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A STUDY IN INDUSTRIAL ROBOT PROGRAMMING

YUSMARNITA BINTI YUSOP

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the

Degree of Master of Engineering (Electrical)

Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun HusseShhn

NOVEMBER 2004

ABSTRACT

This project is concerned with learning the technology and programming of servo controlled industrial robots. A Mitsubishi RV-2AJ articulated robot was used in this project. The project work is divided into two parts: In the first part of the project the author familiarized herself with the operation and programming of the robot's manipulator and controller hardware by carrying out some laboratory experiments. A set of laboratory sheets were produced from this exercise. In the second part, the author studied the mechanics of software control of the robot. A user-defined

trajectory planning routine based on the cubic spline fitting function has successfully
been developed in this project.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Overview

Multi-axis machines are used in a variety of applications: pick-and-place operations, welding, machining, etc. Such machines can be divided into two units: the physical mechanism composed of links and actuators, and the control system. The number of actuators present in the mechanical system depends on the number of independent machine axes, or degrees of freedom. For example, a typical articulated six degree of freedom manipulator contains six rotating actuators. A five-axis highspeed CNC machining centre would contain three linear actuators and two rotating actuators.
A motion task given to the machine must ultimately be represented as a

reference signal, which is sent to the control system. The control system acts to make the machine track the reference signal by activating the appropriate actuators. If the reference signal changes too quickly, given the dynamic limitations of the machine, the traclung of the reference signal will be poor, regardless of the control system

design. Computer algorithms are designed to calculate an appropriate reference signal based on the desired task path and time-related limits (such as speed and acceleration). This reference signal is the trajectory, and can be defied as a locus of points in operational or joint space on which a time-law has been specified [I]. The generation of an appropriate trajectory is the problem that is being investigated in this thesis. The path along which the trajectory is defined can be point-to-point; namely, the machine is required to move between the two points but is not given any fixed intermediate path. This type of path is useful in manipulator pick-and-place operations. A path can also be completely specified through use of geometric functions. This type of path is commonly used in CNC machining applications or in manipulator applications when obstacles are present, or when it is necessary to ensure that the end effector follows a specific path. Herein it is assumed that the path definition is provided, and the problem of path planning is not specifically addressed. The control of the machine motion can be divided into two parts: motion planning and motion tracking. Motion planning involves generating the path and its time law, providing the controller's reference signal. Motion tracking, on the other hand, is concerned with improving the tracking of the reference signal. Motion planning is often done off-line, typically when the trajectory generation algorithms are computationally intensive. However, it is often desirable to generate trajectories online so that changes can easily be made to the machine's trajectory, increasing the system's overall robustness and adaptability. For example, a manipulator may require the ability to recompute its trajectory on-line in order to avoid an unexpected obstacle that lies along a path on which it is currently moving 121. In an automated robot workcell, a high level scheduler feeds a series of tasks to a manipulator in terms of waypoints, approach points and stop points. The manipulator must execute the task by generating paths and trajectories to these points and then following these trajectories using a control law. Use of an on-line planner reduces manipulator setup time and downtime, since the time required to plan the trajectories is shorter.

In industrial applications, it is common to use simple PID control laws, which do not take into account the system's nonlinearities, to track a reference signal. To compensate for tracking errors introduced by the system's nonlinearities, a more complicated controller must be used [3,4,5]. Alternatively, it is possible to design a trajectory that takes the system's nonlinearities into account and thus provides a reference signal that can be more easily tracked by common industrial controllers [6,71.

1.2

Industrial Motivation

Increased productivity is an important industrial consideration. When a multiaxis machine limits the task speed, decreasing the machine's overall motion time will increase productivity [6,3]. In addtion, improving the tracking accuracy of the machine is always desirable since it results in more repeatable products or operations. Traclung a purely time-optimal trajectory with a simple controller will saturate the actuators resulting in poor tracking, vibrations in the machine and increased machine wear [8,9,10,11,12,13]. Specialized controllers have been developed in order to provide better tracking of time-optimal trajectories. However, it is unlikely that they will be widely implemented in industry due to their complicated form. Purely time optimal trajectories have been modified to take into account further limitations of the actuators, for example jerk or torque rate limits, thereby avoiding controller saturation and resulting in improved tracking accuracy [15,7,14]. Herein, trajectories that are planned with jerk or torque rate limitations are termed smooth trajectories. There exists a need for a smooth trajectory generation algorithm that can easily be integrated into existing industrial systems, that is, be implemented using a typical

industrial controller. Such an algorithm should be applicable on-line, provide adequate dynamic limitations, and allow the specification of the speeds at all the way-points.

