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Nuclear Reactor Theory 0302750

Course web http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/ju/ju reactors/ http://nuclear bau edu jo/ju/ju-reactors/ or http://nuclear.dababneh.com/ju/ju reactors/ http://nuclear dababneh com/ju/ju-reactors/

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Grading
Review Test Mid-term Mid term Exam Projects, quizzes and HWs Final Exam 10% 30% 20% 40%

Homeworks and small projects are due after one week unless otherwise announced. Remarks or questions marked in red without being announced as homeworks should be also seriously considered! Some tasks can (or should) be sent by email: saed@dababneh.com saed@dababneh com
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 2

Review Test

Review relevant material.

Read R d Lamarsh Chs 1 2 Chs. 1, and 3. Read Krane Ch. 13.

Will do the test afterwards. afterwards

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Projects
Topics related to: Heat removal. Radiation protection. Radiation shielding. Reactor licensing and safety. N l Nuclear security. it Uranium mining or other front-end fuel cycle elements. Back-end Back end. Other topics that you would like to suggest..

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Projects
Please do your own thorough research on relevant topics you may find appropriate. Provide your suggestion next week week. Final decision on the subject of your project should be taken before mid October October. Due date for written version is Monday, December 20th. Presentation date will be decided later.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 20102011 (Saed Dababneh).

Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited)


Conservation Laws Charge, Baryon number, total energy, linear momentum, angular g y gy g
momentum, parity, (isospin??) .

a pa

pb
X

b Y

mi c m f c = T f Ti = Q
2 2

pY

+ve Q-value -ve Q-value

exoergic reaction. endoergic reaction.

Tb + TY = Q + Ta
+ve Q-value -ve Q-value
Conservation of momentum

reaction possible if Ta 0. 0 reaction not possible if Ta 0. (Is Ta > |Q| sufficient?).


6

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited)


Conservation of momentum. We usually do not detect Y. y Show that:
Tb = mY + mb

HW 1

ma mbTa cos ma mbTa cos 2 + ( mY + mb )[mY Q + ( mY ma )Ta ]

gy (for ) The threshold energy ( Ta): (the condition occurs for = 0). mY + mb TTh = Q mY + mb ma +ve Q-value reaction possible if Ta 0. -ve Q-value reaction possible if Ta > TTh. Coulomb and other barriers.!!! Neutrons vs. charged particles.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 7

Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited) HW 1 (continued)


upper limit Ta\. d the Th d bl valued situation occurs b t The double l d it ti between TTh and th

mY T = Q mY ma
\ a

Double-valued in a forward cone.

cos max
2

( mY + mb )[mY Q + ( mY ma )Ta ] = ma mbTa


8

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited) HW 1 (continued)


Di Discuss thoroughly th 7Li( ) reaction. th hl the Li(p,n) ti During the discussion emphasize on the case when th i id t proton b h the incident t beam i 30 k V above is keV b the threshold. U your computing skills. Use ti kill

Discuss the elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons using these relations.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 9

Nuclear Reaction Energetics

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited)

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited)

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited)

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited)


If the reaction reaches excited states of Y

Qex = m X c + ma c (mY c + Eex ) mb c = Q0 Eex


2 2 2 2
58Ni(,p)61Cu

even l less . less proton energy Highest proton energy

See Figures 11.4 in Krane i K


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 14

Nuclear Reaction Energetics (revisited)

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

15

Neutron Interactions (revisited)


Chadwicks discovery. Neutrons interact with nuclei, not with atoms. (Exceptions). Recall from basic Nuclear Physics: o Inelastic scattering (n,n\). Q = -E* Inelastic gammas.
Threshold? o Elastic scattering (n,n). Q = ?? (Potential and CN). Neutron moderation? N t d ti ? o Radiative capture (n,). Q = ?? Capture gammas. o (n ) (n p) Q = ?? n,), n,p). Absorption Reactions Reactions. o (n,2n), (n,3n) Q = ?? Energetic neutrons on heavy water can easily eject the loosely bound neutron neutron.

o Fission. (n,f).
HW 2 Examples of such exo- and endo-thermic reactions with Q exo endo thermic calculations.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 16

Neutron Scattering (revisited)


Elastic or inelastic.
Analogous to diffraction. Alternating maxima and minima minima. First maximum at h R =
p R = Ro A
1 3

Minimum not at zero ( (sharp edge of the nucleus??) Clear for neutrons neutrons. Protons? High energy, large angles. Why? d ( ) zZe2 2 1 2 1 g y Inelastic Excited states, energy, X-section and spin-parity.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 17

= 4 4T sin 4 d o a 2

Reaction Cross Section (revisited)


Probability. Projectile a will more probably hit target X if area is larger. Classically: = (Ra + RX)2. Classical = ??? (in b) n + 1H, n + 238U, 238U + 238U Q Quantum mechanically: = D2. t h i ll

ma + m X D= mX

Coulomb and centrifugal barriers

h h = CM 2 ma E a 2 aX EaX

energy dependence of .

What about neutrons? Nature of force: 15N(p,)12C Strong: ~ 0.5 b at Ep = 2 MeV. Electromagnetic: 3He(,)7Be ~ 10-6 b at E = 2 MeV. Weak: p(p,e+)D ~ 10-20 b at Ep = 2 MeV. Experimental challenges to measure low X-sections..
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 18

Reaction Cross Section (Simple terms)


|v| X A (A of what??!!) (Area f h ??!!)

Monoenergetic (and unidirectional) neutrons of speed v (cm.s-1) and density n (cm-3) y (

Position of a neutron 1 s before arriving b f i i at target

Target with N atoms.cm-3 or NAX atoms g

Volume = vA containing nvA neutrons that hit the whole!! target in 1 s. Beam Intensity I nvA/A = nv (cm-2s-1)

NX??

Number of neutrons interacting with target per second I, A, X and N = t I N A X Total microscopic cross
section
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 19

Reaction Cross Section (Simple terms)


Number of neutrons interacting with target per second = t I N A X
Total microscopic p cross section Total number of nuclei in the target

Number of interactions with a single nucleus per second = t I Interpretation and units of .

tI
AI

nvA = IA neutrons strike the target per second, of these tI neutrons interact with any single nucleus. Thus,

measures the probability for a neutron to hit a nucleus (per unit area of target) target).
Effective cross-sectional area of the nucleus.
20

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Reaction Cross Section (Simple terms)


The probability for a neutron to hit a nucleus (per unit area of target):

tI
AI

t
A

Typical nucleus (R=6 fm): geometrical R2 1 b. Typical : <b to >106 b b.


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 21

Reaction Cross Section (Simple terms)


Number of neutrons interacting with target per second = t I N A X
Total microscopic p cross section Volume of the target

Number of interactions per cm3 per second (Collision Density) Ft = t I N = I t t = N t


Macroscopic total cross section. section Probability per unit path g length.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

I ( X ) = I 0e

t X

Mean free path

1 t = t
22

Neutron Attenuation
X

I0
Recall t = N t
Probability per unit path length.

I
I ( X ) = I 0e
.

t X

mfp for scattering s = 1/s mfp for absorption a = 1/a total mfp t = 1/t
i Probability Pno iinteraction ( X ) = e t X
23

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Pinteraction ( X ) = 1 e t X

Reaction Cross Section (Simple terms)


Homogeneous Mixture

= x + y = N x x + N y y
Molecule xmyn

Nx=mN, Ny=nN

= m x + n y
given that events at x and y are independent.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

24

Reaction Cross Section


Detector for particle b p d ,
b particles / s

I a\

dR d b d = \ \ Ia N

cm2

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

25

Reaction Cross Section


Many different quantities are called cross section. Krane Table 11.1
Angular distribution

Units !

d = sin dd

Differential cross section (,) or ( ) or cross section !! !!

d d dRb = r ( , ) 4 d r ( , ) = \ \ d 4I a N
Doubly differential

d d = d = sin d d d d 0 0
t for all b particles b particles.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

d dE

d dEd
2
26

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 20102011 (Saed Dababneh).

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n-TOF CERN

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 20102011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Neutron Cross Section (Different Features)

1/v

Fast neutrons should be moderated. d t d

235U

fission 584 b. scattering 9 b. radiative capture 97 b b.

thermal cross sections

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Fission Barriers

30

Neutron Induced Reactions

X(n,b)Y n D Y + b H II C C H I X + n
2

1 1 2 E v

b(Q+En)

n(En)

vn Pln (En ) (E
Probability to y penetrate the potential barrier

For thermal neutrons (Q) constant b Q >> En

Non-resonant

1 n ( En ) v

Po(Ethermal) = 1 P>o(Ethermal) = 0

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Neutron Induced Reactions

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Statistical Factor (Introduction)


h L = lh = bp = b D

l , max = b
HW 3

b = lD
2 l +1
2

b = ( 2l + 1)D
2 l

656.7 D ( b ) = CM (u ) E ( keV )
2

Generalization

max = D aX

2J + 1 (1 + aX ) ( 2 J a + 1)( 2 J X + 1)

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Reaction Cross Section


J Entrance Channel a+X Excited State Ex

a+X b+Y

Y+b X+a

Q>0 Q<0

Exit Channel Compound b + Y Nucleus C*


2 aX

aX = D

2J 2J + 1 ( 2 J a + 1)( 2 J X + 1)
Statistical Factor ()

Inverse Reaction More Generalization (1 + aX ) Y + b H II C C H I a + X


Identical particles
Nature of force(s). Time-reversal invariance.

QM

bY = D

2 bY

2J 2J + 1 (1 + bY ) a + X H I C C H II b + Y ( 2 J b + 1)( 2 J Y + 1) aX = ?? HW 4
bY
34

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Resonance Reactions
Projectile Projectile Target Q-value

Target Q-value Q l

Q + ER = Er E = E + Q - Eex
Direct Capture
( (all energies) g )
2

Resonant Capture
( (selected energies g with large X-section)

Y H a + X

E f H Er

E r H CN a + X
35

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 20102011 (Saed Dababneh).

