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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) Semester-III (Paper Code-BBA 211)


Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi


Manmohan Chaudhary

Submitted by: PAARTH SAIGAL

Mrs. Manmohan Chaudhary PAARTH SAIGAL

Institute of Information Technology & Management, New Delhi 110058 Batch (2008-2011)



I, Mr/Ms PAARTH SAIGAL, Roll No. 16213701710 certify that the Minor Project Report entitled Attitudes and Values is completed by me by collecting the material from the referenced sources. The

matter embodied in this has not been submitted earlier for the award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Signature of the Student

Date: 23.8.2010

Certified that the Minor Project Report entitled EMPLOYEE


done by Mr/Ms PAARTH SAIGAL Roll No 16213701710, is completed under my

guidance. ANKUR CHABRA

Signature of the Guide Name of the Guide: Mrs. Manmohan chaudhary Designation: Date:23.8.2010


Director/P roject Coordinator


For giving us such wonderful opportunity to research this project of Principles of Management we would like to thank our Director Prof. S. Chaturvedi and our Mentor Rashi Kumar.

Topic: - Employee Perception

Assignment covers the following aspects
Concept building Purpose and importance of study Perceptual process Perceptual selectivity Perceptual organization Interpersonal perception Developing perceptual skills Theories in perception Managerial applications of perception


The process by which people translate sensory impressions into a coherent and unified view of the world around them. Though necessarily based on incomplete and unverified (or unreliable) information, perception is equated with reality for most practical purposes and guides human behavior in general.

Concept and purpose of employee perception 1. INTERNL FACTORS *Need and desires. Depending on the need and desires of an individual, the behaviors as for examples:

Secure individual tend to personally has a profound influence on perceive other as warm, not cold.

Individual do not expose by expressing extreme judgment of others.

Person who accept themselves and have faith in their individual perceive things favorable. Self-accepting individual perceive themselves as liked, wanted and accepted by others. *Experience. Experience and knowledge has great influence on perception. Successful experience enhances and boosts the perception ability and lead to accuracy in perception of a person whereas failure erodes self-confidence.


Size. The bigger the size of the perceived stimulus, the higher is the probability that it is perceived. Size attracts the attention of an individual. It established dominance and enhanced perception selection.

Intensity. Intensity attracts to increase the selective perception. Frequency. Repeated external stimulus is more attention is more attracting than a single time.

Status. Perception is also influenced by the status of the perceiver. High status people can exert greater influence on perception of an employee than low status people.

The perception process

Something you can always do with advantage is to get the perceptions a person associates with a certain issue. And having gotten the perceptions described, there will always be an opportunity for changing or exercising something about them. Perceptual Distinctions (PDs) are specific, detailed qualities and quantities in the different perceptual systems. The perceptual systems are primarily Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic, that is, pictures, sounds and feelings. There is also Olfactory and Gustatory, i.e. smell and taste, but they have less of a use in processing in that there isn't much we can change about them. Perceptions are seen in contrast to mental labels and other secondary mind manifestations. What we are after here is what one actually perceives, either with the physical senses, or that one perceives in a similar fashion in one's inner reality. It must be stuff that is actually sensed, not just words about something or the other.

The first task is to get the person to actually see, hear and, particularly, feel elements of her inner reality. Any process or technique will only work to the degree that we are interacting with a reality. Where that reality is and who agrees with it is secondary, the point is just that there is something that exists that is perceived. Having gotten some detail on a certain reality, the next step is essentially to find out where the limitations are and how we can establish more freedom. If the client's inner picture of her work situation is that a bunch of foggy things are moving around randomly, that probably limits her. That will correspond to exactly why she is feeling frustrated about not getting anything done. So, when she mentions her frustration, the first thing to do would be to get some more perceptual details. Visual information is always good, in that it is the easiest to change. Then let us see where the limitations are and what we can exercise doing differently. Well, if the different tasks are foggy and unclear, then she can't really see what exactly needs to be done. And if everything is moving, nothing stays still long enough for her to get somewhere with it. So, what do we do? We change the visualization to make things more clear and get something to

