Submitted by
1. Akkarawat Nunthasitthakorn 3298870
2. Teerapol Smittipornpun 3299656
THE REPORT IS A PART OF AERO2363 Advanced Aerospace Structures
School of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Manufacturing Engineering
ROYAL MELBOURNE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY
MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA
16 May 2011
Course Coordinator: Dr. Adrian Orifici
Question 0
Q0(a)
Student number 3298870: nn=70
Q0(b)
Front view
The spar caps are identified as shown above
Leading edge
Trailing edge
Upper surface
(640, 32.5, 0)
(1816.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1816.27, 12.5, 2500)
z
y
(640, 12.5, 0)
(0, 32.5, 0)
(1686.27, 12.5, 2500)
1686.21, 12.5, 2500)
z
y
(0, 32.5, 0)
(0, 0, 0)
(640, 32.5, 0)
(0, 32.5, 0)
(256, 32.5, 0)
(1686.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1816.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1738.27, 12.5, 2500)
z
x
Lower surface
Question 1
Q1(a)
According to figure 1, it indicates how the wing structure is constructed in Patran (FEM) at
sweep angle equals to 34. In the next stage, mesh seeds are applied by choosing 14
elements per surface and curve throughout the structure which can be seen in figure 2. This
results in 15 nodes per surface or curve which would provide the convenience in creating a
coordinate frame at station 250 mm, 1250 mm, and 2250 mm. This is because even number
of elements results in odd number of rows for nodes as shown in figure 3.
Figure 1.1: Constructed Structure
The mesh seed is uniform with number of element; the reason behind the selection
number of elements instead of element length is because the resulting mesh will be
rectangular throughout the structure, while the element length does
The mesh surface was created for cover rib and webs and curve for the caps and rib
stiffener.
Shell QUAD4 elements was used.
(640, 32.5, 0)
(0, 32.5, 0)
(256, 32.5, 0)
(1686.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1816.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1738.27, 12.5, 2500)
z
x
Figure 1.2: Mesh Seeds Number of Element 14
Figure 1.3: Selection Node at STN.250
In defining boundary condition, the wing root (at the end of bay5) is fixed in both translational
and rotational which similarly to the clamp.Figure.4 illustrates the fix end condition in all
degrees of freedom.
Figure 1.4: Clamp boundary condition
Before goes through the material properties, wing structure is needed to define the material
first and these values are given as follow
E = 70000 MPa (Youngs modulus)
= 0.3 (poisson ratio)
In the next step, material properties are identified to each structure parts, namely, covers,
ribs, rib stiffeners, spar webs, and spar caps. The properties for each part are provided in
table 1 and 2 and figure 5 shows each structure part.
Table 1.1: Properties for rib
Table 1.2: Properties for bay 1 to 5
Rib Thickness (mm). Rib Stiffener Area (
)
8 3000
Bay A
boom
(mm
2
)
t
h
(mm)
t
v
(mm)
1 2500 1.5 4
2 2500 1.5 4
3 2500 1.5 4
4 5000 3 5
5 5000 3 5
Figure 1.5: Spar caps, Rib Stiffeners, covers, ribs, spar webs, respectively (from left to right).
Q1(b)
Wing deformation shows the maximum deflection.
Table 1.3: Deformation result selection
Figure 1.6: Wing Maximum Deflection
Fringe Result: Displacement,Translation
Quantity: Magnitude
Deformation Result: Displacement, Translation
Maximum Deflection: 351 mm
Q1(c)
Plot the shear stress distribution as a function of perimeter coordinate s, as shown in Figure
3, at locations 250 mm, 1250 mm and 2250 mm from the fixed end (STN 250, STN 1250 and
STN 2250). Illustrate and discuss briefly the coordinate systems used.
Figure 1.7: Points of interest in cross section
Figure 7 indicates the points of interest in wing cross section. Shear distribution will be
plotted along the cross section in three locations of interest.