36

Resonance Reactions
Damped Oscillator Oscillator strength

f response ( o )2 + ( )2 2
1 = t0

Damping factor f t eigenfrequency

a b (E) ( E ER )2 + ( )2 2
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

t to = h

37

Resonance Reactions

( E ) = D aX

a b 2J + 1 (1 + aX ) ( 2 J a + 1)( 2 J X + 1) ( E ER )2 + ( )2 2
BreitBreit-Wigner formula

All quantities in CM system O l for isolated resonances. Only f i l t d R a b Reaction Usually a >> b. y Elastic scattering e a a R b HW 5 When does R take its maximum value? = e a
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 38

= a + b

Resonance Reactions
Ja + JX + l = J (-1)l (Ja) (JX) = (J)
(-1)l = (J) Natural parity.
J Entrance Channel Ch l a+X Compound Nucleus C* Excited State Exit Ex Channel b+Y

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

39

Resonance Reactions
What is the Resonance Strength ? What is its significance? In what units is it measured? a b 2J + 1 = (1 + aX ) ( 2 J a + 1)( 2 J X + 1)
C Cross se ection

Charged particle radiative capture (a,) di ti t )


(What about neutrons?)

EC


Energy
40

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Neutron Resonance Reactions

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Neutron Activation Analysis


(Z,A) + n (Z, A+1) (-delayed -ray) (Z+1, A+1)

Project 1
NAA and U

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

42

Neutron Flux and Reaction Rate


Recall Ft = n v t N = I t Simultaneous beams, different intensities, same energy energy. Ft = t (IA + IB + IC + ) = t (nA + nB + nC + )v In a reactor if neutrons are moving in all directions reactor, n = nA + nB + nC +

Ft = t nv

neutron flux Reaction Rate Rt

= nv

Not talking about a beam anymore.

Ft = t = /t (=nvNt)
same energy
43

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Neutron Flux and Reaction Rate


Different energies Density of neutrons with energy between E and E+dE y gy

n(E)dE
Reaction rate for those monoenergetic neutrons g dRt = t(E) n(E)dE v(E)

n = n( E )dE
0

= ( E )dE = n( E ) ( E )dE
0 0

Rt = t ( E ) n( E ) ( E ) dE = t ( E ) ( E ) dE
0
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Ri = i ( E ) ( E )dE
0

44

Neutron Flux and Reaction Rate


In general, neutron flux depends on: Neutron energy, E. gy Neutron spatial position, r. Neutron angular direction, . g Time, t. Various kinds of neutron fluxes (depending on the ( p g degree of detail needed). Time dependent Time-dependent and time-independent angular time independent neutron flux.

(r , E , , t ) (r , E , )

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

45

Neutron Flux and Reaction Rate


In Thermal Reactors the absorption rate in a Reactors, medium of thermal (Maxwellian neutrons Maxwellian)

Ra =

Usually 1/v cross section, thus a ( E ) = v0

Thermal Th l

( E )n( E )v( E )dE

a ( E0 )
a

v( E )
0 a 0 0

then Ra = a ( E0 )v0

Thermal

( E ) nv = ( n( E )dE = Independent of n(E)E ) .


0

The reference energy is chosen at 0.0253 eV. Look for Thermal Cross Sections. Actually, look for evaluated nuclear data. Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 ENDF (Saed Dababneh).

46

Neutron Moderation
Show that, after one elastic scattering the ratio HW 6 between the final neutron energy E\ and its initial gy energy E is given by:
E A + 1 + 2 A cos = E ( A + 1) 2
\ 2 CM

[cos + =

A sin ( A + 1) 2
2 2

1H

Average decrease in ln(E) after one collision.


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

E\ A 1 For a head-on collision: = E min A + 1 \ After n s-wave collisions: ln En = ln E n g g gy where the average change in lethargy u = ln( EM E ) ( is E ( A 1) 2 A 1 ln u = = ln \ = 1 + 2A A +1 E av
47

Neutron Moderation HW 6 (continued)


Reproduce the plot. Discuss the effect of the thermal motion of the moderator atoms.
Most probable and average energies?

On 12C.
First collision.

Second collision.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

48

Neutron Moderation HW 6 (continued)


Neutron scattering by light nuclei E = 1 (1 + ) E 2 then the average energy loss E = E E \ = 1 (1 ) E 2 and the average fractional energy loss
\

E 1 = 2 (1 ) E

How many collisions are needed to thermalize a 2 MeV neutron if the moderator was: 1H 2H 4He graphite 238U ? What is special about 1H? Why we considered elastic scattering? When does inelastic scattering become important?
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 49

Nuclear Fission
Surface effect Coulomb effect ~200 MeV

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Fission
B.E. per nucleon for 238U (BEU) and 119Pd (BEPd) ? 2 119 BEPd 238 BEU = ?? K E of the 2x119xBE 238xBE K.E. f th fragments 1011 J/g B i coal 105 J/ Burning l J/g Why not spontaneous? T Two 119Pd f fragments just touching t j tt hi The Coulomb barrier is:

( 46) V = 1.44 MeV . fm 250 MeV > 214 MeV 12.2 fm f C d ! Wh t if 79Z and 159S ? L Crude ! What Zn d Sm Large neutron t
excess, released neutrons, sharp potential edge, spherical U! h i l !
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 51

Nuclear Fission
238U (t = 4.5x109 y) for -decay. 238U (t 1016 y) for spontaneous fission fission. Heavier nuclei?? Energy absorption from a neutron (for example) could form an intermediate state probably above barrier induced fission fission. Height of barrier is called activation energy.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Fission
Activation Energy (MeV) E

Liquid Drop Shell

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Fission
4 3 R 3 = 4 ab 2 3
R = ab
3 2

a = R (1 + ) R b= 1+

Volume Term (the same)

Surface Term Bs = - as A (1 + 2 2 + ...) ) 5 Coulomb Term BC = - aC Z(Z-1) / A (1 1 2 + ...) 5


1 5

aC Z ( Z 1) A

13

> aS A
2 5

fission

Z2 > ~ 47 A

Crude: QM and original shape could be different from spherical. spherical


54

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Nuclear Fission
(120) = 48 300
Consistent with activation energy curve for A = 300 300.
2

Extrapolation to 47
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

20 s. 10-20 s
55

Nuclear Fission
235U 93Rb

+n

+ 141Cs + 2n Not i N t unique.

Low-energy fission processes.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

56

Nuclear Fission
Z1 + Z2 = 92 Z1 37 Z2 55 37, A1 95, A2 140
Large neutron excess L t

Most stable: Z=45 Z=58


16 s. Prompt neutrons within 10-16 s Number depends on nature of fragments and on incident neutron energy energy. The average number is characteristic of the process. process
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 57

Nuclear Fission

The average number of neutrons is different, but the distribution is Gaussian. G i

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Why only left side of the mass parabola?


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 59

Higher than Sn?

Delayed neutrons
~ 1 delayed neutron per 100 fi i fissions, b t but essential for control of the reactor reactor.

In general, g , decay favors high energy.

Waste Waste. Poison.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

60

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear Fission
1/v
Fast neutrons should be moderated. d t d

235U

fission 584 b. scattering 9 b. radiative capture 97 b b.

thermal cross sections

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Fission Barriers

62

Nuclear Fission
236U is 6.54478 MeV. Q for 235U + n Table 13 1 in Krane: Activation energy EA for 236U 6 2 MeV 13.1 6.2 (Liquid drop + shell) 235U can be fissioned with zero-energy neutrons.

239U is 4.??? MeV. Q for 238U + n EA for 239U 6.6 MeV MeV neutrons are needed. Pairing term: = ??? (Fig 13 11 in Krane) (Fig. 13.11 Krane). What about 232Pa and 231Pa? (odd Z). g g Odd-N nuclei have in general much larger thermal fission cross sections than even-N nuclei (Table 13.1 in Krane).
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 63

Nuclear Fission
Why not use it?

f,Th

584

2.7x10-6

700

0.019 b

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

64

Nuclear Fission
Thermal neutron fission of 235U forms compound nucleus that splits up in more than 40 different ways, yielding over 80 primary fission fragments (products).
235 U 92 235 U 92 235 U 92

+ 10n 9037Rb + 14455Cs + 210n + 10n 8735Br + 14657La + 310n + 10n 7230Zn + 16062Sm + 410n

The fission yield is defined as the proportion (percentage) of the total nuclear fissions that form p g products of a given mass number.
Nuclear Reactors, Theory,stJU, First Semester, 2010-2011 Nuclear Reactor BAU, 1 Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh). 65

Nuclear Fission

Remember neutron excess. (A Z) (A Z+1) or (A 1 Z) (A,Z) (A,Z+1) (A-1,Z).


Only left side of the mass parabola. parabola
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 66

Nuclear Fission
93Rb + 141Cs + 2n 235U + n Q = ???? What if other fragments? Diff Different number of neutrons. t b f t Take 200 MeV as a representative value.

165 MeV average kinetic energy carried by fission fragments per fission. 98 MeV Light g t fragments miscalibrated

66 MeV

Heavy fragments

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

67

Nuclear Fission
neutrons emitted per itt d fission. depends on fissioning nuclide and on neutron energy inducing i d i fission.

India?

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

68

Nuclear Fission
Mean neutron energy 2 MeV. MeV 2.5 neutrons per fission (average) 5 MeV average kinetic energy carried by prompt neutrons per fission. Show that the average momentum carried by a neutron is only 1.5 % that carried by a fragment. Thus neglecting neutron momenta, show that the ratio between kinetic energies of the two fragments is the inverse of the ratio of their masses masses. E1 m2 66 95
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

E2

m1 98 140

69

Nuclear Fission
HW 7 The experimental p spectrum of prompt neutrons is fitted by y the above equation. Calculate the mean and the most p probable neutron energies.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 70

( E ) = 0.453e 1.036 E sinh 2.29 E

Nuclear Fission
The fission gamma radiation Prompt with average energy of 0.9 MeV. delayed gammas. HW 8 Investigate how prompt gammas interact with water, uranium and lead.

Nuclear Reactors, Theory,stJU, First Semester, 2010-2011 Nuclear Reactor BAU, 1 Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh).

71

Fission Products
and emissions from radioactive fission products carry part of the fission energy, even after shut down. On approaching end of the chain, the decay energy decreases and half-life increases Long-lived isotopes constitute the main increases. hazard. Can interfere with fission process in the fuel. Example? (poisoning). p p (p g) Important for research. -decay favors high energy ~20 MeV compared to ~6 MeV for . Only ~ 8 MeV from -decay appears as heat. Why?
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 72

Nuclear Fission
Segr Distribution of fission energy

Lost !

a b c

How much is recoverable? What about capture gammas? (produced by -1 neutrons) neutrons) Note again that c < (a+b). (a+b).
Nuclear Reactors, Theory,stJU, First Semester, 2010-2011 Nuclear Reactor BAU, 1 Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh). 73

Nuclear Fission
Enge g Distribution of fission energy

Krane sums them up as decays.

