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for consideration ( .... Name of programme )



In India, entrepreneurial world is mens world predominantly. But recently, there will be a change in the trend. The emphasis is on the idea that women also can contribute to the economy of the nation. Indian women have proved not only that they are second to none in proficiency of doing any work earlier meant for men, but also that they will be efficient in effective enterprise management under all circumstances. In the developing countries like India, the forces of commercialization, modernization and industrialization are actually operating and transforming the traditional modes of

production in to modern capitalistic enterprises. Women are the most preponderant segment of the society. For women an opportunity to productive work is not merely a means to higher income but it is a means to selfrespect, to the development of her personality and to a sense of participation in the common purpose of the society. Till recently women will be considered unfit for roles other than those of housewife, nurse, primary school teacher, sales girl, telephone operator, stenographer and receptionist. The image of women in society is fast changing. Need for Women Entrepreneurship Women suffer the most in India. Her involvement in economic activities is marked by low work participation rate, excessive concentration in the unorganized sector of the economy and in low skill jobs. However, in rural areas, agriculture has provided more employment for women. Their literacy rate, which itself is the cause for low economic conditions, creates a vicious circle of low social and economic status. The status of

women in India is an illustration of paradox. At the micro level she has equal position in the family. The scriptures and mythologies give her even the status of a Goddess. However, over the period the position of women at the macro level of the society will be downgraded, so much so that she is the most abused person of the Indian society. The liberalization policy of the government has thrown open a vast area of the economy for private entrepreneurship. Under such circumstances, special efforts to develop women entrepreneurship are more keenly felt. The SHG Programme Approach The operations of SHGs are based on the principle of circulating the members own

savings. Savings thus provide facility for borrowing by the member. The vast majority of MFIs in India has SHG based programme. Objective of the Formation of SHG The main objective of the formation of self help group is to strengthen cooperative movement by utilizing the resources available in the area. To achieve this objective, SHG selects its members from the same locality and the same income group who join together to live with dignity. As a holistic group, SHGs have many social and economic objectives like inculcating the habit of saving and banking among the rural women, building up trade and confidence between the rural women and the banker, developing group activity to implement various welfare and development programmes in a better way and to achieve women and child welfare goals by actually involving this women groups in universal immunization programmes, small family norms and universal elementary education etc.

Role of NGOs in Promoting SHGs There is no doubt about the fact that elimination of poverty to an appreciable extent seems to be not manageable only by Government sector. They need collaboration and cooperation from other nongovernmental institutions. Here arises the role of nongovernmental organizations in diverse fields to fight against poverty. There are vast areas concerning development and welfare that are left uncovered due to paucity of funds. It is in this scenario that NGOs step in and justify their existence in India. Generally NGOs follow four clearcut strategies. They are simple charity supplementing welfarism of the state, encouraging peoples participation and

implementing programmes launched by the government for large benefit of the community involving people in programme planning, raising resources, implementing activities and sharing fruits of development and conscience instilling and organizing people, enabling them to demand and undertake planning and implementation of development programmes beneficial to them. Today in India there are 15000 registered NGOs and many more nonregistered informal groups. These organisations have touched the lives of an estimated number of 15 million persons. LITERATURE REVIEW (TO BE PREPARED) STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Both men and women, who form the human resources, constitute the main strength of economic development of a nation. Women form an important segment of the labour force and economic role played by them cannot be isolated. The government is, therefore making planned efforts to inculcate the spirit of enterprising among women through many incentives and development programs. These efforts are expected to spin

good results with many more women taking up entrepreneurship. Several women are becoming entrepreneurs, especially the middle class women, due to the pull and push of traditional and changing values. Under the pull factors, the women entrepreneurs choose profession as a challenge or as an adventure with an urge to do something new and to have an independent occupation. Under the push factors women take up business enterprise to get over financial difficulties when responsibility is thrust on them due to family circumstances. Many research studies had been done on entrepreneurship, but very little had been

