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WL- JDA Pre-School Program

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At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:
Define: IDW; its function; how motion is measured; its calibration policy; Wheel Correction and how it is calculated. Define: CMTD, its function, define strain gauge and how tension is measured, calibration policy. Define function of modular and spider weak-points; Describe the application of each. Define: Logging Tension (Tn), Cable SWL, MAX SAFE PULL (MSP), MAX SAFE OVERPULL (MSOP). State the formula for weak-point selection based on Upper weak-point rating and SWL of Cable. Understand how weak-point selection is affected as the well gets deeper/shallower.

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(OH-JFE): State the ratings of Yellow, Orange, Tan Weak-points; Describe rating reduction with temperature.
(MAXPRO-JFE): Describe how the upper and lower rating of a spider weak-point is calculated. Define the primary intentions of the WL Depth Control Policy.


June 06

At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:
State the Accuracy and Repeatability of the WL depth measurement Describe : Tool Zero at surface, RULS, RULB, Log down vs. Log-up correction, re-zero at surface, correlation log. State the formula for manually calculating stretch.
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Describe the difference between: First Log in well; Subsequent Log ; Subsequent trip. State the maximum permitted speeds for running a winch in/out of a hole; also in terms of proportion of tension. Describe how the following alarms are set as a proportion of tension : High/Low tension Alarm/Shutdown. Describe how the following alarms are set relative to position in well : Top of well /Bottom of well Alarm/Shutdown. (under supervision) set all the alarms on a WFDD in the Shop Computer/or on a job. Describe the function of the SAFE WINCH PLACARD as the primary SOP that must be adhered to during Operations.
Remember! this icon gives you the reference (see LAST SLIDE). Also , you can click the number during the slide show to go directly to the reference. 3 WLH-JDA-PRE-SCHOOL

June 06


2,5,6(Chapter 14)

In Wireline we provide our clients with the most accurate depth in the oil industry. We achieve this by a combination of policy and procedures as well as technology. The Integrated Depth Dual-Wheel Spooler (IDW) is the device we use to measure depth accurately and precisely. The IDW outputs depth (and subsequently speed) and direction.
1 The depth is measured by an
encoder module attached to each wheel. When a wheel moves the encoder outputs an electrical pulse every 0.1 inches (the period of the pulse). We can count the the number of pulses and the time to get depth and speed. 2,5
Wheel Circumference = 30 inch Encoder disk slots = 300 Resolution = 30 / 300 = 0.1 inch

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The encoder uses an LED (Light Emitting Diode) to send light through 300 equally spaced slots positioned on a disk (disk moves with the wheel). The light sensor (photo-diode) outputs a pulse each time light comes through a slot. 2,5

Wheel Correction (WC) and Calibrations

In reality, the wheel will not move exactly 0.1 in for each pulse due to errors introduced by the cable or by wear in the wheels. For Example: if the cable moves 10,000 pulses (83.33 ft) and the IDW records 10,004 then the wheel correction is 4. We must calibrate the IDW every 6 months or 50 well-site trips or after 500,000 ft to measure the Wheel Correction.

What if I dont have any calibrations? 2,5

We can estimate a value for the wheel correction based on the formula: WC = CRC + WWC + WDC Where: CRC = Cable Rolling Coefficient
Due to squeezing of the cable by the wheels (Average= +8)

The cable moves in between the wheels

WWC = Wheel Wear Coefficient

Groove created on the wheel by moving cable (negative value)

WDC = Wheel Diameter Coefficient

Set by the factory to 8 to offset the effect of the CRC

June 06

DEPTH CONTROL PROCEDURES : 2-Policy and Practice2

We have discussed the technology side of the Wireline depth measurement policy. The other component in delivering the most accurate possible depth is the policy and procedures applied by the practitioners (i.e. you). Here we see an overview of the Wireline depth control policy and its practice that you will soon be implementing in the field. 2 The Primary aim of the Depth Control Policy is to provide an Accurate, Repeatable and Traceable Procedure that is Uniform Worldwide.
1 3

Accuracy :

aimed at : +/- 5 ft/10,000 ft = 0.05 %

Repeatability : aimed at : +/- 2 ft/10,000 ft = 0.02 % Lets see the well-site procedure for the FIRST RUN IN HOLE

This means that for a 10,000 ft well, our accuracy range is 9995 ft 10,005 ft and we will repeat that measurement within +/- 2ft, every time .
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RIG-UP LENGTH CORRECTION (RULC) RULC= RULS-RULB (should be less than 1ft). Add RULC to the depth system This corrects for Rig-up slack at surface.