Lost !

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

74

Fission Products
f
A-1, Z j

A, Z-1 k

(n,) (n,)
A+1, Z

A, Z i

A, Z+1

dNi/dt = Formation Rate - Destruction rate - Decay Rate

longer half-live.

Ni saturates and is higher with higher neutron flux, larger fission yield and fission yield
75

dN i = i N f f + N j j + k N k N i i i N i dt

Nuclear Reactor Theory, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 Reactors, BAU, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh).

Fission Products
HW 9 Investigate the activity, decay and gamma energies of fission products as a f i f fi i d t function of time. ti f ti Comment on consequences (e.g. rod cooling).
dN i Shutdown = k N k i N i dt HW 10

Investigate both k N k > i N i and k N k < i N i giving full description for the buildup and decay of fission fragment i.
76

Nuclear Reactors, Theory,stJU, First Semester, 2010-2011 Nuclear Reactor BAU, 1 Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh).

Fission Products
P (t ) = 4.1x1011 t 0.2 (t + T ) 0.2 MeV / s
per watt of original operating power. T = time of operation.

Fission product activity after reactor shutdown?

Nuclear Reactors,Theory, st Semester, 2007-2008 Nuclear Reactor BAU, 1 JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh).

77

Nuclear Fission
It is necessary to evaluate the potential hazards associated with an accidental release of fission products into the environment. It is required to determine a proper cooling time of the spent fuel ( p (before it becomes ready for reprocessing) y p g) that depends on the decay times of fission products. It is necessary to estimate the rate at which the heat is released as a result of radioactive decay of the fission products after the shut down of a reactor. The poisoning is needed to be calculated (the parasitic capture of neutrons by fission products that accumulate during the reactor operation). operation)
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh). 78

Nuclear Fission
Recoverable energy release 200 MeV per 235U fission. Fission rate = 2 7x1021 P fissions per day P in MW 2.7x10 day. MW. 3.12x1016 fissions per second per MW, or 1.2x10-5 gram of 235U per second per MW (thermal). B Burnup rate: 1 05 P g/day. P i MW t 1.05 /d in MW. The fissioning of 1.05 g of 235U yields 1 MWd of energy. Specific Burnup = 1 MWd / 1.05 g 950000 MWd/t (pure 235U !!!!!!!!!). Fractional Burnup = ??? Actually much less (all heavy material). Thermal reactor loaded with 98 metric tons of UO2, 3% enriched, operates at 3300 MWt for 750 days. y 86.4 t U. Specific burnup 28650 MWd/t. Fast fission of 238U. 238U converted to plutonium more fission. Not all fissions from 235U. fission

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

79

Nuclear Fission
(E ) ( C t Capture-to-fission ratio: ( E ) = t fi i ti f (E)
Consumption rate: 1 05(1 ) P g/day. 1.05(1+) /d

Read all relevant material in Lamarsh Ch. Ch 4. We will come back to this later later.
Two neutrinos are expected immediately from the decay of the two fission products, what is the minimum flux of neutrinos expected at 1 km from the reactor reactor.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

4.8x1012 m-2s-1

80

Nuclear Fission
3.1x1010 fissions per second per W. I thermal reactor, majority of fissions occur i In th l t j it f fi i in thermal energy region, and are maximum. T t l fission rate in a th Total fi i t i thermal reactor of volume V l t f l

V f
Thermal reactor power (quick calculation)

Pth =

V f 3.1x10
10
81

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU,Semester, 2007-2008 Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh).

Controlled Fission
235U + n X+Y+n Moderation of second generation neutrons Chain reaction. Water, D2O or graphite moderator. R ti of number of Ratio f b f neutrons (fissions) i one generation t t (fi i ) in ti to the preceding k (neutron reproduction or multiplication factor). factor)
Infinite medium (ignoring leakage at the surface).

Fast second generation neutrons g

k1 Chain reaction. k<1 subcritical. k=1 critical system. k>1 supercritical. iti l For steady release of energy (steadystate operation) we need k =1 =1.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Chain reacting pile

82

Controlled Fission
Average number of all neutrons released per fission

(for thermal neutrons 0 0253 eV) neutrons, 0.0253 eV).

233U

: 2.492 235U : 2.418 239Pu : 2.871 241Pu : 2.927

Reactor is critical (keff = 1): rate of neutrons produced by fission = rate of neutrons absorbed + leaked.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Size and composition of the reactor.

83

Controlled Fission
fission 584 b. Check scattering 9 b. numbers! radiative capture 97 b.
235U

t e a c oss sect o s thermal cross sections

Probability for a thermal neutron to cause fi i on 235U i fission is

1 = f + 1+

If each fission produces an average of neutrons, then the mean number of fast fission neutrons produced per thermal neutron =

f f = = = a f + 1+
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

<
84

Controlled Fission
Assume natural uranium: 99.2745% 99 2745% 238U, 0 7200% 235U. 0.7200%
Thermal f = 0 b Thermal = 2 75 b Th l 2.75
Why?

235U

584 b 97 b

4R 2

= x + y = N x x + N y y = ( x x + y y ) N
f / N = (0 992745)(0) + (0.992745)(0) (0.0072)(584) 4.20 b. = 4 20 b / N = (0.992745)(2.75) + (0.0072)(97) = 3.43 b.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 20102011 (Saed Dababneh).

238U

Doppler effect?
4R 2

Using the experimental elastic scattering data the radius of the nucleus can be estimated.

85

Controlled Fission
Probability for a thermal neutron to cause fission in natural uranium 4.20 Compare to pure 235U and

4.20 + 3.43

= 0.55

to 3% e c ed fuel. enriched ue

If each fission produces an average of = 2.4 neutrons, then the mean number of fast fission neutrons produced per thermal neutron = = 2.4 x 0.55 1.3 This is close to 1. If neutrons are still to be lost, there is a danger of losing criticality. (Heavy water?). For enriched uranium (235U = 3%) = ????? (> 1.3). (Light water?). water?) In this case is further from 1 and allowing for more neutrons to be lost while maintaining criticality.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 86

Moderation (to compare x-section)


(n,n)
2H

(n,n) (n,)

1H

(n,)

Resonances? 3H production.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 87

Controlled Fission
HW 11 Verify y

1 = a

(i)
i

(i )

Comment on the calculation for thermal neutrons and a mixture of fissile and non-fissile materials, , giving an example. Comment for fast neutrons and a mixture of fissionable materials, giving an example.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 88

Conversion and Breeding


Converters: Convert non thermally fissionable material non-thermally-fissionable to a thermally-fissionable material.
238

U + n 239 U 23 min 239 Np + +


.3 d 2

239

f,th = 742 b
_

Pu + +

232

Th + n 233Th 22 min 233 Pa + +


India

27 d

233

U + +

Nuclear Reactors,Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 Nuclear Reactor BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh).

f,th = 530 b

89

Conversion and Breeding

If = 2 C Conversion and fi i possible. i d fission ibl If > 2 Breeder reactor. 239Pu: Thermal neutrons ( ~ 2 1) hard for breeding. 2.1) breeding Fast neutrons ( ~ 3) breeding fast breeder reactors. After sufficient time of breeding, fissile material can be easily (chemically) separated from fertile material material. Compare to separating 235U from 238U. Reprocessing. p g
Nuclear Reactors,Theory, st Semester, 2007-2008 Nuclear Reactor BAU, 1 JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). (Saed Dababneh). 90

Controlled Fission
Note that is greater than 2 at thermal energies and t th l i d almost 3 at high energies. Th These t neutrons are extra t Used to convert fertile into fissile fuel. fi il f l Plutonium economy. I di and th i India d thorium. Efficiency of this process is determined b neutron d t i d by t energy spectrum.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Variations in

91

Controlled Fission
Conversion ratio CR is defined as the average rate of fissile atom production to the average rate of fissile atom consumption. For LWR's CR 0.6. CR is called BR for values > 1 (fast breeder). They are called fast because primary fissions inducing neutrons are fast not thermal, thus > 2.5 but f is only a few barns. Moderator??

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

92

Controlled Fission
N thermal neutrons in one generation have produced so far N fast neutrons neutrons. Some of these fast neutrons can cause 238U fission more fast neutrons fast fission factor = (= 1.03 for natural uranium). ( Now we have N fast neutrons. N We need to moderate these fast neutrons use graphite as an example for 2 MeV neutrons we need ??? collisions. How many for 1 MeV neutrons? The neutron will pass through the 10 - 100 eV region during the moderation process. This energy region has many strong 238U captu e eso a ces capture resonances (up to ????? b) Can not mix u a u a d Ca ot uranium and moderator. In graphite, an average distance of 19 cm is needed for thermalization the resonance escape probability p ( 0.9).
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Reactor design.

93

Controlled Fission
Now we have pN thermal neutrons. N Moderator must not be too large to capture thermal neutrons; when thermalized, neutrons should have reached the fuel. Graphite thermal cross section = 0.0034 b, but there is a lot of it present. Capture can also occur in the material encapsulating the fuel elements ( l d) l t (clad). The thermal utilization factor f ( 0.9) gives the fraction of thermal neutrons that are actually available for the fuel fuel. Now we have fpN thermal neutrons could be > or < N N neutrons, thus determining the criticality of the reactor. The four-factor formula. four

k =f fp k = keff = fp(1-lf )(1-lthermall) (1 fast)(1 h ff

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Fractions lost at surface

94

Controlled Fission
k = fp,
keff = fPnon leak

1 Fast from thermal, = (i) f (i) as defined in HW 11. a i Fast from fast, fast . Thermal from fast, p. f = Thermal available for fuel + + + + +..
fuel f l a l d clad a fuel a mod erator d t a rods d a poison i a

Thinking QUIZ For each thermal neutron absorbed, how many fast neutrons are produced? Will need this when discuss two group diffusion. two-group diffusion
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 95

Neutron reproduction factor k eff = 1.000

Neutron Life Cycle

x 0.9

Thermal utilization factor f


x 0.9

Resonance escape probability p ii

What is: Migration length? g g Critical size? How does the geometry affect the t ff t th reproduction factor?
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

x 1.03

Fast fission factor

96

Neutron Life Cycle y

Why should we worry about th b t these? ?

f
How?