Station 250 mm:
At station 250 mm, the coordinate frames are constructed as follows;
Figure 1.8: Coordinate Frame at 250
The shear stress distributions are plotted along each cross section;
Point 4
Point 5 Point 6
Point 3
Point 2 Point 1
From 1 to 3:
Figure 1.9: Shear stress distribution from 1 to 3
From 3 to 6:
Figure 1.10: Shear stress distribution from 3 to 6
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 1
From 6 to 4:
Figure 1.11: Shear stress distribution from 6 to 4
From 4 to 1
Figure 1.12: Shear stress distribution from 4 to 1
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 2
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 4
From 2 to 5
Figure 1.13: Shear stress distribution from 2 to 5
Station 1250 mm:
At station 1250 mm, the coordinate frames are constructed as follows;
Figure 1.14: Coordinate Frame at 1250
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 3
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 5
The shear stress distributions are plotted along each cross section;
From 1 to 3:
Figure 1.15: Shear stress distribution from 1 to 3
From 3 to 6:
Figure 1.16: Shear stress distribution from 3 to 6
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 6
From 6 to 4:
Figure 1.17: Shear stress distribution from 6 to 4
From 4 to 1
Figure 1.18: Shear stress distribution from 4 to 1
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 8
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 10
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 9
From 2 to 5
Figure 1.19: Shear stress distribution from 2 to 5
Station 2250 mm:
At station 2250 mm, the coordinate frames are constructed as follows;
Figure 1.20: Coordinate Frame at 250
The shear stress distributions are plotted along each cross section;
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 7
From 1 to 3:
Figure 1.21: Shear stress distribution from 1 to 3
From 3 to 6:
Figure 1.22: Shear stress distribution from 3 to 6
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 11
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 13
From 6 to 4:
Figure 1.23: Shear stress distribution from 6 to 4
From 4 to 1
Figure 1.24: Shear stress distribution from 4 to 1
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 15
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 14
From 2 to 5
Figure 1.25: Shear stress distribution from 2 to 5
Q1(d)
Plot the beam stresses as a function of z coordinate for the 3 spar caps at the top of the
wing.
Three spar caps on upper surface is shown in figure 26
Figure 1.26: Upper surface spar caps
YResult: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 12
In the result page, there are some needs that should be set as the following table
For the left spar cap:
Figure 1.27: Upper surface spar caps
For the middle spar cap:
Figure 1.28: Upper surface spar caps
YResult: Bar Stresses,
Axial
Quantity: X Component
XCoordinate: Coord 0.3
Coordinate
Transform:
As Is
For the right spar cap
Figure 1.29: Upper surface spar caps
Question 2
Analyse the wing design using hand calculation. For the analytical results provide the
following:
Q2(a)
According to the given wing and wing box figures
Geometry functions of the wing can be given as
(2.1)
(2.2)
Eq.(2.1) describe function the height of the wing box which varies along spanwise direction (zaxis)
Eq.(2.2) describe function the width of the wing box which varies along spanwise direction (zaxis)
Therefore, from the eq.(2.1) and eq.(2.2) wing geometry at interesting station (250,1250, 2250) are
summarised as shown on the table2.1
Table 2.1 : Dimensions of wing box at STN250 STN1250 STN2250
STN B (mm) h (mm) 2b/5 3b/5
250 589 61 235.6 353.4
1250 385 45 154 231
2250 181 29 72.4 108.6
Table 2.2 : Area, horizontal thickness and vertical thickness of each boom
Bay A
boom
(mm
2
) t
h
(mm) t
v
(mm)
1 2500 1.5 4
2 2500 1.5 4
3 2500 1.5 4
4 5000 3 5
5 5000 3 5
Boom areas, horizontal web thickness, and vertical web thickness are given in table 2.2
Since the wing box crosssection on xy plane is symmetry about the horizontal axis at the half height.
Boom is assumed to take all bending stress and shear webs are taking only shear stress. Also for
bending, stress varies linearly from the top booms to bottom booms and zero at midplane. So the
web areas are lumped to the boom areas.
From


.

\

+ =
1
2
12
2
6 o
o b t
A
D
web
and
1
2
1
2
y
y
=
o
o
So A
boom1,lumped
= A
boom1
+ A
web12
+ A
web14
Also the same equation for the other boom (original area plus adjacent web areas)
STN250 is at bay 5.
STN250
) mm
2
) mm
2
) mm
2
STN1250 is at bay 3.
Boom areas, horizontal web thickness, and vertical web thickness are given in table 2.2
STN1250
( )
( ) mm
2
( )
( )
( ) mm
2
( )
( ) mm
2
STN2250 is at bay 1.
