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Research Guide: General Assembly

Provided by: President: Changhyun Bahn Deputy President: Sora Lee, Hyungwoo Ryu

Agenda:
1. Relieving Damage Caused by Recent Natural Disasters and Preparing for Future Natural Disasters 2. Renewal of the Kyoto Protocol 3. Recognizing equal human rights of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) population by discouraging social, economic, cultural, and legal discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity

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Committee: Agenda:

General Assembly Relieving Damage Caused by Recent Natural Disasters and Preparing for Future Natural Disasters

Provided by:

Changhyun Bahn, PGA

I. Overview
This is an unprecedented global catastrophe and it requires an unprecedented global response remarked the former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan in response to the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004.1 After facing the worst tsunami in its history, the global community has strived to establish a better defense system against natural disasters with higher awareness of their danger. Yet a series of disastrous earthquakes in Haiti, Chile, and Taiwan this year has revealed the reality that we are still far from ready to withstand natural hazards. Although it is unlikely that the recent earthquake activities in Chile, Haiti, and the Indian Ocean have triggered one another 2, successive disasters in different parts of the world have shown that any country can be the next victim. Close cooperation among UN member states in the area of natural disasters is critically important, because virtually every member state is exposed to the risk of natural disasters, and a single country by itself can hardly recover from the devastation and aftershock caused by one without neighbors. Victim countries are still suffering from both immediate and lasting damage caused by recent natural disasters. Poverty, political instability, and increased crimes are all direct results of natural disasters. To minimize further damage and casualties, the global community as a whole should seek ways to relieve the pain of victim countries. The member states of the General Assembly should also prepare for future natural hazards, as history will surely repeat itself and natural disasters are bound to happen again.

II. Historical Background


A. 2010 Haiti Earthquake 1) Overview At the dawn of 2010, the world witnessed one of the worst earthquakes in modern history, the Haiti Earthquake. The earthquake had many significant implications for the study of natural disasters and their impact due to its unique circumstance compared to other earthquakes. First, Haiti is claimed to be the poorest country in the western hemisphere3, which means that Haiti did not possess the economic capability or infrastructure to cope with the disaster effectively. Second, the earthquake occurred right
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Kofi Annan. 2004 http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=12940&Cr=tsunami&Cr1=&Kw1=kofi+annan&Kw2=unprecedented&Kw3=tsuna mi 2 Tectonic Summary. USGS. 2010. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010tfan/#summary


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2010. UNICEF urgently appeals for aid for Haiti following devastating earthquake. UNICEF

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next to Port-au-Prince, the capital city of Haiti. Essential government buildings concentrated in the City including the National Palace and the National Assembly collapsed destroying Haitis administrative capability to respond to the emergency on a national scale. Third, Haiti is located near the United States. Thus it comes as no surprise that the U.S, the richest country with the strongest military and rescue force, has taken initiative of and had a vast influence on most of rescue projects and plans to aid Haiti. Yet the fact that Haiti is still suffering immensely from the catastrophe gave rise to the controversy whether it is beneficial and effective for a certain country such as the U.S to take leadership rather than local authorities within Haiti or international NGOs to do so. These three factors have contributed to a controversy that had been carried by the headlines of major newspapers for several weeks. As of April 2010, Haiti is still desperately in need of continued and additional support from the international community.

2) Country Profile: Republic of Haiti Republic of Haiti is an island country in the Caribbean Sea. Its population is comprised mostly of black and it was the first black-led republic in the world when it gained independence from France in 1804.4 Haitis HDI index, a statistic used by United Nations Development Program that factor in life expectancy, education, and GDP, is 149th in the world5, implying that Haiti had been in poor condition even before the 2010 earthquake in a wide range of aspects. With the help of the United Nations, the Haitian government overcame an armed rebellion in 2004, inaugurated a democratically elected president, and established parliament in May of 2006. Since 2004 about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order in Haiti. 6

3) Facts and Observations 2010 Haiti Earthquake is a magnitude 7.0 earthquake that occurred 25km southwest of the capital city of Haiti, Port-Au-Prince, on Tuesday, January 12.7 It lasted around 35 seconds, a span long enough to devastate the entire capital city. The USGS NEIC has located 59 aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 or greater. Tsunami waves were also reported as a part of aftershocks of the earthquake in Haiti region. Many scientists attribute the cause of the earthquake to Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system, which has not produced a major earthquake in recent decades. Yet it is the likely source of historical large earthquakes in 1860, 1770, and 17518, implying that Haiti has been consistently exposed to the threat of severe earthquakes. Haiti has also suffered a number of other disasters, including four hurricanes and

Haiti country profile. BBC News. 2010 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1202772.stm HDI Ranking. Human Development Report 2009. UNDP. 2009 http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/ 6 Haiti. The CIA World Factbook. 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html 7 Earthquake details. USGS. 2010. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/ 8 Earthquake summary. USGS. 2010 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/#summary
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storms in 2008 that killed hundreds.9 All of these data show that Haiti is likely to experience another natural disaster sometime in the future, if not soon.

4) Damages According to official estimates by the governments of Haiti and U.S, around 230,000 people were killed10, 300,000 injured, 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses destroyed and 188,383 damaged in the Port-au-Prince area and in much of southern Haiti11. Some journalists claim that the total number of casualties will not exceed 100,00012. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies estimated that up to 3 million people, one third of the entire population, had been affected by the quake.13 Casualties include not only Haitian victims, including the opposition leader of Haiti, but also U.N officials and aid workers. 101 U.N personnel lost their lives in the earthquake, the single greatest loss for the world body in its 64-year history.14 The Haitian police force, which the UN has been training, lost around half its strength in Port-au-Prince, according to Ms Byrs, the UN spokeswoman. Despite different numbers of casualties being released from different sources in different times, it is clear that the earthquake will be recorded as one of the worst natural disasters in the modern history in terms of the size of damage to the population of a single country. Moreover, it was not just people that were destroyed. The quake also devastated the three Doctors Without Borders medical facilities around Port-au-Prince, with one collapsed completely. Only one hospital remained intact the day after the quake in Port-au-Prince, and was running out of its capacity to handle patients.15 Most of the crucial government buildings collapsed as well, including the National Palace, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Court, and the main jail. Haitian government subsequently lost its administrative capacity for giving systematic and effective command in response to the sudden disaster. Airports, roads, and seaports were seriously damaged, which made immediate provision of water and medicine from neighbor countries harder than ever, as aid agencies normally rely on those knocked-out institutions and the sinews of transport and communication. In total, the Inter-American Development Bank estimated that the cost of the earthquake could be between $7.2 billion to $13.2 billion.16