stand still. How exactly to do that depends on what works for her. Maybe she finds that if she steps back and gives herself some space, and then pulls one thing in and makes it more clear and close, then she doesn't feel frustrated. The thing is that the person doesn't just have vague, random reactions for vague, random reasons. There are very specific perceptual distinctions being made in specific sequences to get specific effects. If we change the perceptions, the reactions will change. All perceptual distinctions have controls, most of which are sliding scales. There is a quality or quantity that you can control to make more of it or less of it. Some of these controls are more important to an individual than others, and different positions will have different effects. If you find that a big picture makes the associated feelings stronger and a small picture makes them weaker, well, there is an excellent tool. A tool that you can very easily put in somebody's hands. The client just needs to learn to make her positive self-image and her positive goals bigger, and her fears and anxieties smaller.

Once a person realizes that what she does with pictures will control how she feels, that is really empowering. Sounds work the same way. If one has a voice in one's head saying "You'll never get it right", then its tone of voice and tempo and pitch and location are probably critical. If it is exactly "right", you feel depressed about it. But if we change the qualities, making it faster, more high pitched, coming from 50 ft away and so forth, then the experience changes. It is hard to feel bad the same way about Dad's reprimands when his voice sounds like he just breathed helium and he is hanging under the ceiling. Perceptual processing can be used in many situations where other techniques might be effective too. You would probably use it in situations where it occurs to you that the person is limited because of her own perceptions. Well, she always is, but if it particularly becomes apparent to you, it probably means that perceptual processing would work. You can also use perceptual processing to supplement other types of work. It goes very well hand in hand with approaches like clearing of incidents, that are more oriented towards finding negative reasons.

Perceptual processing is more positive, assuming that the individual of course is the cause of it all and she just needs to do something different. Both approaches balance each other off. It is also very useful to get perceptual distinctions for many different areas, just to explore how they work. This fits in fine in any module. Like, if we are working on communication. There are specific perceptions that go along with being shy, or with being communicative, with wanting to communicate, or not wanting to communicate. There are perceptions that determine when and where one feels it is right to communicate and with whom. By discovering these the person can start to control them and use them as tools, rather than just being at the receiving end of them. Just talking about any segment of life is useful. But if you can also identify the perceptions that govern it, the person will be better helped. If she knows what perceptions of that segment affect her in which ways, she can take charge over them. The controls for her behavior will be put in her hands

Perceptual selectivity.
Selective theory is a theory of communication, positing that individuals prefer exposure to arguments supporting their position over those supporting other positions. As media consumers have more choices to expose themselves to selected medium and media contents with which they agree, then tend to select content that confirms their own ideas and avoid information that argues against their opinion. People dont want to be told that they are wrong and they do not want their ideas to be challenged either.

Therefore, they select different media outlets that agree with their opinions so they do not come in contact with this form of dissonance. Furthermore, these people will select the media sources that agree with their opinions and attitudes on different subjects and then only follow those programs

INTERNAL FACTERS (a)Need and desires. Depending on the needs and desires of an individual, the perception varies. (b)Personality. Individual personality has a profound influence on perceived behavior as for example: (1) Secure individual tend to perceive other as warm, not cold. (2)individual do not expose by expressing extreme judgment of other (3) Person who accept themselves and have faith in their individuality perceive things favorably (4) Self-accepting individual perceive themselves as liked, wanted and accepted by other. (C)experience. Experience and knowledge has great influence on perception. Successful experience enhance and boost the perceptive ability and leads to accuracy in perception of a person where as failure erodes self-confidence.

External factors

1st. Factors inherent to the stimuli force themselves upon us. The external factors that affect perceptual selection include: intensity, size, motion, contrast and repetition. 2nd. In our head (internal factors). Motivation, prior learning and personality can enhance or dull our perceptions. We learn to receive some messages and to block out others. Expectations: pay attention to confirming stimuli. Needs and Interests: Sex, money, ethnic identity. Perceptual organization is what the mind does with information once it is received. 1. Figure - ground. We choose our figures. 2. Closure. Fill in gaps. Complete an object so perceived as a whole. Forest v. trees. 3. Continuity. See continuous lines - Mind set. 4. Perceptual grouping. Put stimuli into patterns 5. Proximity. You group things that are physically close together. 6. Similarity. You group disparate things that look alike. What about familiarity and novelty?

