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Submitted by:
Aditya Tanwar (07) Aleesha Sharma (12) Badruddin Khan (40) Cheriyathu Sebastian (45) Rachel Susan Ferreira (56) Vinay Gatagat (58)


1. Introduction .. 3 2. Internal Communication Flow . 4 3. Basic Structure and Policies . 6 4. Challenges 7 5. Conclusion 7

Internal communications is the function responsible for effective communication among participants within an organization. Internal Communication draws on the theory and practice of related professions, like knowledge management, public relations, media relations, marketing and human resources, as well as wider organizational studies, communication theory, social psychology, sociology and political science. People at work communicate regardless of the intentions of their managers or leaders. Internal communication is considered a vital tool for binding an organization, enhancing employee morale, promoting transparency and reducing attrition. Ironically, while everybody understands and talks about the significance of internal communication, very few are able to manage it efficiently. Both the long-term and short-term fallout of ineffective internal communication can be damaging for an organization. It can start from the spread of rumors to disillusionment among employees to a gradual destruction of the companys brand image. Worse, it may also lead to the slow death of the organization.

Channels of Internal Communication: 1. Face to face communication: Face to face communication can take many forms- big
meetings, small meetings, management conferences, team meetings, team briefings etc. All these communications promise two-way communication. If there is not a sense of involvement, then the real possibilities of face to face communications are not being realized. Conferences: Conference communications are used for new developments or special announcements. Conferences are a time of new policies, new plans, new directions and the effort to articulate them will itself help develop new initiatives. Notice Boards: They are the most primitive channels for formal internal communication. They are fast and reliable way to reach everybody because they can be mounted in sites of maximum exposure. They need to be kept simple. E-mail: They are fast and confidential and contain the possibility of response from individuals but, as in notice boards, messages need to be factual and short. Intranets: Intranets are a repository of information and opinion. Their search function allows users to find their way rapidly to the kind of information. Publications: Publications are printed word and are of different sorts for different readerships within the organization. They maybe a review from the top management or from other groups of managers. Annual Reports: Many organizations provide a copy of their annual reports to all their people as a matter of course, either on paper or electronically. It shows seriousness in acknowledging employees and also shows consistency. Web-sites: The web makes no distinctions as to who the readers of the site are. The people who work for the organization are probably the most dedicated users of its website. Video and Audio: They communicate consistent messages immediately and powerfully. They allow the top level management to be seen and heard by a large numbers.

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INTERNAL COMMUNICATION FLOW IN AN ORGANIZATION Communication in an organization can be Vertical, Horizontal or in the form of a network. VERTICAL COMMUNICATION: Vertical communication is concerned with communication between employees at different hierarchical levels in the organization. It focuses on downward and upward communication between managers and employees. Downward Communication: Downward communication flows from upper management down to the employees at lower ranks. There are five different elements that generally flow downward in all organizations. Job instruction is the conveying of information to subordinates about what they are expected to do. It can be carried out by a variety of means such as direct orders, written memos and workshops on how to do the job. Rationale is the rationalization or explanation of a duty or assignment and how it is compatible with what the personnel are already doing. Again, this can be carried out by various oral or written methods. Ideology seeks to obtain the loyalty of the employees. Managers want employees to "buy into" the organizational philosophy. When everyone has the same or similar ideals and goals, communication becomes easier. Information is concerned with acquainting employees with general bits of knowledge that they need to know, such as regulations, changes in benefits, and general policies. It usually is of an informative nature and does not require a response from the employee. Feedback is the manager's way of giving employees information about how they are doing. Feedback can take many forms, such as salary increase or decrease, a pat on the back, a termination notice, a smile, or a frown. Feedback also needs to be clear, appropriate, and with instructions on how to make any needed changes.

Upward Communication: Although upward communication is initiated by those at the lower levels of the organization, it can be successful only if those at the higher levels are willing to allow the communication to be effective. There are five factors that are most likely to influence upper levels of the organization to allow the upward communication to be effective. Positive communication: Many times employees think the negative will go through the system faster than the positive however this is not the case. Hence if you want something to go up the system couch it in positive terms. A message must be sent at the appropriate time to be allowed to go on up the system. It should be timely or it may not be acted on. Messages that support current policy are much more likely to be given attention than those that are incompatible with current policy. Many times messages are ignored because they are sent to people who cannot make a decision about them. So it is essential that messages must be forwarded to those people who can act on them or else communication will be ineffective.

HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION:This is communication that flows across the organization (from peer to peer to peer). There is much more horizontal communication in organizations on a daily basis than there is vertical. Employees at the same level feel more comfortable talking with each other than with people at different authority levels. Therefore horizontal communication often focuses on employee satisfaction and employee morale. Here is where you usually can talk openly and freely about your feelings about the system and can discuss your problems with others who can identify with them. In addition, this is also the channel at which most social interaction takes place within the formal organization. It is through the horizontal channels that you are likely to increase your knowledge, communication skills, and socialization skills. This often is where you can establish long-lasting interpersonal relationships that can assist you in becoming a better employee with a better chance of survival in the organization.

NETWORK COMMUNICATION:Communication in an organization can be in the form of a network as well. In network communication information flows freely among those who have a link that goes beyond the participants role or unit within the organization. Usually informal communication especially Grapevine is a part of Network Communication.

Basic Structures/Policies to Support Effective Internal Communications

This communication can be looked at as communications downward and upward. Downward Communication: 1. Ensure every employee should receive a copy of the strategic plan, which includes the organization's mission, vision, values statement, strategic goals and strategies about how those goals will be reached. 2. Ensure every employee receives a handbook that contains all up-to-date policies. 3. Develop a basic set of procedures for how routine tasks are conducted and include them in standard operating manual. 4. Ensure every employee has a copy of their job description and the organization chart. 5. Regularly hold management meetings (at least every two weeks), even if there's nothing pressing to report. 6. Hold full employee meetings every month to report how the organization is doing, major accomplishments, concerns, and announcements. 7. Employees should have face-to-face interaction with the manager at least once a week. 8. Regularly hold meetings to celebrate major accomplishments. This helps employees perceives what's important, gives them a sense of direction and fulfillment. 9. Ensure all employees receive yearly performance reviews, including their goals for the year, updated job descriptions, accomplishments, needs for improvement, and plan to help them accomplish their improvements. Upward Communication: 1. Ensure all employees give regular status reports to their supervisors. Include a section for what they did last week, will do next week and any actions/issues to address. 2. Ensure all managers meet one-on-one at least once a month with the employees to discuss how its' going, hear any current concerns from the employees. 3. Use management and employees solicit feedback. Do a round table approach to hear from each person. 4. Respect the "grapevine." It's probably one of the most prevalent and reliable forms of communications. Major "movements" in the organization usually first appear when students and staff feel it safe to venture their feelings or opinions to peers. Importance of internal Communication Clear, concise, and consistent communication educate employees, enabling them to appreciate the value of their organizations vision, programs or projects and are a significant element in engaging the employees keeping them focused, productive and committed. The contribution that clear and effective channels of communication can make to an organization is substantial, not least in enlisting employees' support for business objectives, aligning everyones activities and providing some motivation to raise performance levels. Where appropriate mechanisms are in place, employees are also more likely to engage with the organizational values and objectives offering feedback and coming forward with ideas. Internal communication is more than the art and technique of effectively imparting thoughts, information, and ideas to large numbers of people. It has become the single, most important element that enables an organization to share their vision and galvanize their work force to action that moves the organization forward.

Challenges faced in internal communication in organizations:

1. Cross culture: The challenge is that even with all the good will in the world, miscommunication is likely to happen, especially when there are significant cultural differences between communicators. Miscommunication may lead to conflict, or aggravate conflict that already exists. 2. Assumption: The most common communications problem is managements (leaders and managers) assume that as they are aware of some piece of information, than everyone else is, too. In most cases staff isnt aware unless management makes a deliberate attempt to carefully convey information. 3. Valuing communications: Another frequent problem is managements not really valuing communications or assuming that it just happens. So they're not aware of what they told to whom even when they intended for everyone to know the information. 4. Misunderstanding: Particularly when personnel are tired or under stress, it's easy to do what's urgent rather than what's important. So people misunderstand others' points or understand their intentions. This problem usually gets discovered too late, too. 5. Inexperience: Communications problems can arise when inexperienced management interprets its job to be solving problems and if there aren't any problems/crises, then there's nothing that needs to be communicated. 6. Communicating with subordinates: Communications problems can arise when management simply sees no value whatsoever in communicating with subordinates, believing subordinates should shut up and do their jobs.

The development of a strategic internal communication strategy and its implementation can provide a number of benefits to organizations. To achieve those benefits we need a coordinated, comprehensive, long term communication approach. Upward or downward communication is the commitment by top management-and the supervisory staff-to the on-going importance of communication to the success of the business mission. This must be implemented through regular, consistent effort by management at all levels. Often lack of knowledge and a lack of respect to employees obstruct the improvement of internal communication. But effective internal communication is the start and the base for the whole company and its prosperity; it is the base of knowledge management which increases the competitive advantage in the severe market environment. The clinical management organization promotes better internal communication and interpersonal relations, leading to improved performance indicators. Even organizations that do not have a specialist department now recognize the need for the function, while those at the leading edge are making increasingly innovative and productive uses of internal communications.