5) Relief Provision by the UN and the International Community


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Haiti Devastated by Massive Earthquake. BBC News. 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8455629.stm Haiti Raises Earthquake Death Toll to 230,000. MSNBC. 2010 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35319454/ns/world_newshaiti_earthquake/ 11 Earthquake summary. USGS. 2010 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/#summary 12 Haiti Quake Death Toll Well Under 100,000. Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 2010 http://www.rnw.nl/english/article/haiti-quakedeath-toll-well-under-100000 13 Red Cross: 3M Haitians Affected by Quake. CBSNews. 2010. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/01/13/world/main6090601.shtml?tag=cbsnewsSectionContent.4 14 UN Pays Tribute to 101 Staff Killed in Haiti. LA Times. 2010 http://www.latimes.com/news/nation-and-world/la-fg-0310-un-haiti-20100310,0,1165717.story 15 Only One Hospital Open in Haiti's Quake-hit Capital. News.com.au. 2010 http://www.news.com.au/breaking-news/only-one-hospital-open-in-haitis-quake-hit-capital/story-e6frfku0-1225819044634 16 Haiti. New York Times. 2010 http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/haiti/index.html?scp=1spot&sq=haiti&st=cse
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The United Nations, many non-governmental organizations, and international institutions have provided immediate aid to Haiti following the sudden catastrophe. Within one day the Red Cross dispatched a relief team, UN World Food Programme sent emergency food by its two planes, and the Inter-American Development Bank approved $200,000 grant for emergency aid.17 A number of nations provided their assistance quickly, including the US, UK, Canada, China, Australia, France, Iceland, Israel, and several Latin American nations, not to mention The Dominican Republic who first stepped into its devastated neighbor and provided water, food and mobile clinics. 18 The importance of early action in responding to natural disasters is comparable to none among other ways, considering that a large number of the seriously injured can survive if a proper aid is provided in a quick manner within the first 48 hours. The UN has put continuous efforts into relieving the disaster in Haiti since it occurred. A few days after the quake, the UN launched largest-ever appeal to assist 3 million Haitians.19 The UN has determined not only to provide financial support but also to reinforce security in Haiti. The Security Council endorsed the Secretary-General's recommendation to increase the overall force levels of MINUSTAH(United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti) to support Haitis immediate recovery, reconstruction and stability efforts.20 Upon criticism that security force flights are blocking emergency aid, the UN and the US forces agreed to grant priority to humanitarian flights over security reinforcement, which resulted in reduced airport congestion. 21 Continuous relief efforts by the United Nations have culminated in the International Donors Conference towards a New Future for Haiti, a relief measure of the biggest scale as of April 1. At the conference held on March 31, hosted by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon along with the leading donators including the U.S, Canada, EU, and Brazil, 59 nations and dozens of organizations pledged around $10 billion in immediate and long-term aid to help Haiti.22 The United States was the largest single donor, committing $1.15 billion. Out of $10 billion to be used over the next ten years, more than $5 billion was pledged for the next 18 months for the immediate recovery and reconstruction efforts in Haiti. The money is to be spent through projects agreed to by an interim reconstruction commission consisting of Haitians and the largest donors, a process supervised by the World Bank. Yet some journals raised skepticism on the pledge about whether the commitments would be met and how much of the money constituted new money besides those allocated before.23 They also point out that more than $1.35 billion has been committed to Haiti in humanitarian assistance since the earthquake on Jan. 12, but less than $23
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Haiti Devastated by Massive Earthquake. BBC. 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8455629.stm 18 Dominican Republic Aid to Haiti Eases Historic Tensions. CNN. 2010. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/01/13/haiti.earthquake.dominican.republic/index.html 19 Haiti: UN Launches Largest-ever Appeal for Natural Disaster. UN News Centre. 2010. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=33815&Cr=haiti&Cr1 20 Restoring a Secure and Stable Environment. MINUSTAH. 2010. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minustah/ 21 U.S: Haiti Aid Bottleneck Is Easing up. MSNBC. 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34915151/ns/world_news-haiti_earthquake/ 22 Billions Pledged at Donors Conference as Ban Calls for Wholesale Rebuilding of Haiti. UN News Centre. 2010 http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=34260&Cr=haiti&Cr1= 23 Skepticism on Pledges for Haiti. NYT. 2010.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/01/world/americas/01haiti.html

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million in cash has been actually given to the Haitian government so far as of April 1. 24 The urgent task for the UN and international community seems to be connecting this supply of help with the demand of victims in a timely and appropriate manner.

B. 2010 Chile Earthquake 1) Overview On February 27, when the world was still in shock and fear aroused by the earthquake in Haiti, it witnessed another massive earthquake in Chile. The earthquake was reported to be at least 500 times stronger than the one in Haiti, a figure shocking enough to terrify the global community which has just seen the catastrophe of Haiti. Yet damage on Chile turned out to be smaller than expected, much smaller than that of Haiti. It is worthy noting why Chile could deal with earthquake more effectively than Haiti did. A number of factors explain the contrast between the two. First, Chile was better prepared. It has a long history of coping with earthquakes, with strict building codes and quick emergency response plans, while no living Haitian had experienced earthquake before a quake struck them in 2010. Haitians did not have a building code,25 and they were not trained in how to react. Second, Chile was wealthier. Chile possesses Latin Americas highest per capital GDP whereas Haiti is the western hemisphere's poorest country. Its wealth has allowed itself to not only defend but also recover from natural disasters far more effectively. Third, Chile was lucky to have had the earthquake distant from its populated areas, while Haitis earthquake struck right on the edge of its capital city. 26 Although Chile was more successful in handling earthquake than Haiti, it is also true that Chile suffered from damage considerably, if not as tremendously as Haiti did. Its economy, security, and political stability were all damaged, not to mention hundreds of casualties and thousands of the homeless.

2) Country Profile: Republic of Chile Republic of Chile is located in South America. It is widely known for its long and narrow land shape. Chile is one of South Americas most prosperous and stable countries 27, the first to be invited to OECD.28 On September 18, 2010, Chile will commemorate 200 years as a republic. Chile is the worlds largest copper producer and exports fishmeal, fruit, timber and wine. It is noteworthy that a strong quake could endanger the global supply of copper along with lithium, considering the fact that Chile is the

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Haiti Frets Over Aid and Control of Rebuilding. New York Times. 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/31/world/americas/31haiti.html?ref=worldnyt:%20http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/31/world/am ericas/31haiti.html?ref=world 25 Haiti Building Standards Development Project. Department of Sustainable Development, USA. 2010. http://www.oas.org/dsd/Nat-Dis-Proj/HBSD.htm 26 Chile Earthquake 2010: Why The Haiti Earthquake Wasnt As Strong, But Far More Devastating. The Huffington Post. 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/02/28/chile-haiti-earthquake-2010-comparison_n_480153.html 27 Chile Country Profile. BBC News. 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1222764.stm 28 Chile Invited to Become a Member of the OECD. OECD. 2010. http://www.oecd.org/document/28/0,3343,en_2649_201185_44267356_1_1_1_1,00.html