Social perception. Person perception: process by which we attribute characteristics and traits to others. Primacy effect: first impressions dominate. Confirmation bias is to heavily weight information that reaffirms past judgements. Ex. Richard Jewel. Attribution: How the person explains another's behavior. Implicit personality theories. We have them in our heads. "NERD" "Looser" Causal attribution. A search for causes or motives to explain behavior. We attribute cause and effect. Whether we are internals or externals colors our perceptions. If we attribute failure to external forces, then we don't blame the worker, we focus on altering the work situation. How do we become internals/externals? Or is it a role (situational)? Impression management. You get to choose the image you want to convey. Reality tests? Harold Kelley (Covariation Model of Attribution) has identified the situations that lead us to judge whether cause is internal or external: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness, W& N, p. 317-318. We will attribute cause to external factors and not you, if: 1. Everyone does it (High consensus)(comes late to class) 2. You do not do the same thing every time. (Low consistency) (you are late sometimes but not others.)

If you are late repeatedly (high consistency), supervisor begins to blame you (internal cause). 3. You act differently depending on the people or things interacting with you (High distinctiveness). If you show low distinctiveness, varying your behavior with each situation, then your supervisor is more likely to attribute your performance to internal factors. Ex. A level work with one teacher but not another, its the teacher. Do C level work with each teacher, you are a C student. Internal attribution: low distinctiveness, high consistency, low consensus. Note the key role of the perceiver in attribution based on information, beliefs, and motivation. Was the behavior of Milgram's subjects internally or externally caused? What are the implications for managers? Generally, effort is evaluated higher than ability. Generally, we attribute our own failures to external forces. Is this self-serving bias or knowledge of reality? Fundamental attribution error is underestimating the impact of the situation and overestimating impact of the person.

. Perceptual organization

Organizing raw sensory stimuli into meaningful experiences involves cognition, a set of mental activities that includes thinking, knowing, and remembering. Knowledge and experience are extremely important to perception, because they help us make sense of the input to our sensory systems. What Is Perceptual Organization? the processes by which the bits and pieces of visual information that are available in the retinal image are structured into the larger units of perceived objects and their interrelations

Stephen E. Palmer, Vision Science, 1999

Component Issues in Perceptual


Grouping and segmentation Dalmatian, Laws of Grouping, Part Whole relations Figure ground segregation Rubins Vase; Doolittles ponies Emergent Features

Subjective Contours, Configural Superiority Effects Perceptual coupling (constancies) Shepards Box tops, Ames Room Multistability Necked cube; Barber Pole Globality, Simplicity

Interpersonal Perception Interpersonal Perception Includes:

Non-verbal Communication (NVC) (1)Reinforcement (2)Questioning (3)Reflecting (4)Opening & Closing (5)Explanation (6)Listening (7)Self - disclosure

Non-verbal communication (NVC) Communication is usually taken to mean range of non-verbal signals, which include the following: Facial Expression Gaze Gesture Posture Bodily Contact Spatial Behavior Clothes & Appearance Non-Verbal Vocalisations Smell

Reinforcement Which refers to behaviors which can be encourage other person to carry on or repeat the action. The reinforcement influence of expressions of praise, encouragement and support, even down to the extent of head nods, grunts and the uh-huh and mm-hmm

Questioning Questioning (open question & closed question) which helps the professional interviewers to extract information from you. Open questions encourage people to talk and expand.