1.3

Problem Definition

There are four types of robot operation control included in this system which is joint interpolation, linear interpolation, circular interpolation and continuous path.

a) Joint interpolation
The robot moves with joint axis unit interpolation to the designated position. The robot interpolates with a joint axis unit, so the end path is irrelevant.

Figure 1.1 : Joint Interpolation

b) Linear interpolation For the linear interpolation type of control, the end-effector is programmed to move a sequence of discrete points in the workspace. In between points, no control required over either speed of the individual axes or the path of the end-effector. Fig.l.2 shows that the speeds is reduced and almost stop in fiont of the target position. After moving to the target position, the speed for moving to the next target position starts to be accelerated.

Figure: 1.2: Linear Interpolation

c) Circular interpolation
The robot moves along an arc designated with three points using three-dimensional circular interpolation.

- Robot

movement

R o b a t rnn*msnt :Movsmnt positiw,

..~-"_._._--.. !4!
Figure: 1.3: Circular Interpolation

d) Continuous path
In the continuous operating mode, the speed is reduced in fi-ont of the target
position, but it does not stop completely. The speed for moving to the next target position starts to be accelerated at that point. Therefore, it does not pass through

each target position, but it passes through the neighborhood position.

@&t~~us.mo.v~me~t

Trf+k5$'i2
Figure: 1.4: Continuous Movement

:(tirnsl

Slart position of

rnwemmt

T h e abwc graph shown an exampla Qependng on ltle moving dtstsnce andjar speed, acceleratmn and decelerat~on may occur dunng interpolat~on ~onnrctlon

The drawback of the existing operation control methods stated in previous section are does not preserving continuity in the fist and second derivatives at the interpolation point. The first derivative represents continuity in the velocity and the second derivative represents continuity in the acceleration. Several trajectory planning methods can be used in order to provide a method of generating smooth and continuous path. In practical application, to plan a path for robot's end-effector to follow, a number of points along the desired path are given by means of a teach-box or a robot language command. The end-effector is then controlled to move through or pass by these points smoothly and continuously.

How to control the endeffector to move through the desiredpath smoothly and continuously?

To solve the stated problem, this project proposed an approach to constrain smoothness and continuity based on cubic spline trajectory planning algorithm. Cubic splines offer several advantages. First, it is the lowest degree polynomial function that preserving continuity in the frst and second derivatives at the interpolation points. Second, low-degree polynomials reduce the effort of computations and the possibility of numerical instabilities. The feasibility of the method is illustrated by experimental results with an articulated robot mtsubishi RV-2AJ) located at KUITTHO's Automation Lab.

1.4

Research Objectives

This project is divided into two parts. For Part I, the objective of this work is to famili&e with the Mitsubishi RV-2AJ robot operation and control. Instead of to familiarize with the robot operation and control, a further objective is to produce a set of laboratory sheets as a reference material to the students or lecturers in future work. Furthermore is to learn MELFA robot programming languages, MOVEMASTER Command and MELFA-BASIV IV Command. For Part II, the objective is to write a user-defmed trajectory planning routine based on cubic spline fitting function using MATLAB. At the end of this project, this work aims to produce a cubic spline trajectory that will generate smooth and continuous path.

CHAPTER I1

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Introduction

With a pressing need for increased productivity and the delivery of end products of uniform quality, industry is turning more and more toward computerbased automation. At the present time, most automated manufacturing tasks are camed out by special-purpose machines designed to perform predetermined functions in a manufacturing process. The inflexibility and generally high cost of these machines, often called hard automation systems, have led to a broad-based interest in the use of robots capable of performing a variety of manufacturing functions in a more flexible working environment and at lower production costs. The word robot originated from the Czech word robota, meaning work. Webster's dictionary defines robot as "an automatic device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human being." With this definition, washing machines may be considered robots. A definition used by the Robot Institute of America gives a more precise description of industrial robots: "A robot is a reprogrammable multi-functional

manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of variety of tasks." In short, a robot is reprogrammable general-purpose manipulator with external sensors that can perform various assembly tasks. With this definition, a robot must possess intelligence, which is normally due to computer algorithms associated with its control and sensing systems.