done on women entrepreneurs. A lot of data are available on entrepreneurial characteristics and motivators of men but very little data are available regarding women. How far the driving forces and the socioeconomic factors applicable to women are valid is to be explored. A selfhelp group (SHG) is a voluntary association of people with common goal. The concept of Self Help Group appears to be a good alternative strategy to involve people in the development process. In these circumstances, it is felt important and necessary to study the SHG concept, its pattern of functioning, its present status in India, the socio economic changes effected and empowerment acquired by women. Hence, the present study is undertaken to analyse the entrepreneurship of women through SHG scheme for JODHPUR and BIKANER districts of Rajasthan . OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The specific objectives of the present study are1 To present the socio-economic and personality profile of the women entrepreneurs. 2 To identify the factors influencing the women to start enterprise.

3 To analyze the enterprise management ability among women entrepreneurs. 4 To examine the factors that help to identify good and poor performers among women entrepreneurs. 5 To analyze the major strengths and weaknesses of women entrepreneurs. 6 To study the environmental opportunities which promote entrepreneurship and 7 To offer suggestions for promoting women entrepreneurship. HYPOTHESES The study aims at testing the following hypotheses in line with objectives mentioned above:

1 Entrepreneurship is independent of the socio- economic background of women respondents such as Age, Education, Caste, Type of Family and the like. 2 There is no relationship between entrepreneurship ability and personality traits of women. 3 There is no significant difference in the degree of involvement among women entrepreneurs of different Age groups, Educational status, Caste, Marital status, Family size, and Occupational background. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study suffers from certain limitations. One of the important limitations is that though there are large numbers of selfemployment programmes functioning in Rajasthan, the present study is confined only to the women entrepreneurs working under SHGs in BIKANER and Jodhpur districts. Thus the findings can be generalized only to certain extent.


SAMPLE DESIGN The respondents will be selected on stratified random sampling basis. They will be chosen proportionately from Agricultural Sector, Manufacturing Sector Service Sector, Trading Sector, and Artisans. Two districts namely JODHPUR and BIKANER will be selected for the present study. The main reason for selecting these two districts is that the former is a backward district and the latter is a developed one. For the purpose of collecting primary data, blockwise list of SHG members will be obtained from the Project Officer, District Rural Development Agency, Programme Officer, and NonGovernmental

Organisations (NGOs) functioning in JODHPUR and BIKANER districts. Total of 300 women entrepreneurs, out of which 150 respondents from JODHPUR district will be randomly selected from SHGs functioning under 23 approved NGOs and one BLF; they are distributed over 12 town panchayats, The remaining 150 respondents from BIKANER district will be randomly selected from SHGs functioning in 10 blocks under 30 NGOs and Mahalir Thittam scheme. PERIOD OF STUDY The field survey will be conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 for the collection of primary data. . COLLECTION OF DATA Both primary and secondary data will be used for the present study. A reconnaissance survey will be made of the selected respondents to get acquainted with the factors behind to start enterprises, problems and the like. On the basis of the information gathered, a well designed pretested interview schedule will be drafted and used in the field survey to collect primary data. Before undertaking the main survey a tentative

interview schedule will be prepared and administered to 25 women entrepreneurs in order to test the validity of the interview schedule. It facilitated the removal of the noresponse and unwarranted questions and then the modified final schedule will be prepared on this basis. The selected women entrepreneurs will be contacted in person and the objectives of the study will be clearly explained to them and their cooperation will be ensured. The details regarding the general characteristics of the sample members, their families, income, savings and the like relating to the overall objectives of the study will be

collected from the sample respondents through the direct personal interview method. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK For analyzing the data collected during the investigation the following statistical tools will be used based of the nature of data and relevance of information required. 1 ChiSquare Test ChiSquare test is an important nonparametric test and as such no rigid assumptions are necessary in respect of the type of population. The ChiSquare test in the present study is used as a test of independence. In order to examine the relationship between socioeconomic profile and entrepreneurship, the ChiSquare test will be applied = Where = ChiSquare value O= Observed frequency E= Expected frequency

