemies of the Revolution the Revolutionary Tribunal
Committee that directed the army the Committee of Public Safety

Napoleon's Rise and Empire

Type of ruler napoleon was from 1799 to 1814 a dictator
This body had no power under Napoleon the legislature
Napoleon concentrated authority to create this type of government. a strong central government
Napoleon's new title from 1804 on emperor
People Napoleon often placed on the thrones of conquered states. his relatives
Island where Napoleon was born Corsica
Napoleon fought British forces in this African country. Egypt
Alliances formed against France the Coalitions
New, uniform system of French civil laws the Napoleonic Code
The two revolutionary rights Napoleon took away from people freedom of speech, freedom of press
Paris landmark where Napoleon was crowned Notre Dame Cathedral
Method of getting soldiers for the Army conscription (the draft)
Two countries that made peace with Napoleon in 1801 and 1802 Austria and England
Vast territory that Napoleon sold in 1803 to raise money for his army Louisiana
British admiral killed in 1805 in a sea battle against France Admiral Horatio Nelson
Napoleon's title from 1799 to 1804 First Consul
Napoleon expressed contempt for the British by calling them this. "a nation of shopkeepers"
Term for Napoleon's blockade of the British Isle the Continental System
Empire abolished by Napoleon the Holy Roman Empire
Union of German states organized by Napoleon the Confederation of the Rhine
Austrian twon where Napoleon defeated Russian and Austrian forces in 1805 Austerlitz

Napoleon's Decline and Fall

Napoleon's conquests spread the ideas of this movement throughout Europe the French Revolution
Widespread activity that violated Napoleon's blockade smuggling
Huge eastern European country Napoleon invaded in 1812 Russia
Island off Italy that Napoleon was exiled to Elba
Napoleon's final defeat Waterloo
Napoleon's conquests promoted the growth of this feeling. nationalism
Drafting of these people weakened Napoleon's army. non-Frenchmen
Southern European countries that drove out the French in 1812-3 Portugal and Spain
Natural phenomenon that helped defeat Napoleon in Russia the severe Russian winter
Napoleon's most severe military disaster, 1812-3 the retreat from Msocow (Russia)
Island off Africa where Napoleon died St. Helena
British commander who defeated Napoleon in the final battle the Duke of Wellington
Napoleon inspired desire for national unity in these two areas. Germany and Italy
Important difference between Napoleon's army and earlier armies being an army of citizens, not professionals
The war on the Iberian Peninsula the Peninsular War (or Campaign)
Term for the Spaniards' style of fighting guerrilla warfare
Napoleon's defeat in 1813 "Battle of the Nations" at Leipzig
Ruling family restored to the French Throne in 1814 the Bourbons
Napoleon's successor as ruler of France Louis XVIII
Period of Napoleon's final rule in 1815 the Hundred Days

Online Flash Cards
25 - The Industrial Revolution
Question Answer
Agriculture and Manufacturing
Industry where the Industrial Revolution began the textile industry
Where workers made cloth before the Industrial Revolurtion in their own cottages (at home)
Factories were located next to these. rivers or streams
Where workers worked, after the Industrial Revolution began. factories
Cotton-cleaning machine that dramatically increased cotton production the cotton gin
Weaving machine invented in 1733 that doubled a weaver's daily output the flying shuttle
Spinning machine of 1764 named after the inventor's daughter the spinning jenny
Scottish engineer who improved the steam engine James Watt
This replaced water as the major source of power. steam
American inventor of the cotton-cleaning machine Eli Whitney
Manufacture of standard good in large quantities mass production
Parts that fit any example of a particular product interchangeable parts
Englishman who found how to make steel from iron Henry Bessemer
Material that replaced iron in machines steel
Material that replaced charcoal for smelting iron coal
American inventor of the mechanical reaper Cyrus McCormick
Fencing off of formerly common land in England the enclosure system
Inventor of the weaving machine John Key
Inventor of the spinning machine James Hargreaves
English engineer who developed the first practical steam engine Thomas Newcomen
English inventor of the water frame for spinning Richard Arkwright
Weaving machine invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 the power loom

Transportation and Communication

Tyoe of power that replaced wind on ships steam
American developer of the first successful steamboat Robert Fulton
Waterways built to connect cities and rivers canals
Flat-bottomed boat used on canals barges
The Industrial Revolution's chief means of land transportation railroads
Morse's system of dots and dashes Morse Code
American who developed the telegraph Samuel Morse
Improved roads developed by the Scot John McAdam macadam roads
Devices that control the level of water in canals locks
Fulton's famous steamboat the Clermont
Invention that sent electrical impulses over wire the telegraph
Heavily insultated communications wires laid underwater cables
Improved transportation was necessary to move these items raw materials and finished goods
Chief means of land transportation before the Industrial Revolution by horse or cart (over roads)
Steam engines on wheels that ran on rails locomotives
New form of personal transportation that first hit the roads in the late 1800s the automobile
Steamboat that crossed the Atlantic in 1838 the Great Western
English engineer who won a locomotive-building contest George Stephenson
Speedy locomotive that started an English railroad-building boom the Rocket
Italian who built the first electric battery Alessandro Volta
American responsible for laying the trans-Atlantic cable Cyrus Field
Englishman who produced electricity with a magnet Michael Faraday

Conditions and Effects

Class that increased and gained political power during the Industrial Revolution the middle class
Class created by the Industrial Revolution the industrial working class (proletariat)
Group of society that had to work along with adults children
Centers of population that grew rapidly during the Industrial Revolution cities
Working-class children had no time for either of these two activities. going to school and playing
Increase in the number of people population growth
Working conditions in factories noisy, dirty, dangerous, uncomfortable
Workers who were paid lower wages women and children
What the Proletariat had to sell in order to live their labor
Type of worker that decreased farm workers (self-employed workers)
New groups that ran the factories, neither owners nor laborers managers
Workers often had to do this to be near the factories. move their homes
Type of labor most in demand at factories unskilled labor
Great fear of urban factory workers unemployment
Condition of air and water in cities polluted
Social class that lost power as the Industrial Revolution continued the aristocracy (upper classes)
Cities grew around these. factories
Average length of the industrial working day 12-16 hours
Normal length of the Industrial working week 6 to 7 days
Buildings that housed many people tenements
People who owned the means of production capitalists

Type of labor limited by early reform laws child labor
Workers' associations allowed in England after 1824 trade unions
Refusals to work in order to gain demands strikes
Famous English novelist who described the terrible working conditions Charles Dickens
New, shorter workday for textile mills 10 hours
Negotiating by unions and management collective bargaining
Living standards improved when these became available to workers. chgeap factory (consumer) goods
Social class that supported factory workers against owners the aristocracy
System in which the public owed the means of production socialism
Socialists who designed model communities Utopian socialists
Welsh socialist who established a utopian community for his factory workers Robert Owen
Developer of "scientific socialism" Karl Marx
Marx's famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto
Groups that were in opposition under capitalism, according to Marx
the bourgeoisie (capitalists) vs. the Proletariat (workers)
Economic theory meaning "let do" favored by business owners laissez-faire
Englishman who wrote about increasing population Thomas Malthus
English businessman who wrote that working class poverty was unavoidable David Ricardo
English philosopher who wrote that a government should promote social welfare John Stuart Mill
Owen's utopian factory community in Scotland New Lanark
Marx's co-author Friedrich Engels
Marx's study of capitalism Das Kapital

Online Flash Cards
26 - Latin America and the Struggle for Freedom
Question Answer
Colonial Times
Region from Mexico to the southern tip of South America Latin America
South American country almost as large as the United States Brazil
Native peoples enslaved by the Europeans the Indians
Main products of Latin American mining gold and silver
Creoles were barred from these positions high government offices
The Latin American colonies had to buy these from Spain. finished (manufactured) products
The Latin American colonies supplied Spain with these. raw materials
Two major Indian groups conquered by the Spanish the Aztecs and the incas
Rolling, grassy plains of South America the pampas
In 1550, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world Mexico City
Ruler of each Spanish colonial division a viceroy
Highest class in Spanish Latin-American society people born in Spain (peninsulares)
Europeans of Spanish descent born in the colonies creoles
People of mixed white and Indian blood mestizos
Religious institution which was an important force in Latin American society the Roman Catholic Church
People of mixed African and European blood mulattos
Latin American colonies could not trade with this northern neighbor. North America
Flat, treeless plains of South America llanos
Viceroroyalty of North and Central America New Spain
The three viceroroyalties of South America New Granada, La Plata, Peru
Fees imposed by the Church tithes

Revolution in Mexico, Central America, and the Islands

Peoples of Mexico who revolted the Indians and mestizos
Type of government established in Mexico after the emperor a republic
The countries of this part of Latin America were briefly part of Mexico. Central America
Country Mexico won its independence from Spain
U.S. policy that protected independent Latin America from European interference the Monroe Doctrine
Island nation that gained independence in 1804 Haiti
Former slave who led the revolt in Haiti Toussaint L'Ouverture
European event that weakened the Spanish government France's (Napoleon's) invasion of Spain
Former Aztec city of Tenochtitlán, in Mexico Mexico City
Three of the five countries just south of Mexico Guatemala, el Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Spanish colony that shared Haiti's island Santo Domingo
Country Haiti won its independence from France
Dictator who lost a third of Mexico's land to the United States Santa Anna
First Indian to rule Mexico since the Aztecs Benito Juárez
Two reforms promised in Mexico by Hidalgo abolition of slavery and redistribution of land
Island that Haiti was part of Hispaniola
Union of countries to the south of Mexico the United Provinces of Central America
Catholic priest who led the first Mexican revolt in 1810 Father Miguel Hidalgo
riest who led a second Mexican revolt Father José María Morelos
Mexico's liberating general who became emperor Augustin de Iturbide
Former slave who was the second leader of the revolt in Haiti Jean Jacques Dessalines

Valuable wood that spurred colonial settlement brazilwood
Slaves were imported from this continent. Africa
Brazil won independence without this. bloodshed
Brazil's major river the Amazon
People who were sent to Brazil to work off their sentences criminals
Religion of Brazil Roman Catholicism
Brazil's "mother country" Portugal
Primary crop of Brazilian plantations in the 1600s sugar cane
The two most valuable products of Brazilian mining gold and diamonds
Family that fled Brazil in 1808 the Portuguese Royal Family
Language spoken in Brazil Portuguese
Brazil's center of government Rio de Janeiro
The two major exports of Brazil in the 1800s coffee and rubber
Pedro II encouraged this to help Brazil's economy. development (of agriculture and industry)
European emperor who invaded Brazil's "mother country" and drove out the royal family Napoleon
King who returned to Portugal in 1821 King John VI
Son of the Portuguese king; he became Brazil's ruler Pedro I
Type of government established for the independent Brazil a constitutional monarchy
Well-educated ruler who brought peace and good government to Brazil Pedro II
Ruler of Brazil appointed by the king the governor general
Brazil borrowed money from this country for building projects. England
Territorial strips in colonial Brazil captaincies

Revolution in Spanish South America

The "George Washington of South America" Simon Bolivar
Nation that most countries in South America won independence from Spain
Vast mountains that creole armies had to cross the Andes
Capital of Peru Lima
Republic named for Bolivar Bolivia
Bolivar's native country, which gained independence in 1821 Venezuela
Bolivar's birthplace; Venezuela's capital Caracas
Class that wanted to rid itself of Spanish control the creoles
Union of cities and towns in La Plata the United Provinces of La Plata
Argentine leader who helped free Chile Jose de San Martin
Chilean patriot who led a revolt Bernando O'Higgins
The "Protector of Peru' Jose de San Martin
"The Liberator" Simon Bolivar
Bolivar dreamed of this, but it didn't happen. a union of South American states
Native American who led a revolt in 1780 Tupac Amaru
Later name for the union in La Plata Argentina
States bordering Argentina on the east; part of La Plata Paraguay and Uruguay
Seat of government in La Plata Buenos Aires
Viceroroyalty on the west coast, freed in 1821 Peru
Country formed from the southern part of the viceroroyalty of Peru Chile
Nation of northern South America, ruled by Bolivar Gran (Great) Colombia
Three of the present-day countries that were part of Bolivar's nation Colombia, Venezuela, Ecaudor, Panama

Online Flash Cards
27 - Conflict and Democracy in the English-Speaking World
Question Answer
Great Britain Becomes a Democracy
Chief reform concern of the middle class and workers voting reform
Imprisonment for this was abolished in the 1830s debt
Queen of England from 1837 to 1901 Queen Victoria
Period of the English queen's reign the Victorian Era
Famine occurred in Ireland when this failed the potato crop
Members of the House of Commons finally earned this in 1911 a salary
Party that favored reforms in the 1820s the Whig Party
New name of the Whig party the Liberal Party
New name of the Tory party the Conservative Party
Repeal of the Corn Laws allowed this to be imported free of tax grain
Witty and shrewd Conservative party leader Benjamin Disraeli
Formal, cautious Liberal party leader William Gladstone
Reform demanded by the Irish home rule
New political party founded by Fabian socialists and union members the British Labour party
Type of legislation passed by both Liberals and Conservatives in the 1800s social welfare legislation
Election districts with little or no population rotten boroughs
Election districts controlled by nobles pocket boroughs
First law that made some voting reforms the Reform Bill of 1832
Group that proposed voting reforms in the 1830s and 1840s the Chartists
The Second Reform Bill gave the vote to these people. male city industrial workers
The Third Reform Bill gave the vote to these people. male agricultural workers
Act that ended the lords' power to veto tax and spending bills the Parliament Bill of 1911

Canada, New Zealand, and Australia

Longest unfortified boundary between nations in the world the United States-Canada boundary
What Britain used Australia for at first a penal colony
Australia is both of these, geographically speaking an island and a continent
The original inhabitants of Australia the Aborigines
The discovery of this brought a flood of immigrants to Australia gold
Two major groups of settlers in Canada the French and the British
This event resulted in the formation of the Yukon Territory. the Klondike Gold Rush
Huge area Canada bought from the Hudson's Bay Company the Northwest Territory
Status of Canada after union a dominion
Australian policy that restricted immigration the "White Australia" policy
The six Australian states New South Wales, Tasmania, Western Australia,
South Australia, Queensland, Victoria
Native inhabitants of New Zealand the Maori
First European country to discover Australia and New Zealand the Netherlands
Englishman who rediscovered Australia and New Zealand Captain James Cook
Problem addressed by dividing Canada into two provinces in 1791 ethnic tension
Opened in 1885, this linked eastern and western Canada. the Canadian Pacific (transcontinental) Railway
Report that said the two Canadas should become one the Durham Report
Law joining Upper and Lower Canada the Act of Union
The British North America Act created this in Canada in 1867. a federal union
Number of provinces in Canada by 1898 nine
New Zealand was the first country to adopt this, in 1893 woman suffrage

Growth of the United States

Two of the first three U.S. presidents Washington, Adams, Jefferson
Where Native Americans were forced to resettle reservations
Flood of migrants to the West Coast in search of quick riches the Gold Rush
Settlers crossed this mountain range to reach the West Coast the Rockies
Nations that bordered the United States to the north and south Canada and Mexico
Famous mission that was the site of a battle in the Mexican war the Alamo
Characteristic of U.S. government that provided stability power changing hands peacefully
By the mid-1800s, almost all of these people could vote. adult white males
Purchase of this area doubled the size of the United States. the Louisiana Territory
Southern state sold by Spain Florida
The United States wenr to war with this country in 1846. Mexico
Country that sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States France
The United States gained this West Coast state (plus others) after the Mexican War. California
The Louisiana Territory stretched from this river to these mountains. the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains
Southwestern territory that triggered the Mexican war Texas
Important city of Louisiana that came with the Purchase New Orleans
Two aspects of the United States that increased tremendously during the 1800s territory and population
American settlers in Mexican territory set up this independent republic the Republic of Texas
The United States gained this territory from Britain in 1846. the Oregon Country
Two of the three states formed from the Oregon territory Oregon, Washington, and Idaho
Purchase of land from Mexico in 1853 the Gadsden Purchase

Civil War and Reunion in the United States

Economic base of the northern United States industry
Economic base of the southern United States agriculture
Large southern farms plantations
The largest single issue dividing the U.S. sections slavery
Leader of the North during the war Abraham Lincoln
The major military leader of the South Robert E. Lee
Northern general who received the Confederate surrender Ulysses S. Grant
The president's declaration that freed many slaves the Emancipation Proclamation
The two major crops of the South cotton and tobacco
People who wanted slavery to end everywhere in the United States abolitionists
To withdraw from the Union, as the Southern states did to secede
Political party that pledged to stop the spread of slavery the Republican Party
Northern politican who went to the South after the Civil War carpetbaggers
The new southern nation the Confederate States of America
President of the new southern nation Jefferson Davis
The South's term for the Civil War the War Between the States
The South lacked these two things it needed to supply its armies. industry and railroads
Period when the seceded states were reestablished as part of the Union Reconstruction
First state to withdraw from the Union South Carolina
The major North-South clash about slavery focused on this. the spread of slavery to the new territories
European country that supported the South for its cotton Great Britain