An industrial robot is a general-purpose, computer controlled manipulator


consisting of several rigid links connected in series by revolute or prismatic joints. One end of the chain is attached to a supporting base, while the other end is free and equipped with a tool to manipulate objects or perform assembly task. The motion of the joints results in relative motion of the links. Mechanically, a robot is composed of an arm (or mainframe) and wrist subassembly plus a tool. It is designed to reach a workpiece located within its work volume. The work volume is the sphere of influence

r of a robot whose a m can deliver the wrist subassembly unit to any point within the
sphere. The arm subassembly generally can move with three degrees of fieedom. The combination of the movements positions the wrist unit at the workpiece. The wrist subassembly unit usually consists of three rotary motions. The combination of these motions orients the tool according to the configuration of the object for ease in pickup. These last three motions are often called pitch, yaw, and roll. Hence, for a six-jointed robot, the arm subassembly is the positioning mechanism, while the wrist subassembly is the orientation mechanism. Many commercially available industrial robots are widely used in manufacturing and assembly tasks, such as material handling, sport/arc welding, parts assembly, paint spraying, loading and unloading numerically controlled machines, space and undersea exploration, prosthetic arm research, and in handling hazardous materials. These robots fall into one of the four basic motion-defining categories (Fig.2.1):

-Reclangular Cmrd5nale Robot

-.----*--*

Cylindricat Coosdinale Robd

c-

--.*-

--,--#

Speihl Goordinate Robot

Articulaked A m Robot

Figure 2.1: Motion Defrning Categories

Most of today's industrial robots, though controlled by mini and microcomputers, are basically simple positional machines. They execute a given task by playing back prerecorded or preprograrnmed sequences of motions that have been previously guided or taught by a user with a hand-held control-teach box. Moreover, these robots are equipped with little or no external sensors for obtaining the information vital to its working environment. As a result, robots are used mainly in relative simple, repetitive tasks.

2.2

Historical Development

The word robot was introduced into the English language in 1921 by the playwright Karel Capek in his satirical drama, R. UR.(Rossum's Universal Robots).

In this work, robots are machines that resemble people, but work tirelessly. Initially,
the robots were manufactured for profit to replace human workers but, toward the end, the robots turned against their creators, annihilating the entire human race. Capek's play is largely responsible for some of the views popularly held about robots to this day, including the perception of robots as humanlike machines endowed with intelligence and individual personalities. This image was reinforced by the 1926 German robot f11m Metropolis, by the walking robot Electro and his dog Sparko, displayed in 1939 at the New York World's Fair, and more recently by the robot CP30 featured in the 1977 film Star Wars.Modern industrial robots certainly appear primitive when compared with the expectations created by the communications media during the past six decades. Early work leading to today's industrial robots can be traced to the period immediately following Worl War 11. Dunng the late 1940s research programs were e started at the Oak Ridge and A r g 0 ~ National Laboratories to develop remotely controlled mechanical manipulators for handling radioactive materials. These systems were of the "master-slave" type, designed to reproduce faithfully hand and arm motions made by a human operator. The master manipulator was guided by the user through a sequence of motions, while the slave manipulator duplicated the master unit as closely as possible. Later, force feedback was added by mechanically coupling the motion of the master and slave units so that the operator could feel the forces as they developed between the slave manipulator and its environment. In the mid-1950s the mechanical coupling was replaced by electric and hydraulic power in manipulators such as General electric's Handyman and the Minotaur I built by General Mills.

The work on master-slave manipulators was quickly followed by more sophisticated systems capable of autonomous, repetitive operations. In the mid-1950s George C. Devol developed a device he called a "programmed articulated transfer device," a manipulator whose operation could be programmed (and thus changed) and which could follow a sequence of motion steps determined by the instructions in the program. Further development of this concept by Devol and Joseph F. Engelberger led to the first industrial robot, introduced by Unimation Inc. in 1959. The key to this device was the use of a computer in conjunction with a manipulator to produce a machine that could be "taught" to cany out a variety of tasks automatically. Unlike hard automation machines, these robots could be reprogrammed and retooled at relative low cost to perform other jobs as manufacturing requirements changed. While programmed robots offered a novel and powerful manufacturing tool, it became evident in the 1960s that the flexibility of these machines could be enhanced significantly by the use of sensory feedback. Early in that decade, H.A.Ernst [I9621 reported the development of a computer-controlled mechanical hand with tactile sensors. This device, called the MH-1, could "feel" blocks and use this information to control the hand so that it stacked the blocks without operator assistance. This work is one of the first examples of a robot capable of adaptive behavior in a reasonably unstructured environment. The manipulative system consisted of an ANL Model-8 manipulator with 6 degrees of fieedom controlled by a TX-0 computer through an interfacing device. This research program later evolved as part of project MAC, and a
I