Boom areas, horizontal web thickness, and vertical web thickness are given in table 2.2
STN2250
( )
( ) mm
2
( )
( )
( ) mm
2
( )
( ) mm
2
Q2(b)
Shear stress distribution at STN 250 from hand calculation (Unit in MPa)
Stress distribution comparison at STN 250 between Patran and hand calculation
Top panel
Bottom panel
131.26
19.33
17.904
19.33
112.83 130.537
17.904
Point 2
Point 4
19.33
17.904
Point 6
Point 1 Point 3
19.33
17.904
Point 1 Point 3
Point 6 Point 4
Right panel
Middle panel
Left panel
112.83
Point 3
Point 6
Point 3 Point 6
130.537
Point 2
Point 5
Point 2 Point 5
131.26
Point 1
Point 4
Point 1 Point 4
Shear stress distribution at STN 1250 from hand calculation (Unit in MPa)
Shear stress distribution comparison between hand calculation and Patran at STN 1250
Top panel
Bottom panel
172.984
40.081
38.795
40.081
146.845 167.816
38.795
40.082
38.795
Point 1 Point 3
Point 1
Point 3
Point 4 Point 6
Point 4
40.082
38.795
Point 6
Right panel
Middle panel
Left panel
Point 3 Point 6
Point 3
146.854
Point 6
Point 2 Point 5
167.816
Point 2
Point 5
Point 1 Point 4
172.984
Point 1
Point 4
Shear stress distribution at STN 2250 from hand calculation (Unit in MPa)
Shear stress distribution comparison between hand calculation and Patran at STN2250
Top panel
Bottom panel
26.544
5.641
5.571
5.641
22.597 25.175
5.571
Point 1
Point 3
Point 1
5.641
5.571
Point 3
Point 4
5.641
5.571
Point 6
Point 4 Point 6
Right panel
Middle panel
Left panel
Point 3
Point 6
22.597
Point 3
Point 6
25.175
Point 2
Point 5
Point 2
Point 5
Point 1
Point 4
26.544
Point 1
Point 4
Shear stress distribution calculation at STN 1250
( )
Where E = 70000 MPa and
Yield G = 26923.08 MPa
Lumped area from Q2(a)
 A
1
= A
4
= 2645.5 mm
2
 A
2
= A
5
= 2818.75 mm
2
 A
3
= A
6
= 2703.25 mm
2
From table 2.3
From
0
q y A
I
S
q
n n
+ =
y A Ay2 Pz Px Py P x A o h  Px h Py x Pz dy/dz
[mm]
[mm
2
]
mm2 [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [mm] xxbar [mm] [kN m] [kN m] [kN m]
1 22.5 2645.5 1339284 449.869 0.674509 0.008 303.441 3.598952 542.6521 154 407407 180.574 22.5 6.827412 0.55424 3.598952
2 22.5 2818.75 1426992 479.33 0.592909 0.008 284.199 3.834643 557.2624 0 0 26.5741 22.5 6.394478 0 3.834643
3 22.5 2703.25 1368520 459.689 0.470509 0.008 216.288 3.677516 508.0437 231 624450.8 204.4259 22.5 4.866476 0.849506 3.677516
4 22.5 2645.5 1339284 449.8691 0.674509 0.008 303.4405 3.598952 542.6521 154 407407 180.574 22.5 6.827412 0.55424 3.598952
5 22.5 2818.75 1426992 479.3303 0.592909 0.008 284.199 3.834643 557.2624 0 0 26.5741 22.5 6.394478 0 3.834643
6 22.5 2703.25 1368520 459.6895 0.470509 0.008 216.2878 3.677516 508.0437 231 624450.8 204.4259 22.5 4.866476 0.849506 3.677516
16335 8269594 0 22.22222 434087.5 36.17673 0.590535 22.22222
Boom d x / d z d y / d z
From
]
Cell 1
) (
))]
()(
)
[
) ( (
) () (
))]
Eq. 2.3
Cell 2
) (
))]
()(
)
[
) ( (
) (
))]
Eq. 2.4
Taking moments about the midpoint of web 25
Eq. 2.5
Where
( ) ( ) ( )
and
Combine the basic shear flows and close section shear flows together
Basic shear flow
Closing shear flows
Unit in kN/mm
0.692
0.0601
0.0582
0.0601
0.0587 0.6712
0.0582
Convert shear flow to shear stresses using equation below
At STN 1250 t
v
= 4 mm and t
h
= 1.5 mm
Shear Flow
shear flow
(kN/mm)
Shear
Stress
Shear Stress
(MPa)
q
12
0.060121752
40.08117
q
41
0.691937855
172.9845
q
54
0.060121752
40.08117
q
25
0.67126301
167.816
q
65
0.058191927
38.79462
q
36
0.58741642
146.854
q
23
0.058191927
38.79462
Unit in MPa
Q2(c)
Example at STN 1250 at front spar
)
Where STN represents the distance in zdirection from origin to the interested station. In this case
STN = 1250 mm.
