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PAKISTAN STUDY

The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI In the light of our foreign policy, discuss the relationship of Pakistan with CHINA, SAUDI ARABIA, and IRAN. Iran-Pakistan relations:

Background:Iran was the first nation to recognize Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan has had close geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran. Relations between the two countries have existed since ancient times when the Pakistani region was part of the large Persian Empire. Persian is still considered the cultural language of Pakistan and most of Pakistan's national anthem is written in that language. Persian was the lingua franca of India up to 1843 before the British abolished its use in favour of Urdu and English. Relations between Iran and Pakistan peaked in the 60's and 70's under the Shah with considerable joint ventures and assistance provided by Iran to Pakistan. Iran is also a popular tourist spot for Pakistan's Muslims, notably its Shia population which represents about 20% of Pakistan population of 170 million people. Low period have occurred, however, strains in the relationship appeared in the 1980s, when Pakistan and Iran supported opposing factions in the Afghan conflict. Also, some Pakistanis suspect Iranian support for the sectarian violence which has plagued Pakistan. Furthermore, many Pakistani's were disappointed when much of Iran's nuclear research was stated as having originated from Pakistan, this despite the fact that Iran's nuclear program was started some 20 years before that of Pakistan's. Nevertheless, Pakistan pursues an active diplomatic relationship with Iran, including recent overtures to seek a negotiated settlement between Afghanistan's warring factions. Pakistan also supports Iran's use of Nuclear Technology for peaceful purposes. Both countries are endeavoring to improve and strengthen bilateral trade and commerce between them. January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI PAK- IRAN- RELATIONSHIPS:In 1947 Iran was the first country to recognize the newly-independent state of Pakistan. Pakistans Basic Policy toward Islamic Republic of Iran

Pakistan sees Iran as an important neighbour that has geo-strategic location and with which people of Pakistan share common faith, history. Iran, therefore, is a key element in Pakistans foreign policy. Pakistan believes that maintenance of cordial ties with Iran is important for the regional economic prosperity and security. Pakistan-Iran close relations are a source of strength not only for both the countries but also for the region. Starting of Friendly Agreements First friendly agreement b/w Pakistan and Iran was held in 1950.it make stability b/w two countries. Baghdad agreement In 1955 at BUGHDAD a friendly agreement was held b/w Pakistan, Iran, Turkey & Iraq. But unfortunately in 1958 Iraq separated from this agreement. C.E.N.T.O(Central Treaty Organization) After separation of Iraq from Baghdad agreement, Pakistan, Iran & Turkey change his name ,which is called by CENTO .This agreement was ended in MARCH 1979. R.C.D R.C.D stand for REGIONAL CO-OPERATION FOR DEVELOPMENT 12th of July 1964 an agreement was proposed which was called R.C.D b/w Pakistan, Iran & Turkey. The purpose of this agreement was to support each other financially. In 1980 the war b/w Iran & Iraq makes the agreement useless. ECO(Economic Cooperation Organization) In 1964 the president of Pakistan proposed that Pakistan, Iran & Turkey should have a clse relations. These countries should co-operate with one another in development program. Iran and Turkey gladly accept this proposal. Thus Regional Co-operation for Development (R.C.D) was established. In 1985 Iran again joined R.C.D. and the name was replace by ECO.IRAN , TURKEY & PAKISTAN struggle for making this more powerful. It is working for the economic development of member countries. January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI Some other issues on which iran & Pakistan joined hand together Help of Pakistan in Pak-India war Iran provide help aid financially in September 1956 and December 1971 war b/w Pakistan & India. Support the Pakistan on Kashmir issue Iran help the Pakistan on Kashmir issue internationally. Support the Pakistan on atomic blast In may 1998 Pakistan blast five atomic bomb. At that time Iran support the Pakistan financial aids & Irani foreign minister visit Pakistan officially. Support Pakistani defiance At the creation of Pakistan, Pakistan needs jet plain and Pakistan ordered the British company that makes jet plain for plane at the same time Iran ales ordered for jet plane. Pakistan request the Iran he got plan after Pakistan & Iran accept this request. Reduce the price of oil Iran reduces the price of oil & special discount for Pakistan in international market. To stop Iran-Iraq war Pakistan struggle stopping the war b/w Iran & Iraq on ownership of shat-rule-Arab. Struggle of Pakistan result in ending of war in 1985. Military relations Both nations were part of a Cold War alliance called the Central Treaty Organization. Iran has actively supported Pakistan when it went to war with India, often sending over squadrons of airplanes and extra tanks as well as other arms to support it. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the prominent Pakistani nuclear scientist, is popular in Iran.[citation needed]In 1965 war Pakistani fighter jets were often sent to Iran for fueling and other tactical purposes. In the 1971 war Pakistani planes were sent to Iranian bases in Zahedan and Mehrabad for protection since Russian radar jamming and early Airborne warning An-12 blinded Pakistani fighters. Similarly Irani sheltered their jets at Pakistani Air Force Bases during the IranIraq War. Pakistan became intermediary in several of defense deals of Iran with China and North Korea. Pak-Iran Cooperation at Pakistan-Iran Relations Iran is an important neighbour of Pakistan because of its geo-strategic location and bonds of common faith, history, culture and other deep-rooted links between the two countries. Iran, therefore, figures high in Pakistans foreign policy. Pakistan-Iran close relations are a source of strength not only for both the