Online Flash Cards
28 - Reaction and Revolution in Europe
Question Answer
The Congress of Vienna
Meeting that determined how to reorganize Europe after Napoleon's defeat the Congress of Vienna
Austrian representative who was chairman of the Congress Prince von Metternich
Chief French representative at the Congress Prince Talleyrand
Form of government preferred by the Congress (divine-right) monarchy
Britain gained these kinds of territories from the French, Danes, and Dutch overseas territories
Nation that lost much of its territory after the Congress France
The four powers that defeated France and Napoleon Austria, Russia, Prussia, Great Britain
Russia's representative at the Congress Tsar Alexander I
Nation that was divided between Russia and Prussia Poland
Neutral alpine nation allowed to keep a constitutional republican government Switzerland
Term for the political system set up by the Congress the Congress System
Control of northern states in this nation was given to Austria Italy
Ally of Napoleon that lost its possession of Norway Denmark
Nation that was given to Sweden Norway
Principle that favored restoration to their thrones of all the former ruling families legitimacy
Great Britain's representative at the Congress Lord Castlereagh
Prussia's representative at the Congress King Frederick William III
Restored Bourbon king of France Louis XVIII
Two nations that were combined into the single Kingdom of the Netherlands Belgium and Holland
Prussia gained most of this former kingdom. Saxony
Payment by the aggressor for damages inflicted on other nations indemnity

Alliances and the Age of Metternich

Major benefit to Europe established by the Congress of Vienna for almost forty years peace (or stability)
Statesman who dominated Europe for thirty years after the Congress of Vienna Prince von Metternich
Suppression of this was the allies' main concern revolution (or liberal ideas)
Equal strength among nations; aim of the Congress system balance of power
The condition of things as they are; aim of the Congress system the status quo
Spy system set up by Metternich to suppress revolutionaries the secret police
Form of rule reestablished in Spain (and northern Italy) absolute monarchy
Coalition of Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after Napoleon the Quadruple Alliance
One of the three rulers who refused to sign the Holy Alliance the King of England, Turkish sultan, the Pope
The European alliance after France joined it the Quintuple Alliance
Ruling family of France, Spain, and Italy the Bourbons
Ruling family of Austria and northern Italy the Hapsburgs
How Great Britain's government differed from its allies' governments being a representative government
Metternich's way of handling liberal ideas suppression (repression)
Desire to return to the conditions of an earlier time reaction
Agreement of European rulers to rule as Christian princes the Holy Alliance
Ruler who formed the Holy Alliance Tsar Alexander I of Russia
Term for the governing of Europe by international agreement during this period the Concert of Europe
Nation that withdrew from the Alliance in 1822 Great Britain
Metternich's official government position foreign minister of Austria

France: Empire, War, and Republic

Louis Napoleon's position after being president being emperor
Louis Napoleon's official name as emperor Napoleon III
Waterway in the Near East built by French engineers the Suez Canal
Napoleon installed an emperor in this American country Mexico
France's war against the German states the Franco-Prussian War
Two opposed groups of society that supported Louis Napoleon workers and the middle class
Two democratic features of the French empire a constitution, a legislative body, universal male suffrage
Two nondemocratic features of the French empire only emperor could make laws, legislature has no spending power,
no free speech, trials not required
France fought with England in this war against Russia. the Crimean War
Napoleon strengthened French rule over this North African country. Algeria
Napoleon established French control over this Indochinese country Cambodia
Emperor installed in America by Napoleon Maximilian
Leader who ended the French empire in America Benito Juárez
Revolutionary council of Paris set up in 1871 the Commune
The failure of this canal-building company in the 1890s caused a financial scandal the Panama (Canal) Company
Main reason for the instability of government in the French Republic large number of political parties
Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship to Louis Napoleon Louis's uncle
Government established by Louis Napoleon to succeed the republic the Second Empire
France protected these people in the Ottoman Empire Roman Catholics
Napoleon's fate in the war against Prussia to become a prisoner of war

Revolt and Revolution

Monarchs granted their people these rules of government because of the revolts. constitutions
English romantic poet who died in the Greek revolt in 1824 Lord Byron
Center of riots in the French revolution of 1848 Paris
A revolt in this country in 1820 challenged King Ferdinand's power Spain
A revolt broke out in this area of southern Italy in 1820 Naples
This neighbor of Spain experienced a revolt in 1820 Portugal
People who rebelled against their harsh rulers in 1821 the Greeks
Brutal rulers of the Balkan states and Greece the Ottoman Turks
Balkan people who gained some self-government in the 1820s Serbs and Romanians
Country that won independence from the Dutch (Holland) in 1831 Belgium
Country where liberal reforms occurred without revolution England
Social class that supported the French revolt of 1830 the middle class
Voting rights gained by the French in 1848 universal manhood suffrage
Two Central European nations that had unsuccessful revolutions in 1848 Austria, Germany, Hungary
First president of the new French republic Louis Napoleon
Powerful force for both unity and disunity in 1800s Europe nationalism
French king overthrown in July 1830 Charles X
King elected by the leaders of the French revolt in 1830 Louis Philippe
Government set up by the French revolution of 1848 the Second French Republic
People who revolted against Russian rule in Warsaw in 1830 the Poles
Elected German assembly that met in 1848 to write a constitution the Frankfurt Assembly

Online Flash Cards
29 - Unification and Nationalism
Question Answer
A United Germany
Prime minister of Prussia from 1862 to 1890 Otto van Bismarck
Basis of Prussian strength the army
Bismarck's official position prime minister, or chancellor
Title of the German emperor Kaiser
Dominant state in the new German union of 1867 Prussia
Major rival of Prussia for German leadership Austria
Capital of the German empire (and of Prussia) Berlin
France's war against Prussia in 1870 the Franco-Prussian War
Foundation of Germany's strong economy German industries
Reformers strongly opposed by Bismarck socialists
Event engineered by Bismarck to make the southern German states allies of the North the Franco-Prussian War
Northern country Prussia and Austria fought in 1864 Denmark
Bismarck's nickname, from his statement that he would unite Germany by "blood and iron" the Iron Chancellor
Union of German states after the Congress of Vienna the German Confederation
Prussia's brief 1866 war against Austria the Seven Weeks' War
New union of German states established in 1867 the North German Confederation
King of Prussia from 1861 to 1868 and German emperor as of 1871 William I
Conservative aristocratic landowners Junkers
Customs union that promoted free trade among German states the Zollverein
Two small northern states Austria and Prussia fought Denmark for the Schleswig and Holstein
Realistic, tough-minded politics pursued by Bismarck Realpolitik
Message from the Prussian king released by Bismarck to anger the French people the Ems dispatch
The two houses of the German legislative branch the Bundesrat and Reichstag

A United Italy
Italian states ruled by the pope the Papal States
Large island at the southern end of Italy Sicily
City ruled by the pope until 1870 Rome
Economic base of northern Italy industry
Economic base of southern Italy agriculture
Secret society formed by local strong men in Sicily the Mafia (or Camorra)
The self-proclaimed "prisoner of the Vatican" the pope
Capital of the kingdom of Italy Rome
Leader who liberated southern Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi
Kingdom of the lower half of Italy the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Garibaldi's army the Red Shirts
Southern capital seized by Garibaldi and his army Naples
King of Sardinia and of Italy Victor Emmanuel II
French ruler who allied his nation with Sardinia Napoleon III
Prime minister of Sardinia who wored for Italian unity Count di Cavour
Ally of Sardinia in its war with Austria France
Major power that dominated a divided Italy Austria
Leader of Italian unification movements before 1850 Giuseppe Mazzini
The Italian nationalistic movement: Italian for "resurgence" Risorgimento
Northern Italian state Sardinia gained after the brief war with Austria Lombardy
Secret Italian nationalist society of the early 1800s the Carbonari
New youthful Italian nationalist movement of the 1830s Young Italy
State added to Italy after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 Venetia

Central Europe
Dominant power of Central Europe the Austrian Empire
Ruling family of Austria the Hapsburgs
Region that joined equally with Austria in 1867 Hungary
The Dual Monarchy Austria-Hungary
Feeling of loyalty and patriotism toward a country, strong in Central Europe nationalism
Majority population and language of Hungary Magyar
Dominant nationality and language of Austria German
Dominant power in the Balkans in the 1860s the Ottoman Empire
Nickname for the Ottoman Empire "The Sick Man of Europe"
The Ottoman type of government autocratic
Country that defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1878 Russia
International conference that rewrote the Russian-Ottoman treaty the Congress of Berlin
Ruler of the Ottoman Empire sultan
Ally of the Balkan people Russia
Major ally of the Ottoman Empire Great Britain
Emperor of Austria from 1848 to 1916 and King of Hungary as of 1867 Franz Josef I
Conflict in which Austria lost territory to both Prussia and Italy the Seven Weeks' War
Three of the major peoples of the Balkans Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, and Greeks
Treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in 1878 the Treaty of San Stefano
Mediterranean island gained by Great Britain from the Turks in 1878 Cyprus
Balkan state that gained self-rule in 1878 and independence in 1908 Bulgaria

Russian form of government under the tsars autocracy
Institution abolished by the tsar in 1861 serfdom
Freedom from serfdom (or slavery) emancipation
Cause of Alexander's death assassination
Radicals who favored bombings and political killings terrorists
Russia wanted access to this sea. the Mediterranean
Program that forced non-Russians to adopt Russian culture and customs Russification
Policy that favored the union of all Slavic peoples Pan-Slavism
War Russia fought against France, Great Britain, and the Ottoman Empire in 1855-56 the Crimean War
Body of water that bordered the Crimea the Black Sea
The only real benefit of the Crimean War creation of modern field hospitals, prof. nursing for wounded
Tsar who allowed a number of liberal reforms Alexander II
Moderate reformers who became more and more radical socialists
Type of language shared by Russians, Bulgarians, and Serbs Slavic
Strongly nationalistic European people who were part of the Russian Empire Finns and Poles
New class that supported freedom for the serfs middle-class industrialists
Russian naval base under siege for 11 months Sevastopol (or Sebastopol)
Radical activists who wanted to abolish all political and social structures in Russia Nihilists (or anarchists)
Radicals who urged land reform and a better life for the peasants Populists
Violent, often fatal mob attacks, especially against Jews pogroms
Russia claimed to be the protector of these peoples within the Ottoman Empire Orthodox Christians

Online Flash Cards
30 - Latin America, the Pacific Islands, and Imperialism
All About Imperialism
Extending a nation's power by acquiring or gaining control over new territories
Goods needed to feed industrial production
People of industrial nations wanted these kinds of foods.
Mass production created a need for these.
Pride in one's country: a spur to imperialism
Missionary motive of imperialism
An area, with its people, totally controlled by a foreign nation
Taxes on goods brought into a country
Factory owners needed new ways to invest this.
Colonies provided this important resource for armies.
Colonies provided this important resource for navies.
So-called duty of western nations toward "backward" people
Colonial rivalries were an underlying cause of this global conflict
Country controlled by one foreign power and "protected" from other nations
Ports opened by treaty to foreign nations
Early economic theory that colonies added a lot to a nation's wealth
Imperialism carried on for the sake of profit
Imperialism carried on to improve a nation's power and status
Region where one foreign nation had special privileges recognized by other nations
Social theory that people who were wealthy and powerful > poorer and less powerful people

The Pacific Islands

New source of power for western ships
Pacific island group closest to the United States
Type of native government in Hawaii
Plantations were established on Hawaii to grow these crops.
Group on Hawaii that persuaded the United States to annex the islands
U.S. controlled islands of Samoa
Fuel needed by ocean-going ships
Islands halfway across the Pacific occupied by the United States
Arm of the U.S. government that controlled Samoa
Status of the Hawaiian islands after U.S. annexation
Last queen of Hawaii
Island chain of Alaska acquired by the United States
English explorer who sailed to many small Pacific islands
Samoan harbor and site of a U.S. naval base
Central Pacific Island acquired by the United States
German-controlled islands of Samoa
Two of the early French island territories in the Pacific
Great Britain's four island territories
The four German island territories
Islands jointly controlled from 1889 to 1899 by Germany, Great Britain, and the U.S.

Spain Yields to the United States

Memorable U.S. battleship blown up in a Cuban harbor
Americans sympathized wth Cubans' desire for this.
Popular U.S. volunteer in the Spanish-American War who became vice-president
Theodore Roosevelt's dashing group of volunteer cavalrymen
Status of Cuba after the war
These publications stirred up U.S. sentiment against Spain
Island that was the main cause of tension between the U.S. and Spain
Cuban harbor where a U.S. battleship exploded
U.S. president during the war with Spain
The war of 1898
Islands southeast of the United States ceded by Spain
Islands of the Pacific ceded by Spain to the United States
Harbor and capital of the Philippines
Islands promised eventual independence when the U.S. took control
Head of the Philippine and Puerto Rican governments
Sea that surrounds Cuba
Amendment to the Cuban constitution that gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs
The one remaining U.S. naval station in Cuba
Small island east of the Philippines that became an important American naval base
Major island that was the site of the Philippine capital
Leader of Filipino resistance to U.S. occupation

The United States Steps into Latin America

Latin America's new ruling class lacked this.
Strategic need for a Central American canal
Central American canal
Insect carrier of the deadly disease of Central America
Disease whose defeat allowed the canal to be built
Two bodies of water connected by the Central American canal
Mexican bandit who raided New Mexico
U.S. policy that foreign nations must not take any new Latin American colonies
Theodore Roosevelt's addition to the Monroe Doctrine
Strip of land the Central American canal crossed
Chief financial reason for U.S. intervention in many Latin American countries
Country protected by the United States against expansion of British Guiana
The United States helped Panama gain its freedom from this country
Island nation occupied by U.S. Marines from 1916 to 1924
Former French island colony where U.S. Marines landed in 1915
Caribbean islands the United States bought from Denmark
Central American country occupied by U.S. Marines off and on from 1912 to 1933
International conference to promote peaceful cooperation
President Roosevelt claimed this power for the United States in Latin America
Mexican port occupied by U.S. Marines in 1914

Online Flash Cards
fic Islands, and Imperialism

raw materials
tropical foods (or foods from Asia and Africa)
new markets
to spread religion
a colony
surplus capital (profits)
refueling stations and/or naval bases
to "civilize" them
World War I
a protectorate
treaty ports
economic imperialism
political imperialism
a sphere of influence
Social Darwinism

the Hawaiian Islands
sugar cane and pineapple
American planters
American Samoa
the Midway Islands
the U.S. Navy
a territory
Queen Liliuokalani
the Aleutians
Captain James Cook
Pago Pago
Wake Island
Western Samoa
the Marquesas, Tahiti (Society Islands), and New Caledonia
the Fijis, Gilberts, Solomons, and Cooks
the Solomons, Marshalls, Carolines, and Marianas
the Samoan Islands

the Maine
Theodore Roosevelt
the Rough Riders
William McKinley
the Spanish-American War
Cuba and Puerto Rico
the Philippines and Guam
the Philippines and Puerto Rico
an appointed governor
the Caribbean
the Platt Amendment
Guantanamo Bay
Emilio Aguinaldo

the Panama Canal
the mosquito
yellow fever
the Atlantic (or Caribbean) and Pacific
Pancho Villa
the Monroe Doctrine
the Roosevelt Corollary
the Isthmus of Panama
nonpayment of debts
the Dominican Republic
the Virgin Islands
the Pan American Union
an "international police power"

sh Cards
31 - Asia and Imperialism
Question Answer
People who were barred from important British positions Indians
The two rival religious groups Hindus and Muslims
The Empress of India Queen Victoria
How the British saw themselves as compared with Indians superior
The British policy of divide and rule worked well because India had so many of these. states (or native princes)
Ruling British government official of India the viceroy
European country with a near-monopoly on Indian trade in the 1500s Portugal
Trading company that controlled most of India the British East India Company
Small jail cell where British prisoners died overnight the Black Hole of Calcutta
Important state, site of Calcutta, conquered by the British Bengal
Two major factors that prevented Indian unity the caste system and religious differences
The minority religious group in India the Muslims
This encouraged Indian ideas about nationalism, democracy, and socialism. British education
Parliament transferred rule of India to this entity in 1858. the British Crown (or government)
Reformer and scholar often called the founder of Indian nationalism. Ram Mohun Roy
Group formed to protect the interests of its religious follwers the Muslim League
Military officer who expanded British control Robert Clive
Native Indian troops sepoys
Mutiny (revolt) of the native troops in 1857 the Sepoy Rebellion
Group that favored Indian self-rule the Indian National Congress
Important French trading base on India's southeast coast taken by the British in 1761 Pondicherry
Important British trading base on India's southeast coast Madras