Thus,
However, STN will change if considering different station.
Loads that affect this station (STN 1250) are
 50 kN at STN 1500,
 50 kN at STN 2000,
 10 kN art STN 2500.
172.984
40.082 38.795
40.082
146.854
167.816
38.794
b
d
e
f
Moment acting to STN 1250 calculation
From
)
At STN 1250
( ) ( ) ( )
Moment of inertia at STN 1250 calculation
From
2
2Ay I
xx
=
Where effective areas are shown in Q1.a
And
[(
) (
) (
)]
Stress in zaxis calculation
From
x
x
z
I
y M
= o
Where
Force in z direction of each boom calculation
Effective area of each boom (from Q1.a)
( )
( ) mm
2
( )
( )
( ) mm
2
( )
( ) mm
2
Force in zdirection can be found from the equation below
A P
z z
o =
For example, boom 1 of STN 1250 which its effective area = 2645.5 mm
2
() = 0.6745
()
Note. Negative sign at overall stress of each boom means compression.
Boom Spar Area(mm
2
) z
o
(N/mm)
(N)
z
x
A
A
z
y
A
A
(N)
(N)
(N)
o
(N/mm)
1 Front 2645.5
170.0506
449869.06 0.6745 0.008 303440.51 3598.95 542652.1 205.113
2 Mid 2818.75 479330.3 0.5929 0.008 284199.6 3834.64 557262.7 197.698
3 Rear 2703.25 459689.5 0.4705 0.008 216288.3 3677.52 508043.9 187.938
Stress distribution along boom 1 from hand calculation
Stress distribution along front spar (boom 1) from Patran
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
o
z
stress distribution along boom 1
boom1
Stress distribution along boom 2 from hand calculation
Stress distribution along middle spar (boom 2) from Patran
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
z
stress distribution along boom 2
boom 2
Stress distribution along boom 3 from hand calculation
Stress distribution along rear spar (boom 3) from Patran
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
z
stress distribution along boom 3
boom 3
Discussion
In term of quantity, the results from FE and hand calculation give a very good match. They are very
accurate in term of shear flow in the vertical webs as well as the stress in the boom. However for the
horizontal shear flow the stress are not as accurate as the vertical webs. The abrupt change in shear
across the spar cap is contradicted with the hand calculation since we assume that the areas are
lumped but in FE there arent. Another issue is the shear distribution of the rib which the shape
Note: Care should be taken when creating the coordinate system when plotting the shear
stress plot in Patran.
Shear flow of the to panel
for Idealised Area
Shear flow of the to panel
for continuous area
Shear flow of the to panel
for continuous area from
FE
The shear distribution
sketches do not matched
Question 3
Q3(a)
Conduct a linear buckling analysis using your FE model from Q1. Show an image of the
lowest buckling mode shape, state which panel is the critical panel, and state the eigenvalue
for the buckling mode.
It is found from the FE result that the top panel in bay number 3 the leading edge is the most
critical one.
Q3(b)
Determine the buckling load for the critical wing panel using hand calculation, and compare
this to an estimate for the loads on that panel under the given loading. Show all working and
state all assumptions. Compare the results to the buckling mode and eigenvalue in Q.3(a)
The assumptions are stated below:
1. Thin rectangular plate
2. Homogeneous property
3. All sides are simply supported
4. Plate will not yield at buckling load
5. No local buckling torsional buckling
From the panel geometry which is not perfectly rectangular, in order to estimate the buckling
load the average of bottom and the top of the panel and the average of the sides of the
panel to represent dimension of the rectangular plate.
