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KESETARAAN ANTARA DETERIORASI DAN DEVIGORASI DARI METODE PENGUSANGAN CEPAT FISIK PADA BENIH KEDELAI (Glycine max

[L.] Merril) Equivalency Between Deterioration and Devigoration of Physically Accelerated Ageing Method on Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merril) Eko Pramono1)
1)

Staf Pengajar pada Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35145. ABSTRAK

Uji pengusangan cepat telah diusulkan oleh Delouche dan Baskin (1973) untuk mengevaluasi daya simpan benih, tetapi metode yang berkaitan dengan uji ini masih perlu dikembangkan. Sebuah percobaan dua rangkaian telah dilakukan untuk mendapatkan suatu metode pengusangan cepat secara fisik yang dapat menghasilkan penuaan dipercepat yang disebut devigorasi, yang setara dengan penuaan alamiah yang disebut deteriorasi. Satu lot benih kedelai dimundurkan secara alamiah pada penyimpanan dalam suhu kamar selama 5 bulan. Data pengamatan viabilitas dari lot benih ini diplotkan menjadi sebuah kurva deteriorasi. Sekelompok benih kedelai lainnya didevigorasi secara cepat dengan metode pengusangan cepat fisik. Ada 5 perlakuan intensitas pengusangan cepat. Data pengamatan viabilitas dari lima perlakuan diplotkan menjadi 5 kurva devigorasi. Kemudian, setiap kurva devigorasi dibandingkan dengan kurva deteriorasi. Hasil pembandinyan menunjukkan bahwa metode pengusangan cepat dengan intensitas pengusangan 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, dan 32 jam menghasilkan kurva devigorasi yang setara dengan kurva deteriorasi 0-5 bulan periode simpan alamiah. Kata-kata kunci: deteriorasi, devigorasi, kedelai, pengusangan cepat ABSTRACT Accelerated ageing test had been proposed by Delouche and Baskin (1973) to evaluate seed storability, but the method related to this test is still required to be developed. A Two-sets experiment had been conducted to find a physically accelerated ageing method that could produce accelerated ageing of seed called devigoration, that equivalent to natural ageing called deterioration. One lot of soybean seeds were deteriorated naturally under room temperature storage for 5 months. Viability observation data of this lot were plotted into a deterioration curve. Another soybean seeds lot were devigorated rapidly using a physically accelerated ageing method. There were 5 treatments of accelerated ageing intensity. Viability observation data of those 5 treatments were plotted into 5 kinds of devigoration curves. Then, each devigoration curve was compared to the deterioration curve. The result showed that the accelerated ageing method with ageing intensity of 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 hours produced a devigoration curve that equivalent to the deterioration curve of 0-5 months natural storage period. Key Words: accelerated ageing, deterioration, devigoration, soybean

Pendugaan Daya Simpan Benih Kedelai dengan Metode Pengusangan Cepat Kimiawi
Eko Pramono Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung ABSTRACT

Estimation of Storability of Soybean Seeds with Chemically Rapid Ageing Method. A Two-sets experiment had been conducted to find the equation model that can be used to predict the storability of soybean seed, and the equivalency between intensity of rapid ageing and the natural storability. One lot of soybean seeds were deteriorated naturally under room temperature storage for 5 months. Viability of the seeds were observed periodically with interval of one month until 5 months. Another lot were devigorated rapidly using a chemical rapid ageing method. The intensity of rapid ageing were 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12,5 % ethanol. The seeds were imbibed within strawpaper moistened with those ethanol solution for 10 hours. After that, viability of the seeds were observed. Viability of the seeds was evaluated by using germinability test and germination uniformity test. The results showed that there was no significantly different between the natural deterioration due to natural storage period and the rapid devigoration due to rapid ageing method. By using variable of delta value (D), the equation model of prediction of soybean seeds storability (SSp) could be formulated as SSp=9.32 - 0.81 Doi + Ti (in unit of % ethanol, with 1 % ethanol equals to 0.46 months), or SSp=8.12 - 0.57 Doi + Ti (in unit of % ethanol, with 1 % ethanol equals to 0.54 months)