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

97

Controlled Fission
k = fp(1-lf )(1-lthermall) (1 fast)(1 h
Not fixed! fixed ! Thermal utilization factor f can be changed, as an g , example, by adding absorber to coolant (PWR) ( (chemical shim, boric acid), or , ), by inserting movable control rods in & out. Poison. Reactors can also be controlled by altering neutron y g leakages using movable neutron reflectors. f and p factors change as fuel is burned. g f, p, change as fertile material is converted to fissile material.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 98

Controlled Fission
Attention should be paid also to the fact that reactor power changes occur due to changes in resonance escape probability p. If Fuel T, p due to Doppler broadening of resonance peaks.
Under-moderation U d d ti and over moderation. over-moderation

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

99

Controlled Fission
Time scale for neutron multiplication
Time constant includes moderation time (~10-6 s) and diffusion time of thermal neutrons (~10-3 s). Time Average number of thermal neutrons

t t+ t + 2
For a short time dt

n kn k2n

dn kn n = dt

Show that

n(t ) = n0e

( k 1) t
100

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Controlled Fission
k = 1 n is constant (Desired). Reactivity. k < 1 n decays exponentially. exponentially k > 1 n grows exponentially with time constant / (k-1). k = 1.01 (slightly supercritical..!) e(0.01/0.001)t = e10 = 22026 in 1s. g y p Design the reactor to be slightly subcritical for prompt neutrons. The few delayed neutrons will be used to achieve criticality, allowing enough time to manipulate the control ( ) rods (or use shim or ).
Cd control rods
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 101

n(t ) = n0e

( k 1) t

Fission Reactors
Essential elements: Fuel [fissile (or fissionable) material]. Core Moderator (not in reactors using fast neutrons). Reflector (to reduce leakage and critical size). Containment vessel (to prevent leakage of waste). Shielding (for neutrons and s). Coolant. Control system. Emergency systems (to prevent runaway during failure). Chapter 4 in Lamarsh p
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 102

Fission Reactors
Types of reactors: Used for what? Power reactors: extract kinetic energy of fragments as heat boil water steam drives turbine electricity. Research reactors: low power (1-10 MW) to generate neutrons (~1013 n.cm-2.s-1 or higher) for research. Converters and breeders: Convert non-thermallyfissionable material (non-fissile) to a thermallyfissionable material (fissile). ADS. Fusion. What are neutron generators?
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 103

Fission Reactors
What neutron energy? Thermal, fast reactors. Large, smaller but more fuel. What fuel? Natural uranium, enriched uranium, 233U, 239Pu, , , , Mixtures.

How???

From converter or breeder reactor. reactor

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

104

Fission Reactors
What assembly? H t Heterogeneous: moderator and f l are l d t d fuel lumped. d Homogeneous: moderator and fuel are mixed together. I homogeneous systems, it is easier t calculate p and f In h t i i to l l t d for example, but a homogeneous natural uraniumgraphite mixture (for example) can not go critical Why? critical.

What coolant? Coolant prevents meltdown of the core. It transfers heat in power reactors. Why pressurized-water reactors. Why liquid sodium?
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 105

More on Moderators
What moderator? 1. Cheap and abundant. 2. Chemically stable. 3. Low mass (high logarithmic energy decrement). 4. High density. 5. High s and very low a. Graphite (1,2,4,5) increase amount to compensate 3. Water (1,2,3,4) but n + p d + enriched uranium. D2O (heavy water) (1!) but has low capture cross section natural uranium, but if capture occurs, produces tritium (more than a LWR). ..
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 106

More on Moderators
Moderating ratio g HW 12 a Calculate both moderating power and ratio for water, heavy y water, graphite, p y y polyethylene and boron boron. Tabulate your results and comment.

10

B + n B Li +
11 * 7
B-10 10B 1/v region

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

107

More on Moderators
HW 12 (continued) Calculate the moderating power and ratio for pure D2O as well as f D2O contaminated with a) 0 25% ll for t i t d ith ) 0.25% and b) 1% H2O. Comment on th results. C t the lt In CANDU systems there is a need for heavy water upgradors. d

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

108

More on Moderators
Recall

ln E = ln E n
\ n

n=

ln(E / E )

\ n

n=

ln(E f / Eth ) (

After n collisions After one collision


( A 1) 2 A 1 E u = = ln \ = 1 + ln 2A A +1 E av

f
Total mean free path = n s

Is it random walk or there is a preferred direction??? f d di ti ???


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

th
109

More on Moderators

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

110

More on Moderators
E \ min Recall

maximum energy loss is (1-)E, or E E\ E. For an s-wave collision: E 1 \ \ \ E P( E E )dE = 1 P( E E ) = (1 ) E Assumptions: Flat-top probability 1. Elastic scattering. E

A 1 = E E A +1

After one collision.

(head-on). Then the

E = (1 + ) E
\ 1 2

2. 3.

Obviously

s (E) d s s (E E \ ) = (1 ) E | dE 0

Target nucleus at rest. E Spherical symmetry in CM. CM

E E | E
otherwise
111

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

More on Moderators
HW 13 (or (Re)-verify 6\)
Scattering Kernel. Slowing down density. g y Migration length. Fermi age and continuous fermi model.

[cos + =

E \ A2 + 1+ 2 A cos CM 1 1+ = = (1 + ) + (1 ) cos CM E ( A + 1) 2 2

A sin ( A + 1) 2
2 2

For doing so, you need to verify and use


cos = 1 + A cos CM A2 + 1 + 2 A cos CM
112

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

More on Moderators
HW 13 (or 6\) continued Forward scattering is preferred for practical practical moderators (small A). If isotropic neutron scattering (spherically symmetric) in the laboratory frame average cosine of the scattering angle is zero.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

2 Show that = cos( ) = 3A


113

More on Moderators
HW 13 (or 6\) continued d s 1 CM Spherically symmetric in CM dCM = s ( ) = 4 s ( E ) s ( E ) ( A2 + 2 A1 cos CM + 1)3 2 Show that s ( ) = 4 1 + A1 cos CM Neutron scattering is isotropic in the laboratory system?! valid for neutron scattering with heavy nuclei, which is not true for usual thermal reactor moderators (corrections are applied). Distinguish from A Angular neutron di t ib ti l t distribution.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 114

More on Moderators
Self regulation. Moderator-toModerator-to-fuel ratio Nm/Nu. Ratio p a of the moderator f (leakage ). Ratio p f (leakage ). T ratio (why).
Other factors also change. Temperature coefficient of reactivity. Moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

115

One-Speed Interactions
Particular general. Recall: Neutrons dont have a chance to interact with each other (BAU 2007 review test!) Simultaneous beams, different intensities, same energy: Ft = t (IA + IB + IC + ) = t (nA + nB + nC + )v In a reactor, if neutrons are moving in all directions n = nA + nB + nC +

Rt = t nv = t

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116

One-Speed Interactions
r r n(r , )d Neutrons per cm3 at
r whose velocity

d
r r

r n(r ) = n(r , )d
4

vector lies within d r r about .

Same argument as before r r r r dI (r , ) = n(r , )vd d

r r r r r dF (r , ) = t (r )dI (r , ) Scalar r r r r r r r r r r r R(r ) = F (r ) = dF (r , ) = t (r )v n(r , )d = t (r )vn(r ) = t (r ) (r )

4
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

where

(r ) = v n(r , )d
4

r r

117

Multiple Energy Interactions


Generalize to include energy r r n(r , E , )dEd Neutrons per cm3 at r with energy interval (E, E+dE) whose velocity vector lies within d about . r r r r r r n(r , E , )ddE n(r , E )dE = n(r , E , )ddE n(r ) =

4 04 r r r r r Rt (r , E )dE = t (r , E )n(r , E )v( E )dE = t (r , E ) (r , E )dE

r r r Rt (r ) = t (r , E ) (r , E )dE
0

Scalar

Thus knowing the material properties t and the neutron flux , both as functions of space and energy, we can calculate the interaction rate p gy, throughout the reactor.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 118

Neutron Current
r r r Similarly RS (r ) = S (r , E ) (r , E )dE and so on

Scalar r r r r r r r r r r Redefine dI (r , ) = n(r , )vd as dI (r , ) = n(r , )v d d One group! r

r r r (r ) = vn(r , )d
4

r r r J = v n ( r , ) d
4

Neutron current density From larger flux to smaller flux! r J Neutrons are not pushed! More scattering in one direction r than in the other. other J x = Jx Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011
(Saed Dababneh).

119

Equation of Continuity
Net flow of neutrons per second per unit area normal to the x direction: r r r J x = J x = n(r , )v cos x d 4 r In general: J n = J n

Equation of Continuity

r r r r r r n(r , t )d = S (r , t )d a (r ) (r , t )d J (r , t ) ndA t A
Production P d i rate Volume
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Rate of change i R f h in number of neutrons

Absorption Ab i rate Source So rce distribution function

Leakage L k in/out rate Normal to A Surface S rface (outwards) area 120 bounding

Equation of Continuity
Recall:

r r r r 3 Using Gauss Divergence Theorem B dA = Bd r

E d A =
S

Q
0

r r r r r r n(r , t )d = S (r , t )d a (r ) (r , t )d J (r , t ) ndA t A

E = 0

r r r r r J (r , t ) ndA = J (r , t )d
A

One group!

