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Assignment 1: Wing Analysis

Submitted by

1. Akkarawat Nunthasitthakorn 3298870
2. Teerapol Smittipornpun 3299656



THE REPORT IS A PART OF AERO2363 Advanced Aerospace Structures
School of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Manufacturing Engineering


ROYAL MELBOURNE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY
MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA
16 May 2011

Course Coordinator: Dr. Adrian Orifici




Question 0

Q0(a)
Student number 3298870: nn=70


Q0(b)

Front view




The spar caps are identified as shown above
Leading edge







Trailing edge





Upper surface










(640, 32.5, 0)
(1816.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1816.27, -12.5, 2500)
z
y
(640, -12.5, 0)
(0, 32.5, 0)
(1686.27, 12.5, 2500)
1686.21, -12.5, 2500)
z
y
(0, 32.5, 0)
(0, 0, 0)
(640, 32.5, 0)
(0, 32.5, 0)
(256, 32.5, 0)
(1686.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1816.27, 12.5, 2500)
(1738.27, 12.5, 2500)
z
x


Lower surface








Question 1
Q1(a)

According to figure 1, it indicates how the wing structure is constructed in Patran (FEM) at
sweep angle equals to 34. In the next stage, mesh seeds are applied by choosing 14
elements per surface and curve throughout the structure which can be seen in figure 2. This
results in 15 nodes per surface or curve which would provide the convenience in creating a
coordinate frame at station 250 mm, 1250 mm, and 2250 mm. This is because even number
of elements results in odd number of rows for nodes as shown in figure 3.


Figure 1.1: Constructed Structure
The mesh seed is uniform with number of element; the reason behind the selection
number of elements instead of element length is because the resulting mesh will be
rectangular throughout the structure, while the element length does

The mesh surface was created for cover rib and webs and curve for the caps and rib
stiffener.
Shell QUAD4 elements was used.

(640, -32.5, 0)
(0, 32.5, 0)
(256, -32.5, 0)
(1686.27, -12.5, 2500)
(1816.27, -12.5, 2500)
(1738.27, -12.5, 2500)
z
x




Figure 1.2: Mesh Seeds Number of Element 14


Figure 1.3: Selection Node at STN.250
In defining boundary condition, the wing root (at the end of bay5) is fixed in both translational
and rotational which similarly to the clamp.Figure.4 illustrates the fix end condition in all
degrees of freedom.



Figure 1.4: Clamp boundary condition

Before goes through the material properties, wing structure is needed to define the material
first and these values are given as follow
E = 70000 MPa (Youngs modulus)
= 0.3 (poisson ratio)



In the next step, material properties are identified to each structure parts, namely, covers,
ribs, rib stiffeners, spar webs, and spar caps. The properties for each part are provided in
table 1 and 2 and figure 5 shows each structure part.




Table 1.1: Properties for rib













Table 1.2: Properties for bay 1 to 5

Rib Thickness (mm). Rib Stiffener Area (

)
8 3000
Bay A
boom

(mm
2
)
t
h

(mm)
t
v

(mm)
1 2500 1.5 4
2 2500 1.5 4
3 2500 1.5 4
4 5000 3 5
5 5000 3 5

































Figure 1.5: Spar caps, Rib Stiffeners, covers, ribs, spar webs, respectively (from left to right).


Q1(b)
Wing deformation shows the maximum deflection.








Table 1.3: Deformation result selection





Figure 1.6: Wing Maximum Deflection



Fringe Result: Displacement,Translation
Quantity: Magnitude
Deformation Result: Displacement, Translation
Maximum Deflection: 351 mm


Q1(c)
Plot the shear stress distribution as a function of perimeter coordinate s, as shown in Figure
3, at locations 250 mm, 1250 mm and 2250 mm from the fixed end (STN 250, STN 1250 and
STN 2250). Illustrate and discuss briefly the coordinate systems used.











Figure 1.7: Points of interest in cross section

Figure 7 indicates the points of interest in wing cross section. Shear distribution will be
plotted along the cross section in three locations of interest.