January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI countries but also for the region.Iran was one of the first few countries that recognised Pakistan soon after its independence. The two countries share perceptions on important regional and international issues and cooperate closely in multilateral fora including the UN, OIC, ECO and D-8.Although Pakistan and Iran have difference of opinion over Afghanistan, the two countries have similar interests in Afghanistan viz. cessation of hostilities, preservation of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Afghanistan and return of millions of refugees to their homeland.Pak-Iran relations are marked by frequent contacts at the highest level, which provide focus and direction to the bilateral relationship. Cooperation between Pakistan and Iran in various areas like Trade and Commerce, Science and technology, Defence, Arts and Culture, Tourism, Communications, Oil and Gas, etc has been improving steadily. Pakistan-Iran Joint Economic Commission (JEC) has held Eleven sessions so far. Major exports of Pakistan to Iran include Rice, Yarn, Synthetic Fibres, Paper and Paperboard, etc. Pakistan on the other hand, imports Petroleum and Petroleum Products, Fruits, Vegetables, Ores and Concentrates of Iron & Steel and Raw Cotton from Iran. The balance of trade, as may be seen above, remains heavily tilted in Irans favour. Iran can help reduce trade gap by importing rice, wheat, yarn, paper, surgical goods, sports goods and toys from Pakistan. Pakistan-Iran Joint Economic Commission Pak-Iran economic relations are governed by Pakistan-Iran Joint Economic Commission (JEC), which was established in 1986. It provides a useful institutional framework in the identification of areas to promote economic and commercial cooperation between the two countries. It also periodically reviews and monitors the implementation of various decisions taken in this regard by the representatives of the two countries.The 11th session of the Pak-Iran Joint Economic Commission was held in Islamabad in March 1999. The Coordinators of Pakistan-Iran JEC met in Islamabad on April 26-28, 2000 to review implementation of the decisions taken during the 11th Session. The meeting concluded with signing of an MoU to implement the pending decisions promptly. PAKISTAN IRAN CURRENT RELATIONS : Pakistan-Iran relations since 9/11 have considerably improved from earlier frostiness in the 1990s due to the Taliban factor in Afghanistan. Hence Pakistan is increasingly concerned that any harm or destabilisation of Iran through any external military action may create problems not only for Iran but also for Pakistan. In this light, Pakistan has urged both countries to defuse the tense situation through mutual dialogue and consultations.While the Iranians seem to be adamant in pursuit of their nuclear programme for perceived national interest, the US is aggressively pursuing its global agenda for "regime change" and re-shaping of the Middle East.In truth, Pakistan's role in US-Iran crisis is very limited as Pakistan has neither the clout nor the credibility to play any effective mediatory role as evidenced . On the one hand, there is a self-willed superpower that has a mind and agenda of its own, while on the other hand, there is Iran whose clerical leadership is equally inflexible and rigid with a history of US defiance for almost quarter a century.If the surgical strikes by the US or by Israel against Iran's nuclear installations, are going to complicate Pakistan's strategic problems. Not only refugees could flood into the border province of