EFEKTIFITAS DESIKAN ARANG KAYU DALAM MEMPERTAHANKAN VIGOR DAYA SIMPAN BENIH KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merr) Eko Pramono Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Bandar Lampung 35145 ABSTRACT Effectiveness of Wood Charcoal Desiccant in Maintaining Storability Vigor of Soybean. An experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of wood charcoal as a desiccant in maintaining storability vigor of soybean seeds had been conducted during May-August 1999. The seeds that had been stored for 3 months in polyethylene plastic bag added with wood charcoal with the proportion of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% respectively were imbibed in straw paper moistened with ethanol solution of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% for ten hours. Storability vigor of the seeds were evaluated by germination tests. The result showed that wood charcoal 20 and 25% added in the seed bags could maintain storability vigor of the seeds higher than the other proportions. It means that adding wood charcoal 20% and 25% in seed bags will be able to prolong the storage period longer than those less than 20%.

EFEKTIFITAS DESIKAN ABU SEKAM DALAM MEMPERLAMBAT KEMUNDURAN VIABILITAS BENIH KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) Oleh Eko Pramono Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl Sumantri Brojonegoro No 1 Bandar Lampung Untuk mendukung pengembangan produksi kedelai nasional diperlukan adanya penyediaan benih bermutu secara berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas abu sekam dalam memperlambat kemunduran viabilitas benih kedelai selama penyimpanan dalam kemasan plastik yang kedap udara. Benih kedelai yang telah dipanen, dibersihkan, dan dikeringkan dengan oven oC sampai kadar air mencapai antara 9-10%. Abu sekam dikeringkan dengan 40 oven 100 oC selama 12 jam, didinginkan dan dikemas dalam kain saring. Bobot abu sekam dalam kantong kain dibuat sesuai dengan perlakuan. Benih kedelai yang siap simpan tersebut dimasukkan dalam kemasan kantung plastik polietilen, 0.25 kg per kantong plastik. Di tengah-tengah kantung plastik benih kedelai tersebut, abu sekam diletakkan sebagai desikan. Kemudian, kantung kemasan disegel rapat-rapat dengan api agar kedap udara dan diletakkan dalam lemari penyimpanan pada kondisi suhu kamar. Pengamatan viabilitas benih mencakup daya berkecambah (DB), kecambah normal total (NT), nilai D=HT-HP, dan D=NT-NK dilakukan pada setiap akhir perlakuan periode simpan. Hasil menunjukan bahwa perlakuan pemberian abu sekam dalam kemasan benih kedelai dapat memperlambat kemunduran benih kedelai dalam kemasan. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh peubah nilai D=HT-HP atau D=NT-NK. Dengan peubah daya berkecambah (DB) atau kecambah normal total (NT), pengaruh pemberian abu sekam trsebut tidak terlihat. Penggunakan abu sekam dengan proporsi 0.05 dalam kemasan benih, pengaruh perlambatan kemunduran benih kedelai sudah terlihat nyata. Laju kemunduran benih makin lambat dengan proporsi abu sekam yang makin besar.