TOOL ZERO After Rig-up and setting up the Depth System, ZERO the Depth on the Drill Floor


RIG-UP LENGTH AT SURFACE (RULS) After running in hole measure the distance between the IDW and Rig Floor (mark the cable). Repeat this near the bottomWLH-JDA-PRE-SCHOOL of the well (RULB) 5

Perform a Down-log and an Up-log over a small interval where there is a clear marker. Correct the UP-LOG to the same depth as the DOWN-LOG

Tool Re-Zero at Surface (ZRCS)

Re-Zero the tool when it comes back to surface should be within +/- 2ft per 10,000 ft. If more than 2 ft report this and repeat all the same procedures for the next run.

June 06

DEPTH CONTROL PROCEDURES : 2-Policy and Practice2

Usually a Wireline operation will require more than one run in the well (Subsequent Log)and often we will go back to that well at another date to do some more work (Subsequent trip). Our policy covers the procedure for the subsequent run and the subsequent trip to the well to ensure a consistent depth. 2 Lets see the well-site procedure for the Subsequent LOG
Subsequent LOG means that we have not changed our rig-up in any way (i.e. we pull out of the well and connect another tool and run back in.

Lets see the well-site procedure for the Subsequent TRIP

Subsequent TRIP means that we rig down completely and come back to the well-site on another occasion.

Manual calculation of Stretch We can calculate a the approximate stretch due to tension using a formula: Stretch = 1/2 x L x E x (Tup - Tdown) Where: Schlumberger Private L = Length of the cable or Depth E = Elastic stretch coefficient = 9.63 x 10 7 for Heptacable T= Tension in lbs NOTE: this is just a check (we correct for stretch using the Log down vs. Log Up method that has been described)

1- Reference Log Agree with the customer on the log that is going to be used as a reference. 2- Follow all procedures for FIRST RUN in HOLE 3- Check and Correlate Check your depth with the reference log. If depth is within 5 ft per 10,000 ft of the reference log, then adjust the depth to the reference log (if more than 5 ft, investigate) There should be a 200ft overlap with the reference log.

1- Tool Zero (as before) 2- Log up (this log must over-lap with a section from the first Run) 3- Correlate Tie-in this log with the first log. The 2 logs should agree over the entire interval.

Z-Chart As a secondary depth control keep a record of the depth at the beginning and end of every wrap on the drum and a note of tensions during the logging. This sheet is called a Zchart. It is used in case of an IDW failure


June 06

Measuring Tension and the CMTD

STRAIN AXLE and 4 Rollers
The CMTD works by bending the cable slightly as it passes through the 4 rollers and a Strain Axle. The stress caused by the bending is proportional to the tension in the cable. This stress is felt by the strain axle. The Strain axle contains a STRAIN GAUGE which is designed to output an electrical signal proportional to that stress.

4,6(Chapter 11)

The Cable Mounted Tension Device (CMTD) is a critical safety device in Wireline operations. It provides an accurate tension measurement allowing us to operate within the safe working loads of the cable.

STRAIN GAUGE Schlumberger Private

CMTD Let see how it works:


This consists of resistors that are strain sensitive. These resistors are mounted on a device which deforms when stress is applied (in this case an axle). This deformation changes the length of the resistor and hence its resistance. The change in resistance produces an electrical signal proportional to that change in resistance (using the Wheatstone Bridge circuit)

The CMTD must be calibrated every month using the Tension Device Calibrator (TDC)
Note: the 2 outer rollers are specific to the size of cable being used. If you use a different size cable then these rollers must be changed 7 WLH-JDA-PRE-SCHOOL

Therefore, the electrical signal is proportional to the tension All we need to do is calibrate the CMTD by applying known tensions and measuring the signal.