Station 250 mm:

At station 250 mm, the coordinate frames are constructed as follows;



Figure 1.8: Coordinate Frame at 250


The shear stress distributions are plotted along each cross section;

Point 4
Point 5 Point 6
Point 3
Point 2 Point 1


From 1 to 3:


Figure 1.9: Shear stress distribution from 1 to 3









From 3 to 6:



Figure 1.10: Shear stress distribution from 3 to 6







Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 1







From 6 to 4:



Figure 1.11: Shear stress distribution from 6 to 4








From 4 to 1


Figure 1.12: Shear stress distribution from 4 to 1

Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 2
Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 4








From 2 to 5



Figure 1.13: Shear stress distribution from 2 to 5









Station 1250 mm:

At station 1250 mm, the coordinate frames are constructed as follows;



Figure 1.14: Coordinate Frame at 1250


Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 3
Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 5


The shear stress distributions are plotted along each cross section;

From 1 to 3:


Figure 1.15: Shear stress distribution from 1 to 3









From 3 to 6:



Figure 1.16: Shear stress distribution from 3 to 6







Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 6







From 6 to 4:



Figure 1.17: Shear stress distribution from 6 to 4








From 4 to 1


Figure 1.18: Shear stress distribution from 4 to 1





Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 8
Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 10
Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 9




From 2 to 5



Figure 1.19: Shear stress distribution from 2 to 5








Station 2250 mm:

At station 2250 mm, the coordinate frames are constructed as follows;



Figure 1.20: Coordinate Frame at 250


The shear stress distributions are plotted along each cross section;

Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 7


From 1 to 3:


Figure 1.21: Shear stress distribution from 1 to 3









From 3 to 6:



Figure 1.22: Shear stress distribution from 3 to 6












Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 11
Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 13


From 6 to 4:



Figure 1.23: Shear stress distribution from 6 to 4








From 4 to 1


Figure 1.24: Shear stress distribution from 4 to 1












Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.1
Coordinate Frame: Coord 15
Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 14



From 2 to 5



Figure 1.25: Shear stress distribution from 2 to 5








Q1(d)

Plot the beam stresses as a function of z coordinate for the 3 spar caps at the top of the
wing.

Three spar caps on upper surface is shown in figure 26


Figure 1.26: Upper surface spar caps
Y-Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: XY Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.2
Coordinate Frame: Coord 12


In the result page, there are some needs that should be set as the following table








For the left spar cap:


Figure 1.27: Upper surface spar caps


For the middle spar cap:


Figure 1.28: Upper surface spar caps







Y-Result: Bar Stresses,
Axial
Quantity: X Component
X-Coordinate: Coord 0.3
Coordinate
Transform:
As Is


For the right spar cap


Figure 1.29: Upper surface spar caps






































Question 2

Analyse the wing design using hand calculation. For the analytical results provide the
following:

Q2(a)
According to the given wing and wing box figures





Geometry functions of the wing can be given as

(2.1)
(2.2)

Eq.(2.1) describe function the height of the wing box which varies along span-wise direction (z-axis)
Eq.(2.2) describe function the width of the wing box which varies along span-wise direction (z-axis)




Therefore, from the eq.(2.1) and eq.(2.2) wing geometry at interesting station (250,1250, 2250) are
summarised as shown on the table2.1
Table 2.1 : Dimensions of wing box at STN250 STN1250 STN2250
STN B (mm) h (mm) 2b/5 3b/5
250 589 61 235.6 353.4
1250 385 45 154 231
2250 181 29 72.4 108.6

Table 2.2 : Area, horizontal thickness and vertical thickness of each boom
Bay A
boom
(mm
2
) t
h
(mm) t
v
(mm)
1 2500 1.5 4
2 2500 1.5 4
3 2500 1.5 4
4 5000 3 5
5 5000 3 5

Boom areas, horizontal web thickness, and vertical web thickness are given in table 2.2

Since the wing box cross-section on x-y plane is symmetry about the horizontal axis at the half height.
Boom is assumed to take all bending stress and shear webs are taking only shear stress. Also for
bending, stress varies linearly from the top booms to bottom booms and zero at mid-plane. So the
web areas are lumped to the boom areas.

From
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1
2
12
2
6 o
o b t
A
D
web
and
1
2
1
2
y
y
=
o
o


So A
boom1,lumped
= A
boom1
+ A
web12
+ A
web14
Also the same equation for the other boom (original area plus adjacent web areas)
STN250 is at bay 5.