Southeast Asia
Peninsula east of India and south of China Indochina (or Southeast Asia)
Large Asian countries that strongly influenced southeast Asia India and China
What the first European traders came looking for spices
Two beverage products Southeast Asia became an important source of coffee and tea
Asian nation that once dominated eastern Southeast Asia China
System of native work in the Dutch colony forced labor
Ocean to the southwest of Southeast Asia the Indian Ocean
Early European traders along the Southeast Asian coast the Portuguese and the Dutch
Country that took control of Burma Great Britain
Island at the southern tip of the Southeast Asian peninsula Singapore
The only independent state (a kingdom) of Southeast Asia Siam
Today's name for Siam Thailand
European nation that took control of eastern Southeast Asia France
Term for the French-controlled nations of Southeast Asia French Indochina
Trading company that governed the Netherlands' island possessions the Dutch East India Company
The Dutch colony of Southeast Asia the Dutch (Netherlands) East Indies
Kingdom on the eastern border of India Burma
Peninsula that jutted out at the southern end of Southeast Asia the Malay Peninsula
Britain controlled the northern part of this large island. Borneo
Britain controlled the southeastern part of this large island. New Guinea
Sea that bordered Southeast Asia on the east the South China Sea
The major islands of the Dutch colony (6) Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Timor, New Guinea

Basic foreign policy of the ruling dynasty isolation
Drug that the British introduced to China opium
Manchu capital Peking
China's giant neighbor to the north Russia
Type of government established in China by the revolution of 1912 a republic
Ruling dynasty from 1644 until 1911 the Manchu dynasty
War that opened China to increased British rule the Opium War
Island granted to the British in 1842 Hong Kong
Peninsular country east of China Korea
Nation that defeated China in a war of 1894-95 Japan
Northern area Russia wanted control of Manchuria
U.S. backed policy of giving all nations equal trading rights in China the Open Door Policy
Movement to drive all foreigners out of China the Boxer Rebellion
Leader of the revolution against the Manchus Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)
Chinese term for treaties China was forced to sign "unequal treaties"
Rebellion that weakened the Manchus the Taiping Rebellion
Russian naval base near Manchuria Vladivostok
Dowager empress who blocked most modernization reforms Cixi
The young emperor Guang Xu launched a hundred days of this. reform
The Nationalist People's Party Kuomintang
Sea between China and Korea the Yellow Sea

Foreign policy of Japan before imperialism isolation
Japan refused to help these people in distress. shipwrecked sailors
Purpose of the first European treaties with Japan to open up trade
Japan developed a surplus of this as it industrialized. population
Japan had to import these important items. raw materials and food
All Japanese became literate because of this. universal public education
U.S. naval officer who arranged for a treaty Commodore Matthew Perry
Japan's response to Western conflict industrialization and/or modernization
Japan's form of government after 1889 constitutional (but absolute) monarchy
Countries that Japan fought for control of Korea China and Russia
Excellent harbor taken from China by Russia, then Japan Lüshun (Port Arthur)
Island colony acquired by Japan from China in 1894 Taiwan
Man who arranged the peace between Russia and Japan Theodore Roosevelt
Japan and Russia divided this area into two spheres of influence Manchuria
Japan annexed this country in 1910, renaming it Chosen. Korea
Only Japanese port open to foreign trade until the mid-1800s Nagasaki
The reign of "enlightened rule" Meiji (or the Meiji Era)
Emperor who established the reign of "enlightened rule" Mutsuhito
Peninsula on Manchuria's southern coast fought over by China, Russia, and Japan the Liaotung Peninsula
Treaty ending the Russo-Japanese war was signed here. Portsmouth, New Hampshire

Online Flash Cards
32 - Africa and Imperialism
Question Answer
North Africa
North African coast that was home to pirates the Barbary Coast
Sea that borders North Africa the Mediterranean
European country that gained control of most of western North Africa France
Canal built in Egypt the Suez Canal
Dry region that was the southern boundary of North Africa the Sahara Desert
Rich country occupied by France in 1830 Algeria
Country on the western end of North Africa Morocco
Native, warlike peoples of North Africa the Berbers
Original owner of almost half the stock of the Suez Canal company the Egyptian government
Seas connected by the Suez Canal the Red and Mediterranean Seas
Country that gained control of the Suez Canal in 1875 Great Britain
Italy's new name for its North African colony Libya
Religion of North Africa before colonization Islam
Country that acquired a small northern strip of Morocco Spain
Country that included the site of ancient Carthage Tunisia
Empire that controlled most of North Africa in the 1800s the Ottoman Empire
Mountains of Morocco the Atlas Mountains
Conference held to settle rivalry over Morocco the Algeciras Conference
Frenchman who led the Egyptian canal-building company Ferdinand de Lesseps
Egyptian city bombarded by a British fleet Alexandria
Muslim "savior" whose followers fought fiercely against the British in the Sudan the Mahdi
Turkish ruler of a North African state a dey (or bey)

West Africa
Term for Africa south of the Sahara sub-Saharan Africa
Collective name of France's territories in West Africa French West Africa
Area east of the Cote d'Iviore known for its gold mines the Gold Coast
Belgium's large colony in west-central Africa the Belgian Congo
West Africa's only independent nation Liberia
Body of water that borders West Africa the Atlantic Ocean
Large French territory from the Congo to the north French Equatorial Africa
Largest British colony in West Africa Nigeria
British journalist and explorer of the Congo River basin Henry Stanley
Person who was the first European "owner" of the Congo basin area King Leopold II of Belgium
Capital named after President James Monroe Monrovia
Portugal's colony on western Africa's coast Portuguese Guinea
Port city of Nigeria Lagos
The four French settlements along the coast of Western Africa's "bulge"
Senegal, French Guinea, Cote d'Iviore, Dahomey
Ancient city of the western Sudan region Timbuktu
The French worked inland from the western coast along this river. the Senegal
Coastal area south of the "bulge" claimed by France the (French) Congo
Major river basin of central Africa: site of Brazzaville the Congo
Confederation of native tribes in the Gold Coast region the Asante
Leader of anti-French resistance in West Africa for 16 years Samori Toure
Germany's possessions in west Africa Togo and the Cameroons
Spanish colonies on western Africa's coast Rio de Oro and Rio Muni

East Africa
Scottish mercenary and renowned explorer David Livingstone
Journalist sent to find Livingstone Henry Stanley
Stanley's famous greeting "Dr. Livingston, I presume?"
Germany's protectorate in East Africa German East Africa
Britain's large coastal protectorate in East Africa British East Africa
Italian desert land on the Indian Ocean Italian Somaliland
Ocean bordering Africa's east coast the Indian Ocean
Sea bordering Egypt and the Sudan the Red Sea
Interior region invaded by Italy Ethiopia
Eastern region just south of Egypt the Sudan
French toehold on the Red Sea French Somaliland
The only independent nation of eastern Africa Ethiopia
European powers that vied for possessions of the Sudan France and Great Britain
Major river that flows through the Sudan the Nile
Large lake bordering Uganda Lake Victoria
Name for the Sudan under British and Egyptian control Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
African uprising in German East Africa the Maji-Maji rebellion
Large island claimed by France Madagascar
Rich inland territory gained by the British from Germany Uganda
Italian desert land along the Red Sea Eritrea
Sudanese city besieged by rebelling natives for 10 months Khartoum
Ethiopian emperor whose army crushed the invading Italians Menelik II

Southern Africa
Dutch settlers in southern Africa the Boers
Man largely responsible for expansion of British power in southern Africa Cecil Rhodes
Gems found in Cape Colony diamonds
Discovery of this caused a rush of people to the Transvaal. gold
Territory named for Rhodes Rhodesia
Seaport established by the Dutch in 1652 Cape Town
War between the British and the Dutch settlers the Boer War
Language of the Boers Afrikaans
Union of English colonies and Boer states the Union of South Africa
Portugal's colony to the north and east of South Africa Mozambique
German territory to the north and west of South Africa German Southwest Africa
Oldest colony in Africa, a Portuguese possession Angola
Spectacular falls in Zimbabwe Victoria Falls
Dutch colony seized by Great Britain in the early 1800s Cape Colony
The two independent Boer republics the Orange Free State and the Transvaal
Rhodes's dream for Africa a north-south railway (through a chain of British colonies)
Region west of the Transvaal controlled by Great Britain Bechuanaland
Colonies united to form the British dominion of South Cape
AfricaColony, Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange Free State
Natives of German Southwest Africa who rebelled the Hottentots and Hereros
River of Mozambique and Rhodesia explored by Livingstone the Zambezi
Renowned Zulu warrior and chief of the early 1800s Shaka
Another name for Mozambique Portuguese East Africa

Online Flash Cards
33 - The Growth of Science and Technology in the Nineteenth Century
Question Answer
The Physical Sciences
Sciences that deal with the nonliving parts of nature the physical sciences
The physical sciences astronomy, geology, physics, chemistry
Theory that all matter in the universe is made up of atoms the atomic theory
The relative weight of an atom atomic weight
Radioactive element discovered by the Curies radium and polonium
Particles inside atoms subatomic particles
Scientists of this ancient nation first thought of the atomic theory. Greece
A way to describe chemical compounds formulas
Table that classifies the elements the Periodic Table of the Elements
The science of the physical history and characteristics of the Earth geology
The science of matter and energy physics
The science of the makeup of all substances and the changes they undergo chemistry
Roentgen's discovery X-rays
Tiny subatomic particle with a negative electrical charge, discovered by Thomson an electron
Release of energy by disintegrating atoms, discovered by Bacquerel radioactivity
French scientists who experimented with radiation Pierre and Marie Curie
The father of modern atomic theory John Dalton
Russian chemist who designed the table of the elements Dmitri Mendeleyev
German physicist who discovered penetrating but invisible radiation Wilhelm Roentgen
American astronomer who discovered a new comet in 1847 Maria Mitchell
Planet discovered in 1846 by Johann Galle, from predictions of others Neptune
The study of this phenomenon led scientists to think about atomic motion. heat

The Biological Sciences

Sciences that deal with the living parts of nature the biological sciences
Center of cells, discovered by a British botanist the nucleus
British naturalist - argued that life forms on the earth developed over a long period of time Charles Darwin
Darwin's ideas about changes in natural forms the theory of evolution
Age of the earth, according to early evolutionists at least millions of years
Prehistoric creatures whose existence was first discovered in the nineteenth century dinosaurs
German biologists announced this theory of cells. the general cell theory
Darwin's famous book outlining his theory On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Survival of creatures that are best adapted to the living conditions natural selection ("survival of the fittest")
The study of ways in which inborn characteristics are passed on to descendants genetics
Austrian monk, founder of the science of genetics Gregor Mendel
Mendel used these vegetables as the subjects of his experiments. pea plants
Threadlike bodies in cells that divide to form new cells, first observed by Fleming chromosomes
Virchow found that outside agents destroyed or changed cells to cause this. disease
The process of passing changed forms by inheritance; basis of Lamarck's theory inheritance of acquired characteristics
First organizations to employ scientists universities and colleges
British botanist who studied living plant cells Robert Brown
The pre-Darwin explanation of the variety of living things "special creation" (all at one time)
French biologist who suggested living beings changed form in response to environment Jean Baptiste Lamarck
German biologist who first described cell division Walther Flemming

The Social Sciences and Psychology

Sciences that deal with people as members of society the social sciences
The objective study of law and government political science
The study of of people's relationships with their fellow people sociology
The study of the human mind and behavior psychology
The study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services economics
Social science improved by the search for old written records history
This field saw dramatic discoveries of ancient remains and ruins such as Troy archaeology
Pavlov's experimental subjects dogs
Authors of The Communist Manifesto Karl Marx and Frederich Engels
Economic system in which major industries are owned by the public socialism
The study of people's culture anthropology
Term for application of Darwin's theory to human society Social Darwinism
Perfect living places promoted by factory owner Robert Owen utopias
The two warring classes, according to The Communist Manifesto the bourgeoisie and proletariat
Russian biologist who studied animal behavior Ivan Pavlov
Outstanding British historian of the period Thomas Macaulay
Frenchman who started the science of sociology Auguste Comte
Englishman who extended Darwin's ideas to society Herbert Spencer
Type of behavior demonstrated by Pavlov's experiments conditioned reflex
"Hands-off" economic doctrine based on "natural laws" laissez-faire
Use of this method made study of social subjects objective and factual. the scientific method

Industrial Advances
New power source that replaced steam electricity
Outstanding U.S. inventor involved with electricity Thomas Edison
These replaced gas lamps. electric light bulbs
Power generated by the use of water hydroelectric power
American teacher of the deaf who patented the telephone Alexander Graham Bell
Natural resources used to run electric generators waterfalls
Engine that used a portable supply of gasoline or oil the internal combustion engine
German engineer who invented an economical oil-burning engine for heavy vehicles Rudolf Diesel
Improved material that allowed skyscrapers to be built structural steel
The Bell Telephone Co. was formed to create this. a phone network (long-distance lines)
Marconi's invention, a way to send messages through space without wires the radio
Edison invented the first practical model of this sound machine. the phonograph
Important centers of scientific study industrial research labs
Industry that set up the first U.S. research labs the electrical industry
The two German pioneers of self-propelled vehicles Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler
Brothers credited with inventing the first successful gas automobile in the U.S. in 1893 Charles and Frank Duryea
The modern chemical industry began when Perkins accidentally produced this. artificial dye
Country that took the lead in the production of synthetic chemical materials Germany
American who perfected the simple camera George Eastman
Machine that transformed mechanical power into electrical energy the dynamo (electric generator)

Online Flash Cards
34 - Western Culture in the Nineteenth Century
Question Answer
Public Health and Medicine
Of every three children born in the nineteenth century, this many died very young. two
Leading cause of death during most of the 1800s epidemics (or contagious diseases)
Pasteur showed that these caused disease. bacteria (or germs)
Pasteur developed a vaccine against this disease passed by animal bites. rabies
Scientific advances, not a rising birthrate, caused the rapid growth of this. population
Medical technique that greatly advanced when it became less painful surgery
Person who established professional nursing care for wounded soldiers Florence Nightingale
English soldier who developed inoculation Edward Jenner
The first European vaccine prevented this disease. smallpox
French chemist who studied bacteria and disease Louis Pasteur
Disease similar to smallpox used to make a vaccine for smallpox cowpox
Two pain-relieving drugs discovered for medical use in the 1840s ether and chloroform
In the mid-1800s, patients who survived surgery often died of this. infection
Natural process made much safer by the use of antiseptics in hospitals childbirth
Measures such as water purification that greatly reduced disease sanitation
Antiseptics greatly reduced infection in these effects of war. battle wounds
Process of heating liquids to kill bacteria pasteurization
Country where inoculation was practiced in the 400s India
Drugs that allowed great advances in surgery anesthetics
English surgeon who developed a method of reducing bacterial infections Joseph Lister
Chemicals used to kill germs that caused infection antiseptics
German who isolated the germs that cause tuberculosis and cholera Robert Koch

The Life of the People

Population shifted away from this region in the 1800s Europe
The use of the cold to keep food from spoiling refrigeration
People began moving out of inner cities to these areas in the late 1800s. residential suburbs
Children legally belonged to this parent during most of the 1800s the father
One reason people lived longer after 1850; there was more of this basic staple available. food
Widespread condition of being unable to read and write illiteracy
Number, in millions, of people who left Europe for the U.S. between 1870 and 1900 10 million
Two major reasons for emigration economic conditions and minority oppression
Railroad cars designed to transport meat, fruit, and vegetables refrigerator cars
Parts of public life from which women were barred voting and holding public office
18th-century French and U.S. events that made it seem important for all citizens to be educated
the American and French Revolutions
Type of schooling first offered to French and U.S. citizens free public education
Level of government that controlled school systems in the U.S. local (or state) government
Level of government that controlled school systems in Western Europe the central government
Women first gained some independence because of these. jobs
Reform laws limited the working hours of these people. women and children
Mass publication of reading materials was made possible by this. widespread literacy (or education)
U.S. state that allowed women the right to vote in 1869 Wyoming
Country that allowed women the vote in 1893 New Zealand
After 1870 education became this, by law. universal and compulsory

Literature and Philosophy

English romantic poet who died in the Greek struggle for independence Lord Byron
Growing sentiment that led authors to write about their own countries nationalism
Germans who collected their country's fairy tales the Grimm brothers (Jakob nd Wilhelm)
American author of the fantastic, supernatural, and mysterious Edgar Allan Poe
Tolstoy's monumental novel detailing the realities of war War and Peace
U.S. author who depicted Mississippi River life Mark Twain
English poet who wrote "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Two major English romantic poets known for their odes Shelley and Keats
Scottish novelist who wrote about the days of knighthood Sir Walter Scott
Giant of German literature, noted for being a poet, novelist, and playwright Goethe
U.S. novelist who idealized American Indians and the frontier James Fenimore Cooper
Realistic Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen
Noble English poet who expressed Victorian values Alfred, Lord Tennyson
English naturalistic author of The Return of the Native Thomas Hardy
Young woman who wrote the famous gothic horror novel Frankenstein Mary Shelley
Three English sisters who published novels under male pseudonyms the Brontë Sisters (Charlotte, Emily, and Anne)
Alexandre Dumas's three swashbuckling heroes the Three Musketeers
Extremely popular British author whose novels were often published in installments Charles Dickens
Realistic portrayals of everyday life in different parts of the United States regionalism
Realistic writers who wrote objectively about ugly and sordid aspects of life naturalists
French leader of the frank and objective school of writing Emile Zola
French novelist who wrote about a medieval hunchback Victor Hugo