January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI Balochistan it would add to the tense situation as Balochistan. Also, any military confrontation will place Pakistan in an awkward position of siding between a strategic ally and a traditional Muslim friend and a neighbour.Pakistan would be the last country to see Iran suffer or go down in any confrontation. The latter's destabilisation could send shock waves of agitation in the Islamic world, especially Pakistan where anti-US sentiment is already simmering. Moreover, this will put added pressures on Musharraf government - already beset with a plethora of domestic problems. The US may harbour some expectations from Pakistan as a "strategic ally" for greater cooperation that Pakistan may be unable or unwilling to fulfill. Inability to take sides could result in spoiling relations with the US. On the other hand, the Iranians may feel disappointed with Pakistan as the latter acquiesces to US pressures and looks the other way in its difficult times, though Pakistan has explicitly stated that it will not allow its facilities to be used against Iran. The US, if successful in Iran, will feel further emboldened to pursue its strategic objective of "dealing with" Pakistan's nuclear programme. Notwithstanding all assurances of bonhomie, Pakistan stands in the dock for alleged nuclear export and smuggling charges. With non-proliferation taking a centrestage after terrorism under re-elected Bush administration, Pakistan may come under greater heat in the coming years. Many observers feel that Pak-US friendship is opportunistic and not a durable strategic relationship. Two unequal powers - a global and a small power - cannot get along for long and will soon diverge in their outlooks, it is argued. GAS PIPELINE PROJECT: Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project is also in the doldrums as the US seems determined to pressurise and isolate Iran over the nuclear issue. The US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in her recent tour to India and Pakistan expressed US "concern" about the pipeline project and termed it as an act of "rewarding" Iran.Should Pakistan's security environment deteriorate, there is a real danger that India-Pak ongoing rapprochement may also suffer: a weakened and threatened Pakistan may be overly defensive and prove non-cooperative to India.Under these circumstances, it seems difficult for Pakistan to persuade Iran to revoke its nuclear programme since it is considered cardinal to the latter's national security. After all, Pakistan too pursued in building its own nuclear programme on putative national interests despite worldwide protestations. Moreover, the Iranian clerical leadership's survival and credibility will come under grater stake if it forswears its nuclear programme. As pressure builds up against Iran, it may find it difficult to continue playing off the EU-3 against the US. The US and Israel, already smarting under Iran's hostile policies and alleged support to Hizbullah, Hamas and Palestinian groups, are leery of clerical regime's future nuclear weapons programme. This is seen as threatening to the Israel-US interests in the region.Needless to say that the US hubris stems in part from its successful efforts in toppling unpopular regimes in Afghanistan and Iraq, installing of new regimes, extracting willing obedience from countries like Pakistan, Saudi Arabia Gulf and lack of popular upsurge in the Arab streets against its military occupations. January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI US hope is that similar apathy will follow since the Islamic world is too divided to put up a united front. Perhaps it wants to play up on the Shia-Sunni divide and harbour the hope that many of the Arab leaders world would look the other way or acquiesce in action against Iran as the latter did in case of Iraq. Iran cannot be compared to Iraq, assert many observers. The latter's size, population, military prowess and nationalist ideology are seen as assets that would make US or Israel think twice before launching any military adventure. But then this was equally claimed about Iraq as an Arab "regional military power". While Iraq's occupation is not a total success, it has not been a domestic fiasco for Bush administration either as his re-election has demonstrated; in fact, it is seen as vindication of his policies and actions. By characterizing Iran as "axis of evil" and "an outpost of tyranny" the US views Iran's clerical leaders as "unreliable", who are biding their time in avenging past humiliation through building of nuclear weapons. Most of the US perceptions are shaped by Israel which is egging on the US to act before it is too late. Caught between a rock and hard place, Pakistan can do precious little except hoping that things do not come to such a pass. It is hoped that the six-party dialogue formula as followed by the US with North Korea could be replicated in case of Iran. Needless to say that for any defusing of tensions both Iran and US will have to make some concessions. On Pakistan's part, an overriding wish is that this crisis does not blow over and that Iran is able to work out some peaceful arrangements with the US under the principle of "give and take". A workable compromise could spare it any military confrontation. While harnessing nuclear energy is a country's right the prevailing norms against nuclear proliferation have grown very stringent. The world after 9/11 is much different. What was possible before is difficult now. Pakistan desires that Iran should take a decision that it best for its national interests to preserve its national sovereignty and integrity and avoid any needless confrontation.