June 06

Logging tension safety and Weak-points

There are 3 classes of weak-point.
1 2 3

6(Chapter 12)

We lower our tools in the hole using the Wireline cable. The cable is connected to the tools using the logging head. The logging head contains an emergency release mechanism which allows us to detach the cable at the head (by pulling from surface) and hence retrieve all the cable back to surface. This release mechanism is called a weak-point. Most weak-points are designed to release at a specified tension. We call that the weak-point rating.

Modular weak-point
Consists of a solid metal rod designed to break at a known range of stress. Used in Heptacable Operations

Spider Weak-point

Electrical Release Weak-point

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Specially designed to release only when electrical current is sent to release the weak-point. Called the ECRD (Electrically Controlled Release Device). Designed to be used in very deep wells with heavy tool-strings (for Heptacable operations only). Spider weak-points are made by cutting a certain number of inner and outer armors of the logging cable at the logging head. Used in all Mono-cable Operations


June 06

Unintentional Pull-off Prevention: 1-Logging tensions1

In order to operate the cable safely during Wireline operations, we must be aware of the limits on our tensions when pulling on the cable. Otherwise we may unintentionally pull-off the weak-point or may damage the cable. In either case there would be a serious loss to Schlumberger and our client.

Lets define some important equations and terms.


To calculate the maximum safe surface tension to pull on the tool-string without breaking the weak-point, we use the following equations2:
Maximum Safe pull: or MSP = MSOP + TN Maximum Safe Over-pull: MSOP = 75% LWPR WTM MSP = TN WTM + (75% x LWPR),

The MSP is calculated for the case that the tool gets stuck and we need to know how much we can safely pull to try and free the tool without breaking the weak-point. EXPLANATION: WTM WTM is subtracted out of the equations because when the tool is stuck then the formation (or whatever is holding the tool) is bearing the weight of the tool. Only the cable weight becomes important. EXPLANATION: MSOP MSOP is a useful constant that lets us know how much we can safely pull above the logging tension at any time.

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3 TN

= Normal logging tension coming up WTM = Tool-string weight in mud LWPR = Lower weak-point rating, (UWPR Upper weak-point rating) TN is also = WTM + CW
(CW= Cable weight in Mud)

EXPLANATION: LWPR, UWPR : All mechanical Weak-points have an upper and lower rating. This is the range of tension within which the weak-point will break.
{NOTE: this does not apply to the ECRD}


June 06

Unintentional Pull-off Prevention:

Before every job, we must select a weak-point to use. For all mechanical weak-points (i.e.Modular and Spider) we must calculate the correct rating required to achieve our objectives.
1 We have 2 objectives when selecting a weak-point : 1.We must be able to break the Weak-point at the deepest point in the well without exceeding the cable Safe Working Load ( SWL) 2.We want the maximum possible MSP (i.e. the largest possible weak-point rating so we can pull more to try to get free)
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If we get stuck and decide to break the Weak-point in order to retrieve the cable then how much to we need to pull? :
Well, we take the logging tension,TN and deduct the tool weight, WTM then pull the Upper rating of the Weak-point, UWPR . We can write this as: (TN) WTM + UWPR

EXPLANATION: WTM WTM is subtracted out of the equation because when the tool is stuck in the formation then the formation is bearing the weight of the tool. Only the cable weight becomes important. This is important to understand.

(From previous slide) TN can be re-written in your equation as WTM + CW So: WTM is cancels leaving: (WTM + CW) WTM + UWPR CW + UWPR

.So in order to achieve our objectives we must choose the largest possible weak- point that meets criteria A
EXPLANATION: CW We must calculate the cable weight for the maximum possible depth in the well (worst case scenario). { Heptacable weighs around 333 lbs (in air) per 1000 ft } { Mono-cable weighs around 107 lbs (in air) per 1000 ft }

This must be less than the safe working load of the cable ( SWL):




4 .Also it follows that a deep well will have a bigger cable weight (CW) and therefore a smaller UWPR. Hence: Deeper well = smaller weak-point

Unintentional Pull-off Prevention:

Lets look at examples of weak-points and their ratings as well as some practical ideas of how weak-points are affected by well conditions and what policy is applied to the use of weak-points. This applies mainly to the 2 types of mechanical weak-points.