television camera was added to the manipulator to begin machine perception research. During the same period, Tomovic and Boni [I9621 developed a prototype hand equipped with a pressure sensor which sensed the object and supplied an input feedback signal to a motor to initiate one of two grasp patterns. Once the hand was in contact with the object, information proportional to object size and weight was sent to a computer by these pressure sensitive elements. In 1963, the American Machine and Foundry Company (AMF) introduced the VERSATRAN commercial robot. Starting in the same year, various arm designs for manipulators were developed, such as the Roehampton arm and the Edinburgh arm.

In the late 1960s, McCarthy [I9681 and his colleagues at the Stanford Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory reported development of a computer with hands, eyes, and ears (i.e., manipulators, TV cameras, and microphones). They demonstrated a system that recognized spoken messages "saw" blocks scattered on a table, and manipulated them in accordance with instructions. During this period, Pieper [I9681 studied the kinematics problem of computer-controlled manipulator using bang-bang (near minimum time) control. Mean while, other countries (Japan in particular) began to see the potential of industrial robots. As early as 1968, the Japanese company Kawasaki Heavy Industries negotiated a license with Unimation for its robots. One of the more unusual developments in robots occurred in 1969, when an experimental wallung truck was developed by the General Electric Company for the U.S Army. In the same year, the Boston arm was developed, and in the following year the Stanford arm was developed, which was equipped with a camera and computer controller. Some of the most serious work in robotics began as these arms were used as robot manipulators. One experiment with the Stanford arm consisted of automatically stacking blocks according to various strategies. This way very sophisticated work for an automated robot at that time. In 1974, Cincinnati Milacron introduced its first computerit controlled industrial robot. Called "The Tomorrow Tool," or f, could lift over 100 lb as track moving objects on an assembly line. During the 1970s a great deal of research work focused on the use of external sensors to facilitate manipulative operations. At Stanford, Bolles and Paul [1973], using both visual and force feedback, demonstrated a computer-controlled Stanford

arm connected to a PDP-10 computer for assembling automotive water pumps. At


about the same time, Will and Grossman [I9751 at IBM developed a computercontrolled manipulator with touch and force sensors to perform mechanical assembly of a 20-part typewriter. Inoue [I 9741 at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory worked on the artificial intelligence aspects of force feedback. A landfall navigation search techniques was used to perform initial positioning in a precise assembly task.

At the Draper Laboratory Nevins et al. [I9741 investigated sensing techniques based on compliance. This work developed into the instrumentation of a passive compliance device called remote center compliance (RCC) which was attached to the mounting plate of the last joint of the manipulator for close parts-mating assembly. Bejczy [1974], at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, implemented a computer-based torque

r control technique on his extended Stanford a m for space exploration projects. Since
then, various control methods have been proposed for servoing mechanical manipulators.

23 .

Robot Programming

One major obstacle in using manipulators as general-purpose assembly machines is the lack of suitable and efficient communication between the user and the robotic system so that the user can direct the manipulator to accomplish a given task. There are several ways to communicate with a robot, and the three major approaches to achieve it are discrete word recognition, teach and playback, and high-level programming languages. Current state-of-the-art speech recognition is quite primitive and generally speaker-dependent. It can recognize a set of discrete words from a limited vocabulary and usually requires the user to pause between words. Although it is now possible to recognize words in real time due to faster computer components and efficient processing algorithms, the usefulness of discrete word recognition to describe a task is limited. Moreover, it requires a large memory space to store speech data, and it usually requires a training period to build up speech templates for recognition.

Teach and playback, also known as guiding, is the most commonly used method in present-day industrial robots. The method involves teaching the robot by leading it through the motions the user wishes the robot to perform. Teach and playback is typically accomplished by the following steps:

1.

Leading the robot in slow motion using manual control through the entire assembly task and recording the joint angles of the robot at appropriate locations in order to replay the motion

2.

Editing and playing back the taught motion

3.

If the taught motion is correct, then the robot is run at an appropriate


speed in a repetitive mode.