January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI PAK- SAUDI-ARABIA- RELATIONSHIPS:-

PAK-SAUDI RELATION The bilateral relations between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan are close and friendly. As two of the world's leading Islamic countries, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have sought to develop extensive commercial, cultural, religious and strategic relations. A Muslim-majority state, Pakistan has sought to develop close bilateral ties with Saudi Arabia, the largest country on the Arabian Peninsula and home to the two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina and the destination of Muslim pilgrims from across the world. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are leading members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Saudi Arabia was one of the strongest supporters of Pakistan during Pakistan's wars with India, especially opposing the creation of Bangladesh from Pakistan's eastern wing in 1971. While it had supported Pakistan's stance on the Kashmir conflict, it has since endorsed the Indo-Pakistani peace process. With Pakistan, it provided extensive financial and political support to the Taliban and the Afghan mujahideen fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s.During the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War, Pakistan sent troops to protect the Islamic holy sites in Saudi Arabia, but strains developed when some Pakistani politicians and Gen. Mirza Aslam Beg, the then-chief of staff of the Pakistani army openly expressed support for Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq and its invasion of Kuwait.Along with the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan were the only states to recognize Taliban rule in Afghanistan. In May 1998, before Pakistan's Chagai-I nuclear tests, Saudi Arabia promised to supply 50,000 barrels per day of free oil to help Pakistan cope with likely economic sanctions in the aftermath. Military cooperation January 1, 2011 Pakistan maintains close military ties with Saudi Arabia, providing extensive support, arms and training for the Military of Saudi Arabia.[2] Pakistan has provided military aid and expertise to the kingdom for decades. It helped the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) to build and pilot its first jet fighters in the 1960s. Pakistani Air Force (PAF) pilots flew RSAF Lightings that repulsed a South Yemeni incursion into the kingdoms southern border in 1969. In the 1970s and 1980s up to 15,000 Pakistani troops were stationed in the kingdom, some in a brigade combat force near the Israeli-Jordanian-Saudi border. The close ties continue between the militaries today.Saudi Arabia has negotiated the purchase of Pakistani ballistic missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads.Pakistan and Saudi Arabia have had a deep strategic

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI military relationship for decades and today have an unacknowledged nuclear partnership to provide the kingdom with a nuclear deterrent on short notice if ever needed.It is also speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's nuclear programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan to enable it to counteract possible threats from arsenals of the weapons of mass destruction possessed by Iran, Iraq and Israel.Economic and military ties are matched by close intelligence and security relations. During the 1980s, the Saudis financed more than half of the jihad to support the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan and worked more closely than anyone else with the Pakistani intelligence service, ISI, to support the war effort. Those ties continued in the 1990s when the Saudis and Pakistanis assisted the Taliban for a time. Former Saudi intelligence chief Prince Turki bin Sultan has said about Saudi-Pak Relationship, Its probably one of the closest relationships in the world between any two countries. Both nations have received high-level delegations of scientists, government and military experts seeking to study the development of a nuclear programme.The Saudis also came to Pakistans rescue after the 1998 nuclear tests when they provided Pakistan with 50000 barrels of oil per day free to overcome the effect of sanctions. In May 1999, Saudi deputy premier Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, on a visit to Pakistan, was shown the Kahuta uranium enrichment plant, a privilege that was not granted by Pakistans military to their Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto some years earlier. A Q Khan had briefed the visiting Saudi minister. Prince Sultan also visited the Ghauri missile factory. Later in the year, during his visit to Saudi Arabia, A Q Khan discussed possibilities of co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy in agriculture and genetic engineering.Pakistan is also seeking to sell up to 150 Al Khalid tanks to Riyadh, a deal which may be worth $600 million. Saudi Intelligence chief and brother of King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, Prince Muqrin bin Abdal Aziz has stated, The King considered the stability and security of Pakistan as the stability and security of Saudi Arabia.