Modular weak-points
These weak-points are designated a colour. Yellow, Orange and Tan are very common (and its useful to remember these 3 ratings!). The strength of these weakpoints is affected by temperature. It is defined as a % reduction of their strength.

Spider Weak-point
The upper and lower ratings of these weak-points have to be calculated from a given nominal rating. This table shows the Spider Weak-point ratings for a 2-23 mono-cable. To calculate the upper and lower rating, we must +/- 15% respectively from the strength. e.g. an 8-3 = 1785 lbs (nominal) Upper rating = 1785 + 15 % Lower rating = 1785 15 % We MUST change a WEAK-POINT if it has been
1- ..pulled more than 75% of its lower break strength Schlumberger Private

Part No.
H441403 H441404 H441405 H441406 H352141 H352149 H441408


Low er Rating

Upper Rating

Gray Red Black Yellow Orange Tan Blue

3000 3400 3500 4200 3900 4500 4800 5400 5400 6000 6000 6700 6700 7300

This temperature reduction must be applied to Upper and lower rating when doing calculations. It is approximately 4 % reduction for every 100 degF 11 WLH-JDA-PRE-SCHOOL increase.
June 06

2- to temperatures higher than its rated temperature or to freezing conditions in a head without grease 3-..made marginally longer than a normal weak-point or is bent. 4-..more than 3 months since it was first used in a well.

Unintentional Pull-off Prevention:

4-Speed Limits and Setting alarms during logging1,3

Speed Limits
The speed limits are given as a percentage of the STATIC TENSION (tension when the tool is not moving) However, The Speed must never exceed 15 , 000 ft/hr for Open Hole an 25 , 000 ft/hr for cased hole operations 2

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Alarms- these are for both tension and depth limits

Alarms are set to warn us of critical tensions and depths. There are alarm 2 types: 1: Warning Alarm- when this is activated a loud beeping noise is heard. 2: Shut -Down Alarm- When this is activated the Winch Shuts-down.
High/ Low Tension Alarm These are set according to the cable speed recommendati ons. Or any special well conditions High/ Low Tension SHUTDOWN In open hole not more than 500 lbs above or below normal logging tension. 100-200 lbs for cased hole operations Top/ Bottom of Well Alarm Top of well alarm must be set before the cable head enters the casing for open hole operations. Before any tubing shoes or restrictions for cased hole operations. Bottom well alarm set to stop too much slack cable being run in hole. Top/ Bottom of Well SHUT-DOWN Winch must shut down before it can get to an obstacle that may break the weak-point. In Open hole the head must not arrive at the Upper sheave wheel. For cased hole operations it depends on the rig-up


Winch Safe Operating Procedure3

This Placard defines the SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) for all winch operations. Adhering to the SOP is Mandatory.

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Set the Alarms on a WFDD in the SHOP Do a FIT (and if you have time a TRIM) of a IDW and CMTD
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TIP: Practical tasks to be done with an ENGINEER or CREW-CHIEF : The best time to do any type of practical is during the Post-Job checks (Just after coming back from the rig) or Pre-Job checks (the time before going to the rig- if time allows) . At these times, Engineers will power-up the tools and check to see that they are working. Also, at these times, the operators and technicians will be servicing and doing maintenance on the tools. All practical tasks required during pre-school can be learned during the Pre-Job / Post Job Checks, so go out there an get involved !!

1. Pull Off Prevention 2. Depth control Online Training 3. Winch Control Standard Online Training 4. CMTD Online Training 5. IDW Online Training
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6. Wireline Operators Manual Vol. 1 (Chapters 11, 12, 14 as referenced in the slide)

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