133.6mm
174.4mm
581.259mm
603.109mm
Panel of the third bay on the
leading edge side is the most
critical panel.
The Eigenvalue is 5.177758E
03
a
b
For thin plate buckling under compression
a/b=3.84
Diagram we use for estimate K value for compression mode(Lecture Advance
Structure)
From diagram K= 3.62
2

.

\

=
b
t
KE
CRcompress
o =3.62x70,000x(1.5/154)
2
=24.04MPa
For thin plate buckling under compression
b/a=0.26
Diagram we use for estimate K value for compression mode(Lecture Advance
Structure)
From diagram K=4.9

.

\

=
b
t
KE
CRshear
o =4.9 x 70,000x (1.5/154)
2
=32.5MPa
( )
Next step is to find the applied load to the panel at section 1250
Force in Z direction from bending equation
From Geometry
Total force in the skin
From the result; buckling load of 7507.5 N and applied load of 39282.95 N. It shows
that the structure will buckle.
At 1250 from Q2,
40.081MPa
Combined Loading
Comparing with Eigenvalue from Patran =0.0043
( )
( )
**The value of Eigen vale from hand calculation and the FE are not corresponding. This
might due to
1. The way we model the structure in FE , we did not perform mesh refinement analysis
this might give the better result as the bulking analysis depends on mesh refinement.
2. The assumption that the plate is perfectly rectangular.
3. The loading we use for the hand calculate which is at station 1250 which is right in
the middle of the panel not the real end load.
4. The support condition that we assumed to be simply support might not be reasonable
as we are not truly understand how FE would model those support condition.
Question 4
Q4(a)
At first, quick plot is needed to observe the maximum stress location for that interest part.
The table below illustrates the plot option for all parts.
Covers:
Maximum Stress = 508 MPa
Spar Webs:
Maximum Stress = 453 MPa
Fringe Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: Max Principle
Deformation
Result:
Displacement, Translational
Ribs:
Maximum Stress = 1250 MPa
** The stress concentration occur s at the place where the force is applied . We think that
those are the singularity point. Therefore in designin the composite in Q(b), we tried to
choose the stress in the element that a little bit further away which we chose
I think these sigularity can be improved by modifying the boundary conditions.
Q4(b)
From the Q4(A) we were able to identify the highest stress panel in the covers, webs
and panel. In order to find design the composite load per length need to be found by finding
the state of stress and multiply by the thickness.
For finding the state of stress, the approach used was to create the coordinate on the
element that has the highest stress and make sure that the XY plane the coordinate is
aligned with the plane of the element. Then create plot the fringe by referring to the element
with maximum principle stress and choose the stress component in X, Y, and XY
respectively to read the peak value as our
We use those stresses and assume that the whole panel experience that highest
state of stresses. This should be conservative. Then panel that are not rectangular are
assumed to be perfectly rectangular. Dimensions of the panel can be found by average the
sides and the average of top and bottom.
Then N which is load per width can be found
Solve for the number of panel of each fibre orientation with the following design guideline,
1. Each composite orientation must be at least 10% of the total number of ply
2. For 45 and 90 degree ply, the number should be an even number(from symmetry
requirement).For 45 degree it must be divisible by 4 due to the +/orientation of 45
degree pie
3. Using the ultimate strength for the design to be 1600 for both compression and
tension (conservative)
Spar Web:
From FE Post Processing:
65 mm
61 mm
603.109 mm
mm
63 mm
0
90
Determining the number of plies:
Obtaining,
Check for ten percent rule condition
Therefore, it can be said that the number of zero plies is exceed ten percent rule.
Lay up of spar webs plies
Ply1 0
Ply2 90
Ply3 45
Ply4 45
Ply5 90
Ply6 45
Ply7 45
Ply8 45
Ply9 45
Ply10 90
Ply11 45
Ply12 45
Ply13 90
Ply14 0
Table : Spar webs plies lay up
Rib:
From FE Post Processing:
49 mm
436 mm
0
90
Obtaining,
Check for ten percent rule condition
Therefore, it can be said that the number of zero plies is exceed ten percent rule. It is
interesting to note that the number of 45 plies cannot be odd number and also even number
that makes them not symmetry. Then, from calculation in formula above, the number of 45
ply are 12 plies, whereas other plies (0 and 90) should satisfy the ten percent rule. Thus,
those numbers are from ten percent rule calculation.