Closed questions encourage short answers. (Inexperienced interviewers often ask too many closed questions and do not get the elaborate answers)

Reflecting Skill which has been used by the counselors and other people who have to conduct very personal interviews. This will depends on whether you are interested in the factual statements that the other person has made or their feelings about what they are saying

Opening and Closing Establishment of the beginning and ending of a particular interaction. Often this involves making conversation to establish the sales representative as more friendly and helpful than just a salesman. Opening and Closing can be classified into: Social Opening Factual Opening Motivational Opening

Explanation Effective skill in interpersonal which requires both listening and speaking skills.

The value can be easily judged by the persons explanation.

Listening Inevitable form of communication skills, which is known as the psychological process. Depends on ones social, psychological, linguistic values. Listeners can be classified into: Active Listener Passive Listener Selective Listener

Self-disclosure Self discovery and self analysis can lead to learn more skills with the social environment.

Developing perception skills Introduction

Perceptual development provides the foundation for interpreting the events of the world around us. Stimuli from the environment that evoke sensory experiences of hearing, seeing, and touching promote brain growth and development. For infants/toddlers with hearing loss, auditory input is limited or distorted; consequently, they are at risk for delays in speech and language development.

Learners will demonstrate knowledge of perceptual development and the role of auditory development, visual development, and touch, supportive of growth and development in

infants/toddlers with and without hearing loss, through reading module content and completing the following activities: Two web investigative activities, Three discussion questions, and Eighteen short-answer items.

Comprehensive Outline
I. Perceptual Development A. Role of sensory stimuli in facilitating development

B. Hearing loss definition C. Preferences for sensory stimuli II. Auditory Development A. Features of auditory stimuli B. Use of audition to acquire speech and language C. Auditory milestones for infants who are typically developing D. Impact of hearing loss on speech development III. Visual Development A. Features of visual stimuli B. Use of vision to facilitate communication C. Features of visual development D. Visual milestones for infants who are typically developing E. Visual cues for infants/toddlers who are deaf/hard of hearing IV. Touch A. Features of touch B. Value of touch in learning C. Value of touch in communication D. Touch cues for infants/toddlers who are deaf/hard of hearing V. Sensory Integration VI. Conclusion

Standards Addressed
This module addresses the following standards: Knowledge of infant development theories, prenatal development, current research on brain development. Knowledge of characteristics and stages of development including the range of individual differences. Knowledge of effect of environmental and biological risk conditions on development. Knowledge of influences of particular disability or multiple disabilities on development. knowledge of the influences of social and physical environments upon infants and toddlers development.

Perceptual Development
Sensory stimuli provide the medium through which babies learn about the world and its operation. Developmental progression in infants or toddlers is highly dependent on access to sensory information in the environment. Perceptual development occurs as infants explore and identify invariant features in the environment, discovering properties of and relationships between features. Language development evolves out of these sensory experiences that contribute to cognitive growth and development.

For infants who are developing typically, the brain circuits and neural pathways that form during the first year allow anticipation of mothers entry into a room upon hearing her voice or footsteps approaching while awakening from a nap. Infants brains release endorphins during the experience of nurturing skin-to-skin touch thus soothing anxiety when tired or stressed. Every time babies experience new stimuli, their brains are fine-tuned to quickly interpret and process similar experiences. During the first three months of life, infants brains respond to the world of

sensation with greater electrical activity in areas of the brain responsible for coding stimuli of sights, sounds, and touches. As perceptual development proceeds infants learn to associate stimuli with particular activities and anticipate events (Raymond, 2000). For example, babies learn that fathers entry into the home suggests that he can anticipate touches and hugs. Such experiences provide the foundation for interpreting and making sense of the world. For infants and toddlers who are deaf/hard of hearing, the extent of hearing loss and/or amplification determines whether they rely primarily on hearing or vision, or combined input from both modalities to interpret their environment and gain understanding in the world around them. Hearing loss can occur prelingually, prior to language acquisition, or postlingually, following language acquisition. Degrees of hearing loss are measured in decibels, the greater the decibel measure, the greater the degree of hearing loss. For example, a person with a mild hearing loss, 15-40 DB (decibel) has difficulty hearing whispers at a close range in a quiet setting; a person with a moderate hearing loss 40-60 DB has difficulty hearing a normal voice at close range in a quiet setting; a person with a severe hearing loss cannot hear speech and can only hear loud noises such as those coming from machinery, power tools, vacuum cleaners, lawn mowers; a person with a profound hearing loss cannot hear speech and may only hear loud vibrating noises such as airplanes. Any type of hearing loss can present unique challenges and barriers in accessing environmental information (Northern & Downs, 1991). Hearing loss influences childrens preferences for gathering sensory information that support and shape cognitive linguistic development. Since varying degrees of auditory information are available for children with hearing loss, a need exists to maximize visual and kinesthetic intake of environmental information. Knowledge of these sensory modalities supports an understanding of an infants or toddlers ability to interpret, integrate and respond to environmental information. By exploring the contributions of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic development to perceptual development, a professional can understand the strengths that infants or toddlers bring to the table. Therefore development in three sensory modalities is described.