The Fine Arts

Artistic emphasis on feeling, emotion, and imagination romanticism (or the Romantic Movement)
Artistic emphasis on showing the world as it is realism
School of painting that explored light and color effects Impressionism
Center for artists from many lands Paris
German who wrote emotional, expressive symphonies Ludwig Van Beethoven
Polish composer of romantic piano pieces Frédéric Chopin
Russian composer of melodic, emotional works such as the Nutcracker Suite Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Great Italian composer of Aïda and other operas Giuseppe Verdi
Opera composer whose plots often came from German myths Richard Wagner
Great German romantic composer of the "Lullaby" Johannes Brahms
The two best-known French Impressionists Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir
French sculptor who broke with classical traditions Auguste Rodin
French artist who painted colorful, flat Tahitian scenes Paul Gauguin
Dutch painter noted for intense emotions and swirling brush strokes Vincent Van Gogh
Country whose artists dominated painting and sculpture in the 1800s France
German composers famous for their songs (3) Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn
New musical instrument of the 1800s the piano
Hungarian composer of rhapsodies based on native folk songs and dances Franz Liszt
Two outstanding romantic English landscape painters John Constable and J.M.W. Turner
French postimpressionist artist who emphasized planes of color Paul Cézanne
Countries whose artists dominated music in the 1800s Germany and Austria

Online Flash Cards
35 - World War I
Question Answer
The Stage is Set
Desire to unite all people with a common language, race, and culture under one gov't nationalism
The move to establish overseas empires; this resulted in increased rivalries imperialism
Glorification of and reliance on armed strength militarism
Officials who exercised influence over civilian politicians army officers
Financial result of the race to build military strength higher taxes
Hidden, nonpublic agreements among nations to help each other secret alliances
Overseas territories where European nations competed colonies
Ordering of reserve military forces into active service mobilization
European nations engaged in this race to build their strength the arms race
Formal agreements among countries to help each other if attacked (defensive) alliances
Members of the Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Members of the Triple Entente France, Russia, and Great Britain
A friendly agreement or understanding among nations an entente
"The powder keg of Europe" the Balkans
Route Germany proposed to build through the Balkans the Berlin to Baghdad Railroad
Two main strengths of the Triple Alliance joint borders and a central position on the continent
Two main strengths of the Triple Entente control of the seas, surrounding the Triple Alliance nations
Two main weaknesses of the Triple Alliance hostile nations to E and W, hostility btw. Austria-Hungary & Italy
Two main weaknesses of the Triple Entente being entente and not alliance, friction btw. Britain and Russia
Three areas in which Germany challenged Great Britain naval strength, colonial expansion, world trade

Conflict Begins
Site of the 1914 assassination that triggered the war Sarajevo
The assassin was a nationalist of this ethnic group Serbs
Country whose heir to the throne was assassinated Austria-Hungary
Germany's response to Russian troop mobilization declaring war
Nation that wanted to create a Slavic state Serbia
Slavic nation, a major power, that supported Serbia's Pan-Slavism Russia
Leader assassinated in 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The final terms offered for a settlement, presented to Austria to Serbia an ultimatum
Russia's action to prepare to defend Serbia mobilizing its troops
Neutral country invaded by Germany Belgium
Event that brought Great Britain into the war the invasion of Belgium
Far East nation that declared war as Britain's ally Japan
Triple Alliance member that remained neutral at first Italy
Empire that joined Germany and Austria in November 1914 the Ottoman Empire
Nation that presented Serbia with an ultimatum Austria
Germany's new leader in the 1890s Kaiser Wilhelm II
Germany's reason for invading a neutral country to knock France out of the war quickly
Name for the Serb assassin at Sarajevo Gavrilo Princip
Balkan nation that entered the war as Germany's ally in 1915 Bulgaria
The Turks kept Russia's southern fleet bottled up in the sea the Black Sea
Austrian territory Serbia wanted; where the assassination took place Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Fighting
New rapid-fire weapon the machine gun
New armored vehicle the tank
New airborne weapon the airplane
New oceangoing weapon the submarine
New form of chemical warfare poison gas
Soldiers protected themselves from machine-gun fire and artillery in these. trenches
Result each side expected in the summer of 1914 a quick victory
Germany and its allies the Central Powers
Britain and its partners in the war the Allied Powers (or the Allies)
How the armies of World War I were different from earlier European armies being citizen (non-professional) armies
Sea blockaded by the British to cut off Germany the North Sea
British passenger liner sunk by German submarines the Lusitania
German policy that drew the United States into the war unrestricted submarine warfare
Why the United States entered the war, according to Woodrow Wilson "to make the world safe for democracy"
Event that caused Russia to drop out of the war the Russian Revolution
Two uses for airplanes in the war to observe troop movements and drop explosives
Battle that ended Germany's hope of a quick victory the First Battle of the Marne
The war's only large naval battle Jutland
Site of deadly but inconclusive monthlong fight in France Verdun (or the Somme)
Secret message that outraged Americans the Zimmerman Telegram
The battle to open up the Dardanelles Strait Gallipoli
Forest battle that forced the Germans back to their border the Argonne

The Peace and It's Aftermath

American president who led the United States at the peace conference Woodrow Wilson
Agreement to stop fighting until a treaty could be written the armistice
Site of the peace conference Versailles
Germany lost all of these possessions under the treaty its colonies
Group that suffered almost as much loss of life as the armed forces during the war civilian populations
Woodrow Wilson's statement of Allied aims for the war the Fourteen Points
The Big Four of the peace conference Britain, France, Italy, and the United States
The Big Four became the Big Three when this country left the peace conference angry Italy
Germany had to agree to these payments for war damages. reparations
By signing the treaty, Germany admitted this. that it alone was guilty for causing the war
The Dual Monarchy split to become these two separate nations. Austria and Hungary
Nation that lost more territory than Germany did Russia
International organization created by the peace treaties the League of Nations
Major country that never joined the League the United States
Financial problem facing countries that fought the war heavy debt
The two countries with especially severe property damage France and Belgium
The new international court the World Court (Permanent Court of International Justice)
Three empires that had fallen by 1919 Ottoman, German, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian
Two entirely new nations created out of the Old Dual Monarchy Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia
The two main aims of the League, according to its covenant to promote international cooperation and to maintain peace

Online Flash Cards
36 - The Russian Revolution
Question Answer
Steps to Revolution
Russia's ruler from 1894 until 1917 Tsar Nicholas II
Work stoppages that forced the tsar to make some changes strikes
Important strategic body that remained loyal to the tsar in 1905 the army
Russia had very little of this kind of development. industrial development
The three groups who protested their discontent students, workers, and peasants
Russian people who lived in poverty after being freed peasants (former serfs)
Russia's form of government before the revolution absolute monarchy
Violent event of 1905 when soldiers shot peaceful marchers Bloody Sunday
World War I Russian soldiers lacked these necessities. good equipment, supplies, and/or leadership
Capital of tsarist Russia Petrograd (St. Petersburg)
The Russian people were promised these in 1905 but never got them. civil liberties
Russia had few of these two essentials of transportation. railroads and good roads
Two kinds of events that broke out in 1917 strikes and street demonstrations
Members of this key group deserted the government and joined the rioters. soldiers
Defeat in a war against this small country in 1904-05 exposed the Russian gov't's weakness. Japan
Uprising that forced some temporary reforms the Revolution of 1905
Parliament created after the 1905 uprising the Duma
These were enormous for Russia in World War I. casualties
Decree of 1905 that promised individual liberties and limited elections the October Manifesto
The tsar's reaction to the legislature's demands for reform to dissolve the legislature
The Romanov monarchy ended in March 1917 when the tsar did this. abdicated

Revolution and Civil War

Local revolutionary councils of workers and soldiers soviets
The radical Marxists the Bolsheviks
Leader of the Bolsheviks Lenin
Class, very small in Russia, that Marx expected would revolt the proletariat
Symbolic revolutionary color adopted by the communists red
Temporary government set up in March 1917 the provisional government
The moderate Marxists the Mensheviks
Groups that rivaled the temporary government for power the soviets
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin
Lenin modified this socialistic-communistic philosophy. Marxism
Where Lenin had lived before his return to Russia in exile (in Switzerland)
The seizure of power in November 1917 the Bolshevik Revolution (or the 2nd Russian Revolution)
New name for the Bolsheviks as of 1918 the Communist Party
After the second revolution, Russia suffered through three years of this. civil war
The military forces of the new government the Red Army
Russian family whose rule ended in 1917 the Romanovs
Country that arranged for Lenin's return to Russia from exile Germany
Lenin's slogan "Peace, Land, and Bread"
World War II participants with whom Russia signed peace treaties the Central Powers
Russians who fought the Communists from 1917 to 1920 the Whites
Western nations that helped the Whites with money, arms, and troops the Allies (France, Britain, Japan, and the U.S.)
The uprising that ousted the tsar the March Revolution

The Lenin Years

New communist capital of the U.S.S.R. Moscow
Old, precommunist capital of Russia Petrograd (St. Petersburg)
Guiding economic system of the U.S.S.R. socialism
Fate of the tsar and his family execution
Agriculture declined so badly, city people faced this. starvation
Owner of the major industries the government
Alternative name for the U.S.S.R. the Soviet Union
Russia's official new name the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
Tsar and tsarina who were the last ruling monarchs of Russia Nicholas and Alexandra
Separate government entities joined together in the federal union republics
Lenin's modified version of Marxist theory Marxism-Leninism
Lenin decided the U.S.S.R. had to take this before it could take "two steps forward" "one step backward"
Outside source of funds welcomed for development foreign capital
Groups whose needs were first met during the war the Red Army
Lack of this made it difficult to build a Marxist society. industry and industrial workers
People who carried out the revolution instead of the workers a small (minority) group of Bolsheviks
Organization that ruled the Soviet Union under Lenin the Communist Party
Marx based his "scientific socialism" on this form of economic development Western capitalism
Lenin's economic policy, which was not pure Marxism the New Economic Policy
Lenin's economic policy allowed some of this. free enterprise
Wave of executions similar to the French Reign of Terror the Red Terror
Huge representative body that had little real power the National Congress

The Stalin Years

Secretary general of the Communist Party and Lenin's successor Joseph Stalin
Type of state established by Stalin a totalitarian (or police) state
Type of economy Stalin established a command (completely state-controlled) economy
These were sharply reduced while heavy industry was vastly expanded. consumer goods
People who fiercely resisted Stalin's agricultural policy the peasants
English translation of the Russian word stalin "man of steel"
Main rivals for post-Lenin leadership Trotsky and Stalin
Where the revolution had to take place, according to Marx, in order to be successful all over the world
Where the revolution should stay for the time being, according to Stalin in the U.S.S.R. only
Master plans of Soviet growth Five-Year Plans
All farms, under Stalin collectives (state-owned farms)
Organization that lost its property the Russian Orthodox Church
Belief taught to children in place of religion atheism
Artistic style required under Stalin socialist realism
Arm of the Communist party that held most power the Politburo
Stalin's "purification," or removal of everyone not loyal to him purges
Stalin's native republic Georgia
Lev Bronstein, brilliant party organizer Leon Trotsky
Outcome of the power struggle for Trotsky exile
Trotsky's final fate murder (in Mexico)
The parliament under Stalin the Supreme Soviet
Organization that agitated for the overthrow of capitalist governments the Comintern
Small ruling committee of the parliament the Presidium

Online Flash Cards
37 - Nationalism and Communism in Asia and Africa
Question Answer
Political party founded by Mao and other revolutionaries the Chinese Communist party
Leader of the Chinese Communists Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Class of people whom Mao sought as his party's base of support peasants
Chaotic condition of China from 1916 through the 1940s civil war
"Father of Modern China" was was (briefly) the first president of the Chinese republic Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)
Nationalist leader in China after Sun Yixian's death Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)
Nation that sent advisors to help China the U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union)
Nations that ignored the Nationalists' requests for help the western democracies
The 6,000 mile trip of the communists to northwest China the Long March
Supporters of China's left wing, ejected from the Nationalist party socialists and communists (or peasants and workers)
Class of people who supported the nationalists the middle class
Nickname of Mao's fighting forces the Red Army
Nation that invaded and took over eastern China in 1937 Japan
New base of the Chinese Communists after their year-long trek northern China
Political party that tried to establish a Chinese republic the Nationalist party, or the Kuomintang (Guomindang)
China's last dynasty, overthrown in 1912 the Qing dynasty
Reform movement sparked by student protests in 1919 the May Fourth Movement
China's industrial northern province, invaded by Japan in 1931 Manchuria
Soviet leader whom Mao and his fellow communists admired Lenin
Capital city of both the Nationalists and the occupying Japan Nanjing

Japanese head of state who wielded no real power the emperor
In th 1920s, Japan agreed to limit the size of this part of its military forces. the navy
Element of Japanese society that controlled the government by the 1930s the military
Need for these fueled Japan's desire to expand raw materials, or markets for its products
Growth of this fueled Japan's desire to expand. the population
Neighboring country that Japan invaded in the 1930s China
Important source of Japanese wealth, disrupted by the Great Depression trade
Man who reigned on Japan's throne from 1926 to 1989 Hirohito
Increased characteristic of Japanese government during the 1920s democratic
Term for extreme nationalists ultranationalists
Northern Chinese province that Japan seized in 1931 Manchuria
Kellogg-Briand Pact--Japan pledged to renounce this "as an instrument of national policy." war
Japan put pressure on this neighbor with the Twenty-One Demands in 1915 China
Zaibatsu, people who strongly influenced politics in the 1920s powerful business leaders
Name of the Japanese Parliament the Diet
Values vigorously promoted by the military-dominated government traditional values
Japan's name for its puppet state in Manchuria Manchukuo
Int'l body that Japan withdrew from in 1933 b/c of condemnation of Japanese aggression the League of Nations

Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi
Indians' name for Ghandhi, meaning "saintly one" or "Great Soul" Mahatma
Imperialist country that ruled India as its colony Great Britain
The way to respond to British shootings and beatings, according to Gandhi with nonviolence
Hindu social system that Gandhi opposed the caste system
Britain promised more self-government if Indians fought in this war. World War I
British-made item that Indians boycotted widely cloth
Peaceful protest led by Gandhi to defy the British laws about salt the Salt March
Deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law civil disobedience
Gandhi's profession, which he practiced in South Africa law
Non-Hindu Indian independence group the Muslim League
Gandhi's policy of peaceful resistance through refusing to cooperate with the government nonviolent noncooperation
India's leading political party the Indian National Congress (or Congress party)
Indian province where the Amritsa massacre took place in 1919 Punjab
Reforms allowed by the Government of India Act of 1935 local self-government and/or limited democratic elections
Leader of the Muslim League beginning in the 1930s Muhammad Ali Jinnah
New goal of the Muslim League under Jinnah a separate independent state
Social injustice that Gandhi worked against in South Africa racial discrimination
Garment adopted by Gandhi in place of western clothing the dhoti (or a simple and traditional white garment)

Africa and the Middle East

Middle Eastern land promised to both Jews and Arabs by Great Britain Palestine
Surname adopted by Turkish leader, meaning "Father of the Turks" Araturk
New name of Persia as of 1935 Iran
System of racial segregation and discrimination set up in South Africa apartheid
Two rival peoples in Palestine Arabs and Jews
Revolutionary leader who was the first president of Turkey Mustafa Kemal
People the Arabs fought in return for British support of an Arab state the Turks
Policy of modernization followed in Turkey and Iran by Araturk and Reza Shah westernization
North African nation that gained independence in 1922 but was still controlled by Britain Egypt
Nationalist movement built on the shared heritage of Arabs Pan-Arabism
Movement that focused on the unity of all Africans Pan-Africanism
New Islamic nation founded by Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud Saudi Arabia
Territories in the Middle East governed by European nations, set up at the end of WWI mandates
Empire that the Turkish Revolution ended the Ottoman Empire
Oil-rich kingdom that gained independence in 1930 Iraq
British statement that "viewed with favor" a Jewish "national home" the Balfour Declaration
Army officer who overthrew Iran's shah and set up his own Pahlavi dynasty Reza Khan (Reza Shah Pahlavi)
West African movement that promoted pride in African roots negritude
Jamaican native who promoted the message "Africa for Africans" Marcus Garvey

Online Flash Cards
38 - The Western World Before and Between the Wars
Question Answer
The Americas
U.S. president who dealt with the Great Depression Franklin D. Roosevelt
Young U.S. women who embraced shocking new freedoms of dress and behavior flappers
Nickname for the boom years in the 1920s in the United States the Roaring Twenties
Movement of people that the United States limited after World War I immigration
Popular, hard-riding rebel from northern Mexico Pancho Villa
Business-oriented political party that dominated U.S. national government during the 1920s the Republican Party
The years during which manufacture or sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the U.S. Prohibition
U.S. president who said that prosperity was "just around the corner" Herbert Hoover
Mexican artist famed for his bold, bright murals inspired by folk art Diego Rivera
Latin American nations that benefitted from oil reserves Mexico and Venezuela
Indian from southern Mexico who led a peasant revolt Emiliano Zapata
Caribbean island nation occupied by U.S. Marines for years Haiti or the Dominican Republic
U.S. fright stirred up by fear of communists and radicals in 1919-20 the Red Scare
Country in which Augusto Cesar Sandino led a guerrilla movement against U.S. troops Nicaragua
Political party that dominated Mexican politics from 1929 through the 1990s the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party)
Term for female soldiers in the Mexican Revolution soldaderas
FDR's new policy toward Latin America the Good Neighbor Policy
"Giant" nickname given the United States by distrustful Latin American nations "Colossus of the North"