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largest copper producer. Chile has a history of continuous big earthquakes, with 13 quakes of magnitude 7.0 or higher since 1973, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. Chileans are, therefore, highly aware of the dangers of earthquakes. They have homes and offices built to ride out quakes, and their steel skeletons are designed to sway with quakes and waves rather than resist them.29 Calais, a geologist, said it is quite likely that every person in Chile has felt a major earthquake in their lifetime. In other words, Chileans are well schooled to react to a sudden earthquake and minimize its damage. On a per-capita basis, Chile is claimed to have more world-renowned seismologists and earthquake engineers than anywhere else. 30

3) Observations The 2010 Chile Earthquake is a magnitude 8.8 earthquake that occurred on Saturday, February 27, 106km northeast of Concepcion, Chile second largest city.31 In terms of energy released, some reports wrote the quake was 501 times stronger than Haitis32, while others reported that it was 700 to 800 times stronger.33 The most powerful earthquake ever recorded was also in Chile, a 9.5-magnitude quake struck near Concepcin in 1960, and triggered a series of massive tsunamis that killed not only 5,700 Chileans but also 140 people in Japan, 61 in Hawaii, and 32 in the Philippines.34 The necessity of global cooperation was strongly stressed, as it clearly demonstrated that a powerful earthquake devastates not only the origin country but also even those in different continents. After facing the quake in 2010, the Chilean Navy immediately issued a tsunami alert among the coast,35 and the U.S announced the first tsunami evacuation in Hawaii since 1994. Following Japan and the Philippines issuing a major tsunami warning, total 53 countries issued tsunami warnings. 36 Roughly 30 aftershocks followed, some measuring greater than 6.0.37 The quake also moved the entire city of Concepcion 3.04 meters to the west. The capital Santiago, moved almost 24 centimeters west, and even Buenos Aires, nearly 800 miles from the epicenter, shifted 3.9 centimeters, seismologists reported.

Chile Earthquake 2010: Why The Haiti Earthquake Wasnt As Strong, But Far More Devastating. The Huffington Post. 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/02/28/chile-haiti-earthquake-2010-comparison_n_480153.html 30 Two major earthquakes, two different outcomes: Haiti and Chile disasters differ in preparation and casualties. News-Leader.com. 2010. http://www.news-leader.com/article/20100228/NEWS07/2280375/Two-major-earthquakes-two-different-outcomes-Haiti-andChile-disasters-differ-in-preparation-and-casualties 31 Magnitude 8.8 - OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE. USGS. 2010. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010tfan/ 32 Terror in Chile. Peoria Times-Observer. 2010. http://www.peoriatimesobserver.com/homepage/x673425478/Terror-in-Chile 33 More than 2 Million Affected by Earthquake, Chile's President Says. CNN News. 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/02/27/chile.quake/index.html 34 Tsunami Warnings After Deadly Chile Quake. SKY News. 2010. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/ChileEarthquake-Measuring-83-On-The-Richter-Scale-Hits-Concepcion-And-CapitalSantiago/Article/201002415561008?lpos=World_News_Carousel_Region_0&lid=ARTICLE_15561008_Chile%3A_Earthquake_M easuring_8.3_On_The_Richter_Scale%2C_Hits_Concepcion_And_Capital_Santiago 35 Chile's New President Greeted by Three Strong Earthquakes. Environment News Service. 2010. http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/mar2010/2010-03-11-01.html 36 More than 2 Million Affected by Earthquake, Chile's President Says. CNN News. 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/02/27/chile.quake/index.html 37 Comparison Between Chile And Haiti Earthquakes. PRinside. 2010. http://www.pr-inside.com/comparison-between-chile-andhaiti-earthquakes-r1774695.htm
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4) Damages Even as one of the most well prepared countries for natural disasters, Chile suffered an enormous amount of damage from the 8.8 magnitude earthquake. At least 507 people are reported to be killed, many injured and at least 200,000 houses damaged by the earthquake and tsunami according to USGS. Chilean officials have confirmed 432 people dead and 98 people still missing after the earthquake and tsunami, as of March 31.38 About 70,000 families in Chile lost their home and are waiting for the temporary housing provided.39 The nation's president estimated that 2 million people had been affected in some way.40 In Chilln, a city 69 miles from Concepcin, the quake allowed 300 prisoners to escape from their jail and incite a riot, according to La Tercera, the countrys largest newspaper. Cellphone and internet service was sporadic throughout the country, one of the most wired in Latin America, which complicated rescue efforts.41 The number of housing units destroyed or with major structural damage is at least 260,000.42 A 15-story high rise near Concepcion collapsed, and the country's major north-south highway was severed at multiple points. The capital city's airport was closed after its terminal sustained major damage.43 Chiles earthquake may shave as much as 1.5 percentage points off economic growth in 2010 according to the Deputy Finance Minister Rodrigo Alvarez. 44 The cost in total is estimated at about 30 billion dollars, as thousands of residents slowly try to repair their lives.45

5) Chiles Response and International Aid President Michelle Bachelet, speaking at a news conference on Saturday night after the quake, called the quake one of the worst tragedies in the last 50 years and declared a state of catastrophe. She also stated that Chile did not need international aid, and all international relief groups were on standby.46 Some journals praised how quick and prepared the Chilean government was in responding to the disaster by pointing out that she gave out minute-to-minute reports a few hours after the quake in the middle of night. 47 On February 28, President Bachelet stated that her government had reached an agreement with the major supermarkets that would allow them to provide basic foodstuffs to people

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Chile: 432 Dead and 98 Missing after Earthquake. Detroit News Online. 2010. http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/L/LT_CHILE_EARTHQUAKE?SITE=MIDTN&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT 39 A Month After Chile Quake Aftershocks Bring New Fear. AFP.com.2010. http://www.mysinchew.com/node/36920 40 More than 2 million Affected by Earthquake, Chile's president says. CNN News. 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/02/27/chile.quake/index.html 41 1.5 Million Displaced After Chile Quake. New York Times. 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/world/americas/28chile.html 42 CHILE: Quake a Chance for Sustainable Rebuilding. IPS News. 2010. http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=50863 43 More than 2 million Affected by Earthquake, Chile's president says. CNN News. 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/02/27/chile.quake/index.html 44 Chile Quake to Slow 2010 GDP Growth, Alvarez Says. BusinessWeek. 2010. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-0324/chile-quake-may-reduce-gdp-growth-by-1-5-points-alvarez-says.html 45 A Month After Chile Quake Aftershocks Bring New Fear. AFP.com.2010. http://www.mysinchew.com/node/36920 46 1.5 Million Displaced After Chile. New York Times. 2010. Quakehttp://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/world/americas/28chile.html?th&emc=th 47 Two major earthquakes, two different outcomes: Haiti and Chile disasters differ in preparation and casualties. NewsLeader.com. 2010. http://www.news-leader.com/article/20100228/NEWS07/2280375/Two-major-earthquakes-two-different-outcomes-Haiti-andChile-disasters-differ-in-preparation-and-casualties