Both flux and current!! Convert current to flux?

r r r r r r 1 r (r , t ) = S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) J (r , t ) v t

Equation of Continuity E ti f C ti it
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 121

Equation of Continuity
Steady state y

r r r r r r S (r ) a (r ) (r ) J (r ) = 0
Non-spacial dependence

n(t ) = S (t ) a (t ) t
Delayed sources? Will do it later.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 122

Ficks Law
The exact interpretation of neutron transport in heterogeneous domains is so complex complex. Assumptions and approximations. Simplified approaches. approaches Simplified but accurate enough to give an estimate of the average characteristics of neutron population population. Numerical solutions. Monte Carlo techniques techniques.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

123

Ficks Law
Assumptions: 1. The medium is infinite. r 2. The medium is uniform not (r ). 3. There are no neutron sources in the medium. 4. Scattering is isotropic in the lab coordinate system. 5. The neutron flux is a slowly varying function of position. 6. The neutron flux is not a function of time.

http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/0143-0807/26/5/023/ejp5_5_023.pdf htt // i /EJ/ ti l /0143 0807/26/5/023/ j 5 5 023 df


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 124

Ficks Law

Lamarsh puts it more bluntly: Ficks Law is invalid: a) in a medium that strongly absorbs neutrons; b) within three mean free paths of either a neutron source or the surface of a material; and c) when neutron scattering is strongly anisotropic.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

125

Ficks Law

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

126

Ficks Law
Diffusion: random walk of (x) Negative Flux Gradient Current Jx an ensemble of particles p from region of high concentration to region g High flux g f of small concentration. Flow is proportional to p p More collisions the negative gradient of Low flux the concentration.
Recall:

Less collisions

From larger flux to smaller flux! Neutrons are not pushed! More scattering in one direction than in the other.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

J x = D x
127

Ficks Law
z d dAz x r
Number of neutrons scattered per g g second from d at r and going through dAz

r cos dAz t r s (r ) e d 2 4r
Removed R d
r s not s (r )

en route
(assuming no buildup)

Slowly varying Isotropic

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

128

Ficks Law

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

129

Ficks Law
HW 14

s dAz J dAz = 4 + J z dAz = ?


z

2 / 2

=0 =0 r =0

r t r (r )e [cos sin drdd ]


z

s and show that J z = J J = 2 3 z 0 t r s Diffusion and g generalize J = D coefficient D = 2 3 t


+ z
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

1 3 s

Total removal

The current density is proportional to the negative of the g y p p g gradient of the neutron flux.
130

Ficks Law
Validity: 1. The medium is infinite. Integration over all space. after few mean free paths 0 e t r corrections at the surface are still required. r 2. The r medium is uniform. s not s (r ) s (r ) ( and are functions of space rere derivation of Ficks law? locally larger s extra J cancelled by e t r = e ( a + s ) r iff ??? HW 15 Note: assumption 5 is also violated! 3. There are no neutron sources in the medium. Again, sources are few mean free paths away and co ect o s otherwise. corrections ot e se
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 131

Ficks Law
4. Scattering is isotropic in the lab. coordinate system! 2 If = cos( ) = 0 reevaluate D. HW 16 3A

tr 1 1 D= = = 3( t s ) 3 tr 3

Weekly absorbing t = s.

s For practical moderators: tr 1


5. The flux is a slowly varying function of position. a variation in . 2 r
r
2

(r )

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

132

Ficks Law
HW 17 Estimate the diffusion coefficient of graphite at 1 eV. g p The scattering cross section of carbon at 1 eV is 4.8 b.

Scattering

Other Oth materials?

Absorption

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

133

Ficks Law
6. The neutron flux is not a function of time. Time needed for a thermal neutron to traverse 3 mean free paths 1 x 10-3 s (How?). If flux changes by 10% per second!!!!!! g y p

1ms

/ = 1ms = 0.1x10 3 = 1x10 4 1s 1

Very small fractional change during the time y g g needed for the neutron to travel this significant distance.

r J D
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 134

Back to the Continuity Equation


r r r r r r 1 r (r , t ) = S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) J (r , t ) v t r r r r r r 1 r (r , t ) = S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) + D (r , t ) v t

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

135

The Diffusion Equation


r r r r r r 1 r (r , t ) = S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) + D (r , t ) v t
If D is independent of r (uniform medium) Laplacian

r r r r 1 r 2 (r , t ) = S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) + D (r , t ) v t

r r r r 2 0 = S (r ) a (r ) (r ) + D (r )
r r r 2 0 = a (r ) (r ) + D (r )
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

l Helmholtz ti or scalar H l h lt equation.

Buckling equation.
136

Steady State Diffusion Equation

r r r r 2 0 = S (r ) a (r ) (r ) + D (r ) D 2 Define L Diffusion Length L = L2 Diffusion Area us o ea a


Moderation Length

1 S 2 = L D 1 2 2 =0 L
2
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Boundary C diti B d Conditions


Solve DE get . Solution must satisfy BCs. BCs Solution should be real and non negative. non-negative.
137

Steady State Diffusion Equation


OneOne-speed neutron diffusion in infinite medium Point source r 1 r 2 (r ) 2 (r ) = 0 L HW 18

d 2 d 1 (r ) + (r ) 2 (r ) = 0 2 dr r dr L

General solution

=A

r / L

A, C determined from BCs.

+C

r/L

r
138

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Steady State Diffusion Equation


BC

C = 0.

HW 18 (continued)

=A
S Show that A = 4D

r / L

S e = 4D r

r / L

D L = a
2

4r 2 dr a neutrons per second absorbed in the ring.

dr

r
Show that

r
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

r = 6L
2

139

Steady State Diffusion Equation

HW 19 Study example 5.3 and solve problem 5.8 in Lamarsh. Multiple Point Sources?
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 140

Steady State Diffusion Equation


OneOne-speed neutron diffusion in a finite medium At the interface th i t f

A = B

d A d B J A = J B DA = DB dx dx
What if A or B is a vacuum? ac m? Linear extrapolation distance.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

141

More realistic multiplying medium


OneOne-speed neutron diffusion in a multiplying medium The reactor core is a finite multiplying medium medium. Neutron flux? Reaction rates? Power distribution in the reactor core? Recall: Critical (or steady-state): Number of neutrons produced by fission = number of neutrons lost by: neutron production rate (S) k = absorption neutron absorption rate ( A) and neutron production rate ( S ) keff = leakage
neutron absorption rate ( A) + neutron leakage rate ( LE )
142 Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

More realistic multiplying medium


keff k A = = Pnon leak A + LE
surface area Volume
Things to be used later!

non - leakage probability


Recall:

LE SA S V

For a critical reactor:

LE SA a 2 1 3 = S V a a Steady t t h St d state homogeneous reactor t

Keff = 1 K > 1

r r r 2 0 = a k (r ) a (r ) + D (r ) r r k 1 2 2 2 B 2 (r ) + B (r ) = 0 L

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Material buckling

143

More realistic multiplying medium


r r 2 (r ) + B (r ) = 0 r 2 (r ) 2 B = r (r ) (r
2

The buckling is a measure of extent to which the flux curves or buckles buckles. For a slab reactor, the buckling goes to zero as a goes to infinity There would be no buckling or curvature infinity. in a reactor of infinite width. Buckling can be used to infer leakage The greater the leakage. curvature, the more leakage would be expected.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 144

More on One-Speed Diffusion


HW 20 Show that for a critical homogeneous reactor

Pnon leak

a a 1 = 2 2 = = 2 2 B L + 1 a D a + B D

Infinite Bare Slab Reactor ( -speed diffusion) z (one(one d diff i ) Vacuum beyond. R t Return current = 0 t 0. Reactor d = linear extrapolation distance a/2 = 0 71 tr (for plane s rfaces) 0.71 surfaces) = 2.13 D. a0/2 a

d
145

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

More on One-Speed Diffusion


HW 21 d 2 + B 2 = 0 . Show that the For the infinite slab 2 dx general solution

( x) = A cos Bx + C sin Bx
(
a0 )=0 2 d ( x) =0 dx x =0

with BCs

Flux is symmetric about the origin.

( x) = A cos Bx

A = 0

a0 a0 a0 3 5 ( ) = A cos B( ) = 0 B( ) = , , ,... 2 2 2 2 2 2
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 146

More on One-Speed Diffusion


HW 21 (continued)

a0 3 5 B ( ) = , , ,... 2 2 2 2 3 5 a0 = , , ,... B B B

Fundamental mode the only mode significant in mode, critical reactors. 2 2 ( x) = 0 cos x B = Geometrical Buckling a a0 0 For a critical reactor the geometrical buckling is equal reactor, to the material buckling. 2 k 1 To achieve criticality
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

a = L2 0

147

More on One-Speed Diffusion


0
???
2

k 1 To achieve criticality = a L2 0
But criticality at what power level?? 0 can not be determined by the geometry alone alone.

( x) = 0 ( P,..,..) cos

a0

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

148

More on One-Speed Diffusion


Spherical Bare Reactor (one-speed diffusion) (oneCube Minimum leakage
2

6a 2 4a 2 > 4 3 3 a 3 a

Sphere

minimum fuel to achieve criticality.

HW 22 d + 2 d + B 2 = 0 2
dr r dr
A C = cos Br + sin Br r r

r
Continue!
Reactor

C r = sin , r0 = r r0 B

r0
149

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

More on One-Speed Diffusion


HW 23 Infinite planer source in an infinite medium. di SL x / L d 2 ( x) 1 S ( x) ( x) = e 2 = 2 dx L D 2D HW 24 Infinite planer source in a finite medium.

SL sinh [(a0 2 x ) / 2 L ] = 2 D cosh(a0 / 2 L)

a/2 a0/2
Source

x a

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

150

More on One-Speed Diffusion


Infinite planer source in a multi-region medium. multi1 ( a / 2) = 2 ( a / 2) d1 d2 = D2 D1 Infinite Finite Infinite dx dx
x= a / 2 x= a / 2

+ more

BC

Project P j t2

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

151

Back to Multiplication Factor


keffThings to be used later! k = fp, k = Pnonleak keff = fPnon leak 1 Fast from thermal, = (i) f (i) a i F t from fast, . Fast f f t Thermal from fast, p. afuel Th Thermal available f fi i l il bl for fission f = fuel + clad + mod erator + poison
Recall:
a a a a

Recall:

Thinking Thi ki QUIZ For each thermal neutron absorbed, how many fast neutrons are produced? t d d?

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

152

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion


Introductory to multi-group (Hence crude). multi All neutrons are either in a fast or in a thermal energy group. Boundary between two groups is set to ~1 eV. Thermal neutrons diffuse in a medium and cause fission, are captured, or leak out from the system. Source for thermal neutrons is provided by the slowing down of fast neutrons (born in fission). Fast neutrons are lost by slowing down due to elastic scattering in the medium, or leak out from the system, or due to fission or capture. Source for fast neutrons is thermal and fast neutron fission.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 153

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion


r 1 (r ) =
10 MeV 1eV 1eV

r ( E , r )dE

Fast Thermal

r r 2 (r ) = ( E , r )dE
0

keff

1 f 1 1 + 2 f 2 2 = 2 2 D1 1 D2 2 + a1 1 + a 2 2
154

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion


r r r 2 0 = S1 (r ) a1 1 (r ) + D1 1 (r )
Depends on thermal and f t th l d fast fluxes. Fast diffusion Removal cross section coefficient = fission + capture + scattering to group 2

r r r r 2 0 = f 1 1 (r ) + f 2 2 (r ) a1 1 (r ) + D1 1 (r )
or

0=

r r r 2 a 2 2 (r ) a1 1 (r ) + D1 1 (r )
155

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion


r r r 2 0 = S 2 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) + D2 2 (r )
Depends on f t D d fast flux. Thermal absorption cross section = fission + capture. Thermal diffusion coefficient

r r r 2 0 = s12 1 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) + D2 2 (r )
r r r 2 0 = a1 1 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) + D2 2 (r )
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 156

or

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion


r r r 2 0 = a1 1 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) + D2 2 (r )
A coupled system of equations; both depend on p y q p both fluxes. Recall also, for a steady state system: y y

0=

r r r 2 a 2 2 (r ) a1 1 (r ) + D1 1 (r )

r r 2 1 (r ) + B 1 (r ) = 0 r r 2 2 2 ( r ) + B 2 ( r ) = 0
2

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Geometrical

157

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion


Homogeneous system Determinant of coefficients matrix = 0
2

a1 D1 B

a1
2

a2

=0

a 2 D2 B 2
2

Review Cramers Cramer s rule! Do we need it here?