Leading the robot in slow motion usually can be achieved in several ways, using a joystick, a set of pushbuttons (one for each joint), or a master-slave manipulator system. Presently, the most commonly used system is a manual box with pushbuttons. With this method, the user moves the robot manually through the space, and presses a button to record any desired angular position of the manipulator. The manipulator has traversed the set-points of the trajectory from the set of angular positions that was recorded. These position set-points are then interpolated by numerical methods, and the robot is "played back" along the smoothed trajectory. In the edit-playback mode, the user can edit the recorded angular positions and make sure that the robot will run repeatedly according to the edited and smoothed trajectory. If the task is changed, then the above three steps are repeated. The advantages of this method are that it requires only a relatively small memory space to record angular positions and it is simple to learn. The main disadvantage is that it is difficult to utilize this method for integrating sensory feedback information into the control system. High-level programming languages provide a more general approach to solving the human-robot communication problem. In the past decade, robots have been successfully used in such areas as arc welding and spray painting using guiding (Engelberger [1980]). These tasks require no interaction between the robot and the

environment and can be easily programmed by guiding. However, the use of robots to perform assembly tasks requires high-level programming techniques because robot assembly usually relies on sensory feedback, and this type of unstructured interaction can only be handled by conditionally programmed methods. Robot programming is substantially different fiom traditional programming. We can identify several considerations which must be handled by any robot programming method: The objects to be manipulated by a robot are three-dimensional objects which have a variety of physical properties; robots operate in a spatially complex environment; the description and representation of three-dimensional objects in a computer are imprecise; and sensory information has to be monitored, manipulated, and properly utilized. Current approaches to programming can be classified into two major categories: robot-oriented programming and object-oriented, or task-level programming.

In robot-oriented programming, an assembly task is explicitly described as a


sequence of robot motions. The robot is guided and controlled by the program throughout the entire task with each statement of the program roughly corresponding to one action of the robot. On the other hand, task-level programming describes the assembly task as a sequence of positional goals of the objects rather than the motion of the robot needed to achieve these goals, and hence no explicit robot motion is specified.

2.4

Cubic Spline

Many researchers have proposed the use of polynomial functions in terms of time for real time Cartesian space trajectory generation. The simplest method in this approach has been proposed by Luh [17], Paul [IS] and Brock [8]. In this method, two end points are joined by a combination of linear segment with constant speed and the transition with parabolic, fourth order polynomials or with the combination of constant acceleration and squared sinus functions for smooth portion above trajectory. The major two disadvantages in this method are: 1 . The trajectory does not pass through the via points and deviates fiom them by an unknown amount. 2. Due to the fixed path geometry, we cannot reproduce circles, skew curves or any curve with any accuracy other than a piece-wise straight line. Kant [I91 has proposed the formation of first geometrically defined trajectory and then to define trajectory and then to defme the velocity law for this trajectory. The major advantage of this method is that the manipulator can traverse the same path with different velocities. Wu [20] has used the same approach by defining the orientation of end effector in Frenet axes whereas Froissart [4] uses Quartenion representation to reduce the burden of computation. Montillet [21] has shown the difficulties in calculating the tangents at the end points in this last method. Haddad [5] has also presented the same approach using B-Spline for geometrically constrained path. These methods have heavy computation due to the numerical methods involved. Shafaat Ahmed Bazaz [3] has proposed a new concept of trajectory planning method so that the trajectory generation may be possible on-line and interactively using 3-Cubic spline method. In this paper, Shafaat Ahrned Bazaz has solved the same problem of generating first the geometrically defined path and then defining a velocity law for it in such a manner that the whole planning may be done on-line and interactively.

2.5

MATLAB Programming

In this research, we intend to write user-defied function based on cubic spline


fitting using MATLAB. This is because, MATLAB@is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Typical uses include: Math and computation Algorithm development Data acquisition Modeling, simulation, and prototyping

* Data analysis, exploration, and visualization


Scientific and engineering graphics Application development, including graphical user interface building MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning. This allows us to solve many technical computing problems, especially those with matrix and vector formulations, in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar noninteractive language such as C or Fortran. The name MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. MATLAB was originally written to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK projects. Today, MATLAB engines incorporate the LAPACK and BLAS libraries, embedding the state of the art in software for matrix computation. MATLAB has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. In university environments, it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in mathematics, engineering, and science. In industry, MATLAB is the tool of choice for high-productivity research, development, and analysis. MATLAB features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes. Very important to most users of MATLAB, toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized

technology. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of MATLAB functions (Mfiles) that extend the MATLAB environment to solve particular classes of problems. Areas in which toolboxes are available include signal processing, control systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, wavelets, simulation, and many others.