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damaged by the earthquake. Relief measures were brought up voluntarily from Chilean people, including a Chilean television host Don Francisco, which held a charity event with the goal of collecting about $60 million. Army troops were sent to the area where looters overran supermarkets.48 Chilean officials have also assured the public that drugs and medicines will be available free of charge. 49 On Monday, March 1st, Chile has started requesting specific help. It made an emergency request for mobile bridges, generators, water filtration equipment, field hospitals and surgical centers to cope with the disaster.50 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited the affected area of Chile, and announced a $10 million grant for Chilean recovery from the UN's Central Emergency Response Fund.51 AmeriCares, a humanitarian aid organization, announced it sent medical aid and an emergency response team to Chile. Oxfam sent a team of water engineers and logisticians and senior humanitarian staff to help in relief efforts.52 U.S Airforce provided satellite support for Chile earthquake relief efforts, providing the Chilean government with more than 30 data collects to better recover from the quake. 53 An Israeli company has loaned the Chilean Air Force two unmanned aerial vehicles.54

III.Bloc Positions
The most obvious dichotomy in terms of bloc positions on the issue of relief measures for natural disasters can be found between countries affected by natural disasters and those unaffected. In the case of a natural disaster, many of those unaffected may turn to donor countries providing humanitarian aids, while countries affected may become recipient countries.

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Comparison Between Chile And Haiti Earthquakes. PR-inside. 2010. http://www.pr-inside.com/comparison-between-chile-andhaiti-earthquakes-r1774695.htm 49 Chile's New President Greeted by Three Strong Earthquakes. Environment News Service. 2010. http://www.ensnewswire.com/ens/mar2010/2010-03-11-01.html 50 Chile Officials Call for Aid as Devastation Sinks In. New York Times. 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/02/world/americas/02chile.html?hp 51 Chile's New President Greeted by Three Strong Earthquakes. Environment News Service. 2010. http://www.ensnewswire.com/ens/mar2010/2010-03-11-01.html 52 More than 2 million Affected by Earthquake. CNN News. 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/02/27/chile.quake/index.html 53 Airmen provide satellite support for Haiti, Chile earthquake relief efforts. U.S Air Force. 2010. http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123197623 54 FIDAE 2010: Israel Loans Chile UAVs to Assess Post-earthquake Damage. HIS.Janes. 2010. http://www.janes.com/news/defence/jdw/jdw100329_2_n.shtml

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(1) Magnitude 9.5 Southern Chile, 1960 (2) Magnitude 9.2 Alaska, 1964 (3) Magnitude 9.1 Indonesia, December 24, 2004 (4) Magnitude 9.0 Russia, 1952 (5) Magnitude 8.8 Chile, 2010 (6) Magnitude 8.8 Ecuador, 1906 (7) Magnitude 8.7 Alaska, 1965 (8) Magnitude 8.6 Indonesia, March 28, 2005 (9) Magnitude 8.6 Tibet, 1950 (10) Magnitude 8.6 Alaska, 1957

The map above55 illustrates that the biggest earthquakes have occurred in certain regions: the west coast of South America, Alaska, and Indonesia. Those are where major tectonic plates approach and hit each other, generating massive earthquakes. In other words, a certain group of countries have been struck by severe earthquakes while the rest of the world has experienced minor quakes or even not at all. The countries more affected are thereby direct stakeholders of the issues and measures regarding natural disasters, while those less affected are not, or less so. The group of countries at the risk of earthquakes can also be divided into two blocs, taking into account the difference in definition between natural disaster and natural hazard. Natural hazards, by definition, are geographical events which occur naturally under, on, or above the surface of the earth. They include earthquakes, volcanoes, droughts, floods, and cyclones. When one of these natural hazards leads to a significant loss of human life or damage to property, it is called a natural disaster.56 The difference can be easily recognized through the formulation "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability."57 Earthquakes in unpopulated area of Alaska, for example, will be considered as natural hazards rather than natural disasters, if the human population and property were not damaged. Thus countries which are exposed to continuous earthquakes but are well prepared for and thus less vulnerable to them are considered to be secure against natural disasters. Japan, a country with strict building codes and education against natural disaster, is less vulnerable to earthquakes than Haiti and some unprepared
Worlds Biggest Earthquake Since 1990. CNN News. 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/02/27/top10.earthquakes.chile/index.html 56 Siyavula Uploader, "The difference between natural disasters and natural hazards," Connexions, May 11, 2009, http://cnx.org/content/m23166/1.1/ 57 B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis, At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. 2004
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islands countries are, despite the fact that it experiences earthquakes far more often than most other countries. Thus, countries more vulnerable to natural disasters need more aid than those more prepared. Although the danger of earthquake has been limited to certain regions, the risk of other natural hazards is not. Many African countries and those near the equator, for example, are highly exposed to droughts, and those near rivers are likely to experience floods. As the charts below show58, countries that rarely experience earthquakes are exposed to other types of hazards. It implies a) the chance of experiencing natural disasters is fairly distributed among countries when all of its kinds are taken into account, and b) different blocs can be formed on each type of natural hazards.

Another bloc can be simply found between developed and developing countries. According to a study, developing countries absorb $35 billion a year in damages from natural disasters, which is 20 times the cost in the developed world. Less than 2% of the costs of catastrophes are absorbed by insurance in

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Paul K. Freeman, Kathryn Scott, Lotta Westerberg, Jack Dais. Disaster Financing in OECD and Emerging Countries. OECD. 2004. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/5/12/31931972.pdf

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developing countries, compared to 50% covered by insurance in the United States.59 Since developing countries currently lack solid infrastructure and effective programs to withstand and prepare for natural disasters, the only viable solution seems to be assistance from developed countries. Whether developed countries are willing to provide help as much as expected by victims or not could cause potential clashes among countries.

IV. Prospective Directions for a Resolution


In writing a resolution, delegates should first identify if their respective country has been, or is vulnerable to natural disasters. Countries which recently suffered from natural disasters include Haiti, Chile, and China. Nevertheless victim countries are not limited to these countries. Indonesia, for example, has experienced the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 along with India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, which will be recorded as the worst tsunami in modern history, and the U.S has suffered from the Hurricane Katrina in 2005. A volcanic eruption in Iceland in 2010 has brought major disruption to air travel across Europe. Delegates of victim countries should clearly express what they need in detail when asking for foreign aid. Countries who have been, or will hardly be unaffected by severe natural disasters shall propose ways to relieve damage of victim countries. They can take natural disasters occurred to neighbors as an opportunity to promote better future relationship. For example, Dominican Republic eased its tension with Haiti and built a better neighborhood tie by helping Haitians.60 Although the occurrence or threat of natural disasters tends to create cooperative spirit among states in their common efforts to deal with disasters,61 delegates should always remind themselves of their duty of representing and maximizing their countries interests. It will be unwise to compromise ones national interest by, for example, promising limitless amount of aid. Delegates shall also distinguish immediate, short-term aid from longterm, reconstruction assistance, and consider if they want to attach conditions upon their aid. They can also provide a collective relief measure, such as the recent plan of European nation to support Haiti through EU.62 Finally, donor countries and recipient countries altogether may come up with plans to prepare for future natural hazards. Even one resolution with concrete plans can save countless number of people in the future.