( a1 D1 B )( a 2 D2 B )
2 2

a 2 a1 = 0

( a1 + D1 B )( a 2 + D2 B ) k a 2 a1 = 0 ( 1 L
2 Fast

+ B )(
2

1 L
2 Thermal

+ B ) k
2

1 L
2 Fast

1 L
2 Thermal

=0

(1 + B 2 L2 )(1 + B 2 L2 Fast Thermal ) k = 0


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 158

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion


(1 + B L
2 2 Fast

)(1 + B L

2 2 Thermal

) k = 0

k =1 2 2 2 2 (1 + B LFast )(1 + B LThermal )

keff k

=P
k

Fast non leak

Thermal non leak

1 B L
2

1 +1 B L
2 2 Fast

2 2 Thermal

+1

For large reactors

1 + B 2 ( L2 Fast

k 1 =1 B = 2 + LThermal ) M2
159

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion

M =L
2

2 Thermal

+L

2 Fast

If any leakage .

2 Thermal

tr D 1 = = = a 3 a 3 a tr
2 Fast

Fermi age L g

n
3 s tr

Slowing down density. g y Fermi model.


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 160

Reactor Model: One-Group


Before considering multi-group. So far we did 1-D. 1 D. Back to one-group but extend to 3-D. oneHW 21| For h h F the homogeneous i fi i infinite slab reactor, extend the criticality condition th t you iti lit diti that found in HW 21.
k 1 f a 2 B = = Bm = 2 = a L D 0
2 g
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

a/2 d a0/2

z x

Reactor

a d

1- D
161

Reactor Model: One-Group


In 3-D
f a

d ( x) + B 2 ( x) = 0 dx 2
2

2 + 2 + 2 +B =0 2 x z y
2 2 2

= 0 cos Bx
2 2 g

= 0 cos Bx x cos B y y cos Bz z

k 1 f a 2 B = = Bm = 2 = a L D 0 2 2 2 k 1 f a 2 2 2 2 2 Bg = Bx + B y + Bz = + + = Bm = 2 = a b c L D 0 0 0

Critical dimensions (size), for the given material properties, predicted by the model.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 162

Reactor Model: One-Group


Transient case.

t!

r r r r r r r 1 r (r , t ) = S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) + D(r ) (r , t ) v t
afuel = fuel + fuel f Moderator, structure Moderator structure, coolant, fuel,

t!

Delayed neutrons!! Reflectors!! For homogeneous 1-D:

1 ( x, t ) = S ( x, t ) a ( x, t ) + D 2 ( x, t ) v t x
2

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

f ( x, t )

163

Reactor Model: One-Group


1 ( x, t ) = f ( x, t ) a ( x, t ) + D 2 ( x, t ) v t x
2

HW 25 Separation of variables: ( x, t ) = ( x)T (t )

1 T 2 = f T a T + DT 2 v t x 2 1 T v = D 2 + ( f a ) = constant T t x = 0 for steady state.


T (t ) = T (0)e t , = v( a + DB 2 f ) Show that
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 164

Reactor Model: One-Group


HW 25 (continued) a0 ( ) = 0 t try 2

n ( x) = cos Bn x

n B = a0
2 n

n = v( a + DBn2 f ) eigenvalues
Solution ?
( x, t ) =
n odd

? e t cos nx A
n

a 0

nx Initial condition ( x,0) = An cos a n odd 0 nx 2 + a20 Show that An = a0 ( x,0) cos a dx a0 2 0
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 165

Reactor Model: One-Group


n = v( a + DB f )
2 n

n B = a 0
2 n

B < B < B < ...


2 1 2 3 2 5

< < < ...


2 1 2 3 2 5

1 = v( a + DB12 f ) Slowest decaying eigenvalue. eigenvalue

( x, t ) A1e

1t

x 1t cos = A1e cos B1 x a0


166

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Reactor Model: One-Group


For steady state
2 1

1 = v( a + DB f ) = 0
2 1
2 g

Criticality

B =B =

f a
D

2 Bm

1 = 0 1 < 0
1 > 0

Super criticality Sub criticality

2 2 Bg < Bm

LE LE

2 2 Bg > Bm

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

167

Reactor Model: One-Group


That was for the bare slab reactor. What about more general bare reactor models? g r r r r r r r r 1 ( r , t ) = S ( r , t ) a ( r ) ( r , t ) + D ( r ) ( r , t ) v t For steady state, homogeneous model: y g

f a r r r k 1 r 2 (r , t ) = (r , t ) + 2 (r , t ) = 0 (r , t ) + D L
2

BC: (extrapolated boundary) = 0. ( p y)

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

168

Reactor Model: One-Group


R0, H0 are the extrapolated dimensions.

1 2 + 2 +B =0 r r r dr dz
2

R z

BCs:

( R0 , z ) = 0 ( r ,
H0 2

)=0

y r
Reactor

Let

Bessel cos B l HW 26 Solve the problem and discuss criticality condition.


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 169

( r , z ) = ( r ) ( z )

Reactor Model: One-Group


Briefly, we go through HW 26. 1 2 r + 2 + B 2 = 0 r r dr dz

R z x y r
Reactor

( r , z ) = ( r ) ( z )

d z + 2 = 0 = cos z = cos H0 dz 2
2

d d 2 r + = 0 dr dr

= AJ 0 (r ) + CY0 (r )
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 170

Reactor Model: One-Group

x 0 Yn ( x) C = 0
J 0 (2.4048) = 0 2.4048 = R0
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 171

Reactor Model: One-Group


z 2.4048r = A( P,...) J 0 ( ) cos R0 H0
x r
Reactor

R z y H

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

172

Reactor Model: One-Group

R0

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

H0/2

173

Reflected Slab: One-Group


Reflected Slab Reactor
r r r 1 ( r , t ) = f ( r ) ( r , t ) v t r r r r r r a ( r ) ( r , t ) + D ( r ) ( r , t )
Reflecto or

z
Core
Reflecto or

For steady-state, homogeneous, 1-D d 2 C ( x ) DC + ( C C C ) C ( x ) = 0 f a dx 2 C Core 2 R R d ( x) R D a R ( x) = 0 dx 2

a/2
Recall:
2

r 1 r (r ) 2 (r ) = 0 L R Reflector

BCs

a ( + b) = 0, 2
R

a C a ( ) = ( ), 2 2
R

a C a J ( )=J ( ) 2 2
R
174

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Reflected Slab: One-Group


C C ( x) = AC cos( Bm x) C ( Bm ) 2 =

C C f a
DC

a 2 +b x R = A R sinh R L

DR ( LR ) 2 = R a

BC
C Bm a b AC cos( ) = A R sinh R 2 L C Bm a DR R b D B A sin( ) = R A cosh R 2 L L C C m C

C Bm a DR b C D C Bm tan( ) = R coth R 2 L L

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

175

Reflected Slab: One-Group


Criticality condition. For bare slab CC was / 2. Smaller core for reflected reactor (even with a0 > a). ( ith Save fuel.
C Bm a DR b C D C Bm tan( ) = R coth R 2 L L

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

176

Criticality Calculation
Can we solve real reactor problems analytically? The previous discussion provides understanding of the concepts but l indicates the b t also i di t th need f computational techniques. d for t ti lt h i

r r r r r r r r r 1 ( r , t ) = f ( r ) ( r , t ) a ( r ) ( r , t ) + D ( r ) ( r , t ) v t
Assume:

r r t (r , t ) = e (r )

r r r r r r r r r ( r ) = f ( r ) ( r ) a ( r ) ( r ) + D ( r ) ( r )

Adjust parameters so that = 0 (Steady-state) (Steady state).

What parameters and how to adjust them?


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 177

Criticality Calculation

v r r r r r r r r r ( r ) = f ( r ) ( r ) a ( r ) ( r ) + D ( r ) ( r )
one free variable is k Fixed design and geometry

r r r r r r D ( r ) ( r ) + a ( r ) ( r ) =

k fudge

r r f ( r ) ( r )

M =

1 K fudge

M , F are operators

As we did earlier (be guided by HW 20): 20):

k fudge

f f a r = r = 2 2 1+ B L D + a
178

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Criticality Calculation
k fudge =

f a
1+ B L
2 2

M =

1 K fudge

Build an algorithm. g Guess (reasonably) initial kfudge and (or ) for the zeroth iteration. Calculate the initial source term. Iterate: Guess 0 and k 0 .
S0 1 0 M = 0 F = 0 get 1 k k S 1 = F 1
1

k 0S1 k = 0 S
1

and so on ..... until flux converges. g


179

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Criticality Calculation
Or:

fission sources F k= = sinks M k


i +1

volume

i +1

dV = 1 i k

volume

M dV
i +1

volume

i +1

dV
i

volume

S dV

If for example k > 1, take action to reduce source or increase absorption. How?
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 180

How to Adjust Criticality


Reactor Kinetics Reactor kinetics refers to the manipulation of parameters that affect k and to the subsequent direct response of the reactor system Examples are: system. Absorber rods or shim movements to compensate for fuel burnup. Safety scram rods to rapidly shutdown the chain reaction reaction. Control rods to provide real-time control to keep k = 1 or to maneuver up and down in power. .. Reactor Dynamics Reactor dynamics refers to the more indirect feedback mechanisms due to power level effects and other overall system effects such as: Temperature feedback. Void feedback. Pump speed control (affects water density and temperature).
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 181

How to Adjust Criticality


Before all: B f ll Core Design The transient response of the reactor to the above direct and indirect changes in basic parameters is highly dependent on the design details of the reactor. Sample issues are: p Where should the control rods be placed for maximum effectiveness? Will the power go up or down if a void is introduced into the reactor? Will the power go up or down if core temperature goes up? How often should the reactor be refueled? and so on on...