Economic Conditions
Institution that took more control of economics after the war the government
Condition of many countries because of wartime borrowing heavily indebted
Source of government revenue, very high in many postwar countries taxes
Drastic business collapse of the 1930s the Great Depression
Many of these financial institutions failed in the 1930s. banks
Condition of 30 million workers in 1932 unemployed
Condition caused by demobilizing (disbanding) the armed forces unemployment
Common postwar condition of rising prices inflation
Widespread walls that blocked free trade among nations tariffs
Investment arena that collapsed in October 1929 the stock market
The program of relief and reform in the United States the New Deal
Law that gave U.S. workers unemployment and old-age benefits for the first time the Social Security Act
Group that pressured governments to help with workers' problems organized labor
Work stoppage by laborers in many areas of the economy a general strike
U.S. farm prices fell because of this. overproduction
The International Monetary Conference of 1933 tried to promote this among nations. financial cooperation
Government programs that provided employment for workers public works
Global activity that dropped by 65 percent in the 1930s world trade
Policy of improving a nation's economy without regard for other countries economic nationalism
Practice of buying stock with only a small cash down payment buying on margin

Average life span of a French government cabinet less than a year
British workers who inspired a general strike coal miners
British working-class party that gained power in 1924 the Labour Party
Irish force that fought British troops the Irish Republican Army
Portion of Ireland that stayed part of the United Kingdom Northern Ireland
Line of defenses built along the French-German frontier the Maginot Line
German coal and iron valley that French troops attempted to occupy the Ruhr Valley
British prime minister elected with working-class support Ramsay MacDonald
The Irish nationalist uprising of 1916, named for a holiday the Easter Rising
The independent southern portion of Ireland the Irish Free State (Eire)
Main characteristic of Eastern European economies agriculture
Union of Germany, desired by many Austrians Anschluss
Form of Hungarian government under Admiral Horthy a military dictatorship
Form of government in Poland after the constitutional democracy failed a military dictatorship
Owners of most land in Eastern Europe wealthy aristocrats
Because France had so many political parties, it had this type of government. coalition governments
European nations' agreement to settle future disputes peacefully the Locarno Pact
French coalition government of socialists and communists the Popular Front
French socialist premier Leon Blum
Hungarian communist who seized power in 1919 Bela Kun
One of the Eastern European nations that maintained democratic government Finland, the Baltic States, or Czechoslovakia
Paris treaty that condemned war as a way of settling disputes the Kellogg-Briand Pact

The Rise of Fascism

Italy had few industries because it lacked these. raw materials
Italy's dictator Benito Mussolini
Germany's dictator Adolf Hitler
Ethnic group Hitler especially despised the Jews
Hitler's book, the "Bible" of the Nazi Movement Mein Kampf ("My Struggle")
Hitler's secret police force the Gestapo
Name of Hitler's regime, meaning "Third Empire" the Third Reich
Hitler's title, meaning "the leader" der Fuhrer
Mussolini's title, meaning "the leader" Il Duce
Mussolini's political philosophy fascism
Bavarian capital briefly taken over by communists Munich
Germany's lower legislative house; site of a fire in 1933 the Reichstag
Italy didn't have enough food because of these two conditions. poor land and a large population
General term for government system that controlled almost every part of people's lives totalitarianism
Fascism promoted this feeling towards one's country. extreme nationalism
Government in which the leader used armed forces and police to crush opposition a police state
The Italian and German fascist parties were violently opposed to this. communism
The National Socialist German Workers' Party the Nazi Party
Basic principle of fascism government control over everything
Classes fascism appealed to the middle and upper classes
Mussolini's fascist supporters the Black Shirts
The German federal republic the Weimar Republic
The Nazis' private army the Storm Troopers (or Brown Shirts)

Online Flash Cards
39 - World War II
Question Answer
The Road to War
Independent African country invaded by Italy Ethiopia
Northern Chinese province occupied by Japan Manchuria
Spanish Fascist leader General Francisco Franco
Conference that now symbolizes appeasement and surrender the Munich Conference
Territory on the French side of the Rhine River invaded by Hitler the Rhineland
Response of Britain and France to Hitler's aggressive moves in 1936 and 1938 appeasement
How the League of Nations reacted to Japanese aggression (only) to condemn it
Japan went to war with this country in 1937. China
Emperor of Ethiopia who asked for League protection Haile Selassie
Nations that withdrew from the League in the 1930s Italy and Japan
Official policy of the Western democracies toward the Spanish civil war nonintervention
Nation joined to Germany in 1938 by Anschluss Austria
German area of Czechoslovakia the Sudetenland
British prime minister who gave in to Hitler's demands Neville Chamberlain
Nation that disappeared from the map in 1939 Czechoslovakia
Lebensraum, Germany's excuse for expanding its borders "living space"
The German-Italian alliance the Rome-Berlin Axis
International treaty rejecting war as a way to settle disputes the Kellogg-Briand Pact
The League's reaction to Italy's aggression in Africa economic sanctions
Treaty that Germans deeply resented the Versailles Treaty (ending WWI)
The two opposing sides in Spain's civil war the Nationalists and Loyalists (or Republicans)
"Hands-off" foreign policy favored by many Americans in the 1930s isolationism

Conflict Begins
The three major Axis powers Germany, Italy, and Japan
English statesman elected to replace Chamberlain Winston Churchill
Major Allied country taken by Hitler in June 1940 France
Leader of the French fighters General Charles de Gaulle
Germany signed a nonaggression treaty with this country in 1939. the Soviet Union
Strip of Polish territory that cut through Germany the Polish Corridor
Hitler's attack on this country started World War II. Poland
Hitler's tactic of "lightning war" Blitzkrieg
The four major Allies Great Britain, U.S.A., U.S.S.R., China (plus France)
Two Scandinavian countries invaded by Hitler in April 1940 Denmark and Norway
The three Low Countries taken by Hitler in May 1940 the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg
Allied troops withdrew from this French seaport to England, by all boats available. Dunkirk
The French group that continued to fight the Germans the Free French
Two Western nations that were defensive allies of Poland Great Britain and France
Free city on the Baltic Sea open to Poland, desired by Germany Danzig
Germany's line of defense in the Rhineland the Siegfried Line
Country that disappeared when the Soviet Union moved into it in 1939 Poland
The only country to be expelled from the League of Nations for aggression the Soviet Union
Term for the nearly actionless early days of the war the "phony war" or Sitzkrieg ("sitting war")
Term for the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania taken by the Soviets in 1940 the Baltic States
The U.S.S.R. was expelled from the League of Nations for invading this Scandinavian country Finland
The French government under Hitler the Petain (or Vichy) government

The War in Europe and North America

Official policy of the United States toward the war until 1941 neutrality
Vast country Germany invaded in 1941 in violation of 1939 treaty the Soviet Union
The three leading Allied statesmen who met often during the war's years Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
Term for Hitler's war against the Jews the Holocaust
European beaches where the Allies landed in 1944 Normandy
The period of heaviest German bombing of Great Britain the Battle of Britain
Fighting unit that successfully defended Great Britain the Royal Air Force
Germany's general in North Africa, the "Desert Fox" Erwin Rommel
Chief British general in North Africa Bernard Montgomery
Supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe Dwight Eisenhower
Soviet city, site of tremendous six-month battle Stalingrad
New tracking device using sound waves that located submarines sonar
New electronic tracking system that detected incoming aircraft radar
Term for the day of Allied landings in France D-Day (June 6, 1944)
Term for the day of victory in Europe V-E Day (May 8, 1945)
Hitler committed suicide during the battle for this city. Berlin
Hitler's plan to invade and conquer the British Isles Operation Sea Lion
U.S. policy of supplying Britain with war materials on credit Lend-Lease
Egyptian site where the British stopped the German advance El Alamein
Germany's final counterattack against the Allies in Europe the Battle of the Bulge
Axis power that was invaded from the south; it surrendered in 1943 Italy

The War in Asia

When Japan bombed this naval base, the United States entered the war. Pearl Harbor
Island continent threatened by the Japanese Australia
Large ships that were seagoing air bases aircraft carriers
U.S. commander in the Pacific General Douglas MacArthur
Terrifying new weapon first used on August 6, 1945 the atomic bomb
First Japanese city hit by the new weapon Hiroshima
Suicide attacks by bomb-laden Japanese planes kamikaze attacks
Second Japanese city hit by the new bomb Nagasaki
The day Japan signed surrender documents V-J Day (September 2, 1945)
Island group secured for the Allies by the Battle of Leyte Gulf the Philippines
Allied strategy of capturing some islands and skipping others island-hopping
Southern island of the Solomons, site of an airfield and fierce fighting Guadalcanal
Alaskan islands where Japan landed the Aleutians
Crucial battle near Hawaii that turned back the Japanese the Battle of Midway
Sea battle that stopped the Japanese thrust toward Australia the Battle of the Coral Sea
Two American outposts captured by Japan in 1941-2 Guam and Wake Island
Region north of China taken from Japan by the Soviet Union in 1945 Manchuria
Japan's slogan to keep Asia out of western control "Asia for Asians"
Dutch island colony taken by Japan the Netherlands East Indies
French colony that became a Japanese protectorate French Indochina
Japan's great naval strategist Isoroku Yamamoto

Online Flash Cards
40 - The Cold War and Postwar Europe
Question Answer
Postwar Settlements
Units that controlled the German occupation zones occupying armies
Type of government established in postwar Italy a republic
Defeated nations had to return these. territories taken in the war
Former Nazis were put on trial, accused of being this. war criminals
Postwar leader of France Charles de Gaulle
Main characteristic of France's postwar foreign policy nationalism
International forum that tried Nazi leaders for war crimes the Nuremburg Trials
Systematic killing of an entire people, practiced by Hitler genocide
Nation that objected violently to German reindustrialization France
Loss of territory to other nations caused a flood of these into Germany. refugees
Payments to nations that had been invaded reparations
Wartime meeting near Berlin where the Allies agreed how the peace treaties would be written the Potsdam Conference
Wartime meeting in South U.S.S.R. - the Allies agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones the Yalta Conference
Number of zones Germany and Berlin were each divided into four
City/territory disputed by Italy and Yugoslavia Trieste
It took 10 years for a peace treaty to be signed with this country. Austria
West German chancellor in the 1950s and 1960s Konrad Adenauer
New French government established in 1958 the Fifth French Republic
Britain's postwar leader Clement Atlee
The new democratic government of West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany
A council of these officials wrote up the postwar peace treaties. foreign ministers

Cold War Politics

The two strongest nations of the postwar world the United States and the Soviet Union
War fought by politics and economics, not weapons the Cold War
How Great Britain and the United States sent supplies to Berlin an airlift
Massive construction between East and West Berlin the Berlin Wall
Descriptive name of the nonphysical wall between Eastern and Western Europe the Iron Curtain
British leader who coined the term "Iron Curtain" Winston Churchill
Country that surrounded Berlin East Germany
U.S. policy that aimed at restricting the spread of communism containment
European country that received U.S. aid in 1947 to put down a communist-supported rebellion Greece
The Soviet attempt to keep any supplies from reaching West Berlin the Berlin blockade
The Berlin Wall was built to stop the flow of these. refugees
The mutual defense pact of the Western nations NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
The East European military alliance the Warsaw Pact
Soviet term for harmony between East and West "peaceful coexistence"
Meeting of the leaders of the major world powers summit conferences
Country where the Cold War became hot in 1950 South Korea
Gradual relaxation of tensions between the United States and the U.S.S.R. détente
The Communist Information Bureau; its goal was to stir up dissent and revolution the Comintern
U.S. statement that it would help countries threatened by communism the Truman Doctrine
Stated 1950s U.S. policy of willingness to go to the verge of war brinkmanship
Event that doomed a U.S. and Soviet conference in 1960 the U-2 Incident

Economic Recovery
Germany transportation industry that became a strong competitor of its American counterpart the automobile industry
Great Britain's moderate socialist party the Labour Party
State like Great Britain where government took main responsibility for its citizens' welfare a welfare state
Discontented French workers caused these to spread rapidly in 1968. strikes
The European Recovery Program; it provided U.S. aid to Europe the Marshall Plan
The most stable currency in postwar Europe the mark
What happened to British railroads, coal mines, and utilities "nationalization"
EEC, the economic and trade union of Western Europe the European Economic Community
Common name of the European economic union the Common Market
Trade barriers the Western European nations gradually dropped tariffs and/or import quotas
Major European nation that remained outside the EEC for 15 years Great Britain
The U.S. Trade Expansion Act allowed the president to cut these. tariffs
Many newly indpnt. nations of this continent joined the EEC as associate members in the '60s Africa
U.S. official who suggested the policy of massive aid to Europe Secretary of State George C. Marshall
The EEC members had the most trouble agreeing on this policy. agricultural policy
The East European nations' common market Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance)
Country that vetoed British membership in the EEC France
Union of Western Europe's coal and steel industries, ECSC the European Coal and Steel Community
Term for the amazingly rapid economic recovery of Germany "the German miracle"
UNRRA, the organization that gave emergency relief aid to war-torn
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration

The Eastern Bloc

The leader of Yugoslavia Marshal Josip Tito
Term for the East European countries dependent on and subordinate to the U.S.S.R. satellites
Communist country that split with the U.S.S.R. to act independently Yugoslavia
Soviet leader, Stalin's successor, who visited the U.S. in 1959 Nikita Khrushchev
Term for satellite independence; named for Yugoslavia's leader Titoism
Soviet troops changed from an army of liberation in Eastern Europe to this. an army of occupation
Countries that took all of East Prussia Poland and the Soviet Union
Authority that set up communist governments in Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary the Red Army
The new communist government of East Germany the German Democratic Republic
Country that briefly deposed its Soviet-controlled government in 1956 Hungary
Country that gained a small amount of domestic independence in 1956 Poland
The six Soviet satellites Bulgaria, Czech. , E Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania
Class of people in East Germany who revolted in 1953 workers
Germany lost a lot of territory to this country after World War II. Poland
Country that ejected the Sudetan Germans Czechoslovakia
Northern states annexed by the U.S.S.R. in 1940 the Baltic States
Three northern (Baltic) states annexed by the U.S.S.R. in 1940 Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania
Local communists set up governments in these two countries. Albania and Yugoslavia
Central European country whose government went from democratic to communist in 1948 Czechoslovakia
A workers' revolt in this country was put down by Soviet forces in 1953. East Germany

Online Flash Cards
41 - Revolution in Asia
Question Answer
China and Korea
China's first Communist ruler Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Huge farming communities in which Chinese peasants had to live communes
South Korean capital; site of the 1988 Summer Olympics Seoul
Most powerful Chinese leader of the 1980s and 1990s Deng Xiaoping
The Korea that emerged as an economic powerhouse in the 1990s South Korea
Chinese student movement of 1989 the pro-democracy movement
Island home of the Chinese Nationalists Taiwan
Official name of Communist China the People's Republic of China
Chinese premier, Mao's second-in-command Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai)
American president who visited China in 1972, opening relations Richard Nixon
China's domestic upheaval in the 1960s the Cultural Revolution
Radical semi-military groups of students and young people during China's cultural revolution the Red Guards
International body that China joined in 1971 the United Nations
North Korea's basic foreign policy principle isolation
North Korea's leader from 1948 to 1994 Kim Il Sung
Site of Beijing's 1989 student demonstrations and massacre Tiananmen Square
Neutral zone between North and South Korea the demilitarized zone
Thriving business center and British colony that reverted to China in 1997 Hong Kong
China allowed a limited amount of this in its economy in the 1980s. private enterprise
Dividing line between North and South Korea the 38th Parallel
Army that fought North Korean troops from 1950 to 1953 the United Nations Army

The Indian Subcontinent

The subcontinent was divided along these lines. religious preferences
Major stumbling block to economic improvement population growth
Natural phenomena that periodically devastate Bangladesh floods
Nehru's daughter, India's prime minister, assassinated in 1984 Indira Gandhi
Controversial items tested by India and Pakistan in 1998 nuclear devices
Predominant population of Pakistan Muslims
Predominant population of India Hindus
India's first prime minister from 1950 to 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru
Major stumbling block to Indian unity, besides religion and caste language differences
Current name of former East Pakistan Bangladesh
Indian minority responsible for Indira Gandhi's assassination the Sikhs
Indira Gandhi's successor, also assassinated her son, Rajiv Gandhi
Nations that fought each other following a civil war between East and West Pakistan India and Pakistan
Former president's daughter, elected prime minister of Pakistan in 1988 Benazir Bhutto
Tibetian leader who fled to India in 1959 the Dalai Lama
River valley of West Pakistan the Indus River Valley
River delta of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) the Ganges Delta
Northern Indian state, claimed by both India and Pakistan, site of many clashes Kashmir
India's dominant political party the Congress Party
Pakistani dictator killed in 1988 plane crash General Zia (Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq)
Site of disastrous poison gas leak in India, December 1984 Bhopal
Afghanistan's strict Islamic rulers in the 1990s the Taliban

