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Lecture 23 Electronic Noise Boris Murmann Stanford University murmann@stanford.edu Copyright © 2004 by Boris Murmann

Lecture 23 Electronic Noise

Boris Murmann Stanford University murmann@stanford.edu

Copyright © 2004 by Boris Murmann

Stanford University murmann@stanford.edu Copyright © 2004 by Boris Murmann B. Murmann EE 214 Lecture 23 (HO#31)

Overview

Overview • Reading – 11.1 (Noise Introduction) – 11.2.2 (Thermal Noise) – 11.3.3 (MOS Transistor Noise)

Reading

– 11.1 (Noise Introduction)

– 11.2.2 (Thermal Noise)

– 11.3.3 (MOS Transistor Noise)

Introduction

– Today's lecture provides a brief introduction to electronic noise in resistors and MOSFET devices. We'll look at both the "fundamental" thermal noise and also technology dependent 1/f noise. While 1/f noise is usually negligible at radio frequencies, it has become a non-negligible component in many "baseband" applications, mostly due to an increase in the so-called "1/f corner" in modern technologies.

Types of Noise

Types of Noise • "Man made noise", interference noise – Signal coupling – Substrate coupling –

• "Man made noise", interference noise

– Signal coupling

– Substrate coupling

– Finite power supply rejection

– Solutions

• Fully differential circuits

• Layout techniques

• "Electronic noise" or "device noise"

– Fundamental

• E.g. "thermal noise" caused by random motion of carriers

– Technology related

• "Flicker noise" caused by material defects and "roughness"

Significance of Electronic Noise

Significance of Electronic Noise • Limits minimum signal that can be processed/detected • The noise level

• Limits minimum signal that can be processed/detected

• The noise level of a circuit directly trades with power dissipation and speed

– In most circuits, low noise dictates the use of large capacitors and/or large g m which means high power dissipation

• More next lecture

• Noise has become increasingly important in modern technologies with reduced supply voltages

– Signal to noise ratio ~ V swing 2 /P noise

• Designing a low power, precision circuit requires good understanding of electronic noise!

Ideal Resistor

Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,

1V

i(t)

Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,
Ideal Resistor 1 V i ( t ) 1k Ω i(t) 1V/1k Ω • Constant current,

1k

i(t)
i(t)

1V/1k

• Constant current, independent of time

• Non-physical

– In a physical resistor, carriers "randomly" collide with lattice atoms, giving rise to small current variations over time

Physical Resistor

Physical Resistor 1 V i(t) 1k Ω i n (t) i(t) 1V/1k Ω • "Thermal Noise"

1V

i(t)

Physical Resistor 1 V i(t) 1k Ω i n (t) i(t) 1V/1k Ω • "Thermal Noise"
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω

1k

1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
1k Ω
Physical Resistor 1 V i(t) 1k Ω i n (t) i(t) 1V/1k Ω • "Thermal Noise"

i n (t)

i(t)
i(t)

1V/1k

• "Thermal Noise" or "Johnson Noise"

– J.B. Johnson, "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors," Phys. Rev., pp. 97-109, July 1928.

• Can model random current component e.g. using a noise current source i n (t)

Properties of Thermal Noise

Properties of Thermal Noise • Present in any conductor • Independent of DC current flow •

• Present in any conductor

• Independent of DC current flow

• Instantaneous noise value is unpredictable since it is a result of a large number of random, superimposed collisions with relaxation time constants of τ ≅ 0.17ps – Consequences:

• Gaussian amplitude distribution

• Knowing i n (t) does not help predict i n (t+t), unless t is on the order of 0.17ps (cannot sample signals this fast)

• The power generated by thermal noise is spread up to very high frequencies (1/τ ≅ 6,000Grad/s)

• The only predictable property of thermal noise is its average power!

Average Power

Average Power • For a deterministic current sign al with period T, the average power is

• For a deterministic current signal with period T, the average power is given by

P av

=

1

T

T / 2

i

2

T / 2

( )

t

R

dt

• This definition can be extended to capture non-deterministic random signals

– Assuming a real, stationary and ergodic random process

P

n

=

lim

T →∞

1

T

T / 2

i

2

n

T / 2

( )

t

R

dt

• For notational convenience, we often drop R in the above expression and work with "mean square" values

1

i

2

=

lim

n

T →∞

T

T / 2

i

2

n

T / 2

( )

t

dt

Thermal Noise Spectrum

Thermal Noise Spectrum • The so-called power spectral density (PSD) shows how much power a signal

• The so-called power spectral density (PSD) shows how much power a signal caries at a particular frequency

• In the case of thermal noise, the power is spread uniformly up to very high frequencies (about 10% drop at 2,000GHz)

PSD(f)

very high frequencies (about 10% drop at 2,000GHz) PSD(f) n 0 f • The total average

n

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
high frequencies (about 10% drop at 2,000GHz) PSD(f) n 0 f • The total average noise

f

• The total average noise power P n in a particular frequency band can be found by integrating the PSD

