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SIL-233 3(2-3)

POLUSI TANAH DAN


KONTAMINASI AIRTANAH
2. Karakteristik fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah
Pengajar:
Prof.Dr. Budi I. Setiawan
Dr. Satyanto K. Saptomo
LUAS PERMUKAAN SPESIFIK
Luas Permukaan Spesifik (Specific Surface
Area/SSA) merupakan sifik fisik fundamental dan
intrisik tanah yang berkaitan dengan fenomena
penting seperti pertukaran kation, retensi dan
pelepasan bahan-bahan kimia (termasuk nutrisi
tanaman, polutan potensial), retensi air, sifat
mekanika sperti plastisitas, kohesi dan kekuatan.
Berikut 3 ekspesi matematika untuk menghitung LPS:
a
m
= A
s
/M
s
;
a
v
= A
s
/V
s
;
a
b
= A
s
/V
t
;
K
A
R
A
K
T
E
R
I
S
T
I
K

T
A
N
A
H
LUAS PERMUKAAN SPESIFIK
K
A
R
A
K
T
E
R
I
S
T
I
K

T
A
N
A
H
SSA, KUBUS BERBAGAI UKURAN
K
A
R
A
K
T
E
R
I
S
T
I
K

T
A
N
A
H
Sisi Luas 1 Muka Luas Permukaan Volume Area per Volume
1 m 1 m
2
6 m
2
1 m
3
6.0 m
1
2 m 4 m
2
24 m
2
8 m
3
3.0 m
1
4 m 16 m
2
96 m
2
64 m
3
1.5 m
1
6 m 36 m
2
216 m
2
216 m
3
1.0 m
1
8 m 64 m
2
384 m
2
512 m
3
0.75 m
1
12 m 144 m
2
864 m
2
1728 m
3
0.5 m
1
20 m 400 m
2
2400 m
2
8000 m
3
0.3 m
1
Semakin kecil ukuran kubus, semakin besar luas permukaan spesifiknya.
Hal ini berlaku juga untuk semua bentuk padatan.
SSA PARTIKEL TANAH
Apabila suatu kubus dengan sisi-sisi l diiris dengan
sebanyan (n-1) kali dengan ketebalan o=l/n untuk
mendapatkan n buah lempeng, maka bila a dan b
adalah panjang dan lebar lempeng tersebut luas
permukaan spesifiknya adalah:
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+ +
=
b a b a ab
b a ab
s
s s s
1 1 1 2
1
2 2
o
o o
o o
o o
K
A
R
A
K
T
E
R
I
S
T
I
K

T
A
N
A
H
Apabila o<<a dan o<<b
Apabila o<<a dan o=b
o
o
s
s
s
s
4
2
~
~
SSA PARTIKEL TANAH
K
A
R
A
K
T
E
R
I
S
T
I
K

T
A
N
A
H
SSA PARTIKEL TANAH
Kubus dan bola memiliki SSA
yang sama bila diameter dan
panjang sisinya sama.
Semakin tipis partikel,
semakin besar SSA
Semakin besar SSA semakin
besar terjadi aktivitas
permukaan dan aktivitas
koloidal.
Total SSA adalah jumlah dari
fraksi (f) dikalikan SSA dari
masing-masing partikel
K
A
R
A
K
T
E
R
I
S
T
I
K

