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# CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

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MOSFET Amplifier
Large Signal Analysis
Review
 Amp constructed using dependent source
control a DS b output
port a′ b′ port

a + b
+

v i = f (v )
a′ – b′

##  Superposition with dependent sources:

one way tleave all dependent sources in;
solve for one independent source at a
time [section 3.5.1 of the text]
 Next, quick review of amp …

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Amp review
VS

RL

vO
VCCS
K
iD = (vI − 1)
2
vI 2
+
– for vI ≥ 1V
= 0 otherwise

vO = VS − iD RL

K
(vI − 1)2
2

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Key device Needed:

v B

A
i = f (v )
voltage controlled
current source
C

## Let’s look at our old friend, the MOSFET …

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Key device Needed:
Our old friend, the MOSFET …

## First, we sort of lied. The on-state behavior of the

MOSFET is quite a bit more complex than either the
ideal switch or the resistor model would have you believe.
D
G
vGS < VT

D S

G
S
vGS ≥ VT
?

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Graphically
Demo
iDS v+DS
+
vGS –

vDS = vGS − VT
iDS iDS iDS vGS 1

n
vGS ≥ VT egio Saturation
region
de r

vGS ≥ VT vGS 2
Trio

vGS3

## vGS < VT vGS < VT ...

vDS vDS vDS
vGS < VT Cutoff
S MODEL SR MODEL region

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Graphically

iDS v+DS
+
vGS –

vDS = vGS − VT
iDS iDS iDS vGS 1

n
egio
vGS ≥ VT Saturation
region
de r vGS 2
vGS ≥ VT
Trio

vGS3

...
vGS < VT vGS < VT
vDS vDS vDS
vGS < VT
S MODEL SR MODEL when
vDS ≥ vGS − VT
Notice that
MOSFET
behaves like a
current source

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MOSFET SCS Model
When vDS ≥ vGS − VT
the MOSFET is in its saturation region, and the
switch current source (SCS) model of the MOSFET is
more accurate than the S or SR model

D
G
vGS < VT

D S

G D
iDS = f (vGS )
S G K
= (vGS − VT )
2
vGS ≥ VT 2
when
S vDS ≥ vGS − VT

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Reconciling the models…
vDS = vGS − VT
iDS iDS iDS vGS 1

n
egio
vGS ≥ VT Saturation
region

de r
vGS ≥ VT vGS 2

Trio
vGS3

...
vGS < VT vGS < VT
vDS vDS v DS
vGS < VT
S MODEL SR MODEL SCS MODEL
for digital for analog
for fun!
designs designs

## When to use each model in 6.002?

Note: alternatively (in more advanced courses)
vDS ≥ vGS − VT use SCS model
vDS < vGS − VT use SR model
or, use SU Model (Section 7.8 of A&L)

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Back to Amplifier
VS
vI vO
AMP

VS
RL
vO
G D K
vI iDS = (vI − VT )
2

S 2
in saturation
region

## To ensure the MOSFET operates as a VCCS,

we must operate it in its saturation region
only. To do so, we promise to adhere to the
“saturation discipline”

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MOSFET Amplifier
VS
RL
vO
G D K
vI iDS = (vI − VT )
2

S 2
in saturation
region

## To ensure the MOSFET operates as a VCCS,

we must operate it in its saturation region
only. We promise to adhere to the
“saturation discipline.”

## In other words, we will operate the amp

circuit such that

## vGS ≥ VT and vDS ≥ vGS – VT at all times.

vO ≥ vI – vT

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Let’s analyze the circuit
First, replace the MOSFET with its
SCS model.

VS

RL
vO
D K
G iDS = (vI − VT )
2
A
+ 2
vGS = vI + vI for vO ≥ v I − VT

S

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Let’s analyze the circuit
VS

RL
vO
D K
G iDS = (vI − VT )2 A
+ 2
vGS = vI +
– vI for vO ≥ v I − VT
– S

## (vO = vDS in our example)

1 Analytical method: vO vs vI
vO = VS − iDS RL B
K
or vO = VS − (vI − VT ) RL for vI ≥ VT
2

2 vO ≥ vI − VT

vO = VS v I < VT
for
(MOSFET turns off)

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2 Graphical method vO vs vI
K
From A : iDS = (vI − VT ) ,
2

2
vO ≥ vI − VT
for

2iDS
vO ≥
K

K 2
iDS ≤ vO
2

VS v0
B : iDS = −
RL RL

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2 Graphical method vO vs vI
K K 2
A : iDS = (vI − VT ) , for iDS ≤ vO
2

2 2
VS vO
B : DS
i = −
RL RL

iDS
VS K 2
iDS ≤ vO
RL 2
B Lo A
li n vI
e
= vGS

vO
VS

## Constraints A and B must be met

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2 Graphical method vO vs vI

iDS
VS K 2
iDS ≤ vO
RL 2
B A
vI
I DS VI

vO
VO VS

## Constraints A and B must be met.

Then, given VI, we can find VO, IDS .

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Large Signal Analysis
of Amplifier
(under “saturation discipline”)

1 vO versus vI

## 2 Valid input operating range and

valid output operating range

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Large Signal Analysis

1 vO versus vI

vO
K
VS − (vI − VT ) RL
2

VS 2

vO = vI − VT
gets into
triode region
vI
VT

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Large Signal Analysis
2 What are valid operating ranges
under the saturation discipline?
Our
vI ≥ VT
K 2
Constraints vO ≥ v I − VT iDS ≤ vO
2

iDS K 2
iDS ≤ vO
2
VS
K
RL iDS = (vI − VT )2
2 vI
VS vO
iDS = −
RL R L

vO
VS

? vI = VT
vO = VS and iDS = 0

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Large Signal Analysis
2 What are valid operating ranges
under the saturation discipline?
iDS K 2
iDS ≤ vO
2
K
iDS = (vI − VT )
2

2 vI
V v
iDS = S − O
RL R L

vO

− 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS
vI = VT +
KRL vI = VT
− 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS vO = VS and iDS = 0
vO =
KRL
VS vO
iDS = −
RL RL

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Large Signal Analysis
Summary

1 vO versus vI
K
vO = VS − (vI − VT )2 RL
2

## 2 Valid operating ranges under the

saturation discipline?
Valid input range:
− 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS
vI : VT to VT +
KRL

## corresponding output range:

− 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS
vO : VS to
KRL

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