V. Related Associations, UN Documents


Related Associations and Programs
59 60

Natural Catastrophes and Developing Countries. IIASA. 2010. http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/CAT/research.html Disaster Diplomacy Helps Resurrect Ties Between Conflicting Countries. UMass Media. 2010. http://www.umassmedia.com/sections/opinion/disaster-diplomacy-helps-resurrect-ties-between-conflicting-countries-1.1085759 61 Kelman, I. and T. Koukis. Disaster Diplomacy. pp. 214-294. 2000 http://www.disasterdiplomacy.org/publications.html#kelmankoukis2000 62 Plan for EU House in Haiti to co-ordinate blocs assistance. Sofia Echo. 2010. http://sofiaecho.com/2010/03/24/878014_planfor-eu-house-in-haiti-to-co-ordinate-blocs-assistance

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United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO) UNDRO is a specialized office of the Secretary-General, formed in 1971 chiefly to respond to sudden natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions and typhoons. Its role has been expanded to cover emergency "man-made" disasters as well. United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) MINUSTAH is a stabilization force created in 2004 by Security Council for the purpose of keeping security in Haiti. It is currently comprised of around 7,000 troops, 2,000 police, and 200 UN volunteers. Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) IPOC is a European-South American network of institutions and scientists, which operates projects studying earthquakes and deformation at Chile. International Charter on Space and Major Disasters The International Charter on Space and Major Disasters is a charter that allows satellite imagery of affected regions to be shared with rescue and aid organizations. It was initiated by French and Canadian space agencies in 2000 and activated in 2010 with more countries involved after the Haiti Earthquake.

Related UN organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations


World Health Organization (WHO), World Food Programme, The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Mdecins Sans Frontires (Doctors Without Borders; MSF), Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT), Oxfam, Americares, Partners In Health (PIH)

UN Documents
Security Council resolution 1542 of 30 April 2004, resolution 1908 of 19 January 2010 Creation of United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), and reinforcement of MINUSTAH. Economic and Social Council resolution 2008/36 Coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations General Assembly resolution A/RES/58/215 (2004), resolution A/RES/45/100 (1990) Humanitarian assistance to victims of natural disasters

VI. References
U.S Geological Service http://www.usgs.gov/

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CIA The World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ UN News Centre: Haiti Earthquake http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusRel.asp?infocusID=91&Body=Haiti&Body1= CNN Special Coverage: Haiti Earthquake http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2010/haiti.quake/ CNN Special Coverage: Chile Earthquake http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2010/chile.quake/ BBC News: Country Profile http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country_profiles/default.stm Economist: Haiti Earthquake http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15287363 Associated Press: Haiti Earthquake http://hosted.ap.org/specials/interactives/_international/haiti_earthquake/index.html

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Committee: Agenda: Provided by:

General Assembly Renewal of the Kyoto Protocol Hyungwoo Ryu, DPGA

I. Overview
Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface caused by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, which results in what we refer to as climate change. The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the UNFCCC which was signed and ratified by 187 nations in total, aiming to decrease the amount of CO2 emissions mainly by offering economical incentives to all signing nations via the cap and trade(emissions trading) system63. In December 2009, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark with the objective of successfully organizing a new protocol that would effectively replace the Kyoto Protocol, fulfill its shortcomings and finally slow down global warming. However, mainly due to conflicts between developed and developing nations the conference failed to establish any concrete agreements.

II. Historical Background


A. Greenhouse Gas, Global Warming and Climate Change 64 Greenhouse gases such as CO2 are causing Global Warming. Glaciers are melting, polar caps are thinning, and one study found that climate change is costing the world $125 billion and 300,000 deaths per year. Average annual atmospheric CO2 increases rose from 1.5ppm(parts per million_ 1970 2000 to 2.1ppm since 2000. Today the CO2 concentration of the world is at 390ppm. Each day, the oceans absorb 30 million tons of CO2, increasing their acidity. The number of dead zonesareas with too little oxygen to support lifehas doubled every decade since the 1960s. Over 36 million hectares of primary forest are lost every year. Arctic summer ice and major Himalayan and Andean glaciers could be gone by 2030, leading some to warn that climate change has reached the point of no return, yet 8001,000 coal plants without carbon capture are planned. Human consumption is 30% larger than natures capacity to regenerate. Global ecosystem services are valued at $1664 trillion, which far exceeds the cost of protecting them. Without a global strategy to address climate change, the environmental movement may turn on the fossil fuel industries. The legal foundations are being laid to sue for damages caused by greenhouse gases. Large reinsurance companies estimate the annual economic loss due to climate change could reach $300 billion per year within a decade. Coastal urbanization is increasing the numbers of people vulnerable to coastal flooding. Environmental damage to developing nations caused by richer countries is more than the entire Third World debt of $1.8 trillion. To help developing countries leapfrog

63 64

United States Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/captrade/ Jerome Glenn, State of the Future, The Millennium Project, 2009, p.56-57.

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unsustainable practices to more sustainable ones, the Global Environment Facility provided $7.4 billion in grants and $28 billion in co-financing since 1991 and an additional $3 billion to 2010; more funds are being established by the World Bank ($5.5 billion), Japan ($10 billion for five years), and the Asian Development Bank ($1.2 billion). The UN estimates that developing countries will need $100 billion annually to finance climate change mitigation and $2867 billion for adaptation by 2030. Other suggestions include retrofitting coal plants to burn leaner and to capture and reuse carbon emissions, raising fuel efficiency standards 5% a year relative to GDP, an environmental footprint tax for using more than 1.8 global hectares per person, a 1% tax on the $2 trillion of international financial transactions per day, and mandating improved car mileage one mile per year. Taxes on international travel, carbon, and urban congestion should be considered to support international public/private funding mechanism for high-impact technologies. Massive public educational efforts via film, television, music, games, and contests should stress what we can do. Even if each of these strategies were initiated today, the current and ongoing impacts of climate change and global warming would continue to affect human populations and the environment for decades to come. Hence, adaptation programs are needed too. Although developing countries have contributed the least to global warming, they are the most vulnerable to climate change because of their dependence on agriculture and fisheries. The synergy between economic growth and technological innovation has been the most significant engine of change for the last 200 years, but unless we improve our economic, environmental, and social behaviors, the next 200 years will be difficult. Yet without sustainable growth, billions of people will be condemned to poverty and much of civilization will collapse.