HASIL DAN VIABILITAS BENIH 15 GENOTIPE KEDELAI (Glycine max [L]. Merr.) PADA DUA TINGKAT KEKURANGAN AIR Oleh Eko Pramono Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35145 ABSTRACT YIELD AND SEED VIABILITY OF 15 SOYBEAN GENOTYPES (Glycine max [L]. Merr.) UNDER TWO LEVELS OF WATER DEFICIENCY. Lack of water on plant will quite reduce performance of growth and yield of plant. An experiment has been conducted in the plastichouse to determine the effect of water deficiency of plant on yield and viability of soybean seeds. Three levels of water application, i.e., sufficient water level (1000 mm/pot/season), deficient of 30% of normal level (660 mm/pot/season), and deficient of 60% of normal level (330 mm/pot/season) were applied on fifteen genotypes of soybean. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Variables observed were total pod number, number of filled pods, number of empty pods, number of total seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, weight of hundred seeds, potential of viability, and seed vigor. Results show that water deficiency reduced yield components, but did not reduce viability of seeds both potential viability and seed vigor. The reduction of seed weight per plant was varied accross genotypes. On the levels of water deficiency up to 1/3 of normal level reduced seed weight per plant 23,53-41,03%, and up to 2/3 of normal level reduced seed weight 70,62-78,96%. Key Words: soybean, yield, viability, water deficiency

PENGARUH PERLAKUAN AWAL (PRETREATMENT) KIMIAWI TERHADAP PENINGKATAN MUTU PERKECAMBAHAN BENIH PADI (Oryza sativa L.) Effects of Chemicals Pretreatment to Improving on Quality of Seed Germination of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Oleh Eko Pramono Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl Sumantri Brojonegoro No 1 Bandar Lampung ABSTRAK Sistem tanam benih langsung (tabela) pada pertanaman padi sawah telah disarankan sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk meningkatkan produksi pangan nasional, khususnya beras. Melalui tabela diharapkan efisiensi usahatani akan mengalami peningkatan karena intensitas pertanaman (IP) dapat ditingkatkan, dan biaya produksi dapat diturunkan dengan mengurangi penggunaan tenaga kerja. Di lain pihak, pada tabela muncul masalah meningkatnya infestasi 3gulma, kesulitan dalam penyiangan terhadap gulma, dan peningkatan kebutuhan benih per satuan luas. Dalam tulisan ini, dibahas beberapa cara memecahkan masalah itu dengan beberapa upaya peningkatan mutu benih. Beberapa perlakuan kimia dan fisik telah dilaporkan dapat meningkatkan mutu perkecambahan benih. Peningkatan mutu perkecambahan benih ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan daya saing tanaman padi terhadap gulma, dan menurunkan kebutuhan benih pada tabela. ABSTRACT The direct seeded planting (DSP) system on rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been recommended as an alternative to increase national food production, especially in rice. Some researchers reported that DSP system could increase efficiency of farm by increasing planting intensity (PI), and decreasing cost production by reducing labor cost. On the other hand, the increasing of weeds infestation, troubling in hand or mechanical weeding, and increasing of seeds needed were turned up as new problems. This paper discussed some methods to overcaming those problems by increasing seeds quality planted in DSP system. Some chemical and physical treatments have been reported could improve on the quality of seed germination. The increasing quality of seeds germination is expected can improve competitiveness of rice plant to weeds, and reduce seeds needed in the DSP system.

PENGARUH PERLAKUAN AWAL THIOUREA TERHADAP PENINGKATAN MUTU PERKECAMBAHAN BENIH PADI (Oryza sativa L.) (Effect of Thiourea Pretreatment to improve germination quality of rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.)) Eko Pramono Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Bandar Lampung 35145

ABSTRAK Percobaan yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan mutu perkecambahan benih padi (Oryza sativa L.) telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan thiourea sebagai perlakuan awal kimiawi. Percobaan berjalan pada Mei sampai Juli 1997 di Bandar Lampung. Benih padi varietas IR-64 yang terdiri dari dua lot, yaitu benih masih dalam masa dormansi dan benih telah lepas masa dormansi, sebelum ditanam pada media pasir, direndam selama 24 jam dalam larutan thiourea 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, dan 6%. Dua faktor perlakuan tersebut disusun secara faktorial dalam rancangan teracak sempurna dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa perendaman benih padi dalam larutan thiourea 2% selama 24 jam meningkatkan vigor kekuatan tumbuh benih dan sekaligus meningkatkan vigor bibit tanaman padi pada kedua lot benih. Kata kunci: Oryza sativa, thiourea, perlakuan awal, perkecambahan. ABSTRACT An experiment that goals to improve germination quality of rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) has been conducted using thiourea as a chemical pretkoreatment. The experiment has been conducted during Mei-July 1997 in Bandar Lampung. Two lots of rice seed of IR-64 variety, those were within afterripening period lot and post-afterripening period lot. Before planting on the sand medium, the seeds were soaked in the thiourea solution of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 % for 24 hours. These two treatment factors, i.e. seed lot and concentrations of thiourea, were arranged in the randomized complete design with three replicates, 50 seeds each experiment unit. Soaking rice seeds in thiourea solution of 2% for 24 hours increased vigor of growth strength and seedling vigor of the seeds on both of seed lots. Key words: Oryza sativa, thiorea, pretreatment, germination.