T
A
N
A
H
i
i
i
s f s

=
Ukuran partikel tanah beragam dari sedikit lebih besar
dari ukuran molekuler sampai batu, dengan partikel besar
membentuk kerangka dan molekul kecil mengisi ruang
kosong disekeliling titik kontak dan menutupi
permukaannya.
Interaksi Padatan dan Cairan
Terjadi kontak antara fasa cair
dan fasa padat dalam pori
tanah. Pada bidang kontak ini
gaya listrik alami
menyebabkan fenomena
pengembangan, pengkerutan,
agregasi, flocculation dan
dispersi yang akhirnya akan
mempengaruhi transport
udara dan larutan dalam
tanah.
Mineral Liat (Clay)
Liat adalah fase padatan dalam tanah dengan
diameter kurang dari 2 m. Didalamnya
biasanya didapati colloidal clay yaitu sub-fraksi
yang lebih halus dari 0. 2 m.
Clay
Terdiri dari silika dan
alumina
Terbentuk dari 2 lembaran
(sheet) silika dan satu
lembaran alumina (2:1)
atau satu lembaran silika
dan alumina (1:1)
Contoh : Kaolinite,
bermacam-macam mika,
illite, chlorite, vermichullite,
montmorilonite, allophanes.
Muatan Listrik Permukaan
Mineral Liat
Dalam pembentukan mineral liat,
lembaran-lembaran tetrahedral dan
octahedral berkembang unit per unit.
Si, Al dan Mg jarang terdapat dalam
perbandingan yang ideal. Ion-ion A1
3+
yang berlebih dapat menngisi posisi
Si
4+
, demikian juga Mg
2+
dapat
mengisi bila terjadi kekurangan A1
3+
.
Proses ini menyebabkan terjadinya
kelebihan muatan negatif yang
bermanifestasi sebagai densitas
muatan permukaan spesifik.
Muatan Listrik Permukaan
Mineral Liat
Subtitusi isomorphous : Penggantian satu kation dengan
kation lain yang berukuran sama (Si
4+
oleh Al
3+
; A1
3+
oleh Mg
2+
); tidak terlalu mempengaruhi bentuk kisi-kisi
kristal (crystal lattice). Setelah mineral liat terbentuk,
sangat sulit untuk mengeluarkan kation subtitusi tanpa
merusak lattice.
Pada beberapa mineral liat tidak terjadi subtitusi
isomorphous sehingga secara elektrik tetap netral
kecuali ada sumber muatan listrik lain.
Dibawah pH = 7, tepian partikel liat memiliki muatan
positif.
Adsorption* and dissociation **
of counterions
Muatan negatif liat akan terkompensasi secara natural
oleh muatan positif yang ekivalen dari kation-kation:
seperti Na
+
, K
+
, H
+
, Mg
2+
and Ca
2+
, yang akan
diserap di permukaan lempeng atau tersebar di larutan
yang mengelilinginya.
Kation-kation melawan muatan listrik negatif pada plat
mineral liat dan menghadap sekelilingnya dan disebut
juga sebagai counterions.
*Adsorption is the adhesion of molecules of gas, liquid, or dissolved solids to a
surface
** Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which ionic
compounds (complexes, or salts) separate or split into smaller particles, ions, or
radicals, usually in a reversible manner
Adsorption and dissociation of
counterions
Apabila lempeng liat kering dibasahi dengan air kation yang ter-
adsorp dengan lemah akan mengalami dissosiasi (dissociation) dari
permukaan lempeng dan yang kuat ter-adsorp akan membentuk
lapisan tipis di permukaan lempeng.
Adsorption and dissociation of
counterions
Permukaan lempeng liat yang
bermuatan dan counterion yang
mengelilinginya disebut diffuse
electrical double layer. Merupakan
terminologi yang menunjukan
pemisahan lempeng bermuatan
negatif dan counterion positif. Counter
ion dibedakan lagi menjadi fixed
layer/Stern layer dan diffuse layer.
Distribusi ion dekat permukaan
bermuatan negatif
Swelling and Shrinkage
Pada kadar air rendah larutan
tanah disekitar partikel liat akan
berupa lapisan film tipis. Double
layer akan mencegah lapisan ini
untuk mengembang. Dalam
kondisi ini konsentrasi kation
menjadi lebih tinggi dan memiliki
kapasitas penyerapan air secara
osmosis.
Apabila air terserap, partikel-
partikel akan bergerak mendorong
satu sama lain sehingga terjadi
gaya pengembangan /swelling.
Besar pengembangan ini akan
tergantung dari double layer i.e.
tergantung pada jenis liat nya.
Interaksi antara padatan
Kondensasi lempeng
Bila jarak antar lempeng-lempeng liat
sangat berkurang akibat
penghilangan air counterion dalam
double layer akan dipaksa masuk ke
tengah-tengahnya. Muatan positif dan
negatif akan saling mendekat dan
tarik menarik.
Pada liat dengan konsentrasi Ca
2 +
(or other polyvalent ions) yang
tinggi, tarik-menarik ini akan cukup
kuat sehingga menjadi kondisi yang
stabil yang disebut kondensasi plat
yang tidak memungkinkan lagi air
dapat terserap
Interaction between soild phase
Flocculation
The edges of clay platelets have a positive electrical
charge at pH below 7. If the extent of the double layer is
small, the positively charged edges may approach the
negatively charged surfaces of the platelets sufficiently to
form weakly bonded floccules. This process is called
flocculation. Floccules are loose combinations of clay
particles similar to *card-house*arrangements (Figure
1.8). Since the stability of these arrangements decreases
with increasing extent of the double layer, a Ca-clay will
flocculate at a lower salt concentration of the soil solution
than a Na-clay.
Clays suspensions probably initially flocculate in card-
house arrangements. With slow drying, the floccules tend
to orient and stick together in the same manner as with
plate-condensation.
Interaction between soild phase
Peptisation, dispersion or