The ChiSquare value is compared with the Table value to find out the association between the normal variables in the present study. 1 OneWay ANOVA The oneway ANOVA is applied in the present study when the variables are in intervals and the number of samples is in more than two groups. In order to find out the significant difference among the women entrepreneurs involvement and socioeconomic profile the F statistics is calculated F = s1 / s2 s1variance between the groups s2variance

within the groups F ratio is calculated and compared with the respective table value of F to analyse the significant difference among the groups regarding each variable. 1 Factor Analysis In order to identify the factors with influence the starting of the enterprises Factor Analytical Method will be adopted. 1 CorrelationCoefficient Pearsons product movement correlation coefficient will be calculated to find the relationship between profile of the entrepreneurs and their enterprise involvement Where x=

y= = mean of x variable = mean of y variable The significance of calculated r values will be tested for 5 percent level of significance. The correlation coefficients between the variables will be calculated according to the need of study. 5. Multiple Regressions When a factor is dependent on more than one, analysis will not reveal the relationship. For this purpose, multiple regressions technique will be used to reveal the existence of nonlinear relationship between the dependent and independent variables which are in internal scales. Hence, the Log linear multiple regressions will be applied to identify the variables (profile) which influence the entrepreneurs involvement index of the following form. Log Y = b0+ b1log x1+.. b12log x12+u Where,
Y= Enterprise Involvement Index x1.. x12 = Independent variables b0 b12 = Regression Coefficient

b0 = Intercept or constant term u = Error term

which are converted into log linear form


log y = loga(b1log x1) +bnlog xn +c..( ) 6 Discriminant Function Analysis The Fishers Discriminant Functions Analysis test will be applied to analyse the interest of the independent variables which discriminate the two groups namely entrepreneurs Vs. nonentrepreneurs, good performers Vs. poor performers and satisfiers Vs. dissatisfiers in the present study Z= Where, Z = Total Discriminant score x1 xn = Discriminant variables L1 Ln= Linear Discriminant coefficient N = Number of variables The critical z value= Where, z1 = Total Discriminant score for group I z 2 = Total Discriminant score for group II 6 Mahalenobis measures of distance Mahalenobis measures of distance between two groups is F F=

Where, D2 = IiDi P = Number of Discriminant variables N1 = Number in group I N2 = Number in group II The values of F to be tested at P and (N1+N21) degrees of freedom. 6 Index Preparation The index regarding personality, entrepreneurship, enterprise involvement are prepared on the basis of I= i = 1 to n where,

I = Index S = Score obtained Ms = Maximum score in = number of variable included in the analysis The technique adopted to identify and analyse the factor influence the entrepreneurs to manage the enterprise will be Orthogonal Vaimax Rotations.

CHAPTERIZATION The present study Entrepreneurship development through self help groups in Bikaner and Jodhpur districts will be divided into seven chapters. The introductory chapter discusses the need for women entrepreneurship, Concept of women entrepreneurs, Functions, Factors influencing women entrepreneurship, Women in development process, Women and Credit, SHG programme approach, Objectives of the formation of SHG, Benefits of linkage to the banks, Growth of SHG in India, Role of NGOs, Statement of the problem, Objectives of the study, Hypotheses, Limitations and Chapterization. Chapter I : introduction giving basic concepts Chapter II will reviews the literature of the past studies and describes the methodology adopted for the present study. Chapter III will discusse research methodology, hypothesis, sampling, sample frame, and the profile of the study area. Chapter IV will investigate the factors influencing the entrepreneurial development of women entrepreneurs. It will analyse the personality traits and the quality of entrepreneurship among the women respondents. Chapter V will analyse the nature of enterprises, enterprise involvement and performance of women entrepreneurs. Chapter VI will evaluate the attitude of entrepreneurs towards their enterprises.

Chapter VII will present the Summary of Findings, Conclusion and offers suggestions based on the findings of the study.

References (to be added) Bibliography (to be added )