Cultural and commercial ties January 1, 2011 The Saudis are involved in every aspect of Pakistan life.Saudi Arabia has also provided extensive religious and educational aid to Pakistan, being a major contributor to the construction of mosques and madrassas (religious schools) across Pakistan. The Faisal Mosque in Pakistan's capital, Islamabad, is a landmark and the largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia was funded by Saudi Arabia and named in the honour of King Faisal. The major Pakistani industrial city of Lyallpur was also renamed Faisalabad in honour of King Faisal in 1977. A major PAF airbase in Karachi known as the Faisal Airbase, is named King Faisal as well. Moreover, Shahra-e-Faisal, which is a major and significant road in Karachi, is named in the honour of King Faisal. Thousands of Saudis live in Pakistan and many thousands have their

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI second homes in almost every major city of Pakistan. Thousands of Saudi students are enrolled in Pakistani universities. Millions of Pakistanis live and work in Saudi Arabia and are students in Saudi institutions.[Saudi Arabia remains a major destination for immigration among Pakistanis, the number of whom living in Saudi Arabia stands between 900,000 and 1 million (see Pakistanis in Saudi Arabia).Saudi Arabia was a major supporter of the "Islamisation" programme of the military ruler Gen. Zia-ul-Haq in the 1970s. In 2006, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia was awarded the Nishan-e-Pakistan, the highest civilian decoration of Pakistan. Saudi Arabia is the largest source of petroleum for Pakistan.It also supplies extensive financial aid to Pakistan and remittance from Pakistani migrants to Saudi Arabia is also a major source of foreign currency.In recent years, both countries have exchanged high-level delegations and developed plans to expand bilateral cooperation in trade, education, real estate, tourism, information technology, communications and agriculture. Saudi Arabia is aiding the development of trade relations with Pakistan through the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), with which Pakistan is negotiating a free trade agreement; the volume of trade between Pakistan and GCC member states in 2006 stood at USD 11 billion.Saudi Arabia and Pakistan cooperate on each and every matter, be it foreign relations or economics or global strategies.Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif was exiled to Saudi Arabia and he stayed in Saudi Arabia for 8 years. During his stay there, Kingdom held talks with Sharif and even provided him with license to operate business in the Kingdom. It is believed that it was Kingdom of Saudi Arabia persuaded Former President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan to allow Sharif back in Pakistan. In 2005, Pakistan declared a seven-day period of mourning after the passing of King Fahd. Aid to Pakistan Pakistan has received more aid from Saudi Arabia than any country outside the Arab world since the 1960s. In May 1998 when Pakistan was deciding whether to respond to Indias test of five nuclear weapons, the Saudis promised 50,000 barrels per day of free oil to help the Pakistanis cope with the economic sanctions that might be triggered by a counter test. The Saudi oil commitment was a key to then Prime Minster Nawaz Sharifs decision to proceed with testing. It cushioned the subsequent U.S and EU sanctions on Pakistan considerably. Official aid is matched by large investments from Saudi princes and from religious institutions. Much of the Pakistani madrassa educational system, for instance, is Saudi funded by private donors.In response to 2005 Kashmir earthquake, Saudi Arabia was the single largest donor to relief efforts with aid in excess of $573 million.In the aftermath of the 2010 Pakistan floods, Saudi Arabia became the first and the largest donor for the floods victims.