The Island Nations

Asia's leading industrial power in the later 20th century Japan
Japan's leading trading partner the United States
Japan's economy depended on these. exports
Philippine dictator ousted in 1986 Ferdinand Marcos
The U.S. struggled to keep these strategic posts in the Philippines. military bases
Japanese emperor who died in 1989 Hirohito
Natural disasters that often rock Japan earthquakes
Name of Ceylon as of 1972 Sri Lanka
Type of government established in Japan in 1947 democratic, parliamentary, or constitutional monarchy
Island nation expelled from the United Nations in 1971 Nationalist China (the republic of China) (Taiwan)
Nation given independence by the United States on July 4, 1946 the Philippines
Military rule, imposed on the Philippines by Marcos in 1972 martial law
The U.S.-Asian mutual defense organization SEATO (the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization)
Rebels who fought a continuing battle against the Philippine government communist and/or Muslim guerrillas
Prosperous independent city-state at the tip of the Malay Peninsula Singapore
Filipino democratic leader, successor of Marcos Corazon Aquino
New name for the Netherlands East Indies Indonesia
The five largest islands of Indonesia Borneo, Sumatra, Irian Jaya (New Guinea), Sulawesi, Java
General who ruled Indonesia from 1968 through 1998 Suharto
Guerrillas of Sri Lanka who wage a bloody campaign for an independent homeland the Tamil (or Tigers)
New nation that included Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak Malaysia
Indonesia's first president Sukarno

Southeast Asia
Communist leader of North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh
The communist guerrillas in South Vietnam the Viet Cong
U.S. president who greatly expanded U.S. involvement in Vietnam Lyndon Johnson
Capital of Vietnam Hanoi
Capital of South Vietnam; fell to the communists in 1975 Saigon
Refugees from Southeast Asia who attempted to emigrate by sea boat people
Large drain on Thailand's economy refugees
Collective term for the countries that border the Pacific Ocean the Pacific Rim
New name of Saigon Ho Chi Minh City
Neighbor of Vietnam invaded by U.S. troops Cambodia
U.S. president who first sent aid to Vietnam Dwight Eisenhower
The communist forces of Cambodia who established a brutal rule in the 1970s the Khmer Rouge
Country that invaded Cambodia in 1979 and took control for a decade Vietnam
Cambodia's ruler from 1941 through 1970, who remained active in exile Norodom Sihanouk
Site of crushing French army defeat by the Vietnamese Dienbienphu
Communist-led group of Laos the Pathet Lao
The one nation of Southeast Asia that never was a European colony Thailand
Nation to the east of India; it gained independence in 1948 Burma
New name given Burma by its military leaders Myanmar
The three countries formed out of French Indochina Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam
Burmese woman who won the Nobel Prize in 1991 while under house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi

Online Flash Cards
42 - Independent Africa
Question Answer
Independence Politics
Workers' organizations that gave Africans political experience trade unions
Usual number of political parties in an African country one
People who have carried out many coups since the mid-1960s army (military) leaders
Most common government and economic system in Africa socialism
Type of workers in short supply skilled workers
Common state of African economies underdeveloped
South Africa's policy of "apartness," or separation of the races apartheid
Organization of all the continent's independent states, established in 1963 the Organization of African Unity (OAU)
All African states broke relations with this nation by 1974. Israel
Many African nations became associate members of this European economic organization. the EEC
The OAU granted observer status to this Arab organization by 1973. the PLO
Continued control of former colonies' economies by colonial powers neocolonialism
Main stumbling block to African unity ethnic/tribal divisions
British colonies where the earliest nationalist parties grew Nigeria and Ghana
Most African economies had a poor balance between these two elements at independence. industry and agriculture
The Pan-African movement started with these people. American and West Indian blacks
Meeting open to all black people, not just African governments the Pan-African Congress
Agreement of 1975 that linked both ex-British and ex-French colonies with the EEC the Lome Convention
A U.N. body for Africa established in 1958 the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)
The single most important influence on the rise of African nationalism World War II
Meeting of 1944 to determine the common future of France and its African colonies the Brazzaville Conference

Former British Africa

First independent British Commonwealth Colony; it gained independence in 1957 Ghana
The former British colonies all joined this British group the Commonwealth
Terrorist Kikuyu movement in Kenya the Mau Mau
Country that included the kingdom of Buganda Uganda
Country with the first African government in colonial Africa Ghana
Landless Kenyan people who fought a guerrilla war against whites the Kikuyu
Countries that united to form Tanzania Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Nigeria's most valuable export oil
South African police fired on an unarmed crowd here in 1960. Sharpeville
Black town near Johannesburg; site of 1976 riots Soweto
Britain opposed this colony's independence, declared by the white minority Rhodesia
Ghana's former name the Gold Coast
Site of 1976 Israeli commando raid on a hijacked airliner in Uganda Entebbe
These were outlawed by South Africa's Immorality Act of 1950. sexual relations and marriage between races
In this country, much of the north is Muslim, and much of the south Christian. Nigeria
The 1953 union of Malawi, Zambia, and Southern Rhodesia the Central African Federation
Homelands for South African blacks Bantustans
Rhodesia's new name under African rule Zimbabwe
The two South African opposition parties banned in 1960 the African National Congress, the Pan-African Congress

Kenya's nationalist leader and first president Jomo Kenyatta
South African nationalist leader jailed for 27 years and elected president in 1994 Nelson Mandela
South African bishop; 1984 Nobel Peace Prize winner Desmond Tutu
French government leader who supported colonies' independence Charles de Gaulle
Uganda's notorious dictator; forced from office in 1978 Idi Amin
Emperor of Ethiopia; deposed in 1974 Haile Selassie
Ghana's nationalist leader and first president Kwame Nkrumah
Senegalese leader and noted poet Leopold Senghor
Guinea's first president elected in 1958; a nationalist leader Sekou Toure
1st premier of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - forced from office and killed in 1961 Patrice Lumumba
First president of both Tanganyika and Tanzania Julius Nyerere
Uganda's nationalist leader Milton Obote
Prime minister of Rhodesia who declared independence in 1965 Ian Smith
First Zambian president, a nationalist leader Kenneth Kaunda
Leader who became Cote d'Iviore's first president in 1960 Felix Houphouet-Boigny
African nationalist leaders of Southern Rhodesia Joshua Nkomo and Robert Mugabe
South African leader who urged nonviolence; 1961 Nobel Peace Prize winner Albert Luthuli
Apartheid leader assassinated in parliament in 1966 Hendrik Verwoerd
Former U.S. professor, founder of modern Mozambique nationalism; assassinated in 1969 Eduardo Mondlane
Longtime leader who changed his country's name from Congo to Zaire Mobuto Sese Seko (Joseph Mobuto)
South African president who began the dismantling of apartheid laws F.W. de Klerk

Former Non-British Africa

How the French people decided on the colonies' independence by referendum (vote)
France outlawed this kind of labor in its colonies in 1946. forced labor
First and last European colonial power Portugal
The Portuguese who rebelled and ended the colonial wars the Portuguese army
The three Portuguese colonies that fought wars of independence Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique
New name of the Portuguese Guinea in 1974 Guinea-Bissau
French colony with the earliest mass political involvement the Cote d'Iviore
Former South West Africa; became independent in 1990 Namibia
Cameroon + Gabon + Republic of the Congo + Chad + Central African Republic = this territory. French Equatorial Africa
Eastern country whose starvation and anarchy caught the world's attention in the early 1990s Somalia
A force from this organization was sent to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1960. the United Nations
Country that experienced tragic conflict between its Tutsi and Hutu peoples Rwanda
Mining center in the Democratic Republic of the Congo that declared independence in 1960 Katanga
A West African peace-keeping force intervened in this country in 1990. Liberia
Area that became federated with Ethiopia in 1952 Eritrea
The former French Somali Coast Djibouti
Formerly Upper Volta, renamed in 1984 Burkina Faso
Former Portuguese colony plagued by a 16-year civil war Angola
New name for Dahomey Benin

Online Flash Cards
43 - North Africa and the Middle East: Tensions and Conflict
Question Answer
North Africa
Predominant religion of North Africa Islam
Leader of Libya who took power in 1969 Muammar al-Qaddafi
Basis of Libya's economy oil production
The U.S. government has often accused Libya of promoting this. terrorism
Algeria represented this country in 1980 hostage negotiations. Iran
Morocco's form of government a kingdom
Morocco's ruler from 1961 to 1999 King Hassan II
Egypt's first democratically elected leader Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gigantic dam built to increase Egyptian farmland the Aswan High Dam
Waterway nationalized by Nasser the Suez Canal
North African country bombed by the United States in 1986 Libya
Nasser's successor in Egypt Anwar el-Sadat
Sadat's fate assassination
Two European nations that invaded Egypt in the Canal crisis of 1956 Great Britain and France
Leader who became an Arab hero during the Canal crisis Nasser
Libya's form of government from independence until 1969 a constitutional monarchy
North African country; site of guerrilla war against France Algeria
Extremist French group that resisted Algerian independence the SAO (Secret Army Organization)
Algeria's three "B" post-independence leaders Ben Bella, Boumediene, and Bendjedid
Union of Egypt and Syria the United Arab Republic
The first U.S. president to visit Egypt Richard Nixon
Sadat's successor in Egypt Hosni Mubarak
Ethiopia's last emperor Haile Selassie

Arab-Israeli Conflict
Ancient name of the land disputed by Jews and Arabs Palestine
Reaction of Arabs to Israel's independence war
Arab group that seeks to establish an Arab state in Palestine the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization)
Longtime leader of the PLO Yasir Arafat
Status of most Arabs who left Israeli Palestine after its 1948 independence refugee
Coastal area seized from Egypt by Israel in a 1956 invasion the Gaza Strip
Egyptian territory between Israel and the Suez Canal the Sinai Peninsula
Organization that divided Palestine into Arab and Jewish states the United Nations
Term for the Palestinian uprising in Israeli-occupied territories the intifada
Waterway Egypt closed to Israel the Suez Canal and/or the Gulf of Aqaba
Short Arab-Israeli war of 1967 the Six-Day War
Arab residents of this Israeli-held territory began angry demonstrations in 1987. the West Bank (or Gaza Strip)
War that broke out on the Jewish high holy day in 1973 the Yom Kippur War
Egyptian and Israeli leaders who agreed to peace Sadat and Begin
U.S. president who brought Egyptian and Israeli leaders together Jimmy Carter
Hard-line Israeli prime minister who took office in 2001 Ariel Sharon
Eastern (Arab) Palestine became part of this country. Jordan
High land in Syria seized by Israel in 1967 the Golan Heights
The Arab-Israeli Oslo agreement of 1993 allowed some of this. Palestinian self-rule
Term for the Egypt-Israel peace agreements the Camp David Accords
Israel invaded this country in 1982 to wipe out PLO bases. Lebanon
Country that abandoned its ties with West Bank Palestinians in 1988 Jordan
Joint winners of the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize Arafat, Rabin, and Peres

The Middle Eastern States

Israeli collective farm a kibbutz
Scarce Middle East natural resource water
Opposing groups in Lebanon's civil war Muslims and Christians
Iran's fundamentalist government leader; died in 1989 the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Capital of Lebanon, largely destroyed by the civil war Beirut
Leader of Iraq who began ruling in 1979 Saddam Hussein
Country that sent troops into Lebanon to help restore order Syria
Country that experienced an Islamic revolution in 1979 Iran
Countries that started an eight-year war in 1980 Iran and Iraq
Many U.S. marines were killed in Lebanon by this kind of attack in 1983. a suicide bombing
Ruling party of Iraq the socialist party (Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party)
Union to promote Arab cooperation the Arab League
Warfare broke out between this group and the Jordanian government in 1970. the Palestinians
Jordan's king from 1952 to 1999 King Hussein
Israel's prime minister from 1969 to 1974 Golda Meir
Ethnic group in northern Iraq, target of government attacks the Kurds
Moderate Iranian president elected in 1997 Muhammad Khatami
Arab states that gained independence in the 1940s Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria
Israel's first president Chaim Weizmann
Israel's first prime minister David Ben-Gurion
He became Syria's president in 1971. Hafez al-Assad
Iraq's type of government when it became independent a kingdom (monarchy)
Israel's four major party leaders between 1992 and 2001 Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, Benjamin Netanyahu, A
Middle Eastern leaders who turned away from westernization and to the Sharia (Muslim Laws) Islamic reformers

The Saudi Peninsula and the Politics of Oil

The association of oil-producing countries OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
OPEC's policy duing the 1970s to raise the price of oil (by reducing production)
Country that has one fifth of the world's oil reserves Saudi Arabia
Body of water where oil shipping is concentrated the Persian Gulf
Iranian pilgrims rioted in this holy city in the 1980s Mecca
The United States protected tankers in this body of water in the 1980s. the Persian Gulf
War waged in 1991 by a U.N.-backed coalition the Persian Gulf War
Country invaded by Iraq in 1990 Kuwait
Four countries that have one tenth of the world's oil reserves Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait
Saudi king assassinated in 1975 King Faisal
Country that sold antiaircraft missiles to Saudi Arabia the United States
Body of water that borders the southeastern end of the Arabian Peninsula the Arabian Sea
Gulf at the southern end of the Persian Gulf the Gulf of Oman
The seven Arab members of OPEC Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE
Pro-Western Saudi leader; he became king in 1982 King Fahd
Independent sheikdom consisting of a group of islands in the Persian Gulf Bahrain
Thousand-mile-long country ruled by a sultan Oman
Country, ruled by a sheik, that occupies a small Persian Gulf peninsula Qatar
Loose federation of sheikdoms the United Arab Emirates
New nation formed in 1990 when two states that shared the same name merged (the Republic of) Yemen

Online Flash Cards
44 - The Western Democracies Since 1960
Question Answer
Western Europe
Spain's chief of state until 1975 Francisco Franco
Former U.N. secretary-general elected president of Austria in 1986 Kurt Waldheim
New German capital, moved from Bonn in 1991 Berlin
Underwater vehicle route that links France and Britain the Channel Tunnel (the "Chunnel")
Conservative British prime minister from 1979 to 1990 Margaret Thatcher
A shaky peace plan of the 1990s aimed to end "the troubles" in this country. Northern Ireland
French leader who challenged the U.S. role in Western Europe Charles de Gaulle
Until 1990, "One Nation, Two States" Germany
German chancellor who moved toward closer relations with the Eastern bloc in the 1970s Willy Brandt
West Germany granted automatic citizenship to the citizens of this country. East Germany
Labour Party leader elected British prime minister in 1997 Tony Blair
French socialists' program for major industries nationalization
Spain's new ruler as of 1975 King Juan Carlos
Spanish separatists who repeatedly demanded self-rule the Basques (or Catalonians)
Britain fought this country for the Falkland Islands in 1982. Argentina
Treaty for European unification signed in 1991 Maastricht Treaty
Socialists defeated the Gaullists to elect this president in 1981. Francois Mitterand
Portugal's dictator from 1932 to 1968 Antonio Salazar
Belgium suffers from divisions between these two groups. French and Flemish-speaking people
Socialist leader of Sweden shot on the street in 1986 Olof Palme
Economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg Benelux

The United States Abroad

President Kennedy's "army" of overseas volunteers the Peace Corps
Confrontation between the United States and U.S.S.R. in the Caribbean in 1962 the Cuban Missile Crisis
The U.S. war in Southeast Asia in the 1960s and 1970s the Vietnam War
U.S.-led war in the Mideast in 1991 the Persian Gulf War
Revolutionaries of this nation took U.S. embassy workers hostage. Iran
Iranian leader supported by the United States the shah
Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit these two nations in 1972. China and the Soviet Union
The United States attacked this Taliban-led country in 2001 in response to a massive terrorist Afghanistan
attack inside the United States.
Failed U.S.-backed attempt by Cuban refugees to invade their homeland in 1961 the Bay of Pigs
Jimmy Carter worked to solve a dispute with this Central American country over a waterway. Panama
President who established normal diplomatic relations with China in 1979 Jimmy Carter
President Carter arranged peace meetings between these warring Middle East nations. Egypt and Israel
The United States supported rebels in this Central American country in the 1980s. Nicaragua
The United States supported this Central American government against rebels in the 1980s. El Salvador
Central American country invaded by the United States in 1989 Panama
President Johnson sent U.S. marines to this island nation in 1965. the Dominican Republic
Site of captured U.S. embassy in the Middle East Teheran
U.S. policy of aid to Mideast countries, announced in 1957 the Eisenhower Doctrine
Terrorist bombs killed Americans at military posts in this country in 1995. Saudi Arabia
The United States fought troops of this country in Grenada in 1983. Cuba

