Anda di halaman 1dari 7

# Title: Electricity Billing System Version 1.

0 Description: About this code I called it Electricity Billing System Version 2.0 it is a database driven application I wrote in C. It is a menu drive program that can add,edit,delete and view records in the database file. It is good introduction in database design and programming using C as primary language. It uses text file and struc data structure to store and manipulate records in the database. Im using Turbo C 2.0 for DOS as my compiler in this application.

## Units Of Electricity Use

The watt (W) is a unit of electrical power, which is the rate at which we use energy. We pay the electric company for the use of energy. A kilowatt (kW) is equal to 1000 watts: kilo is a prefix that means 1000. (Note that k is the normal prefix for kilo, W is the normal abbreviation for Watts and h is the normal abbreviation for hours). A watt-hour (Wh) and a kilowatt-hour (kWh) are units of energy, where 1000 Wh= 1 kWh. The equation relating energy and power is: Energy = Power x Time For example, if a 75 W bulb (power) is turned on for 2 hours (time), it will use 150 Wh or 0.15 kWh of energy (energy = power x time). The cost for each unit of energy we use is measured in cents (c) or dollars (\$) per kWh. The typical cost per unit of energy is 10 c/kWh or \$0.10/kWh. Using the equation below, we can determine the cost of our energy use: Cost of energy use = Energy used x Cost per unit of energy: Using our example above, the cost of using a 75 W bulb for 2 hours is: Cost of energy use = 0.15 kWh x 10 c/kWh = 1.5 c.
Using the Electric Bill Make a list of the total cost of monthly electricity use as written on the bill. Discuss/calculate the minimum, maximum and average of the classes' electricity bill. Bar graphs could be made of the number of bills totaling less than \$30, \$30-40, \$40-50, \$50-60, \$60-70, \$70-80, \$80-90, \$90-100 and greater that \$100. Discuss with your class the reasons why some bills are higher than others. Perhaps the difference is related to the size of the home, number of refrigerators, freezers, TVs, computers etc. at the home or whether or not they have a pool or spa.

Consider a typical sample electric bill which contains the following information.
Total Usage 647 kWh

## Non-Baseline Usage 381 kWh @ \$.12039 Amount \$72.67

Next discuss that electricity use is measured using units of kilowatt-hours, abbreviated as kWh on the bill. Each kWh costs a certain amount of money that is specified on the bill. Up to a certain amount of electricity use, called the baseline usage, the cost of a kWh is one amount, which on the sample bill is \$.10077/kWh or 10.077 c/kWh. This can be used to introduce the concept of less than (<) - for electricity usage less than the baseline allowance of 266 kWh, the cost is \$.10077 per kWh. For amounts greater (>) than the baseline usage, the cost is higher - \$.12039 per kWh. Ask your students why SDG&E makes it cost more for you if you use higher amounts of electricity. Explain that this is a way that higher costs are used to try to discourage people from using excessive amounts of energy. Next have your students calculate the total electricity used by adding their baseline usage (266 kWh) and their non-baseline usage (381 kWh). This should agree with the amount denoted as total usage (266 kWh + 381 kWh = 647 kWh). Then have them determine their electricity bill amount. First have them multiply their baseline usage (266 kWh) by the baseline rate (\$.10077/kWh) to determine their baseline cost (266 kWh x \$.10077/kWh=\$26.80). Second, have them multiply their non-baseline usage (381 kWh) by the non-baseline rate (\$.12039/kWh) to determine their non-baseline cost (381 kWh x \$.12039/kWh=\$45.87). Now they should add the baseline cost and the non-baseline cost (\$26.80 + \$45.87 = \$72.67) to obtain their total electricity cost for the month. The gas usage and cost could be similarly determined. Students could also calculate the state surcharge tax and the state regulatory fee, given the rates specified on the bill and teachers could discuss the concept of taxes and how taxes are used. For example, as stated in the SDG&E "A Guide to Understanding Your Gas & Electric Bill, " the state surcharge tax is used for various energy management programs as well as the development of energy resources. The state regulatory fee pays for the operation of the California Public Utilities Commission, which determines the rates that the utilities are allowed to charge their customers.

their home and how often they are used per month. They can then use the costs stated in the booklet to calculate the monthly use cost of these different appliances. This will require the use and understanding of many different units - such as costs per load of running the washer, dryer, dishwasher, etc., costs per hour, costs per day and costs per month. Their total electricity cost per month should approximate the cost shown on their electric bill.