PENGARUH KNO3 TERHADAP VIGOR BIBIT PADI (Oryza sativa L.) (Effect of KNO3 to rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling vigor) Eko Pramono Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Bandar Lampung 35145

ABSTRAK Percobaan yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh KNO3 terhadap vigor bibit padi (Oryza sativa L.) telah dilakukan pada Mei sampai Juli 1997 di Bandar Lampung. Benih padi varietas IR-64 yang terdiri dari dua lot, yaitu benih masih dalam masa dormansi dan benih telah lepas masa dormansi, sebelum ditanam pada media pasir, direndam selama 24 jam dalam larutan KNO3 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, dan 6%. Perlakuan disusun secara faktorial dalam rancangan teracak sempurna dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa perendaman benih padi dalam larutan KNO3 2-4% selama 24 jam meningkatkan vigor kekuatan tumbuh benih dan sekaligus meningkatkan vigor bibit tanaman padi pada kedua lot benih. ABSTRACT An experiment that objectives to observe the effect of KNO3 to rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling vigor has been conducted during Mei-July 1997 in Bandar Lampung. Two lots of rice seed of IR-64 variety, those were within afterripening period lot and post-afterripening period lot. Before the seeds were planted on the sand medium, they were soaked in the KNO3 solution of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 % for 24 hours. This experiment used two treatment factors, i.e. seed lot and concentrations of KNO3, those were arranged in the randomized complete design with three replicates, 50 seeds each. Soaking rice seed in KNO3 solution of 2-4% for 24 hours increased vigor of growth strength and seedling vigor of the seeds on both of seed lots.

PERLAKUAN AWAL DENGAN GIBERELIN DAN KINETIN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN VIGOR BENIH DAN BIBIT PADI (Oryza sativa L.) EKO PRAMONO Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35145 ABSTRACT Pretreatmen with Gibberelin and Kinetin to improve seed and seedling vigor of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed and seedling vigor are very important for rice. An experiment applicating gibberelen and kinetin as a pretreatment had been conducted to improve seeds and seedling vigor. Gibberelen (GA) and kinetin (KIN) respectively of 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm were combined factorially into a solution as a pretreatmen. The experiment used a completely randomized design with three replicates. After soaked for 24 hours in the pretreatment solution, rice seeds were planted in sand medium. Results showed that pretreatment with GA and KIN effectively improved seeds and seedlings vigor. Combination of 15 ppm GA and 15 ppm KIN could increase the dry weight of seedling from 112.2 mg to 191.7 mg. ABSTRAK Vigor benih dan bibit sangat penting bagi pertanaman padi. Suatu percobaan yang menerapkan giberelin (GA) dan kinetin (KIN) sebagai perlakuan awal telah dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan vigor benih dan bibit padi. Giberelin dan KIN masingmasing 0, 5, 10, dan 15 ppm dikombinasikan secara faktorial kedalam suatu larutan sebagai perlakuan awal. Percobaan ini mengunakan rancangan teracak lengkap dengan tiga ulangan. Setelah direndam selama 24 jam dalam larutan perlakuan awal, benih padi ditanam pada medium pasir. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan awal dengan GA dan KIN efektif meningkatkan vigor benih dan bibit padi. Kombinasi GA 15 ppm dan KIN 15 ppm dapat meningkatkan bobot kering bibit dari 112.2 mg (kontrol) menjadi 191.7 mg.