deflocculaltion is the reverse
process of flocculation, namely the
separation into primary particles.
This can be achieved either
chemically or mechanically.
When a flocculated clay is dried, it
forms a sediment with extensive
cracks. It also tends to be crumbly.
When this sediment is rewetted,
the crumbs as well as the sediment
as a whole are stable. When a
dispersed clay is dried, it forms a
hard crust. If the wetting and drying
cycle is repeated, hard, large clods
are formed. When the sediment is
rewetted, it forms a sticky mud
without structure. This is typical of
Na-clays, but not of Ca-clays.
Interaction between soild phase
Cementing agents
The primary soil particles within an aggregate
may be bound together by certain substances
called cementing agents. The main cementing
agents are organic matter, silicate clays, lime
and sesquioxides.
Humus, which is colloidal organic matter like
clay, adsorbs cations. If humus contains a high
proportion of Ca
2+
- and other divalent cations,
its long polymer chains can form bonds with
each other and with the mineral components of
the solid phase. It also binds clay domains to
quartz, which is the primary mineral component
of silt and sand. In this way, a stable 'clay-
humus complex' is formed, resulting in
aggregates. In soils rich in Na
+
- (alkali soils) or
H
+
-ions (acid soils), the bonds are unstable and
the humus dissolves.
Interaction between soild phase
Cementing agents
Silicate clays, too, may cement particles together, but their binding
effect is much smaller than that of humus. The degree of cementing
and the kind of aggregates formed, vary with the electrical charge,
its distribution on the clay particles and the type of clay involved.
Other cementing agents for sand and silt are lime (mainly CaCO
3
)
and sesquioxides (Al
-
and Fe
-
oxides). Lime, when it precipitates
around contact points between soil particles, acts as a cement. The
binding effect of iron oxide is doubtful, but aluminum oxide is
probably effective. Finally, soil organisms also may keep soil
particles together by their activity and sometimes by their
byproducts.
Interaction between soild phase
Soil structure and structural stability
The spatial arrangement or clustering of primary soil particles into secondary
units, called aggregates or peds, is known as soil structure.Soil structure
influences water transport, soil temperature, air transport and mechanical
impedance of soil to seedling emergence and root penetration. It is nearly
impossible to measure soil structure directly. The spatial arrangement and
orientation of soil particles and soil pores as seen in thin sections, probably
represents soil structure the closest. Soil structure is often, somewhat
arbitrarily, described by the sizes and shapes of aggregates. It is also
characterized by porosity and pore-size distribution These are an indication of
the soil ability to retain water, to allow water to infiltrate and to make water
available to crops. One can also measure parameters such as soil air
permeability, infiltration rate, bulk density, aeration porosity and penetration
resistance. Though indirectly, these measurements all render information
about soil structure.
Processes such as plate condensation and flocculation of clays and humus
enhance structure formation, but are by themselves not sufficient. Structure
and its stability depend upon the processes of formation, as well as the
presence of adequate binding agents. If sufficient amounts of cementing
agents are present, even sandy soils can form stable fabrics with many large
and small pores produced by soil fauna, roots or frost.
Interaction between soild phase
Soil structure and structural stability .
Structural stability of aggregates is as relevant as
structure itself. It is the resistance of soil structure to
mechanical and physico-chemical destructive forces. This
resistance is determined by the attractive forces between
the soil constituents under various conditions. For
instance, lack of stability of soil structure may seal the soil
surface and reduce water infiltration, hamper aeration and
impede emergence of seedlings. The process by which
dry soil aggregates disintegrate upon wetting is called
slaking. This may be aggravated by air locked inside
aggregates, while a dry soil is being flooded
or infiltrated. The pressure of occluded air may then build
up such that the aggregates explode. When the
disintegrated aggregates dry, a soil crust may be formed.
Other physico-chemical forces include swelling,
shrinkage, flocculation and dispersion. Frost action may
also improve soil structure. Growing ice lenses displace
soil particles and form large pores. The water being
accumulated in the ice lenses causes decreasing water
contents elsewhere, often leading to plate condensation,
flocculation, etc.
Quest
1. Hitung luas area spesifik untuk partikel liat
yang berbentuk lempeng dengan ketebalan =
1nm, panjang dan lebar = 20 nm dan
masajenis 2750 kg/m
3
2. Terjmahkan slide-slide terakhir yang
berbahasa Inggris ke dalam bahasa Indonesia
(Optional)
Kirim jawaban anda via email ke saptomo@
ipb. ac. Id sebelum kuliah Selasa 2 Maret
2010.