B. The Kyoto Protocol Adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on December 11 th 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, the Kyoto Protocol was opened for signature on March 16 th 1998 to parties to UNFCCC65.
66

Countries which are parties to UNFCCC


Afghanistan (non-party to Kyoto) Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina

Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia

Lithuania Luxembourg Republic of Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives

Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia

65 66

UNFCCC, The Kyoto Protocol, http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php Wikipedia, The Kyoto Protocol, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol

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Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Myanmar Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros

Ethiopia European Union Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati

Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Federated States of Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania

Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tom Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States (non-party to Kyoto) Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia

Democratic Republic of the North Korea Congo Republic of the Congo Cook Islands South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan

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Costa Rica Cte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica

Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein

Russia Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino (non-party to Kyoto) So Tom and Pr ncipe

Zimbabwe

Observers:

Andorra (non-party to Kyoto) Holy See (non-party to Kyoto) Iraq Somalia (non-party to Kyoto)

The Protocol could be signed and ratified only by these parties to UNFCCC. As of November 2009, 187 countries and one regional economic organization (the EC) have ratified the agreement. The Protocol assigned different roles and responsibilities to member countries classified by groups called Annex I, Annex II and Developing Countries. The extent of given responsibilities and requirements in behalf of this grouping system became a critical factor of bloc positions and clashes. See specific information about the roles given to each group at III. Bloc Positions. i) 1. Mechanisms of the Protocol Emissions Trading

When a nation succeeds to reach the GHG level that it was assigned to aim for, its government is free to sell the remaining carbon credits (standard unit of the extent of rights to emit a certain amount of GHG) to other nations who expect their emission levels to last above their goals of reduction. 2. Joint Implementation

Nations with a duty to reduce emission levels under the Protocol are allowed and encouraged to run co-policies and businesses with an intention of realizing such objective. For example, when country A and country B cooperates a trans-governmental organization to reduce emission levels in a certain region, the reduced levels are counted as achievements of the investing countries A and B. 3. Clean Development Mechanism

Developed countries are allowed and encouraged to invest their technology and capital on the GHG reducing businesses of developing countries, as they are given credits for the work done. This mechanism is similar to number two (Joint Implementation), with an additional effect of raising a sustainable development spirit in both developed and developing nations.

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ii) 1.

Shortcomings of the Protocol Lack of Binding Power

The Kyoto Protocol under the binding power of international law, as UN is the director of its operation. However, the problem is that there exists no concrete measure of punishment or disadvantage that could possibly be given to contravening members. Furthermore, whether there were a critical punishment or not, there is always a doubtful view about the authority of UN governance when it comes to powerful countries violating global norms. 2. Insufficient Reduction Goals

Even if the Protocol were to have been perfectly applied and carried out, the reduced amount of emission would have accounted for only 10% of the amount of GHG emissions increased from 1990 to 2010. Scientists say that at least a 50~80% reduction should be set as the goal in order to avoid a future climate change disasters67. Thus the Protocol itself was in some ways a point of compromise between ecologic and political concerns. 3. Problems of Participation and Sanction First of all, USA and Australia seceded68. Plus, some major carbon emitting countries such as China, Mexico and India, classified as developing countries, are not given any responsibility of reducing emission.

C. 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Conference The December 2009 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen focused analysis on the practical details of how to manage cap and trade, pay for adaptation, stimulate technology transfer to reduce emissions, estimate when peak GHG emissions will be reached, and set goals to address climate change. For specific information about conflicts that occurred along the conference check IV. Clashes.

III. Bloc Positions


A. Classification by UNFCCC69 Member countries of the UNFCCC are classified into three categories, as shown below. Pay attention to the fact that that not all of the parties to the UNFCCC on the lists below agreed and signed the Kyoto Protocol. Also remember that countries can be included in more than one category. Annex I countries - industrialized countries and economies in transition Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia,
67 68 69

Jerome Glenn&Youngsook Park, State of the Future 2, Kyobo Books, 2009, p.79. Larry West, What is the Kyoto Protocol ?, http://environment.about.com/od/kyotoprotocol/i/kyotoprotocol.htm UNFCCC, Parties and Observers, http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/items/2704.php

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Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America The 37 Annex I countries were required by the Kyoto Protocol to devote themselves to the reduction of four main greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, methane, carbon dioxide) and also several groups of gases produced by the four main gases. These countries made consent to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level in the 2008-2012 period. International aviation and shipping are not included in the emission limits. These countries were also required to submit annual reports of inventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Professionals (designated national authority) were specially hired in these countries to manage their greenhouse gas inventories. In many of the Annex I countries, (e.g. Japan, Germany, France) a carbon fund is being actively raised to purchase carbon credits from non-Annex I countries. Annex II countries - developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America Developing countries - the rest (includes China, Mexico and India) Developing countries are completely free from reduction duties. This group of nations, even though it includes some major carbon emitters of the world, are just encouraged to make efforts to slow down climate change for that they are supposed to be treated with a guarantee of equal opportunities for industrial development. Fortunately, however, some countries like Argentina, Chile and Kazakhstan have autonomously volunteered to participate in the Protocols GHG reduction goals mechanisms. B. Regional Situations70

Africa: Africa will be hit hardest by climate change, though it contributes least to the problem; hence, the more industrialized world should contribute to the regions adaptation to climate change and help with mitigation efforts. Southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its maize crop by 2030 due to climate change. Forest loss accelerates desertification and soil erosion, making the continent even more vulnerable to climate change. Saltwater agriculture along the coasts of Africa and solar energy in the Sahara could be massive sources of sustainable growth. Asia and Oceania: China is the worlds largest CO2 emitter. Half of the recent rise in China's

70

Jerome Glenn, State of the Future, The Millennium Project, 2009, p.57.

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CO2 emissions is caused by the manufacturing of goods for other countries. Only 1% of China's 600 million city dwellers breathe air considered safe in Europe. Chinas newer and planned coal plants are reducing its pollution per kwh(kilowatt hour). At current rates, emissions of nitrogen oxide will increase 2.3 times in China and 1.4 times in East Asia by 2020. China and India lose 12% and 10% respectively of their GDP due to environmental damage. Some 40% of reefs in the Coral Triangle, which contain 75% of the worlds coral species and sustain the lives of more than 100 million people in the region, have already been lost. Australia may begin carbon trading in 2011. Europe: EU CO2 emissions from industry fell 3% in 2008, while emissions from all sources are now 5% below the 1990 level and are on track to meet the Kyoto targets of 8% reduction. But whether they can meet the 20% reduction target by 2020 agreed to in 2007 is still uncertain. Iceland plans to become carbon-neutral by 2025. Climate change may benefit Russian agriculture and increase its economy 1.1% if the world temperature increases by 2.5C. Over 50% of hazardous wastes from Europe could be illegal. The Dutch retailers association announced its members will buy only seafood certified by the Marine Seafood Council by 2011. Latin America: About 27,000 km2 of forest cover are lost each year in the region. South America has 40% of the planets biodiversity, 26% of drinking water, and 25% of the forests. Brazil plans zero deforestation by 2020, but current trends in agriculture and livestock expansion, fire, drought, and logging could eliminate or severely damage nearly 60% of the Amazon rainforest by 2030, with the release of 55.596.9 billion tons of CO2. Farming for biofuels versus food is debated in Brazil while new oil reserves are discovered. The EU will provide 100 million for Latin American projects in forest management, governance, and climate change adaptation. Attacks on land tenure and the breakup of farms into smaller parcels are generating irreversible ecological damage in most countries. North America: Canada will not meet its Kyoto treaty obligations mainly due to Albertas oil sands developments. Permafrost temperature in northern Alaska increased about 47C during the last century, almost half of it during the last 20 years. U.S. energy-related carbon emissions fell by 2.8% in 2008 due to high energy prices and the slumping economy. The Western Climate Initiative of local Canadian and U.S. governments are creating cap-and-trade and other programs to cover 90% of GHG emissions by 2015. The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act includes more than $60 billion in clean energy investments. Technological efficiencies in nanotech and solar research from this region should help sustainable development around the world. Between 2006 and 2008, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office applications with green in them more than tripled in the U.S. and more than doubled in Canada.