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

182

Multi-group Model
Wide neutron spectrum. One-group, two-group? Should be g g p g p generalized.

Fraction of an eV
G G r r r r r 1 ext g ( r , t ) = g g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g v g t g \ =1 g \ =1 r r r r r r r r Flux-averaged Flux averaged ag ( r ) g ( r , t ) sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t ) quantities.

r g (r , t )

E g 1

Eg

(r , E , t )dE

Identify the terms NOW terms, NOW.


183

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Multi-group Model
Fra action

Total fission

Scattering in

G G r r r r r 1 ext g ( r , t ) = g g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g v g t g \ =1 g \ =1 r r r r r r r r ag ( r ) g ( r , t ) sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

g Absorption Scattering out

Leakage

Fraction of an eV Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 184

Othe sources er

Multi-group Model
Maxwellian

1/E

Fission ss o

5-group example.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 185

Multi-group Model
Total fission
g g
g \ =1 5
\

r r fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) =

g [ 5 f 5 5 + 4 f 4 4 + 3 f 3 3 + 2 f 2 2 + 1 f 1 1 ]

Thermal fi i Th l fission (~ 97%)

Fast fi i F t fission (~ 3%)

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

186

Multi-group Model
Scattering in
g \ =1

r r sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) = s1 g 1 + s 2 g 2 + s 3 g 3 + s 4 g 4 + s 5 g 5

g =3
Upscattering!!??? Skipping!!???

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

187

Multi-group Model
Scattering out r r sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) =

sg 1 g + sg 2 g + sg 3 g + sg 4 g + sg 5 g g g g g g

g =3

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

188

Multi-group Model
Group 3
5 r r r 1 3 ( r , t ) = 3 g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S 3ext v3 t g \ =1 r r r r r r a 3 ( r ) 3 ( r , t ) + D 3 ( r ) 3 ( r , t )

+ [ s 13 1 + s 23 2 + s 33 3 + s 43 4 + s 53 5 ]

[ s 31 3 + s 32 3 + s 33 3 + s 34 3 + s 35 3 ]

Removal cross section


r 3 a 3 + s 3 s 33 = a 3 + s 31 + s 32 + s 34 + s 35 = a3 + s3g \
g \ =1 g \ 3 5

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

189

Multi-group Model
Fra action

Total fission

Scattering in

G G r r r r r 1 ext g ( r , t ) = g g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g v g t g \ =1 g \ =1 r r r r r r r r rg ( r ) g ( r , t ) sgg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

Removal
G r 1 g (r , t ) = g g \ v g t g \ =1

In-group Scattering
g \ =1 g\g

Leakage
r r ext sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g
Net Scattering in

r r ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + fg \

r r r r r r rg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 190

Othe sources er

Multi-group Model
G G r r r r r 1 ext g ( r , t ) = g g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g v g t g \ =1 g \ =1 r r r r r r r r ag ( r ) g ( r , t ) sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

Calculate group-averaged: group averaged:

1 , vg
Or for,

r r r r r ( r ), sg \ g ( r ), ag ( r ), sg ( r ), D g ( r ) fg f \

G G r r r r r 1 ext g ( r , t ) = g g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g v g t g \ =1 g \ =1 r r r r r r r r rg ( r ) g ( r , t ) sgg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

r r we need group-averaged rg ( r ), sgg ( r ) group averaged


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

191

Multi-group Model
Group-averaged parameters? ENDF. r s \ r \ 1 (r , E , t ) \ = ( E ) ( E ) f ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )dE v(E ) t 0 Units! r \ r \ + s ( r , E E ) ( r , E , t ) dE \ + S ext
\

r r r r a ( r , E ) ( r , E , t ) s ( r , E ) ( r , E , t ) r r r r + D ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )
Integrate term by term over groups and equate to

equation of multi-group model.


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 192

Multi-group Model
r Define group flux g (r , t )
E g 1 Eg

r (r , E, t )dE

r r 1 g (r , t ) g (r , t ) = = v g t t vg t
E g 1

E g 1

Eg

r 1 ( r , E , t ) dE v(E )

1 = vg

Eg

r 1 (r , E , t )dE v( E )
E g 1

Eg

r (r , E , t )dE
193

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Multi-group Model
r r r E g 1 r r r r r D g ( r ) g ( r , t ) = D ( r , E ) ( r , E , t ) dE
Eg E g 1

r D g (r ) =

Eg

r r r D ( r , E ) ( r , E , t ) dE
E g 1

Eg

r r ( r , E , t ) dE

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

194

Multi-group Model
r r ag ( r ) g ( r , t ) =
E g 1 Eg

r r a ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )dE

E g 1

r ag ( r ) =

Eg

r r a ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )dE
E g 1

Eg

r ( r , E , t )dE

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

195

Multi-group Model
r r sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) =
E g 1 Eg

r r s ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )dE

E g 1

r sg ( r ) =

Eg

r r s ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )dE
E g 1

Eg

r ( r , E , t )dE

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

196

Multi-group Model
g =1

r r sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) = =

E g 1

Eg E g 1

r \ r \ s ( r , E E ) ( r , E , t ) dE \ dE
0 G E
g \ 1

\ E g g =1 E

r \ r \ s ( r , E E ) ( r , E , t ) dE \ dE
g\

g \ =1 E g

E g 1 E g \ 1

r \ r \ s ( r , E E ) ( r , E , t ) dE \ dE
g\

r sg \ g ( r ) =

1 r g \ (r , t )

E g 1 E g \ 1

Eg

r \ s ( E E ) ( r , E , t ) dE \ dE
\
g\

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

197

Multi-group Model
g g
g =1
\

r r fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) =

E g 1

Eg E g 1

r \ ( E ) ( E ) f ( E ) ( r , E , t )dE \ dE
\ \ 0 \ \ \

r \ = ( E ) dE ( E ) f ( E ) ( r , E , t )dE
Eg 0

g =

E g 1

Eg

( E ) dE

r = g ( E \ ) f ( E \ ) ( r , E \ , t )dE
0

= g

g \ =1 E

g \ =1

r \ ( E ) f ( E ) ( r , E , t ) dE
\ \
g\

r fg \ ( r ) =

1 r g \ (r , t )

g \ =1

r \ ( E ) f ( E ) ( r , E , t ) dE
\ \
g\

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

198

Multi-group Model
ENDF
High G, few mesh points.

Flux

Poison, burnup (or ) better consumption), temperature, control rod position, etc
Flux
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Small G, G more mesh points.

199

Multi-group Model
What could we make life a little easier?! r No upscattering sg g ( r ) = 0 for g \ > g . set group G to include neutrons up to ~1 eV.
\

g =1

r r sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t )

g \ =1

g 1

r r r r sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + ( sgg ( r ) g ( r , t ) )
Your choice of how to tackle in-scattering.

No group skipping when scattering down (directly coupled).


g \ =1

r r r r ( sgg ( rr ) g ( rr , t ) ) sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) s ( g 1 ) g ( r ) g 1 ( r , t ) +

HW 27 H How can we pledge thi ? Wh t about H? l d this? What b t


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 200

Multi-group Model
Criticality

Not only sinks y


G r 1 g (r , t ) = g g \ v g t g \ =1

1 M = F k
Iterations.
g \ =1 g\g

Not all sources, only fission. y

r r \ ( r ) \ ( r , t ) + fg g

sg

r r ext ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g g

r r r r r r rg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

r r r r r r D g ( r ) g ( r , t ) + rg ( r ) g ( r , t )
Redundant when no upscatter.

g \ =1 g\g

g 1

r r sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t )

No upscatter

G 1 = g g\ K g \ =1

r r ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) fg \
201

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Multi-group Model
No upscatter
r r D1 + r1 s12 M = s13 M 0 r r D2 + r 2 s 23 M 0 L 0 L r r D3 + r 3 L M O

1 1 f 1 2 1 f1 F= 3 1 f 1 M

1 2 f 2 2 2 f 2 3 2 f 2
M

1 3 f 3 L 1 2 3 f 3 L = 2 3 3 3 f 3 L
M

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Iterations.

202

Multi-group Model
No upscatter
r r D1 + r1 s12 M = 0 Directly M coupled p 0 r r D2 + r 2 s 23 M 0 L 0 L r r D3 + r 3 L M O

1 1 f 1 2 1 f1 F= 3 1 f 1 M

1 2 f 2 2 2 f 2 3 2 f 2
M

1 3 f 3 L 1 2 3 f 3 L = 2 3 3 3 f 3 L
M

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Iterations.

203

Multi-group Model
MultiMulti-group one-group oner g (r , t )
E g 1

Eg

r r r (r , E, t )dE (r , t ) (r , E, t )dE
0

E g 1

1 = vg

Eg

r 1 (r , E , t )dE v( E )
E g 1

Eg

r (r , E , t )dE

1 = v

r 1 v( E ) (r , E , t )dE 0

r (r , E, t )dE
0

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

204

Multi-group Model
E g 1

r D g (r ) =

Eg

r r r D ( r , E ) ( r , E , t ) dE
E g 1

Eg

r r ( r , E , t ) dE

r D (r ) =

r r r D ( r , E ) ( r , E , t ) dE
0

r r ( r , E , t ) dE
0

E g 1

r ag ( r ) =

Eg

r r a ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )dE
E g 1

Eg

r ( r , E , t )dE

r a (r ) =

r r a ( r , E ) ( r , E , t )dE
0

r ( r , E , t )dE
0

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

205

Multi-group Model
g \ =1

r r r r sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) 0 when G = 1 g
E g 1

g =

Eg

( E ) dE

( E ) dE
0

=1

g \ =1

g\

r r r r fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) f ( r ) ( r , t ) when G = 1

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

206

Multi-group Model
G G r r r r r 1 ext g ( r , t ) = g g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g v g t g \ =1 g \ =1 r r r r r r r r ag ( r ) g ( r , t ) sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

Substituting all of the above into

yields

r r r 1 ( r , t ) = f ( r ) ( r , t ) + S ext v t r r r r r r a ( r ) ( r , t ) + D ( r ) ( r , t )
which is t e o e g oup d us o equat o c s the one-group diffusion equation.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 207

Multi-group Model Project 3

Work out the multi-group to two-group collapsing multitwoand investigate criticality. Write down the appropriate matrices matrices.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

208

Poisoning
135Xe

106 b

Saturates S t t

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

209

Poisoning
149Sm

105 b

Continuously accumulates
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 210

Poisoning
Not anticipated! Reactor shut down! 135Xe 149Sm 105 b 6 b 10
Time scale: Hours and days.