Therefore, for 10,000 hours of use, the compact fluorescent bulb will save a total of \$105 \$35 = \$70 compared to the incandescent bulb!
THE COST OF OPERATING APPLIANCES The SDG&E booklet "How Much Are Your Appliances Running" provides a way for students to understand why their electric bill costs as much as it does. Each student should be given a copy of the booklet. They should then go home and make a list of all of the electricity using appliances in their home and how often they are used per month. They can then use the costs stated in the booklet to calculate the monthly use cost of these different appliances. This will require the use and understanding of many different units - such as costs per load of running the washer, dryer, dishwasher, etc., costs per hour, costs per day and costs per month. Their total electricity cost per month should approximate the cost shown on their electric bill.

Now, let's determine how much it will cost to buy enough incandescent light bulbs to last 10,000 hours and how much it will cost to use them for that length of time. Since a light bulb lasts for 1000 hours in our example, it will take 10 of them to last for 10,000 hours. Since each light bulb costs 50c, then it will cost 10 x 50 c =500 c or \$5 to buy all 10 of the light bulbs. Since it costs 1c/hour to use a light bulb, over 10,000 hours, it will cost 10,000 c or \$100 to use the light bulb. So, for 10,000 hours of use, the total cost is \$5 to buy the bulbs and \$100 to use the bulbs, for a total cost of \$105. Therefore, for 10,000 hours of use, the compact fluorescent bulb will save a total of \$105 \$35 = \$70 compared to the incandescent bulb!
HOW ELECTRICITY IS PRODUCED Electricity is produced at power plants that convert energy from one form into a second form, namely electrical energy. Electricity can be produced by burning coal, oil, natural gas or wood. The flow of wind or water can also be used to produce electricity. Sunlight can be harnessed to produce electricity, either by heating water or by direct conversion to electricity using solar cells. The heat of the earth can be used to produce electricity at geothermal power plants. The energy produced by the heat generated by nuclear fission is used in nuclear power plants to produce electricity.

All of these power plants have advantages and disadvantages. Have your students perform a research project to investigate how these different power plants work. Have them determine:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the source of energy? How is the energy converted into electricity? What types of pollution are produced by this source of energy? What is the cost of electricity produced by this form of energy? Where does this energy source come from? Is it imported? Is it readily available at all times and in all places? 6. What percentage of our nation's electricity is produced by this form of energy? Why? What about other nations that might have different natural resources?

Break your class into study groups. Have them write a report about their topic and present it to the class. Next, have a debate discussing the relatives advantages and disadvantages of all of the different types of power plants.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/45323163/Electricit y-Bill-Project-Report

## 1.INTRODUCTION: 2.1 Scope: 2.2 Objectives Of The System:

3.1 Identification Of Problem: 3.2 Feasibility Study: 4.1 Software Requirement: 4.2 Hardware Requirement: 5.1 Introduction of Visual Basic: 5.2 Introduction of MS-Access 6.1 Data Design: 6.2 Input Stream: 6.3 Output Stream: 7.1 SDLC( System Development Life Cycle): 7.2 DFD(Data Flow Diagram): 7.3 CONTEXT DIAGRAM: 8.1 MODULE: 8.2 DATA DICTIONARY: 9.1 Coding of Login Form: 9.2 Coding of MDI Form: 9.3 Coding of Commercial Bill Calculation Form 9.4 Coding of Description Form: 9.5 Coding of Domestic Bill Calculation Form: 9.6 Coding of Commercial Bill Record Form: 10.1 White Box Testing: 10.2 Black Box Testing: 10.3 Alpha Testing: 10.4 Beta Testing: 11. CONCLUSION 12. FUTURE ANALYSIS:

Guideline for drawing a DFD 1 understanding the system. 2. ignore certain aspects of the system (all control processing and control actions should be ignored). 3. determine system boundaries ( what to include in- whatever is relevant and exclude) 4 develop a context diagram 5 identify data flow. 6 Group data flow (data elements flowing together should be grouped together if not-shown as separate data flows. 7identify transformation processes. 8 Group transformation process- group logically related or occur at the same time transformation process.

9. identify all files or data stores. 10. identify all data sources and destinations. 11name all DFD elements 12 names all DFD ( if more than 5-7 processes on a single page use higher-level and lower level DFDs 13 Give each process a sequential number. DATA MODELING process of defining a database so that it faithfully represent all aspects of the organization including its interactions with the external enviorment