The United States at Home

The economic slowdowns of the 1950s and early 1970s recessions
The main domestic concern of the mid- and late 1960s civil rights
Black leader and Nobel Peace Prize winner killed in 1968 Martin Luther King Jr.
Violence that broke out in U.S. cities in 1967, and in Los Angeles in 1992 riots
Widespread protests among these people started at Berkeley in 1964. college students
Brown v. Board of Education banned this practice. segregation in schools
Father-and-son U.S. presidents George H. W. and George W. Bush
Black leader shot to death in Harlem in 1965 Malcolm X
U.S. president impeached by the House in 1998 Bill Clinton
Frightening events at places like Columbine High School school shootings
The United States set up a homeland security office in 2001 in response to this threat. terrorism
Man who was elected president by a landslide in 1980 Ronald Reagan
President Johnson's domestic program the Great Society
Person who got the most popular votes for U.S. president in 2000 Al Gore
Buildings destroyed in New York City terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 the World Trade Center towers
U.S. presidental candidate slain in 1968 Bobby Kennedy
The major political scandal of the 1970s Watergate
The worst episode of domestic terrorism, in 1995 the Oklahoma City bombing (Timothy McVeigh)
New voting age set by the 26th Amendment in 1971 18
Man who became U.S. president in 1974 without having been elected to the post Gerald Ford
The only two Democrats elected president from 1968 through 1992 Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton
The only U.S. president to resign from office Richard Nixon
U.S. senator who claimed to find communist conspiracies everywhere Joseph McCarthy

Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

Loose organization of former British colonies the British Commonwealth of Nations
Canadian province with a strong separatist movement Quebec
Official language of Quebec province from 1974 to 1979 French
This civic duty is compulsory in Australia at age 18 voting
U.S.-Canadian 2,400 mile waterway from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean the Saint Lawrence Seaway
The main advantage of belonging to the Commonwealth favorable trade agreements
Canada's two territories the Yukon and the Northwest Territory
French-Canadian prime minister from 1968 to 1979 and 1980 to 1984 Pierre Elliott Trudeau
The British Parliament no longer has to approve any Canadian changes in this. the Canadian constitution
Different party that won the Canadian elections of 1984 the conservative (Progressive Conservative) party
Liberal prime minister of Canada elected in 1993 Jean Chretien
Governing Australian party from 1983 to 1996 the Labor Party
Port calls of these U.S. ships sparked a U.S.-New Zealand crisis. nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed vessels
New Zealand party that held office from 1984 to 1990 the Labor Party
Self-governing homeland of Canada's Inuit, created in 1999 Nunavut
Act of 1931 - recognized Canada, Australia, New Zealand, S. Africa as completely independent the Statute of Westminster
Number of Canadian provinces 10
Number of Australian states 6
Title of Australia's official head of state the (British) governor-general
Alliance of the United States, Australia, and New Zealand ANZUS
Agreement recognizing Quebec as a "distinct society" that failed in 1990 the Meech Lake Accord

Online Flash Cards
45 - Changes in the Communist World
Question Answer
The Soviet Union at Home
The Soviet secret police force the KGB
Youngest Soviet leader since Stalin Mikhail Gorbachev
Nuclear plant; site of 1986 disaster Chernobyl
Soviet citizens faced continuing shortages of this. consumer goods and/or housing
New 1977 Constitution gave dominance to this political party. the Communist Party
Food was imported from the West when these failed. harvests
Strong Russian leader of the 1960s and 1970s Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet foreign minister for 28 years; he became president in 1965 Andrei Gromyko
Region that suffered a devasting earthquake in 1988 Armenia
Soviet citizens who protested government violations of the people's rights dissidents
Khrushchev's attack on Stalinist policies de-Stalinization
Commodity the Soviet Union had to buy from the West in 1963 wheat (grain)
Some republics demanded more of this in the 1970s and 1980s. local control
Critics of the government were sometimes placed in these medical facilities. mental hospitals
Gorbachev's new policy of openness glasnost
Innovative feature of Russian elections beginning in 1989 contested elections
Brezhnev's successor, former header of the KGB Yuri Andropov
Term for Russian Jews who were denied permission to emigrate refusniks
Gorbachev's new policy of economic reform perestroika
Gorbachev promoted a reduced governmental role for this organization the Communist Party
Gorbachev assumed this position only after it was given real power over policy. president

The Soviet Union Abroad

Khrushchev had to remove missiles from this country in 1962. Cuba
The United States often brought up this domestic Soviet issue. human rights
Direct teletype connection between the United States and U.S.S.R. the hot line
A split developed between the Soviet Union and this neighboring communist country in 1961. China
The U.S.S.R. was mired in a war with this country from 1979 to 1989. Afghanistan
Soviet leader who met with U.S. President Nixon Leonid Brezhnev
Two "northern" nations the U.S.S.R. supported in their wars with southern neighbors North Korea and North Vietnam
The United States led a boycott against this Moscow event of 1980. the Moscow (Summer) Olympics
The United States froze exports of this commodity to the U.S.S.R. in 1980. grain
A spy plane from this country was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960. the United States
Soviet influence expanded to this continent during the 1970s. Africa
Brezhnev's policy of easing tensions with the West détente
West German firms built a pipeline to carry this from Siberia to Western Europe. natural gas
Airborne pollution that spread abroad from the Soviet Union in 1986 radiation
Event in the United States boycotted by the Soviets in 1984 the Los Angeles (Summer) Olympics
Fighting broke out with this country over a border dispute in 1969. China
Détente developed because the Soviet Union needed these two things from the West. farm products and technology
A Soviet fighter shot down a passenger jetliner from this country in 1983. South Korea

The Eastern "Bloc"

Polish organization of trade unions Solidarity
Founder of the Polish workers' union Lech Walesa
Polish workers' strikes began in these workplaces. shipyards
East Germany established formal relations with this country in 1974. West Germany
East Germany periodically challenged Western access to this city. Berlin
Reforming Czech leader of the 1960s Alexander Dubček
Country that was invaded by Soviet troops after starting reforms in 1968 Czechoslovakia
Members of this NATO rival became discontented in the 1970s. the Warsaw Pact
Country that established martial law in late 1981 Poland
Polish port city, formerly Danzig, site of workers' strikes in 1980 Gdansk
Many East Germans left their country in 1989 when their government did this. opened its border
All of these were closed in 1967 to make Albania an atheist state. churches and mosques
Romania's repressive leader from 1974 until his execution in 1989 Nicolae Ceausescu
Communist European country that was not a Soviet satellite when all others were Yugoslavia
Term for the Czech uprising of 1968 the Prague Spring
East Germany's leader from 1976 to 1989 Erich Honecker
Two original members that stopped cooperating with the Warsaw Pact Romania and Albania
Long-time Communist party leader of Hungary Janos Kadar
According to the Brezhnev Doctrine, the U.S.S.R. could do this to any East European country. invade it
Central Prague site of mass protests in 1989 Wenceslas Square

The Soviet Empire Collapses

First popularly elected leader in Russian history Boris Yeltsin
Gorbachev survived this in August 1991. an attempted coup
Military alliance that dissolved in 1991 the Warsaw Pact
Pieces of this historic German structure became souvenirs when it was torn down in 1989. the Berlin Wall
Country that East Germany united with in 1990 West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany)
East European country that broke apart and erupted into war in 1991 Yugoslavia
The three northwest republics of the U.S.S.R. that declared independence in 1990-91 Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Group term for the three northwest republics of the U.S.S.R. that declared independence the Baltic republics
Startling type of government - started in Poland and spread rapidly through E. Europe in 1989 noncommunist government
Country of 15 republics that dissolved in 1991 the U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union)
Severe, rising problem that plagued the newly noncommunist economies inflation
Work condition previously unknown in former communist economies unemployment
The two new nations formed when Czechoslovakia split peacefully in 1993 the Czech Republic and Slovakia
Novel event held in most East European countries in 1990 free elections
The Soviet legislature passed power to these entities in 1991. the republics
Breakaway Russian republic that fought for independence in the 1990s Chechnya
Czechoslovakia's playwright-president, elected in 1990 Vaclav Havel
"Ethnic cleansing" was carried out by Yugoslavian Serbs against these people. Croats and/or Slavic Muslims
The two largest countries formed from the former Soviet Union Russia and Kazakhstan
Thousands fled this country by boat for Italy in 1990. Albania
Country where former Communists overwhelmingly won the first free elections Romania

Online Flash Cards
46 - Postwar Latin America
Question Answer
Inter-American Relations and Economies
The free trade agreement among Mexico, Canada, and the United States NAFTA
Men who have often taken over Latin American governments military officers
Major social and economic problem of Latin America poverty
The rapid growth of this worsens social and economic problems. population
Latin American governments faced disaster in the 1980s when they could not repay these. loans for development
Destruction of this environment affects the entire world. the rain forest
Common Latin American need to help build industries capital
Growing demand for these often causes violent protest. social and economic reforms
Small group, often of military officers, that overthrows a democratic government a junta
The U.S. often intervened when it feared this type of takeover in a Latin American gov't. a communist takeover
Two common crops of one-crop countries coffee and sugar
Breaking up of large estates and distribution of land to peasants land (agrarian) reform
Latin American countries had to pay much higher prices for these as of the late 1970s.imports (oil and agricultural chemicals)
Commodity whose rise in price staggered many Latin American economies oil
Latin American countries received much less for these starting in the late 1970s. exports
Assembly plants along Mexico's northern border maquiladoras
Inter-American organization founded in 1948 the Organization of American States (OAS)
Aid project to promote Latin American development process the Alliance for Progress
Class that paid few taxes wealthly landowners
Where wealthy Latin Americans preferred to invest their funds abroad
Inter-American agreement - no state has the right to intervene in another state's affairs the Montevideo Pact

Central America and Mexico

Country that took over a waterway in 1999 Panama
Production of this boosted Mexico's economy in the 1970s. oil
Site of a disastrous Mexican earthquake in 1985 Mexico City
Area of Panama formerly controlled by the United States the Canal Zone
Panama's military leader, tried in the United States for drug trafficking General Manuel Noriega
Country invaded by U.S. forces in 1989 Panama
Large country with a long record of elected presidents Mexico City
Rebels who overthrew the Nicaraguan government in 1979 the Sandinistas
Rebels who opposed the new, 1980s government of Nicaragua the contras
Cuba and the Soviet Union supported this side in the 1980s El Salvador fighting. the rebels
Sandinista leader elected president of Nicaragua in 1984 and defeated in 1990 Daniel Ortega
Nicaraguan contras established guerrilla bases in this country. Honduras
First president of Mexico since 1929 not from the PRI party, elected in 2000 Vicente Fox Quesada
Winner of 1987 Nobel Peace Prize for his Central American peace initiative Oscar Arias Sanchez of Costa Rica
Civilian leader of El Salvador's government in the 1980s Jose Napoleon Duarte
New name of British Honduras as of 1993 Belize
Country that endured a thirty-year civil war that tapered off in the 1990s Guatemala
Nicaragua's ruling family from the 1930s to 1979 the Somozas
Neutral nation with an orderly succession of democratic governments since 1974 Costa Rica
Peasant rebels have caused turmoil in this southern Mexican state. Chiapas
The United States helped to overthrow this country's liberal government in the 1950s. Guatemala

South America
President and dictator of Argentina Juan Peron
First democratically elected Marxist leader in the Western Hemisphere Salvador Allende
U.S. group accused of being involved in Allende's overthrow the CIA
Argentina went to war with Great Britain in 1982 over these islands. the Falkland Islands
Brazil moved its capital to Brasilia to help develop this area. the interior
By 1970, most Brazilians lived in these areas. urban areas
The army of this large country rebelled against a leftist government in 1964. Brazil
Country that had a Marxist president Chile
Deadly disease that became an epidemic in the early 1990s cholera
Juan Peron's wives who helped him rule Eva and Isabel Peron
First female president in the Western Hemisphere Isabel Peron
Los desaparecidos of Argentina the disappeared ones
Country that connects South America with Central America Colombia
South American member of OPEC Venezuela
Countries terrorized by their drug lords Bolivia and Colombia
Country whose army fought the Tupamaros guerrillas Uruguay
Argentina's Spanish name for the Falklands the Malvinas
Brazilian city; major industrial center of South America Sao Paulo
Military leader who succeeded Allende in Chile General Augusto Pinochet
Leftist guerrilla group of Peru the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso)
Paraguay's military leader from 1954 to 1989 General Alfredo Stroessner

The Caribbean Islands

Cuba's revolutionary leader Fidel Castro
Caribbean island with a communist government Cuba
The U.S.S.R. removed these weapons from Cuba in 1962. missiles
Cuba tried to export this throughout Latin America. revolution
Center of Cuban exile settlement in the United States Miami
Target city for Puerto Rican immigration into the United States New York City
Natural disasters that periodically devastate the islands hurricanes
Cuban communist revolutionary leader; close associate of Castro Che Guevara
Cuba's close ally and aid-giver the Soviet Union
Cuba took over all of these businesses in 1961. U.S.-owned businesses
Cuban coastal area invaded in 1961 the Bay of Pigs
Self-governing U.S. territory in the Caribbean the Virgin Islands
Country that voted in 1967 to remain a commonwealth Puerto Rico
Troops from this country landed in the Dominican Republic in 1965. the United States
Haiti's president and dictator from 1957 to 1971 Francois Duvalier (Papa Doc)
Duvalier's successor in 1971; ousted in 1986 Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc)
Country where U.S. and U.N. troops kept order in the 1990s Haiti
Country invaded in 1983 by the United States and troops from six Caribbean nations Grenada
Dictator of Cuba before the revolution Fulgencio Batista
Cuban troops fought in this southern African nation's civil war Angola
The massive exodus of Cubans to the United States in 1980 the Mariel boatlift

Online Flash Cards
47 - International Cooperation
Question Answer
The United Nations
Main U.N. body charged with maintaining peace and settling disputes the Security Council
Site of the U.N. headquarters New York City
Deliberative body made up of representatives of all member nations the General Assembly
The U.N.'s court, headquartered at The Hague the International Court of Justice (or the World Court)
Head of the Secretariat the Secretary-General
Main task of the United Nations to prevent war (or to keep peace)
Agency that works to improve all people's health the World Health Organization (WHO)
Important voting power held by each permanent member of the Security Council a veto
The most frequent user of the Security Council veto power the Soviet Union
Common acronym of the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNESCO
Agency concerned with children's health and welfare UNICEF
The five permanent members of the Security Council U.S., Russia, France, China, U.K.
The clerical and administrative body of the U.N. the Secretariat
Seventh Secretary-General, the second from Africa Kofi Annan
Third Secretary-General, the first from Asia U Thant
Norwegian who was the first Secretary-General Trygve Lie
Sixth Secretary-General, the first from Africa Boutros Boutros-Ghali
American U.N. mediator between Arabs and Israelis; winner of the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize Ralph Bunche
The six official languages of the U.N. English, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic
The U.N. High Commissioner helps these people. refugees

U.N. Peacekeeping
Large-scale combat forces were sent here in the early 1950s. Korea
The U.N arranged a cease-fire between these two Mideast belligerents in 1956. Israel and Egypt
The Security Council arranged a cease-fire in 1967 to end this Arab-Israeli war. the Six-Day War
The U.N. arranged another cease-fire for this region in 1973. the Mideast
U.N. resolutions set the terms for settlement of this brief 1991 war. the Persian Gulf War
Small U.N. groups that supervise cease-fires or truces observers
Mideast crisis of 1956 that created a U.N. emergency force the Suez Canal crisis
The U.N. intervened when this former Communist nation in the Balkans split up. Yugoslavia
Unpaid peacekeeping charges brought the U.N. close to this in the 1960s. bankruptcy
Major weakness of the League of Nations that the U.N. avoided only recommending (not initiating) action
The U.N worked out a cease-fire between these parties in 1949. Israel and the Arab states
U.N. peacekeepers went to this Caribbean island in 1995. Haiti
Island nation that received a U.N. peacekeeping force in 1964 Cyprus
A U.N. force was sent to this Mideast nation in 1978. Lebanon
U.N. troops tried but failed to restore order in this East African nation in the 1990s. Somalia
The U.N. lacks this for peacekeeping duties. a permanent police force
Conflict between these groups on Cyprus caused U.N. intervention. Greeks and Turks
How the U.N. pays for its special peacekeeping forces special assessments
The Netherlands granted this country independence in 1949 due to U.N. efforts. Indonesia
African country that asked for U.N. troops to create stability in 1960 the Congo

International Associations and Agreements

Association of the world's major oil-producing nations OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries)
Association that helps people harmed by natural disasters the International Red Cross
Group that works to free political prisoners and to improve prison conditions Amnesty International
Group that uses confrontation and intervention in its quest to protect the environment Greenpeace
Free trade agreement among the U.S., Mexico, and Canada NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
Major body that supervises international trade the WTO (World Trade Organization)
Group that promotes Arab solidarity and common interests the Arab League
U.S.-Latin American association formed in 1948 to promote cooperation the OAS (Organization of American States)
Organization of major industrial democracies that meet for annual summits the Group of Seven (G-7)
Common name of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development the World Bank
Association dedicated to achieving European cooperation and unity the European Union
Medical group that treats victims in war-torn areas Doctors Without Borders
International agreement of 1975 to honor basic human rights the Helsinki Agreement
Agency that promotes stable currencies and international monetary cooperation the IMF (International Monetary Fund)
Association that promotes cooperation among Caribbean nations CARICOM (Caribbean Community and Common Market)
Agreement to lower trade barriers worldwide GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
Group set up in 1963 to promote cooperation among African nations OAU (Organization of African Unity)
Cooperative association of six Southeast Asian nations formed in 1967 ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
Group formed to promote trade across the Pacific Rim region APEC (Asian-Pacific Cooperation Group)