Lay up of spar webs plies
Ply1 0
Ply2 90
Ply3 45
Ply4 45
Ply5 45
Ply6 45
Ply7 45
Ply8 45
Ply9 45
Ply10 45
Ply11 45
Ply12 45
Ply13 45
Ply14 45
Ply15 90
Ply16 0
Table : Rib plies lay up
Cover
From FE Post Processing:
Obtaining,
Check for ten percent rule condition
Therefore, it can be said that the number of zero plies is exceed ten percent rule.
Lay up of spar webs plies
0degre
e
174.4mm
215.2mm
581.279mm
603.109mm
592.194
194.8
0
90
Ply1 0
Ply2 0
Ply3 90
Ply4 0
Ply5 90
Ply6 45
Ply7 45
Ply8 90
Ply9 0
Ply10 0
Ply11 90
Ply12 45
Ply13 45
Ply14 90
Ply15 0
Ply16 90
Ply17 0
Ply18 0
Table : Cover plies lay up
Q4(c)
According to tables in Q.4(b), it indicates how the plies lay up in spar webs, covers, and ribs.
In this question, these tables are brought to plug in for composite material.
Firstly, all given values from table below are put through the wing structure in Patran.
E
11
140 GPa
E
22
10 GPa
v
12
0.3
G
12
7 GPa
t
ply
0.13 mm
Note that: the object is changed from orthotropic to 2D orthotropic as figure below.
In the next step, the material object is replaced by composite and created all plies
layup values through each regions (spar webs, rib, covers). For example, plies layup for rib
is shown below
The ply orientations for each cases are shown below to reference in their properties.
coordinate
coordinate
For Spar webs, the ninty degree ply is along the wingspan direction, whereas the zero
degree ply is along wing thickness direction.
For Ribs, the zero degree ply direction is along the wing thickness axis, while the ninty
degree is along the chord direction.
0
90
0
90
coordinate
coordinate
For Covers, the zero ply degree is in the direction of wingspan, in contrast to the ninty
degree ply which heading to the wing chord direction
90
0
0
coordinate
In the next stage, carpet plots are brought to analyse the ratio of ply directions in composite
structure. However, from question 4.2, the number of each plies direction is needed to
compare with carpet plots.
For Spar webs,
from carpet plots,
The allowable tensile strength for spar webs is around 50,000 psi.
For covers,
from carpet plots,
Directions Amount Percent
N
0
2 14.3%
N
45
8 57.1%
N
90
4 28.6%
Directions Amount Percent
N
0
8 44.4%
N
45
4 22.2%
N
90
6 33.3%
The allowable tensile strength for spar webs is around 90,000 psi.
For ribs
from carpet plots,
The allowable tensile strength for rib is around 45,000 psi.
After material is applied with laminate, the structure in F.E. analysis needs to reconsider
when it changes to composite material. Results from F.E. for each cases are illustrated
below. However, there is a need to transfer allowable tensile strength unit from psi to MPa.
The unit conversion is shown in the table below.
Directions Amount Percent
N
0
2 12.5%
N
45
12 75%
N
90
2 12.5%
Part psi MPa.
Rib 45000 310.26
Web 50000 344.738
Cover 90000 620.528
For spar webs:
Concentrating on the designed reference section, maximum stress in each axis was found
as follows;
From this, the safety factor of the web panels is;
For ribs:
Concentrating on the designed reference section, maximum stress in each axis was found
as follows;
From this, the safety factor of the web panels is;
For covers:
Concentrating on the designed reference section, maximum stress in each axis was found
as follows;
From this, the safety factor of the web panels is;
Note: For the composite design, comparing to the previous analysis the stress experience by the
structure change because the stiffness mismatch. The stiffness changed as we changed the material.
Therefore, the structure see different amount of stress.
As long as it doesnt fail composite structure will be beneficial in term of weight. Care need to be
taken in term of assigning the composite layup in Patran.
For the margin of safety, for the rib panel, as we had design the composite with many 45 orientation
ply which at the same time it can more than enough to support the tensile load. However we need to
design the ply in 0 and 90 direction to be 10% of the total number of plys. Those are redundancy
which therefore gives large value of MOS.
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