STN250

) mm
2

) mm
2

) mm
2

STN1250 is at bay 3.
Boom areas, horizontal web thickness, and vertical web thickness are given in table 2.2

STN1250

( )

( ) mm
2

( )

( )

( ) mm
2

( )

( ) mm
2








STN2250 is at bay 1.
Boom areas, horizontal web thickness, and vertical web thickness are given in table 2.2

STN2250

( )

( ) mm
2

( )

( )

( ) mm
2

( )

( ) mm
2
Q2(b)
Shear stress distribution at STN 250 from hand calculation (Unit in MPa)





Stress distribution comparison at STN 250 between Patran and hand calculation

Top panel

















Bottom panel








131.26
19.33
17.904
19.33
112.83 130.537
17.904
Point 2
Point 4
19.33
17.904
Point 6
Point 1 Point 3
19.33
17.904
Point 1 Point 3
Point 6 Point 4



Right panel


















Middle panel






















Left panel
















112.83
Point 3
Point 6
Point 3 Point 6
130.537
Point 2
Point 5
Point 2 Point 5
131.26
Point 1
Point 4
Point 1 Point 4


Shear stress distribution at STN 1250 from hand calculation (Unit in MPa)





Shear stress distribution comparison between hand calculation and Patran at STN 1250

Top panel

















Bottom panel















172.984
40.081
38.795
40.081
146.845 167.816
38.795
40.082
38.795
Point 1 Point 3
Point 1
Point 3
Point 4 Point 6
Point 4
40.082
38.795
Point 6


Right panel





















Middle panel


















Left panel















Point 3 Point 6
Point 3
146.854
Point 6
Point 2 Point 5
167.816
Point 2
Point 5
Point 1 Point 4
172.984
Point 1
Point 4



Shear stress distribution at STN 2250 from hand calculation (Unit in MPa)





Shear stress distribution comparison between hand calculation and Patran at STN2250

Top panel




















Bottom panel


















26.544
5.641
5.571
5.641
22.597 25.175
5.571
Point 1
Point 3
Point 1
5.641
5.571
Point 3
Point 4
5.641
5.571
Point 6
Point 4 Point 6


Right panel




















Middle panel



















Left panel
















Point 3
Point 6
22.597
Point 3
Point 6
25.175
Point 2
Point 5
Point 2
Point 5
Point 1
Point 4
26.544
Point 1
Point 4


Shear stress distribution calculation at STN 1250

( )


Where E = 70000 MPa and
Yield G = 26923.08 MPa

Lumped area from Q2(a)

- A
1
= A
4
= 2645.5 mm
2


- A
2
= A
5
= 2818.75 mm
2


- A
3
= A
6
= 2703.25 mm
2




From table 2.3





From
0
q y A
I
S
q
n n
+ =




y A Ay2 Pz Px Py P x A |o h - Px h Py x Pz dy/dz
[mm]
[mm
2
]
mm2 [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [mm] x-xbar [mm] [kN m] [kN m] [kN m]
1 22.5 2645.5 1339284 -449.869 0.674509 -0.008 -303.441 3.598952 542.6521 -154 -407407 -180.574 22.5 6.827412 -0.55424 3.598952
2 22.5 2818.75 1426992 -479.33 0.592909 -0.008 -284.199 3.834643 557.2624 0 0 -26.5741 22.5 6.394478 0 3.834643
3 22.5 2703.25 1368520 -459.689 0.470509 -0.008 -216.288 3.677516 508.0437 231 624450.8 204.4259 22.5 4.866476 0.849506 3.677516
4 -22.5 2645.5 1339284 449.8691 0.674509 0.008 303.4405 3.598952 542.6521 -154 -407407 -180.574 -22.5 6.827412 -0.55424 3.598952
5 -22.5 2818.75 1426992 479.3303 0.592909 0.008 284.199 3.834643 557.2624 0 0 -26.5741 -22.5 6.394478 0 3.834643
6 -22.5 2703.25 1368520 459.6895 0.470509 0.008 216.2878 3.677516 508.0437 231 624450.8 204.4259 -22.5 4.866476 0.849506 3.677516
16335 8269594 0 22.22222 434087.5 36.17673 0.590535 22.22222
Boom d x / d z d y / d z






From

]

Cell 1

) (

))]

()(

)
[

) ( (

) () (

))]

Eq. 2.3


Cell 2

) (

))]

()(

)
[

) ( (

) (

))]

Eq. 2.4

Taking moments about the mid-point of web 25

Eq. 2.5

Where

( ) ( ) ( )

and

are shown in the table 2.3



Solving equations 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5 simultaneously, gives






Combine the basic shear flows and close section shear flows together

Basic shear flow



Closing shear flows











Unit in kN/mm

0.692
0.0601
0.0582
0.0601
0.0587 0.6712
0.0582






Convert shear flow to shear stresses using equation below



At STN 1250 t
v
= 4 mm and t
h
= 1.5 mm

Shear Flow

shear flow
(kN/mm)
Shear
Stress
Shear Stress
(MPa)
q
12
0.060121752

40.08117
q
41
0.691937855

172.9845
q
54
0.060121752

40.08117
q
25
-0.67126301

-167.816
q
65
0.058191927

38.79462
q
36
-0.58741642

-146.854
q
23
0.058191927

38.79462



Unit in MPa

Q2(c)

Example at STN 1250 at front spar

)

Where STN represents the distance in z-direction from origin to the interested station. In this case
STN = 1250 mm.