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Auditory Development
For infants who are typically developing, the auditory system first experiences sound in the womb at 20 weeks. When babies are born into a world full of stimuli, auditory information about the environment becomes readily available that can support acquisition of knowledge related to a particular setting and/or person. Through the exploration process, infants/toddlers learn to categorize and determine meaning for particular units of information. Auditory development involves an ability to identify discrete units of speech/sound within the experience of continuous sound input. Spoken language grows out of this experience (Northern & Downs, 2002). As infants experience sound, the auditory cortex explodes with new connections and growth. For infants/toddlers with hearing loss who are identified prior to 6 months and receive appropriate early intervention services, language development can proceed similarly to peers (YoshinagaItano, 1999a). Language development commensurate with non-verbal development can be a reality for infants with hearing loss whose families receive early intervention services. Therefore, an understanding of typical auditory milestones and development is critical in supporting an infant/toddlers prelinguistic communication and developmental progression. Infants/toddlers who have mild to severe hearing loss develop significantly more auditory skills than children with profound hearing loss (Yoshinaga-Itano, 1999b). Auditory development for infants who are typically developing proceeds in predictable fashion according to age. From birth to 4 months, there is limited auditory responsiveness, however the startle response (eyes blink or widen) to loud noise is common. Infants at this age vary in their

response to soft sounds. Eyes may widen in response to soft sounds (Northern & Downs, 2002). Infants grow in their awareness of sound and attention. Infants learn that they can make sounds to communicate needs (i.e., crying to indicate need for food or express discomfort) and that sounds can be associated with meaningful events and experiences. Babies learn to ignore sounds that are not eventful or particularly meaningful (Pollack, Goldberg, & Caleffe-Schenck, 1997). Infants differentiate mothers voice from others and prefer to listen to mothers voice, shortly after delivery (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980). DeCasper & Fifer observed sucking responses in newborns more often at the introduction of mothers voice as compared with the voice of another mother. As an infant approaches his fourth month of age he may turn his head in the direction of sound however the response is variable. Localizing the source of sounds promotes spacial awareness. By the end of the fourth month the infant consistently demonstrates head turning in response to sound. The infant progressively gains motor control in the neck and becomes strong enough to turn laterally and directly in response to sound by approximately 7 months of age. However, the turn may not be directed to exact location of source of sound if it is below the infants eyes. Localization of sound at eye level or below occurs between 7 and 9 months and is quick and defined with head turns. Sounds originating from any plane, above or below baby provoke a direct and briskly defined response of localization by the end of 13 months of age (Northern & Downs, 2002). By the end of the first year of life, babies can associate the sequence of sounds with specific events or experiences and make connections between sounds and people. Babies intentionally produce sounds to communicate. Auditory processing is growing in complexity as memories of experiences involving sounds, events, and significant people become more sophisticated (Pollack, Goldberg, & Caleffe-Schenck, 1997). Auditory development facilitates and provides the infant feedback for language and speech development. By two months of age, babies are making some sounds more than others. Cooing, laughing, and babbling provide stimulation to an infant who is hearing. Sounds approximating vowels occur between 2-4 months of age and sounds approximating consonants occur by 5 months of age. Exploration of sounds and babbling begins as infants listen to their babbling.