January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI China & Pakistan relationships:-

Background Pakistan has an enduring, multi-dimensional and deep-rooted relationship with China. The long-standing ties of friendship between the two countries are underpinned by mutual trust and confidence. A close identity of views and mutuality of interest remain the hallmark of bilateral ties. Pakistan has always supported China on all issues of importance to the latter, especially those related to the question of China's sovereignty e.g. Taiwan, Xinjiang, and Tibet and other sensitive issues such as human rights. The Chinese leadership has always appreciated Pakistan's steadfast support on issues of their concern. They are also generous in acknowledging the significant role of Pakistan in the early 1970s, which enabled China to break its isolation from the West and the US, when Henry Kissinger secretly visited Beijing. Pakistan also helped China become a member for the United Nations and has also been instrumental in providing excellent relations of China with the Muslim world. China has also supported Pakistan through thick and thin. The Kashmir issue has always been supported, while in 2008 during Pakistan-Indian tensions, it promised unlimited financial and military aid. Pakistan and China have also been involved in technology exchanged. Although earlier, it would be mostly sharing, it now remains in the favour of Chinese. Diplomatic relations Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China were established on 21 May 1951. The 50th Anniversary of the establishment of the diplomatic relations was an occasion of great significance both in historic terms as well as for a strong public manifestation of the durability and the strength of their relations. A series of high level exchanges, hallmark of which was Premier Zhu Rangies visit to Pakistan on 1114 May 2001 and President of Pakistan's visit to China later in 2001 as part of the commemorative events for the golden jubilee celebrations. In addition, high profile cultural and business activities were undertaken, including Pakistan's participation in the Beijing International Trade Fair in April 2001, civil awards for Chinese nationals in recognition of their contribution to international relations between Pakistan and China and cooperation in various fields and the issuing of first day covers/commemorative January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI stamps to mark the occasion. To mark the 50th Anniversary of relations between China and Pakistan, the Pakistan Post Office issued a set of 3 commemorative postage stamps on 12 May 2001. Pakistan and China further celebrated the 50th Anniversary by releasing First Day of Issue Covers simultaneously in Beijing and Islamabad on 21 May. Special ceremonies were held in the respective capitals to mark the release of First Day of Issue Covers containing postage stamps of the respective countries on both the First Day Covers duly covered with special postmarks on 21 May 2001.With the government of President Asif Ali Zardari under intense pressure from the United States, there are calls from notable politicians and defense analysts[who?] for Pakistan to adopt a foreign policy which considers China and not the US to be Pakistan's strongest ally and most significant stakeholder. China's emergence as the leading global economic power coupled with recent rumors of an Indo-Western policy that could promote a destabilization followed by a potential disintegration of Pakistan has helped this suggestion gain further credibility.[citation needed Washington has historically been accused of using Pakistan in time of need and then deserting it for a policy that favors stronger relations with India to take advantage of the large consumer market there. China, on the other hand has been a time-tested friend of Pakistan's. The recent Mumbai attacks serve as an ideal example of this where the US joined hands with India in accusing Pakistan whereas China warned all other powers to restrain an invasion of Pakistan. Citation needed] It is in this respect that the focus in the coming years would be on the speed and scale of development at Gawadar port. Some circles in Pakistan believe that the process of this development should be expedited as a matter of urgency because it would deepen Chinese interest in Pakistan substantially. Pakistan-China military relations The People's Republic of China's military relationship with Pakistan's military has often been regarded by the leaders of both countries as all weather and time tested.[citation needed] This relationship between two Asian countries, who are joined with a common border, is important in the world's geo-strategic alliances. The policy of having good relations between the armed forces was taken by the leaders to counter the balance of power in the Asia. On the one hand Indian and Soviet Union and on the other hand Pakistan and China's policies to counter it. In recent years this relationship has deepened even further by having defense agreements between Pakistan and China. China has been a steady source of military equipment to the Pakistani Army and also has helped Pakistan to set-up mass weapons production factories and also have given technology assistance and modernized facilities. In the last 20 years, the countries are involved in the joint venture of several projects to enhance military and weaponry systems, which includes JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft, K-8 Karakorum advance training aircraft, space technology, AWACS, Al-Khalid tank, Babur cruise missile. The armies have a schedule for organizing joint military exercises. China is the largest investor in the Gawadar Deep Sea Port, which is strategically located at the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz .China has offered to Pakistan military aid in order to fight against the terrorist activities on their (Pakistan's) soil. Beijing will further cooperate with Islamabad in dealing firmly with terrorists. After the aid the Islamic Republic of Pakistan will also purchase military equipment from China to fight terror to which China have agreed. This will strengthen cooperation between two Armed Forces. In the past, China played a major role in the development of Pakistan's