Thus,


However, STN will change if considering different station.




Loads that affect this station (STN 1250) are
- 50 kN at STN 1500,
- 50 kN at STN 2000,
- 10 kN art STN 2500.
172.984
40.082 38.795
40.082
146.854
167.816
38.794
b
d
e
f



Moment acting to STN 1250 calculation

From

)

At STN 1250

( ) ( ) ( )



Moment of inertia at STN 1250 calculation
From
2
2Ay I
xx
=
Where effective areas are shown in Q1.a
And

[(

) (

) (

)]



Stress in z-axis calculation

From
x
x
z
I
y M
= o
Where

are known form previous calculations.



Therefore,




Force in z- direction of each boom calculation

Effective area of each boom (from Q1.a)

( )

( ) mm
2

( )

( )

( ) mm
2

( )

( ) mm
2

Force in z-direction can be found from the equation below
A P
z z
o =

For example, boom 1 of STN 1250 which its effective area = 2645.5 mm
2

(-ve for Compression)






P
x
and P
y
can be found from similar triangle. In this case calculation of front spar is shown as an
example. However, all of spars; front spar, mid spar, and rear spar, have different slope. Therefore,
z
x
A
A
must be changed if considering different spar.
z
x
P P
z x
A
A
= As boom 1 is in the front spar

() = 0.6745

(-ve for compression)


z
y
P P
z y
A
A
=

()




Note. Negative sign at overall stress of each boom means compression.



Boom Spar Area(mm
2
) z
o

(N/mm)


(N)
z
x
A
A

z
y
A
A


(N)


(N)

(N)
o
(N/mm)

1 Front 2645.5
170.0506
-449869.06 0.6745 -0.008 -303440.51 3598.95 542652.1 -205.113
2 Mid 2818.75 479330.3 0.5929 -0.008 284199.6 -3834.64 557262.7 -197.698
3 Rear 2703.25 459689.5 0.4705 -0.008 216288.3 -3677.52 508043.9 -187.938


Stress distribution along boom 1 from hand calculation


Stress distribution along front spar (boom 1) from Patran






















-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
o
z
stress distribution along boom 1
boom1


Stress distribution along boom 2 from hand calculation


Stress distribution along middle spar (boom 2) from Patran






















-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

z
stress distribution along boom 2
boom 2


Stress distribution along boom 3 from hand calculation




Stress distribution along rear spar (boom 3) from Patran




-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

z
stress distribution along boom 3
boom 3


Discussion
In term of quantity, the results from FE and hand calculation give a very good match. They are very
accurate in term of shear flow in the vertical webs as well as the stress in the boom. However for the
horizontal shear flow the stress are not as accurate as the vertical webs. The abrupt change in shear
across the spar cap is contradicted with the hand calculation since we assume that the areas are
lumped but in FE there arent. Another issue is the shear distribution of the rib which the shape




















Note: Care should be taken when creating the coordinate system when plotting the shear
stress plot in Patran.
Shear flow of the to panel
for Idealised Area
Shear flow of the to panel
for continuous area
Shear flow of the to panel
for continuous area from
FE
The shear distribution
sketches do not matched


Question 3
Q3(a)
Conduct a linear buckling analysis using your FE model from Q1. Show an image of the
lowest buckling mode shape, state which panel is the critical panel, and state the eigenvalue
for the buckling mode.
It is found from the FE result that the top panel in bay number 3 the leading edge is the most
critical one.














Q3(b)

Determine the buckling load for the critical wing panel using hand calculation, and compare
this to an estimate for the loads on that panel under the given loading. Show all working and
state all assumptions. Compare the results to the buckling mode and eigenvalue in Q.3(a)
The assumptions are stated below:
1. Thin rectangular plate
2. Homogeneous property
3. All sides are simply supported
4. Plate will not yield at buckling load
5. No local buckling torsional buckling

From the panel geometry which is not perfectly rectangular, in order to estimate the buckling
load the average of bottom and the top of the panel and the average of the sides of the
panel to represent dimension of the rectangular plate.