KESETARAAN ANTARA PERIODE SIMPAN ALAMIAH (PSA) DAN INTENSITAS PENGUSANGAN (IP) UNTUK BENIH KACANG TANAH (Arachis hypogaea L.)
EKO PRAMONO Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35145

RINGKASAN Empat percobaan pemunduran benih kacang tanah dilakukan, yaitu 1) pemunduran secara buatan dengan metode pengusangan cepat fisik menggunakan suhu 41oC dan kelembaban nisbi 100% (MPCF), 2) pemunduran secara buatan dengan metode pengusangan cepat kimia menggunakan larutan etanol jenuh (MPCKL), 3) pemunduran secara buatan dengan metode pengusangan cepat kimia menggunakan uap etanol jenuh (MPCKU), dan 4) pemunduran secara alamiah dengan periode simpan alamiah (PSA). Nilai kesetaraan antara intensitas pengusangan (IPCF, IPCKL, dan IPCKU) dievaluasi berdasarkan peubah daya berkecambah minimum 80%, yaitu mutu minimum baku yang berlaku di Indonesia. Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil dari penelitian ini adalah nilai kesetaraan antara intensitas pengusangan cepat fisik (IPCF), intensitas pengusangan cepat kimiawi dengan larutan etanol (IPCKL), dan intensitas pengusangan cepat kimiawi dengan uap jenuh etanol 95% (IPCKU) masing-masing dengan periode simpan alamiah (PSA) untuk benih kacang tanah (Archis hypogaea L.) dapat diketahui. Nilai kesetaraan itu memiliki perbedaan antarpeubah, juga memiliki perbedaan antarIP dalam peubah yang sama. Beberapa peubah, yaitu KP pada IPCKL dan DB, KP, dan KNK pada IPCKU tidak dapat ditetapkan nilai kesetaraannya antara IP dan PSA. Hal ini memerlukan pendekatan lain untuk menetapkannya.

THE USE OF QUICKLIME, WOOD CHARCOAL, AND HULL DUST TO PROLONG THE STORABILITY OF PEANUT SEEDS (Arachis hypogaea L.) By Eko Pramono ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was 1) to prove that quicklime, wood charcoal, and hull dust are dryer materials those can be used to prolong the storability of peanut seeds at least six months, and 2) to know what proportion of each kind of those dryer materials within seed bag that can prolong the storability of peanut seeds at least for six months. A storaging experiment of peanut seeds of Sima variety using three kinds of dryer materials and was conducted during 9 months. The dryer material was wrapped with filter cloth and then took into seed bag together with the peanut seeds. Proportion of each dryer material was 0% (as a control), 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Viability of peanut seeds was observed at the last of storage period 3, 6, and 9 month. Germinability, germination speed, strong normal seedling, delta value, and moister content of seeds were variables measured in the observation. Result of this experiment showed that up to the last storage period of 6 month, the three of dryer materials with proportion of 5-25% could retain the viability of peanut seeds, mainly the potential viability, but with varied of vigor. Wood chacoal of 25%, hull dust of 20% and 25%, and quicklime of 5-25% produced vigor seeds higher than those of 0% (control). Up to the last storage period of 9 month, wood charcoal and hull dust of 5-25% could not retain the seed viability anymore, either potential viability or vigor. On the other hand, quicklime of 5-25% still could retain the viability of peanut seeds at a high level, either potential viability or vigor. Thus, wood charcoal and hull dust of 5-25% could not prolong the storability of peanut seeds for a storage period of 9 month, but quicklime of 5-25% could prolong the storability of peanut seeds for a storage period of 9 month.