Nuclear Arms Control

Series of meetings in the 1970s on limiting nuclear arms SALT (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks)
U.S. demand to verify Soviet weapons reduction inspection
The Soviets said inspection was really an excuse for this. spying
New frontier that is supposed to be off-limits to the arms race outer space
The United States deployed medium-range missiles here in 1983. Western Europe
No permanent nuclear weapons are to be installed off nations' coastlines in this place. the seabed (ocean floor)
Type of missiles limited by the SALT agreements ICBMs and submarine-launched missiles
U.S. -Soviet agreement signed in 1979, but never approved by the U.S. Senate SALT II
U.S.-U.S.S.R. 1988 treaty called for dismantling of all of these in Europe medium-range missiles
Neutral, demilitarized, nonnuclear continent Antarctica
Areas off-limits to nuclear testing, according to 1963 agreement the atmosphere, under water, and outer space
Formal name of space-based defense system planned during Reagan's presidency SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)
Nickname for SDI Star Wars
Iceland's capital; site of U.S.-Soviet summit conference Reykjavik
Soviet and U.S. leaders who signed a weapons-reduction treaty in 1987 Gorbachev and Reagan
Focus of the U.S.-Soviet arms talks after the 1967 treaty long-range missiles
U.N. body created to help regulate and reduce arms the Disarmament Commission
Nonnuclear nations' 1968 agreement not to produce or receive nuclear weapons the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
Treaty to reduce nuclear arms, signed in 1991 after nine years of negotiating START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)

Online Flash Cards
48 - The New Global Economy
Question Answer
Energy: Sources and Strategies
Energy sources from the remains of prehistoric plants and animals fossil fuels
Energy created by splitting atoms nuclear power
Energy created from the sun's rays solar power
Form of energy that propels sailboats wind power
The world's most widely used fossil fuel oil (petroleum)
The cleanest fossil fuel, often sent through pipelines natural gas
Energy produced by the natural rise and fall of the oceans tidal energy
Energy created by water hydropower
Formerly the world's chief fuel, this provides only a small percentage of today's energy. firewood (fuelwood)
Motor fuel that is a mixture of ethanol and gasoline gasohol
Term for energy sources that can be rebuilt or regenerated renewable energy sources
Term for energy sources that will run out eventually nonrenewable resources
Element commonly used in nuclear fission uranium
The combining of atomic nuclei, a possible future energy source nuclear fusion
Nuclear fission does not produce this dangerous byproduct radioactive waste
The world's second most widely used fossil fuel coal
Mideast nation with greatest amount of petroleum reserves Saudi Arabia
Two leading West European producers of crude petroleum Norway and the United Kingdom
Devices that convert sunlight into electricity photovoltaic (solar) cells
Power generated when water contacts heated underground rocks geothermal energy
Gaseous element that may become a major future energy source hydrogen

The Environment: Air and Water

The killing of these sea mammals is now controlled by international agreement. whales
Polluted precipation acid rain
Mixture of fog and smoke; major pollutant of many cities' air smog
Prolonged lack of rain, experienced often in Africa drought
Tanker accidents that can devastate coastal areas oil spills
Site of world's largest oil spill, result of war, 1991 the Persian Gulf
Site of devastating Alaskan oil spill in 1989, or the tanker that caused the spill Prince William Sound, the Exxon Valdez
Layer of the atmosphere that is beginning to break down the ozone layer
Ozone in the atmosphere protects us from this. ultraviolet light
Gradual warming of the earth's atmosphere the greenhouse effect
Centers that break down organic wastes into waste water sewage treatment plants
Global warming is expected to produce a rise in this. sea level
Major contributor to smog and carbon dioxide pollution, especially in the United States automobile emissions
Result of too much exposure to ultraviolet light skin cancer (melanoma)
Dangerous radiation released from nuclear explosions fallout
Organisms that increase when nitrate and phosphorus levels increase in water algae
Addition of heated water to a natural body of water thermal pollution
Manufactured particles that are damaging the upper atmosphere chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Global network to monitor atmospheric pollution Earthwatch
Substance in the air created by burning carbon-containing fuels carbon dioxide
Mechanisms on cars that remove some of the exhaust pollutants catalytic converters
Major pollutant released when coal is burned sulphur dixoide

The Environment: Earth

Large open area where solid waste is buried a landfill
Chemical products used to kill insect pests pesticides
Chemical products used to kill weeds herbicides
Having more people than a region can support overpopulation
Process that robs farmland of topsoil erosion
Watering of land by artificial means, used on 550 million acres worldwide irrigation
Reprocessing of waste materials recycling
Byproducts of nuclear power plants nuclear (radioactive) wastes
Development of new high-yielding seeds for rice and wheat the "green revolution"
The new high-yielding crops need heavy doses of this. fertilizer
U.S. agency that works to cut down pollution the Environmental Protection Agency
Living things in danger of becoming extinct endangered species
Disposal of these nonusable things is a growing problem. waste materials
Clearing of this Brazilian area may affect the world's climate. the Amazon Rainforest
Three most commonly recycled materials paper, glass, aluminum
Programs to reduce loss of topsoil soil conservation programs
Method of controlling population growth family planning
Substance that has been removed from gasoline and paints lead
International meeting in Rio de Janiero on the environment and development in 1992 the Earth Summit
Main cause of species extinction habitat destruction

Global Business and Economics

Levels of comfort, expected to be lower in the future living standards
Complete control of a commodity, service, or market a monopoly
International commerce without trade barriers free trade
Chief reason why manufacturers locate in underdeveloped nations low wages
Businesses that are natural monopolies public utilities
New, common European currency the euro
Tax on imported goods to protect native products a protective tariff
Reducing the value of a nation's currency in relation to other countries' currencies devaluation
A corporation that produces and sells a product in two or more countries a multinational corporation
The expectation of people in underdeveloped nations to have a higher standard of living the revolution of rising expectations
Most of the world's underdeveloped countries are in this hemisphere. the Southern Hemisphere
Underdeveloped countries contain most of the world's remaining stores of these. raw materials
The United States changed from a creditor nation to this in the 1980s. a debtor nation
Annual meeting of world industrial leaders economic summit meetings
High duties on a long list of imported goods a tariff wall
Agreements reached by the United States with both Canada and Mexico in the 80s and 90s free trade agreements
The Four Tigers of Asia South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore
Industries that multiplied in developed nations as manufacturing jobs went to developing nations information industries
Selling goods abroad at less than they sell for at home dumping
Policy of setting high import duties to protect native products protectionism

Online Flash Cards
49 - Science and Technology in the Twentieth Century
Question Answer
Site of the first sustained, powered flight Kitty Hawk
Pioneers of sustained, powered flight Wilbur and Orville Wright
The first inexpensive, dependable, mass-produced car the Model T Ford
Major communications medium from the 1950s on television
Worldwide linkage of computer networks the Internet
Portable, wireless, handheld telephone a cellular phone
Personal, electronic messages e-mail
These two sources replaced kerosene for lighting. natural gas and electricity
Major communications medium in the 1930s and 1940s radio
Innovative addition to motion pictures in 1927 sound
Ford's method of producing cars the assembly line (or mass production)
Tiny devices that control electronic signals transistors
Device that produces a thin, intense beam of light a laser
Miniature electronic device consisting of thousands of transistors on a single chip a microprocessor
Type of engine powered by batteries an electric engine
Most common semiconductor material; nickname of a valley in California silicon
Devices that do jobs too boring, difficult, or dangerous for people robots
Mass production made these much more available and affordable. consumer goods
Type of engine that replaced steam for trains and ships the diesel engine
Solid material that conducts electricity and is used to make transistors a semiconductor
Faster, smaller computers that replaced the first computers "second generation computers" (personal computers)
Devices that reduces harmful automobile emissions a catalytic converter

The Physical Sciences

Famed German scientist who revolutionized physics Albert Einstein
Einstein's theory about space and time the theory of relativity
Center of the atom, first described by Rutherford the nucleus
Idea that the universe began as a result of an explosion the big bang theory
Elementary particles; the opposite of ordinary particles antimatter (antiparticles)
High-energy particles from outer space cosmic rays
Ability of some metals to conduct electricity with no resistance at temperatures near absolute 0 superconductivity
Tiny subatomic particle with positive charge, discovered by Rutherford a proton
Einstein's famous equation E = mc2
Study of the Earth based on the principals of physics geophysics
Physicists found more and more of these particles after 1945. subatomic particles
Glass filaments that transmit data via light pulses optical fibers
Italian-born physicist whose team achieved the first controlled nuclear chain reaction Enrico Fermi
Planck's theory that energy is released in definite packages the quantum theory
Englishman who disintegrated atoms, showing they were not solid Ernest Rutherford
Small, rapidly rotating star that emits radio waves a pulsar
Extremely luminous object at the center of a distant galaxy a quasar
Particle that may be the basic subunit of neutrons and protons a quark
Billionth of a second a nanosecond
Idea that the Earth's outer shell consists of rigid, moving plates the plate tectonic theory
Device used to create high-velocity beams of subatomic particles the particle accelerator

The Biological and Physiological Sciences

Treatment of disease with chemicals, often used for cancer patients chemotherapy
The first antibiotic penicillin
Units of heredity, identified around 1910 genes
Vaccines were developed in the early 1950s for this dreaded childhood disease. polio
Father of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud
Incurable disease of the immune system, first identified in 1979 AIDS
Term for the use of disease-causing agents by terrorists bioterrorism
The study of inborn characteristics and their inheritance genetics
Cell structures that contain genes chromosomes
Creation of an identical copy of a living organism using DNA cloning
The substance that carries genetic information DNA
Drugs that fight disease-causing microbes antibiotics
Computerized axial tomographic scanner; takes cross-sectional X rays of the body a CAT scanner
Delicate surgery that uses microscopes microsurgery
Brain disorder involving memory loss, a concern of older people Alzheimer's disease
Surgical replacement of a diseased body organ organ transplant
Field of medicine that focuses on genetic diseases molecular medicine
Technology that produces images of the body's internal organs MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Altering of an organism's hereditary makeup genetic engineering
Project devoted to mapping all human genetic material (DNA) the human genome project
The study of extremely low temperatures; used to freeze living body parts cryogenics
Doctors who specialize in care of newborn infants neonatologists

The Space Age

The first artificial satellite sent into Earth orbit, in 1957 Sputnik I
The U.S. manned spacecraft designed to be reusable the space shuttle
Huge industry that designs and builds space equipment the aerospace industry
A Soviet space pilot a cosmonaut
Space shuttle that exploded in 1986 Challenger
The U.S. space agency the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The first men on the moon Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin
The moon-landing flight satellite Apollo 11
The first U.S. space laboratory Skylab
First man to circle the Earth in a spaceship Yuri Gagarin
First American to circle the Earth in a spaceship John Glenn
Space between the stars interstellar space
Satellite on which a crew lives for an extended period a space station
Unmanned spacecraft that explore other planets space probes
The first communications satellite Telstar
First planet to experience a satellite landing Venus
Soviet space station that plunged into the Pacific Ocean in 2000 Mir
Orbiting astronomy tool launched in 1990 the Hubble space telescope
Radiation belt that circle the earth, discovered by satellites and probes the Van Allen Belt
U.S. and Soviet spacecraft that linked up in 1975 Apollo and Soyus
The first animal sent into space, a Soviet dog Laika
The first woman in space Valentina Tereshkova
The first U.S. space shuttle Columbia

Online Flash Cards
50 - Western Culture in the Twentieth Century
Question Answer
Literature, Philosophy, and Religion
Supernatural teachings and beliefs the occult
U.S. author, nicknamed "Papa," known for his simple, clear style Ernest Hemingway
U.S. author of The Great Gatsby; often wrote about the very rich F. Scott Fitzgerald
U.S. author known for his stream of consciousness technique William Faulkner
U.S. author of The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck
African-American cultural flowering in 1920s New York City the Harlem Renaissance
Mix of mysticism, belief in former lives, and personal fulfillment the New Age Movement
Philosophy that individuals create themselves by the choices they make existentialism
American blacks who adopted the Islamic faith Black Muslims
Authors of the 1920s who wrote about disillusioned and rootless characters the Lost Generation
Irish author who revolutionized modern fiction James Joyce
Flow of a character's thoughts and mental images in a novel stream of consciousness
Writing on two levels of meaning symbolism
Where most U.S. short stories first appeared magazines
Next to Christianity, the two religious faiths with the most U.S. adherents Judaism and Islam
Noted French existentialist writer and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre
Movement that seeks to unify Christians worldwide the ecumenical movement
Meeting of Catholic leaders that modernized the Church Vatican Council II
African-American woman who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993 Toni Morrison
Modern fiction that mixes fantastical and realistic events (e.g. Gabriel Garcia Marquez) magic realism
Push by clergy in Latin America to get the Church more involved in social reform liberation theology

Music, Poetry, and Theater

American poets of the 1950s and 1960s who condemned middle-class life the Beats
New Englander who was the most popular U.S. poet of his time Robert Frost
U.S. dramatist who wrote A Streetcar Named Desire Tennessee Williams
U.S. dramatist who wrote The Crucible Arthur Miller
Best-known U.S. center of professional theater Broadway
New style of music first embraced by young people in the 1950s rock and roll
U.S. born British poet who wrote The Waste Land T.S. Eliot
Welsh poet known for his stirring, passionate verse Dylan Thomas
First U.S. dramatist to win international recognition Eugene O' Neill
Drama that emphasizes the illogical, like Waiting for Godot theater of the absurd
Lively U.S. musical style developed in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicagp jazz
New York theaters that emphasize very inventive plays Off-Off-Broadway
Theater company that succeeded Britain's famed Old Vic the National Theatre
Britain's government-supported Shakespearean company the Royal Shakespeare Company
Formerly a popular form of stage entertainment, a combination of comedy, song, dancing, etc. vaudeville
The first rock opera Tommy
U.S. organization that makes grants to artistic groups the National Endowment for the Arts
This confessional woman poet committed suicide in 1963. Sylvia Plath
Critical Soviet poet, author of "Babi Yar" Yevgeny Yevtushenko
German dramatistwho wrote The Threepenny Opera Bertolt Brecht
U.S. dramatist who wrote A Raisin in the Sun Lorraine Hansberry
Country with the largest state-supported theater system Germany

Painting and Photography

Film that can store reduced images microfilm
The attempt to move beyond impressionism postimpressionism
Style that used basic geometric shapes, such as cubes cubism
Style that expressed highly personal, intense views expressionism
U.S. comic-strip-style that showed common objects pop art
Use of color and patterns to create optical illusions op art
Work of artists with little or no formal training folk art (or primitive art)
American primitive painter who started painting at age 76 Grandma Moses
Painting that explored the unconscious mind surrealism
First large U.S. modern art show, in 1913 the Armory Show
Nonrepresentational style known for swirling masses of lines abstract expressionism
Paintings of simple shapes or objects with as little emotional content as possible minimal art
Painting that represents objects very exactly new realism
Most popular U.S. painter of the mid-1900s, a realist known for Christina's World Andrew Wyeth
Enormously popular U.S. artist known for his Saturday Evening Post covers Norman Rockwell
U.S. pop artist known for his paintings of Campbell's soup cans Andy Warhol
Miniature 35-mm camera that revolutionized photographic equipment in 1924 the Leica
U.S. documentary photographers of the 1930s Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange
Americans who helped develop photography as a creative art Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen
School of art that used extremely bright colors fauvism
Absurd school of art dadaism
U.S. group that painted realistic street scenes of modern life the Ashcan School

Architecture and Sculpture

Sculptural works that are actually part of nature environmental sculpture
U.S. architect whose buildings harmonized with their natural settings Frank Lloyd Wright
Buildings with this status may not be destroyed or significantly altered. landmark status
Spectacular New York City skyscraper complex with twin 110-story towers (see 09/11/2001) the World Trade Center
King Kong's hangout; located in New York City, it is one of the world's tallest skyscrapers. the Empire State Building
One of the world's tallest buildings, located in Chicago the Sears Tower
Sculptural shapes found in nature organic forms
Sculptor known for vast reclining figures Henry Moore
U.S. center of modern architecture in the early 1900s Chicago
Famed German school of design, founded in 1919 the Bauhaus
Plain, severe architectural style with expanses of steel and glass the international style
Building material with metal rods for extra strength reinforced concrete
Renowned Swiss architect of the international style Le Corbusier
Chinese-American architect noted for broad, irregular geometric shapes I.M. Pei
Architectural movement that rejects the international style postmodernism
Moving sculpture form invented by Alexander Calder the mobile
Romanian sculptor of Bird in Space Constantin Brancusi
American woman who assembled man-made or machine-made objects into sculptures Louise Nevelson
Pioneering group of modern American architects the Chicago School
German architect who emphasized functionalism Walter Gropius
The master of glass and steel architecture Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Frank Lloyd Wright's long, low buildings prairie houses

Online Flash Cards