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IV. Quick Facts


How will the new agreement be monitored? How to measure cuts in greenhouse gases is such a sticky question that it almost caused the talks to collapse. China refused to allow monitors from abroad to scrutinize its internal efforts, but America insisted on some kind of watch being kept. The accord will allow countries to measure their own actions but publish full results globally. Satellites may be used to keep a watch on emissions from above. Who will have to to pay for it - and how much? There will be $10bn (6bn) a year "fast start" funding for the poorest and most vulnerable countries to protect themselves from the impact of drought and floods caused by global warming over the next three years. Britain has promised 1.5bn towards this. By 2020 the world is to "mobilize" $100bn a year through a "Copenhagen Green Climate Fund", which will also help poorer countries halt deforestation and switch to greener technology. Britain may pay 1bn a year towards this. Does the Accord have any legal standing? No. It was never going to be more than a political agreement. Britain wanted this to include an explicit promise to convert the text into a legally binding treaty as soon as possible. But in the rush by exhausted leaders to get an agreement in the early hours of the morning, India and China had this removed. Why are people so unhappy? Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia and Nicaragua objected that the Accord was a "capitalist conspiracy" pushed though by "Yankee imperialists", though they later allowed the UN to pass it. More seriously, the low-lying and island nations fear that the temperature target is too lax and will allow sea levels to rise too far. The US feels that China has wriggled out of a legitimate request to have its emissions independently measured. China is angry at having to cut its emissions at all. The British Government has won little credit and Gordon Brown's original plans for a tough global deal have all but evaporated. So has it pleased anyone? The fact that all United Nations members now accepts that climate change is "one of the greatest challenges of our time", and that the temperature rise must be kept below 2C, has been welcomed by politicians including Barack Obama as a step forward. But the overall deal is so weak that even this may be lost. The $30bn "fast start" fund will help poor countries in immediate need but it is still not clear where most of the money will come from. To provide $100bn a year by 2020 will require new finance mechanisms like a global carbon market or taxes on aviation which are still a long way off.

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A scheme to end deforestation by paying poor countries to help preserve their trees has been welcomed by many as a more concrete achievement, but it will not take effect for another year. What comes next? Over the next 12 months there will be meetings to try to put more flesh on the outlines of the Accord, and Britain is still pushing hard for it to be converted into a legally-binding treaty - which would need another meeting of world leaders. Meanwhile there will be pressure on the developed nations to be ambitious with their own emissions cuts targets, to be set next year. The EU has offered to cut emissions by 20 per cent from 1990 levels by 2020, but may increase this to 30 per cent if other big countries follow suit. Britain may volunteer to go even further, to 42 per cent. A meeting of all UN members' climate change negotiators is planned to be held in Bonn in June, and their annual conference is due in Mexico in December.

V. Related Programs and Associations


Under the UN Secretariat DGAACS(Department of General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services) OLA(Office of Legal Affairs)

Under the UN UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)

UNCHE (United Nations Conference on Human Environment) UNCCD (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification)

Institutions Under the UN Management WMO (World Meteorological Organization) FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) The Millennium Project

Participant of the UNFCCC EC (European Community)

NGO Greenpeace International

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VI. Prospective Directions for a Resolution


Resolutions are required to include two aspects in formulating a renewed protocol. Delegates must contemplate on the renewal of punishments and rewards, or positive and negative reinforcements that would let the United Nations exercise sufficient binding power. Another point to consider is the renewal of the annex classification system of nations, especially paying attention to developing countries that have developed enough to participate.

VII. References
Conference in Copenhagen http://www.VenueCopenhagen.com Telegraph, latest news about the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/copenhagen-climate-change-confe/ The United Nations Official Document System http://documents.un.org/simple.asp The Millennium Project Korea http://www.korea2050.net The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change http://unfccc.int/2860.php

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Committee: Agenda:

General Assembly Recognizing equal human rights of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) population by discouraging social, economic, cultural, and legal discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

Provided by:

Sora Lee, DPGA

I. Overview
Approving the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have been a contentious issue for decades. Individuals and countries have very different stances on the social, economic, cultural, and legal status of the LGBT populations. The spectrum of issues include the ability to change gender on official documents, the differences in age of consent to marry laws; legality of homosexual acts, same-sex unions, same-sex marriage, and/or same-sex adoption; the permission to serve openly in the military, and the existence of anti-discrimination laws on sexual orientation and/or laws concerning gender identity/expression.

II. Terminology
Lesbian: n. a homosexual woman; adj. of or relating to homosexual women or to homosexually in women. Gay: n. a homosexual, esp. a man; adj. (of a person, esp. a man) homosexual, relating to or used by homosexuals. Bisexual: n. a person who is sexually attracted to both men and women; adj. sexually attracted to both men and women; adj. sexually attracted to both men and women. Transgender (also transgendered): adj. identified with a gender other than the biological one. Queer: (esp. of a man) homosexual. (Usage This term was originally, and often still is, a deliberately offensive and aggressive term when used by heterosexual people. In recent years, however, many homosexual people have taken this word and deliberately used it in place of gay or homosexual, in an attempt to use the word positively, in order to deprive it of its negative power. This use of queer is now well established and widely used among gay people and is at present used both positively as well as offensively.) Intersexual: adj. existing or occurring between the sexes, relating to or having the condition of being intermediate between male and female. Civil Union: n. a legally recognized union of a same-sex couple, with rights similar to those of marriage. The term is synonymous with other forms of legal recognition such as civil partnership, registered partnership and domestic partnership.

III. Historical Background


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In 1994, the UN Human Rights Committee, which interprets the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) a multilateral treaty adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1966 that promotes the civil and political rights of individuals decided that laws that discriminate individuals based on sexual orientation are human rights violations. The Netherlands was the first state to eliminate any distinction between homosexual and heterosexual by getting rid of all references to gender in marriages since April 1 st 2001. Soon Belgium followed the case. In North America, Canada has been the more accepting nation that supports gay rights by becoming the fourth country in the world and the first in the Americas to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide on July 20th 200571. In November 2008, Californias Proposition 8, also known as the California Marriage Protection Act, was approved by voters. This added a new provision, Section 7.6 of the Declaration of Rights, to the California Constitution that reads: Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California 72. This event resulted in numerous lawsuits with the California Supreme Court, challenging the propositions validity and effect on previously administered same-sex marriages. Considering the fact that if California were considered an independent nation state, it would rank among the ten largest economies in the world73, and as such is an immensely influential state, this proceeding brought not only domestic but also international attention to the issue of rights of the lesbians, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population. As of December 2008, there were 77 countries still had laws against consensual sex between adults of the same sex. In 7 countries, homosexuality was punishable by death. In 2010, Australia has become the first country to officially recognize non-specified as a gender, realizing that some individuals cannot be categorized as neither male or female as physically, hormonally and psychologically.