January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI nuclear infrastructure, especially when increasingly stringent export controls in Western Countries made it difficult for Pakistan to acquire materials and uranium enriching equipment from elsewhere. China has supplied Pakistan with equipment to enrich its indigenous uranium to weapons grade. In the 1990s, China designed and supplied the heavy water Khusab reactor, which plays a key role in Pakistan's production of plutonium. A subsidiary of the China National Nuclear Corporation also contributed in Pakistan's efforts to expand its uranium enrichment capabilities by providing 5,000 custom made ring magnets, which are a key component of the bearings that facilitate the high-speed rotation of centrifuges. China also provided technical and material support in the completion of the Chasma Nuclear Power Reactor and plutonium reprocessing facility, which was built in the mid 1990s.China, has also launched Pakistan's first satellite to orbit in 1990 due to Pakistan's lack of a spaceport. I. Reviewing the Bilateral Political Relations. Pakistan is one of the first groups of countries that have recognized China. On May 21, 1951, the two countries officially established their diplomatic relations. Since then, China and Pakistan have witnessed smooth development of friendly and neighborly relations as well as mutually beneficial cooperation. 1) In the early years of the establishment of Sino-Padistani diplomatic relations, Pakistan maintained cool relations with China, as it was an ally of the West. Due to little interactions between the two countries, their relations only remained general. During the Bandung Conference in 1995, Premier Zhou Enlai held two friendly talks with Pakistani Prime Minister M. Ali, and both sides shared the view that exchange and cooperation in various areas should be strengthened between the two countries. The talks played an important role in promoting understanding and developing friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries. After the Bandung Conference, there was a gradual increase of high-level exchanges of visits between the two countries, In October 1956, at the invitation of the Chinese Government, Pakistani Prime Minister Sulawadi paid an official visit to China. In December the same year, Premier Zhou Enlai visited Pakistan. The successful exchange of visits between the Pakistani prime minister and Chinese Premier within one year greatly promoted the development of friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries and strengthened the friendship between the two peoples. 2) The period between 1957 and 1069 saw a very important phase in the history of the Sino-Pakistani relations. During this period, historical changes took place in the bilateral relations, and the change of Pakistan from being hostile toward to friendly with China opened a new chapter in the Sino-Pakistani relations. Between 1957 and 1960, Pakistan followed the West with regard to its position on restoration of China's legal status in the UN, and Taiwan Tibet questions, so the political relations between the two countries were setback. In 1961, by voting for the bill concerning the restoration of China's legitimate rights in the UN put to the vote the UN General Assembly, the Pakistani Government took a step forward in the course of improving the Sino-Pakistani relations. In 1962, the two countries, through friendly talks, reached an agreement in principle on the position and alignment of Sino-Pakistani boundary. In March 1963, the two

