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CHEMISTRY Ionic Compound: Metal and a non-metal Naming Ionic Compounds: When naming ionic compounds the metal

is first followed by the non-metal. However the ending of the name of the non-metal changes to ide Example: Calcium + Iodine = calcium Iodide Aluminum + Sulfur = Aluminum Sulfide Molecular Compound: Formed when two non-metals combine Naming Molecular Compounds: The names of molecular compoundsoften contain prefexis, these prefexes are used to count the number of atoms when the same two elements form different combinations. Example:The gas you exhale is carbon dioxide (C02) while the poisonous combination of carbon and oxygen that can be formed by automobile engines is carbon monoxide (C0), the prefix di, and mono, diferentiate between two molecules. Mono 1 Di 2 Tri 3 Tetra 4 Penta 5 Hexa 6 Hepta 7 Octa 8 Nona 9 Deca 10 Generating Chemical Formulas: Cemical formulas is a combination of symbols that represent a particular compound. As you have seen ionic compounds can be represented by such formulas. The formula MgCl2 which is magnesium chloride describes a compound in which the combinding ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions is one magnesium ion to two chloride ions. Ions and Polyatomic Ions Ion: An atom that has become charged by gaining or loosing one or more electrons. Polyatomic Ion: A group of atoms that tend to stay together and carry an overall charge. Naming Polyatomic Ions: When naming at the end of the last word put ate, for all polyatomic ions. Polyatomic Ions you need to know: Nick the Camel ate a Clam Supper in Pheonix The first letter of each word in capital letters identifies name of polyatomic ions. So: N=stands for nitrate C=carbonate C=chlorate S=sulfate P=phosphate The number of consonants represents the number of oxygen atoms NICK has three consonants so the nitrates have three oxygen atoms, NO3 CAMEL has three consonants and has three oxygen atoms and so on. The number of vowels represents the valence/charge NICK has one vowel and so nitrates have valence 1 PHOENIX has three vowels so phosphates have valence 3 and so on. If there is a bracket it stands for the charge of the ion, I cant do it on the computer. NO3(-1), CO3(-2), CO3(-1), SO4(-2), PO4(-3), OH(-1)

Acids and Bases Acids: Are below 7 on the PH Scale. Examples of acids would be a lemon, the juice in your stomach, and vinegar. Acids are very SOUR tasting and water soluble. Bases: Are above 7 on the PH Scale. Examples of bases are baking soda and bleach. Bases are very BITTER tasting and are also water soluble; they are GOOD conductors of electricity. When Acids and Bases react: They cause a NEUTRALIZATION reaction. This causes salt to form. As an acid is added to a basic solution the base is gradually consumed. When the entire base has reacted the result is a neutral solution of a salt and water. The solution is neither acidic nor basic. Classifications of Chemical Reactions: Synthesis Reaction: A+B= AB Decomposition Reaction: AB= A+B Single displacement: B+C= AC+B Double Displacement: AB+CD= AD+CB Combustion: A2B+C4D=A4D+C2D Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds: Page 193 Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds: Page 203 Balancing Chemical Equations: When you balance a chemical equation you are making both sides of an equation equal. (The best way to study this is to practice, Just re-do sheets that we got for homework in class and stuff) Page 226 Word Equations: A word equation is one way of representing a chemical reaction. It tells you what reacts and what is produced. All the reactants ---- All the products Reactant 1 + Reactant 2 ---- Product 1 + Product 2 Skeletal Equations: A representation of a chemical reaction In which the formulas of the reactnats are connected to the formulas of the product by an arrow. Potassium + Chlorine = Oxygen + Nitrogen K + Cl = O Ni Factors affecting Rates of Reaction: Tempurature: If the tempurare it higher, then the rate of reacting increases. If the tempurature is lower, then the rate of reaction is slowed down. Concentration: More concentration on the reacting would cause the reaction to speed up. Less concentration on a reaction would slow down the rate of reaction (ex. Concentrated hydrocloric acid). Surface Area: The amount of area of a sample of matter that is visible and able to react. More surface area means a faster reaction, and less surface area means a slower reaction. Catalysts: This is a substance that increases the rate of reaction of a chemical reaction without being consumed. So if you were to add this substance you would speed up this reaction (ex. A catalysts substance would be tums). Law of Conservations of Mass This law states that in a chemical reaction the mass of the reactants has to equal the mass of the products. Example: mass of A + B MUST equal the answer (AB)

Acid-Base Indicators In an acid solution BLUE litmus paper turns RED For a base solution RED litmus paper turns BLUE

PH Scale A numerical scale ranging from 0-14 used to measure how acidic or basic a solution is. Kinetic Molecular Theory This theory states that particles are constantly moving and that they are quicker at higher temperatures. Collision Model This states that the rate of reaction is affected by the number of collisions of reactant molecules.

Side notes for chemistry: The first shell of an atom can hold 2 electrons. The second shell of an atom can hold 8 electrons. The third shell of an atom can hold 8 electrons. The atomic number of an element tells you how many protons are in the atom. In order for an atom to be neutral it has to have the same number of electrons and protons. An atom never loses protons, it only loses electrons. When a neutral atom loses an electron, it gains a positive charge and is called a Cation. When a neutral atom loses an electron, it gains a negative charge and is called an Anion. Metals such as sodium, magnesium, and calcium are found on the left side of the periodic table. Metals tend to lose electrons. Halogens such as chlorine, fluorine, and iodine are found on the right side of the periodic table. Halogens tend to gain electrons. Oxygen gains electrons. Nitrogen gains electrons. Sulfur gains electrons. Potassium loses electrons.