Mothers/caregivers responsiveness to a childs first sounds provides the foundation for further spoken language development. Infants experience a caregivers repertoire of speech improvisations and imitates. However, babies may or may not understand meaning attached to imitated sounds (Northern & Downs, 2002). Auditory Development at a Glance 20th Week of Pregnancy Initially experiences sound Birth to 4 Months Shows preference for mom's voice & differentiates it from other mother's voices following birth Demonstrates startle response to loud noise Growing awareness to soft sound and attention Learns to make sound to communicate needs Learns to ignore sounds that are not eventful or meaningful Can detect presence vs. absence of sounds Demonstrates preference for human voices Responds to speech sounds produced by those other than mom Recognizes parent's voices Stops crying to listen Plays with a few noisemaking toys 5-7 Months Displays orienting reflex, searching for sound when moving to sitting position (facilitated by

binaural feature of hearing) Infant strong enough to turn head laterally in response to sound Responds differently to different sounds Reacts differently to different tones Cries if the voice he hears does not match a face he is viewing Attends and responds to vocal affect Enjoys being sung or whistled to Likes reciprocal vocal play 6-10 Months Localization of sound at eye level or below is quick, defines with head turns Responds to own name, others voices, phone ringing Produces vocalization with rising and falling inflections Self monitors own vocal productions 9-13 Months Labels what he hears Engages in singing Responds to requests Produces first words Sounds originating from any plane, above or below baby provoke direct, defined response of localization Can associate sequence of sounds with specific events, experiences, and make connections between sounds and people Remembers what he hears Recalls critical elements of an utterance 10-18 Months Grows in ability to sequence auditory information

Theory of Perceptive
Perception is a process of the consciousness of an object. It is one of the means of valid knowledge in the world and consists in an inseparable relation of the perceptive consciousness with its content. The objects that are seen in the world are considered by the common man to be existing outside his body and the senses, and he feels that the objects are reflected, as it were, in his mind in perception. The object itself does not enter the eye, for example, in the act of seeing, but there is a transmission of vibration from the object, with which his consciousness comes in contact, which becomes a content of his consciousness, and on account of which he is said to know the existence of the external object. This perception is caused by the operations of a mind whose existence as a mediator between the Atman within and the object outside is evident from the fact of the synthesis of sensations and of the possibility of the absence of perception at certain times. Sense-knowledge is the product of the connection between the mind and the sensory organs. That is why there is no simultaneity of the knowledge of the impressions received through the various sensory organs. People say: My mind was elsewhere, I did not see that. The impossibility of this simultaneity of knowledge through various sensory organs is an indication of the existence of the mind. Between the Atman and the organs of sense a connecting link is necessary. If we do not admit the internal organ, there would result either perpetual perception or perpetual non-perception, the former when there is a conjunction of the Atman, the senses and the object, the three constituting the