Xe m a

Xe

aI
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

aXe
211

Poisoning
HW 28 Reactivity = k 1 , let us use k (Infinite reactor).
k afuel f1 = ffuel mod a + clad + a erator a f2 =
l d affuell + clad a

(critical)

afuel d t poison + mod erator + a i a

poison a Show that = 2 1 = fuel a + clad + mod erator a a

Negative reactivity due to poison buildup. It is p opo t o a proportional to t e a ou t o po so the amount of poison.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 212

Poisoning
r small r r r r I (r , t ) = I f (r , t ) I I (r , t ) aI I (r , t ) (r , t ) t r r r r r r Xe(r , t ) Xe = Xe f (r , t ) + I I (r , t ) Xe Xe(r , t ) a Xe(r , t ) (r , t ) t

Initial conditions? Clean Core Startup. Startup Shutdown (later).

Assume no spacial dependence.

I (0) = Xe(0) = 0 Fresh Fuel. and l us assume (t ) = (0) = constant. d let

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

213

Poisoning
I f 0 HW 29 Show that: I (t ) = (1 e t ) I
I

Xe()
and Xe(t ) =

I ()

( I + Xe ) f 0
Xe a 0

Xe + I f 0 ( + (e Xe Xe I + a 0

(1 e

Xe ( Xe + a 0 ) t

) e
I t

Xe Xe + a 0 ) t

)
214

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Poisoning

I () ( Xe()

Now, we know Xe(t)


poison a (t ) aXe Xe(t ) = fuel = fuel clad mod erator clad mod erator a + a + a a + a + a
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 215

Poisoning
Shutdown. After the reactor has been operating for a long time.
r r r r r I (r , t ) I = I f (r , t ) I I (r , t ) a I (r , t ) (r , t ) t r r r r r r Xe(r , t ) Xe = Xe f (r , t ) + I I (r , t ) Xe X (r , t ) a X (r , t ) (r , t ) Xe Xe t

I (0) = I () Xe(0) = Xe() (t ) = (0) = 0.

r r I (r , t ) = I I ( r , t ) t r r r Xe(r , t ) = I I (r , t ) Xe X (r , t ) Xe t
216

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Poisoning
I (t ) = I ()e I t HW 30 Show that Xe X (t ) = X ()e Xe
Xet

I I ( ) t t + (e e ) I Xe
Xe I

>0?

Height of the peak depends on I() and Xe(), i.e. depends on .


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 217

Poisoning
Shutdown Xe negative try to add positive reactivity move control rods out need to have y enough reserve costly to do that.
If, the available excess reactivity can compensate for less than 30 minutes of poison buildup, cant startup again after ~30 30 minutes of shutdown, because you cant achieve criticality. Need to wait long hours for Xe to decay down down.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 218

Poisoning

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

219

Poisoning
Strategies If you plan to shut down for short maintenance, think y p about stepback. Examine different scenarios using a code from g http://www.nuceng.ca/ Prepare y p your own report, code, calculations, g p p graphs, comments, conclusions etc.. Be creative.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

220

Poisoning
Xe Oscillations (r,t) (spacial dependence) flux locally Xe burnup (reactivity) flux further control rods globally in flux elsewhere Xe burnup .. limited by opposite effect due to increase (decrease) of I in the high (low) flux region. In large reactors (compared to neutron diffusion length) local flux, power and temperature could reach unacceptable values for certain materials safety issues. Think of one sensor and one control rod feel average flux apparently OK more sensors and control rods to locate and deal with local changes.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 221

Poisoning
Permanent Poisons 149Sm has sizeable but lower cross section than 135Xe. decay. It does not decay
r r r Sm(r , t ) ???? Sm f (r , t ) (r , t ) )............................. t

Accumulates with time time. Consequences?????????

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

222

Fuel Depletion 22 3 14 2 1 N ~ 10 cm , ~ 10 cm s

Time scale: Days and months.

More depletion increase steady state flux by means of reducing absorbers. r r r For a given fuel isotope N f (r , t ) = N (r , t ) f (r , t )
t
f a

For constant flux 0 the solution is For time varying flux

r r r r r af 0 ( r ) t af ( r ,t ) N f ( r , t ) = N f ( r ,0 ) e = N f ( r ,0 ) e

Exponential burnup

r r N f ( r , t ) = N f ( r ,0 ) e

af

r ( r ,t \ ) dt \

Neutron fluence
r r af ( r ,t ) = N f (r ,0)e
223

Solve numerically.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Fuel Depletion
Constant power.

r r r r r f P (r , t ) = wN f (r , t ) f (r , t ) = P (r ,0) = P0 (r )
Energy released per fission Fission rate

r r r r N f (r , t ) (r , t ) = N f (r ,0) (r ,0) r r r r f (r , t ) (r , t ) = f (r ,0) (r ,0)

Power ~ flux only over short time periods during which Nf is constant.

r N f (r , t )

r r r P0 (r ) f = N f (r , t ) a (r , t ) w

Linear depletion!

The solution is obviously

r r r P0 (r ) N f (r , t ) N f (r ,0) t w

ff af
224

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Fuel Depletion
HW 31
Do the calculations for different flux and power levels.

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

225

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion


Infinite, critical homogeneous reactor.
af (t ) (t k = f = f poison a (t ) + clad + mod erator (t ) + a (t ) + control (t ) a a a

r thus r r P0 (r ) t Constant power N f (r , t ) N f (r ,0) w r r r r r f N (r ,0) r r (r ,0) = N f (r ,0) N f (r , t ) a (r , t )t (r , t ) = r (r ,0) = r N (r , t ) 1 (r ,0)t r r r f = N f (r ,0) N f (r ,0) a ( r ,0)t r r f = N f (r ,0) 1 a (r ,0)t r f r f r f a (r , t ) = a (r ,0) 1 a (r ,0)t
f f f a

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

226

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion


Xe

Xe(t ) =

( I + X ) f 0 Xe
Xe 0 a

Constant

Xe + I f 0 + (e ( Xe I + aXe0

(1 e

Xe ( Xe + a 0 ) t

) e I t )
Constant

Xe Xe + a 0 ) t

r r ( I + Xe ) f (r ,0) (r ,0) r Xe Xe r a (r , t ) = a Xe (r , t ) = r Xe + (r , t ) Xe

r r Sm r Sm a (r , t ) a Sm f (r ,0) (r ,0)t
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

r (r , t ) =

( r ,0 ) r 1 af ( r ,0)t

Oth fission products (poisons) with l Other fi i d t ( i ) ith less capture cross sections. t ti
227

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion


Now we know all macroscopic cross sections.
af (t ) k = f = f poison a (t ) + clad + mod erator (t ) + a (t ) + control (t ) a a a

When there are no absorbers left to remove, we need to refuel. Absorbers are not only control rods. y All fuel nuclei should be considered. For each species, all sources and sinks should be taken into account. Online loading environmental. 3H.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Until = 0. Solve for t to get upper limit for core loading lifetime. lif ti
Damaged fuel! fuel !
228

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion

dN A C = A N A A N A + B N B + N C + F (t ) dt
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Fuel loading

229

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion


Some poisons are intentionally introduced into the reactor. Fixed burnable poisons. B, Gd. More uniform distribution than rods, more intentionally localized than shim. Soluble poisons (chemical shim) with caution. Boric acid (soluble boron, solbor) in coolant. Boration and dilution. Scram emergency shutdown (sodium polyborate or gadolinium nitrate). Non-burnable poisons. Chain of absorbers or self shielding. C f f
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 230

Delayed Precursors
G G r r r r r 1 ext g ( r , t ) = g g \ fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g v g t g \ =1 g \ =1 r r r r r r r r ag ( r ) g ( r , t ) sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

For one-group

r r r 1 ( r , t ) = f ( r ) ( r , t ) + S ext v t r r r r r r a ( r ) ( r , t ) + D ( r ) ( r , t )

Wh t What

about delayed neutrons? b td l d t ?


231

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

Delayed neutron emitter One of 66 delayed neutron t precursors known so far. Data for all precursors are not accurately known.

Delayed Precursors
d Delayed neutron fraction =

= p + d

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

232

Delayed Precursors
Fissile nucleus 233U 235U 238U* 239Pu 240P * Pu* 241Pu 242P * Pu* Delayed neutron / 100 fissions 0.667 0 667 Increases 1.621 with N. t 4.39 4 39 0.628 0.95 0 95 1.52 2.21 2 21

Data for thermal neutron induced fission, except for , p * fast neutron induced fission.
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 233

Delayed Precursors
(s)

< 0.7% 0.016 / 6 r r r 1 ( r , t ) = (1 ) f ( r ) ( r , t ) + i C i + S ext v t i =1 r r r r r r a ( r ) ( r , t ) + D ( r ) ( r , t ) r r r r C i (r , t ) = i C i ( r , t ) + i f ( r ) ( r , t ) t


Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh). 234

235U

Delayed Precursors
The multi-group equation now becomes Different energy spectra
G r 1 g ( r , t ) = gp (1 ) g \ v g t g \ =1 6 r r r C ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + g i C i ( r , t ) fg \ i =1

r r r r r r r r ag ( r ) g ( r , t ) sg ( r ) g ( r , t ) + D g ( r ) g ( r , t )

g \ =1

r r ext sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) + S g

r G r C i (r , t ) = iC i (r , t ) + i g \ t g \ =1
Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

r r ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) fg \
235

Full Blown Diffusion Equation


In steady state
G r iC i (r , t ) = i g \ g \ =1

r r ( r ) g \ ( r , t ) fg \
g\

0 = (1 ) g \
p g g =1
\

r r C fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r ) + g

g =1

r r fg \ ( r ) g \ ( r )

g \ =1

r r r r r r r r r r ext sg \ g ( r ) g \ ( r ) + S g ag ( r ) g ( r ) sg ( r ) g ( r ) + D g ( r ) g ( r )
C ggg g
C 0 = gp + ( g gp )

Significance of

depends on whether G p r r r r ext + sg g ( r ) g ( r ) + S g ag ( r ) g ( r ) we have fine or course energy g p g =1 r gy groups. r r r r r


\ \ \

]
G
\

g =1

g\

r r ( r ) g \ ( r ) fg \

sg ( r ) g ( r ) + D g ( r ) g ( r )

Nuclear Reactor Theory, JU, First Semester, 2010-2011 (Saed Dababneh).

236