MATLAB0 provides interfaces to external routines written in other


programming languages, data that needs to be shared with external routines, clients or servers communicating via Component Object Model (COM) or Dynamic Data and Exchange (DDE), peripheral devices that communicate directly with MATLAB. Much of this interf'ace capability was formerly referred to under the title of the

MATLAB Application Program Interf'ace, or API. MATLAB serial port interface provides direct access to peripheral devices
such as modems, printers, and scientific instruments that you connect to your computer's serial port. This interface is established through a serial port object. The serial port object supports functions and properties that allow you to Configure serial port communications Use serial port control pins Write and read data Use events and callbacks Record information to disk If you want to communicate with PC-compatible data acquisition hardware such as multifunction I/O boards, you need the Data Acquisition Toolbox. If you want to communicate with GPIB- or VISA-compatible instruments, you need the Instrument Control Toolbox. Note that this toolbox also includes additional serial I/0 utility functions that facilitate object creation and configuration, instrument communication, and so on.

CHAPTER I11

METHODOLOGY

Referring to Fig. 3.1 and Fig. 3.2, there were two stages involved in this research which equivalent to the research scope. The figure was intended to feature the entire research process. Initially, the first stage was highlighting the preparation and familiarization level. The familiarization stages were carried out by several practical experiments with a help by Mitsubishi robot instruction manual. Basically, the experiment is divided into four categories: 1) Familiarization with the robot controller(CR1-571)

2) Familiarization with the teach pendant(R28TB)


3) Familiarization with the personal computer support software (MELFA)
4) Familiarization with the robot programming language.

Instead of to familiarize with the robot operation control, a set of laboratory sheets were produced from this exercise. Since the instruction manual given by the suppliers or manufacturer does not specialize to the Mitsubishi RV-2AJ robot, lab sheets will serve as a reference material to the students or lecturers so that there will be no problem in future work.

The second stage is regarding to MATLAB programming. At this stage, a userdefined trajectory planning routine based on the cubic spline fitting function was developed. MATLAB@ is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation.

(7
START Controller Familiarizationwith Teaching Pendant Familiarizationwith MELFA PC TOOL Personal Computer Support Software (OFF-LINE PROGRAMMING)

Familiarizationwith robot programming language: 1.MELFA BASIC-IV

Figure 3.1 : PART I - Familiarization

' 5
b

START

MATLAB Programming (Cubic Spline)

v
Simulation the program Alter the program accordingly

Position of robot end effector

1 Figure 3.2: PART 1 - MATLAB Programming

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDING & DISCUSSION PART I

This chapter explains the functions and operation methods of the controller CR1-571, teach pendant (R28TB), programming language, and the functions and specification of the Personal Computer Support Software (MELFA PC TOOL).

4.1

Components of Robot System

Figure 4.1 below show the component of robot system that was used in this research. An articulated Mitsubishi RV-2AJ five axis robot contains five degree of freedom manipulator or five rotating actuator. The system of the robot has been designed to allow control of the robot from the manual control pendant called teaching box (R28TB).Teaching box is used to control the various joint motors, and to power drive the robot arm and wrist through a series of point in space. Each point is stored in memory for playback during the work cycle. The CR1-571 controller can support 1 standard RS-232C, 2 optional expansion serial cards (2 port per card), totaling 5 ports.

Standard RS-232C port normally connects to a PC for robot program transferring and debugging done with the PC support software.

& -F-

,
t

Robot
RV-24J (5-)

E*_

CRl -S Contml

t'
4A-HPB1 E

Standard Device C0mposKIon

Machine cable

"

Electric. hand set 4A-H MLS1

S e"

Teaching box R28TB

Personal computer
{supplied by customer)

Figure 4.1: Components Of Robot System

Optional cards can link with vision sensor and external devices for data communication as shown in Fig.4.2. Communication is performed using the communication instructions (OPEN, CLOSE, PRINT, INPUT,etc.) in the robot program. This is referred to as data link. The controller cannot be controlled fiom external devices such as a PC (i.e., automatic execution or status monitoring).