IV. Bloc Positions


When the statement United Nations declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity was presented to the United Nations General Assembly on December 18, 2008, there were 66 of the UNs 192 member countries that sponsor the declaration and 57 that oppose it. The number of signatories is 67 as the Unites States Barack Obama administration changed its position to support the declaration in February 2009.

71

Bootie Cosgrove-Mather. 2004. The Global View of Gay Marriage. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/storeis/2004/03/04/world/main604084.shtml (accessed April 1, 2010). 72 2010. Proposition 8 Cases. Judicial Council of California. http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/courts/supreme /highprofile/prop8background.htm (accessed March 30, 2010). 73 2006. Cal Facts 2006 Californias Economy and Budget in Perspective. Legislative Analysts Office: Californias Nonpartisan Fiscal and Policy Advisor. http://www.lao.ca.gov/2006/cal_facts/2006_calfacts_econ.htm (accessed March 30, 2010).

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The signatories that have sponsored the statement include: Africa: Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritius, So Tom and Pr ncipe Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela Asia: Israel, Japan, Nepal, Timor-Leste Europe: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria*, Belgium*, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria*, Croatia, Cyprus*, Czech Republic*, Denmark*, Estonia*, Finland*, France* (initiative), Georgia, Germany*, Greece*, Hungary*, Iceland, Ireland*, Italy*, Latvia*, Liechtenstein, Lithuania*, Luxembourg*, Macedonia, Malta*, Montenegro, Netherlands* (initiative), Norway, Poland*, Portugal*, Romania*, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia*, Slovenia*, Spain*, Sweden*, Switzerland, United Kingdom* Oceania: Australia, New Zealand This list above includes every member of the European Union* and most Western nations.

The 57 signatories that oppose the declaration include: Africa: Algeria*, Benin*, Cameroon*, Chad*, Comoros*, Ct dloire*, Djibouti*, Egypt*, Eritrea, Ethiopia*, Gambia*, Guinea, Kenya*, Malawi*, Mali*, Mauritania*, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria*, Rwanda*, Senegal*, Sierra Leone*, Somalia*, Sudan*, Swaziland*, Tanzania*, Togo*, Tunisia*, Uganda*, Zimbabwe* Americas: Saint Lucia Asia: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria (initiative),

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Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Oceania: Fiji, Solomon Island *: members of African Union (AU). Ertrea, Guinea, and Niger have been suspended from AU. Morocco left the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), the predecessor of AU in 1984.

V. Clashes
A. LGBT rights support The states that believe in equal rights of LGBT population include all of the European Union members and western countries; notably Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Canada, and South Africa are the only ones without any distinction between the legal status of same-sex marriages and that of opposite-sex marriages. The first four aforementioned European countries currently prohibit all forms of heterosexist discrimination. Also membership in the European Union demands elimination of laws that are anti-homosexuality and the Treaty of Amsterdam requires members states to enact when anti-discrimination legislation is enacted 74.

B. LGBT right opposition On the other hand, the states that believe in discrimination of people based on sexual orientation and gender identity consist of countries of the African Union and Islamic nations. In countries such as Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen, homosexual intercourse can be punished by death. In other countries it is punishable with less extreme measures such as jail time, fines, or corporal punishment. These countries include Algeria, Bahrain, the Maldives, and Qatar. These countries oppose to grant the equal rights and privileges that heterosexuals take for granted such as legalizing civil unions or partnerships, adoption by homosexual couples, access to assisted reproductive technology and access to sex reassignment surgery. Their motives are derived from religious belief, political ideology or homophobia. Most of the Abrahamic religions regard homosexuality as sin. These include conservative evangelical Christian, Catholic, Church of Jesus-Christ of Latter-day Satins, Orthodox Jewish, and Islam. They believe the acceptance and practice of same-sex relationship undermine the family and degrade societys moral standards and values.

C. Unsettled In some countries, the issues is still disputed. Even though the United States has changed it stance to support the UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity in February 2009 under the
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http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/treaties/dat/12002M/pdf/12002M_EN.pdf

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Obama administration, many segments of its society still find it hard to recognize the equal rights of LGBT population. Its armed forces still practices Dont ask, dont tell policy that prohibits the militarys efforts to reveal closeted gay, lesbian, and bisexual military personnel, while requiring those who are openly homosexual to be discharged when their sexual orientation is exposed 75. The Boy Scouts of America prohibits gays and bisexuals from joining the organization by stating that homosexuality is immoral in its standards and values on its Scout Oath and Scout Law76.

V. Associations and UN Documents


Associations
There is no one central organization for the issues of LGBT rights. To name a few: Amnesty International on the topic of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity http://www.amesty.org/en/sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity COC Netherlands (Center for Culture and Leisure Dutch organization for LGBT men and women) http://www.coc.nl/ Global Rights LGBTI Initiative http://www.globalrights.org/site/PageServer?pagename=wwd_LGBTI Human Rights Watch on the topic of LGBT rights http://www.hrw.org/en/category/topic/lgbt-rights ILGA (International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transexual and Intersex Association) http://ilga.org Inter-LGBT France (An umbrella group of 50 LGBT organizations of France) http://www.inter-lgbt.org InterPride (International Association of Gay Pride Coordinators) www.interpride.org IGLHRC (International Gay & Lesbian Human Rights Commission) http://www.iglhrc.org

UN Documents
General Assembly 18 December 2008: The United Nations Declaration on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Condemnation of violence, harassment, discrimination, exclusion, stigmatization, and prejudice based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

VI. References
75

Edited by Herek, Gregory M., Jared B. Jobe, and Ralph M. Carney. 1996. Out in Force: Sexual Orientation and the Military(Worlds of Desire: The Chicago Series on Sexuality, Gender, and Culture). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 76 Boy Scouts. Boy Scouts of America: Scoutsource. http://www.scouting.org/scoutsource/BoyScouts.aspx (accessed March 31, 2010).

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18 December 08 General Assembly: 70th and 71st plenary meeting Morning session: http://www.un.org/webcast/ga2008.html UN Press Release http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2008/ga10801.doc.htm The UN webcast of the statement read by Argentina and the counterstatement by the Syrian Arab Republic. You may start at 2:25:00 http://webcast.un.org/ramgen/ondemand/ga/63/2008/ga/081218am.rm The UN webcast of the debate organized by the French and Dutch government and chaired by Glora Careaga, co-secretary general of ILGA (International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association) http://webcast.un.org/ramgem/ondemand/specialevents/2008/se081219pm1.rm International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 26 http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm

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