January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI countries signed a boundary agreement on China's Xinjiang and the adjacent areas whose defence was under the actual control of Pakistan. In February 1964, Premier Zhou Enlai visited Pakistan and in December Pakistani President Ayub Khan visited China. In March 1966, President Liu Shaoqi visited Pakistan. Between 1965 and 1971, as a sponsor country for the aforesaid bill Pakistan supported the restoration of China's legitimate fights in the UN. 3) 1970s saw steady development of the Sino-Pakistani relations and continuous strengthening of friendly cooperation between the two governments and peoples. In November 1970, Pakistani President Yahay Khan visited China. While in power, Z.A.Bhutto visited China three times respectively in 1972, 1974 and 1976. In November 1974, CAAC opened its BeijingKarachi-Paris flight. After coming into power, Zia-ul Huq visited China in December 1977. 4) 1980s witnessed frequent exchange of visits between the Chinese and Pakistani leaders and further consolidation and development of friendly relations and cooperation between the tow countries. In May 1980,Pakistani President Zia-ul Huq visited China. In June 1981, Premier Zhao Ziyang visited Pakistan. In August 1982,the two countries signed the protocol on opening Khunjerab Pass on the SinoPakistani border. In October the same year, President Zia-ul Huq visited China again. In March 1984,President Li Xiannian visited Pakistan. In November 1985, Pakistani Prime Minister Junejo visited China. In June 1987, Premier Zhao Zhiyang visited Pakistan again. In May 1988, Prime Minister Junejo paid another visit to China. In February 1989, Pakistani Prime Minister B.Bhutto visited China, and in November Premier Li Peng visited Pakistan. 5) Since 1990s, great changes have taken place in the international situation. Instead of being affected by the changing situation, the time-tested friendship and cooperation between China and Pakistan has further developed. In May 1990s, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Wan Li visited Pakistan. In September the same year Pakistani President Ishaq Khan visited China and attended the 11th Asian Games as the chief guest. In February 1991, Pakistani Prime Minister Shariff visited China, and in October President Yang Shangqun visited Pakistan. In October 1992, Prime Minister Shariff visited China again. In December 1993, Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Li Ruihuan visited Pakistan, and in the same month Prime Minister B.Bhutte paid another visit to China. In December 1994, Pakistans President Leghari visited China. In September 1995, invited by the Chinese Government Prime Minister B.Bhutte attended the 4th World Women Conference sponsored by the UN in Beijing ad a special guest. In November the same year, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Qiao Shi visited Pakistan. In December 1996, President Jiang Zemin, invited by Pakistan, paid a state visit to the country. It is a big event in the Sino-Pakistani relations and the leaders of the two countries decided to establish an all-round cooperative partnership into the 21st century. President Jiang Zemin made an important speech entitled Carrying Forward Friendly and

January 1, 2011

PAKISTAN STUDY
The location administration along with its problem of IROP In the light of foreign policy, relationship of IROP with other countries. SAFWAN HASHMI Neighborly Relations from Generation to Generation, and Working together for a Better Tomorrow during his visit to Pakistan, a expounding for the first time China's policy toward South Asia. In April 1997, President Leghari visited China. In February 1998, Prime Minister Sharif visited China. In April 1999, Chairman Li Peng of the Standing Committee of the NPC visited Pakistan. In June the same year, Prime Minister Sharif visited China again. In January 2000, Pakistan's Chief Executive General Musharraf paid a working visit to China. In September the same year President Jiang Zemin met him during the UN Millennium Summit held in New York.

2001 marked the 50th anniversary of the establishment of Sino-Pakistani diplomatic relations and colorful celebrations were held in the two countries. In May the same year, Premier Zhu Rongji was invited to visit Pakistan. In December, President Musharraf paid a state visit to China. In January 2002, he made a stopover in Beijing on his way to Nepal to attend the SAARC Summit. In March the same year VicePremier Wu Bangguo visited Pakistan as head of a Chinese Government delegation and attended the groundbreaking ceremony of Gwadar Port, a joint project to be built by China and Pakistan. In May, Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan visited Pakistan. In early June, President Jiang Zemin met President Musharraf at Alma-Ata during the CICA Summit. At the end of June, Pakistani Foreign Minister of State Haque visited China. In early August, while President Musharraf was in Beijing for a stopover after visiting Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, President Jiang Zemin met him. In January, 2003, Pakistani Speaker Hussain called on Chairman of the Standing Committee of the NPC Li Peng while attending the meeting of the Executive Council of AAPP held in Beijing. In February the same year, Foreign Secretary Khokhar visited China. In March, Prime Minister Jamali paid an official visit to China, and during his visit he and the Chinese Premier jointly announced the founding of China-Pakistan Friendship Forum. II. Economic and Trade Relations and Economic Cooperation. Since the early 1950, China and Pakistan have established trade relations and started trade transactions. In January 1963, they signed their first trade agreement. In October 1982, China-Pakistan Joint Committee of Economy, Trade and Technology was set up. With the joint efforts from both sides, Sino-Pakistani economic and trade cooperation has seen good progress. Especially since the 1990s, their bilateral trade volume has witnessed relatively fast growth. In 2002 alone, Sino-Pakistani trade volume reached US$ 1.8 billion, a new record in terms of their trade relations. January 1, 2011