133.6mm
174.4mm

581.259mm
603.109mm
Panel of the third bay on the
leading edge side is the most
critical panel.
The Eigenvalue is 5.177758E-
03
a
b


For thin plate buckling under compression


a/b=3.84

Diagram we use for estimate K value for compression mode(Lecture Advance
Structure)
From diagram K= 3.62
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
b
t
KE
CRcompress
o =3.62x70,000x(1.5/154)
2
=24.04MPa
For thin plate buckling under compression



b/a=0.26


Diagram we use for estimate K value for compression mode(Lecture Advance
Structure)



From diagram K=4.9

|
.
|

\
|
=
b
t
KE
CRshear
o =4.9 x 70,000x (1.5/154)
2
=32.5MPa

( )

Next step is to find the applied load to the panel at section 1250
Force in Z direction from bending equation


From Geometry


Total force in the skin


From the result; buckling load of 7507.5 N and applied load of 39282.95 N. It shows
that the structure will buckle.



At 1250 from Q2,

40.081MPa
Combined Loading


Comparing with Eigenvalue from Patran =0.0043

( )
( )

**The value of Eigen vale from hand calculation and the FE are not corresponding. This
might due to
1. The way we model the structure in FE , we did not perform mesh refinement analysis
this might give the better result as the bulking analysis depends on mesh refinement.
2. The assumption that the plate is perfectly rectangular.
3. The loading we use for the hand calculate which is at station 1250 which is right in
the middle of the panel not the real end load.
4. The support condition that we assumed to be simply support might not be reasonable
as we are not truly understand how FE would model those support condition.




Question 4
Q4(a)
At first, quick plot is needed to observe the maximum stress location for that interest part.
The table below illustrates the plot option for all parts.





Covers:



Maximum Stress = 508 MPa

Spar Webs:



Maximum Stress = 453 MPa


Fringe Result: Stress Tensor
Quantity: Max Principle
Deformation
Result:
Displacement, Translational


Ribs:




Maximum Stress = 1250 MPa
** The stress concentration occur s at the place where the force is applied . We think that
those are the singularity point. Therefore in designin the composite in Q(b), we tried to
choose the stress in the element that a little bit further away which we chose
I think these sigularity can be improved by modifying the boundary conditions.

Q4(b)
From the Q4(A) we were able to identify the highest stress panel in the covers, webs
and panel. In order to find design the composite load per length need to be found by finding
the state of stress and multiply by the thickness.
For finding the state of stress, the approach used was to create the coordinate on the
element that has the highest stress and make sure that the X-Y plane the coordinate is
aligned with the plane of the element. Then create plot the fringe by referring to the element
with maximum principle stress and choose the stress component in X, Y, and X-Y
respectively to read the peak value as our




We use those stresses and assume that the whole panel experience that highest
state of stresses. This should be conservative. Then panel that are not rectangular are
assumed to be perfectly rectangular. Dimensions of the panel can be found by average the
sides and the average of top and bottom.
Then N which is load per width can be found




Solve for the number of panel of each fibre orientation with the following design guideline,
1. Each composite orientation must be at least 10% of the total number of ply
2. For 45 and 90 degree ply, the number should be an even number(from symmetry
requirement).For 45 degree it must be divisible by 4 due to the +/-orientation of 45
degree pie
3. Using the ultimate strength for the design to be 1600 for both compression and
tension (conservative)
Spar Web:












From FE Post Processing:


65 mm
61 mm
603.109 mm
mm
63 mm
0
90


Determining the number of plies:


Obtaining,




Check for ten percent rule condition



Therefore, it can be said that the number of zero plies is exceed ten percent rule.
Lay up of spar webs plies

Ply1 0
Ply2 90
Ply3 45
Ply4 -45
Ply5 90
Ply6 45
Ply7 -45
Ply8 -45
Ply9 45
Ply10 90
Ply11 -45
Ply12 45
Ply13 90
Ply14 0
Table : Spar webs plies lay up

Rib:













From FE Post Processing:


49 mm
436 mm
0
90




Obtaining,



Check for ten percent rule condition



Therefore, it can be said that the number of zero plies is exceed ten percent rule. It is
interesting to note that the number of 45 plies cannot be odd number and also even number
that makes them not symmetry. Then, from calculation in formula above, the number of 45
ply are 12 plies, whereas other plies (0 and 90) should satisfy the ten percent rule. Thus,
those numbers are from ten percent rule calculation.
Lay up of spar webs plies

Ply1 0
Ply2 90
Ply3 45
Ply4 -45
Ply5 45
Ply6 -45
Ply7 45
Ply8 -45
Ply9 -45
Ply10 45
Ply11 -45
Ply12 45
Ply13 -45
Ply14 45
Ply15 90
Ply16 0
Table : Rib plies lay up



Cover















From FE Post Processing:





Obtaining,



Check for ten percent rule condition



Therefore, it can be said that the number of zero plies is exceed ten percent rule.
Lay up of spar webs plies
0degre
e
174.4mm
215.2mm
581.279mm
603.109mm
592.194
194.8
0
90



Ply1 0
Ply2 0
Ply3 90
Ply4 0
Ply5 90
Ply6 45
Ply7 -45
Ply8 90
Ply9 0
Ply10 0
Ply11 90
Ply12 -45
Ply13 45
Ply14 90
Ply15 0
Ply16 90
Ply17 0
Ply18 0
Table : Cover plies lay up

Q4(c)
According to tables in Q.4(b), it indicates how the plies lay up in spar webs, covers, and ribs.
In this question, these tables are brought to plug in for composite material.
Firstly, all given values from table below are put through the wing structure in Patran.

E
11
140 GPa
E
22
10 GPa
v
12
0.3
G
12
7 GPa
t
ply
0.13 mm

Note that: the object is changed from orthotropic to 2D orthotropic as figure below.












In the next step, the material object is replaced by composite and created all plies
layup values through each regions (spar webs, rib, covers). For example, plies layup for rib
is shown below



The ply orientations for each cases are shown below to reference in their properties.




coordinate

coordinate
For Spar webs, the ninty degree ply is along the wingspan direction, whereas the zero
degree ply is along wing thickness direction.











For Ribs, the zero degree ply direction is along the wing thickness axis, while the ninty
degree is along the chord direction.







0
90
0
90
coordinate
coordinate


For Covers, the zero ply degree is in the direction of wingspan, in contrast to the ninty
degree ply which heading to the wing chord direction












90
0
0
coordinate


In the next stage, carpet plots are brought to analyse the ratio of ply directions in composite
structure. However, from question 4.2, the number of each plies direction is needed to
compare with carpet plots.

For Spar webs,






from carpet plots,


















The allowable tensile strength for spar webs is around 50,000 psi.

For covers,






from carpet plots,















Directions Amount Percent
N
0
2 14.3%
N
45
8 57.1%
N
90
4 28.6%
Directions Amount Percent
N
0
8 44.4%
N
45
4 22.2%
N
90
6 33.3%


The allowable tensile strength for spar webs is around 90,000 psi.

For ribs








from carpet plots,


















The allowable tensile strength for rib is around 45,000 psi.


After material is applied with laminate, the structure in F.E. analysis needs to reconsider
when it changes to composite material. Results from F.E. for each cases are illustrated
below. However, there is a need to transfer allowable tensile strength unit from psi to MPa.
The unit conversion is shown in the table below.









Directions Amount Percent
N
0
2 12.5%
N
45
12 75%
N
90
2 12.5%
Part psi MPa.
Rib 45000 310.26
Web 50000 344.738
Cover 90000 620.528


For spar webs:



Concentrating on the designed reference section, maximum stress in each axis was found
as follows;



From this, the safety factor of the web panels is;







For ribs:



Concentrating on the designed reference section, maximum stress in each axis was found
as follows;



From this, the safety factor of the web panels is;




For covers:






Concentrating on the designed reference section, maximum stress in each axis was found
as follows;



From this, the safety factor of the web panels is;



Note: For the composite design, comparing to the previous analysis the stress experience by the
structure change because the stiffness mismatch. The stiffness changed as we changed the material.
Therefore, the structure see different amount of stress.

As long as it doesnt fail composite structure will be beneficial in term of weight. Care need to be
taken in term of assigning the composite layup in Patran.

For the margin of safety, for the rib panel, as we had design the composite with many 45 orientation
ply which at the same time it can more than enough to support the tensile load. However we need to
design the ply in 0 and 90 direction to be 10% of the total number of plys. Those are redundancy
which therefore gives large value of MOS.