causes of perception, and the latter when, even on the conjunction of these three causes, the effect did not follow. But neither is the truth. We have, therefore, to acknowledge the existence of an internal organ on whose attention and non-attention perception and nonperception take place (Mind and Its Mysteries: p. 188). The mind is with parts and can move in space. It is a changing and differentiating thing. It is capable of moving from place to place and assuming the forms of the objects of perception. This going out to an object and taking its shape is actual. There is nothing static in Nature. Every modification of the root Natural Principle is active and moving. The mind, in particular, is always undergoing conscious and unconscious modifications. The mind is a radiant, transparent and light substance and can travel like a ray of light outside through a sense-organ. The mind is thus an active force, a form of the general active Power or Sakti. As the brain, the organ of the mind, is enclosed in an organic envelope, solid and in appearance closed, the imagination has a tendency to picture it as being isolated from the exterior world, though in truth it is in constant contact with it through a subtle and constant exchange of secret activities. The mind is not something static, passive and merely receptive. It takes an active part in perception both by reason of its activity and the nature of that activity as caused by its latent tendencies (Samskaras). The following wellknown illustration from the Vedanta-paribhasha gives an account of the nature of perception: As water from a tank may flow through a channel into a plot of land and assume its shape (square, triangular or any other form), so the radiant mind (TaijasaAntahkarana) goes out through the eye or any other sense-organ to the place where an object is, and gets transformed into the shape of that object. This modification of the mind-stuff is called a Vritti (Practice of Yoga: Vol. I, pp. 107-108). In his Sure Ways of Success in Life (pp. 94-99) Swami Sivananda gives an analysis of the apparatus of perception in the following manner: The senses are the gatekeepers of the wonderful factory of the mind. They bring into the mental factory matter for manufacture. Light vibrations, sound vibrations, and the like, are brought inside through these avenues. The sensations are first converted into percepts by the mind, which then presents these percepts to the intellect. The intellect converts these percepts into concepts or ideas. Just as raw sugarcane juice is treated with so many chemicals and passes through various settling tanks, and is packed as pure crystals; just as ordinary clay mixed and treated with plaster of Paris, etc. passes through settling tanks and is made into jugs, jars, plates, cups, etc.; just as crude sand is turned into beautiful glassware of various sorts in a glass factory; so mere light vibrations,

sound vibrations, etc. are turned into powerful ideas or concepts of various descriptions in the factory of the mind. The external senses are only instruments in the process of perception. The real auditory, tactile, visual, gustatory and olfactory centres are in the brain and in the astral body. These centres are the real senses which make perception possible. The intellect (Buddhi) receives material from the mind and presents them to the Purusha or the Atman which is behind the screen. The intellect is like the prime minister; it is closer to the Purusha than the mind is. As soon as facts are placed by the intellect before the Purusha, there flashes out egoism (Ahamkara). The intellect receives back the message from the Purusha, decides and determines, and transmits it to the mind for the execution of orders. The external organs of action carry out the orders of the master. The Antahkarana (inner psychical instrument) is a broad term which includes the intellect, the ego, the memory, the subconscious and the conscious mind. The one Antahkarana assumes all these names due to its different functions, just as a person is called a judge when he dispenses justice in a law court, a president when he presides over a society or an association, a chairman when he superintends over a meeting, and a storekeeper when he is in charge of goods. If one can clairvoyantly visualise the inner working of this mental factory one will be dumbfounded. Just as in the telephone exchange of a big city various messages come from diverse houses and firms to the central station, and the central operator plugs, connects and disconnects the various switches, so does the mind plug, connect and disconnect sensory messages. When one wants to see an object the mind puts a plug into the other four centres, viz. hearing, feeling, tasting and smelling. When one wants to hear something the mind plugs similarly the remaining four centres. The mind works with a speed which is unimaginable. In ordinary persons the mental images are distracted and undefined. Every thought has an image, a form or a shape. A table is a mental image plus an external something. Whatever one sees outside has its counterpart in ones mind. The pupil of the eye is a small round construction. The retina is limited in its structure. How is it that the image of a huge mountain seen through such a small aperture is cast in the mind? How does this colossal form enter the tiny hole in the eye? The fact is that the image of the mountain already exists in the mind. Here Swami Sivananda brings out the significant truth that the limited sense-organs are able to cast the image of an extensive scene on the limited mind working in a body on account of the essentially omnipresent and all-comprehensive character of the consciousness that is reflected through the mind. All perception suggests

the marvellous working of this immanent consciousness through the instrumentality of the mind, and later through the senses. The real seer and the senser of things is this consciousness which is at the background of the perceiving subject as its existence and essence. The ultimate knower of the world is an absolute being whose presence is established by the nature of knowledge itself. In order to know the world fully, the knower must be independent of the laws governing the world; else, knowledge complete would be impossible. One whose knowledge is controlled by external phenomena can never have real knowledge of them. The impulse for absolute knowledge guarantees the possibility of such a knowledge. This shows that the knower is superior to the known to such an extent that the known loses its value as being, in the light of the absoluteness of the knower (Gita Meditations: p. ix).