P

n

=

f

2

f

1

(

PSD f

)

df

Thermal Noise Power

Thermal Noise Power • Nyquist showed that the noise PSD of a resistor is PSD (

• Nyquist showed that the noise PSD of a resistor is

PSD( f ) =

n

0

=

4

kT

• k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature

– 4kT = 1.66·10 -20 Joules at room temperature

• The total average noise power of a resistor in a certain frequency band is therefore

P

n

=

f

2

f

1

4kT df

=

4kT

( f

2

f

1

) =

4kT

f

Equivalent Noise Generators

Equivalent Noise Generators • Can model the noise using either an equivalent voltage or current generator

• Can model the noise using either an equivalent voltage or current generator

2 = P ⋅ R = 4kT ⋅ R ⋅∆ f v n n For
2
=
P
R
=
4kT
R
⋅∆
f
v n
n
For R = 1kΩ :
2
2
v
V
n
18
=
16 ⋅ 10
f
Hz
2
v
n
= 4nV /
Hz
f
18 = 16 ⋅ 10 ∆ f Hz 2 v n = 4nV / Hz ∆
P 1 2 n i = = 4kT ⋅ n R R
P
1
2
n
i
=
=
4kT
n
R
R

f

For R = 1k:

2 2 i A n − 24 = 16 ⋅ 10 ∆ f Hz 2
2
2
i
A
n
− 24
=
16 ⋅ 10
f
Hz
2
i
n
= 4 pA /
Hz
f

Two Resistors in Series

Two Resistors in Series v n 1 (t) v n2 (t) v n (t) R1 R2

v

n1 (t)

v n2 (t) v n (t) R1 R2 R1+R2
v n2 (t)
v n (t)
R1
R2
R1+R2

2

v n

=

( ) 2 2 2 v − v = v + v − 2⋅v ⋅v
(
)
2
2
2
v
− v
= v
+ v
− 2⋅v
⋅v
n1
n2
n1
n2
n1
n2

• Since v n1 (t) and v n2 (t) are statistically independent, we have

v

2

n

=

v

2

n1

+

v

2

n2

=

4

kT

(R

1

+

R

2

)

f

• Always remember to add independent noise sources using mean squared quantities

– Never add RMS values!

MOSFET Thermal Noise (1)

MOSFET Thermal Noise (1) • As one would expect, the noise of a MOSFET operating in

• As one would expect, the noise of a MOSFET operating in the triode region is equal to that of a resistor

• In the forward active region, the thermal noise of a MOSFET can be modeled using a drain current source with spectral density

i

2

d

=

4kT

γ

g

m

f

• For a long channel MOSFET γ=2/3

• For the past ten years, researchers have been debating over the value of γ in short channels

– Preliminary (wrong) results had suggested that in short channels γ can be as high as 2…5 due to hot carrier effects

MOSFET Thermal Noise (2)

MOSFET Thermal Noise (2) • Fortunately, these discussions have come to an end with the conclusion
MOSFET Thermal Noise (2) • Fortunately, these discussions have come to an end with the conclusion

• Fortunately, these discussions have come to an end with the conclusion that short channels have γ≅1

A.J. Scholten et al., "Noise modeling for RF CMOS circuit simulation," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, pp. 618-632, March 2003.

Spice Simulation

Spice Simulation • Can simulate/plot spectral density of mean square drain current using a .noise analysis

• Can simulate/plot spectral density of mean square drain current using a .noise analysis (see manual for more info)

Spice 4kT*2/3*g m -22 10 ??? -23 10 -24 10 10 -2 10 -1 10
Spice
4kT*2/3*g m
-22
10
???
-23
10
-24
10
10 -2
10 -1
10 0
10 1
10 2
10 3
avg(i d 2 )/df [A 2 /Hz]

f [MHz]

1/f Noise (1)

1/f Noise (1) • Also called "flicker noise" • Caused by traps near Si/SiO 2 interface

• Also called "flicker noise"

• Caused by traps near Si/SiO 2 interface that randomly capture and release carriers

• Occurs in virtually any device, but is most pronounced in MOSFETS

• The spectral density of flicker noise is given by

K

• The spectral density of fl icker noise is given by K i 2 1/ f

i

2

1/ f

=

f

2

L

D

C

ox

f

I

f

• K f is strongly dependent on technology

– Typical numbers for 0.35µm CMOS

• K f,NMOS = 2.0·10 -29 AF

• K f,PMOS = 3.5·10 -29 AF

1/f Noise (2)

1/f Noise (2) • The total 1/f noise contributi on is found by integrating the spectral

• The total 1/f noise contribution is found by integrating the spectral density

f 2 K I ∆ f K I ⎛ f ⎞ K I ⎛ f
f
2
K
I
f
K
I
⎛ f
K
I
⎛ f
2
f
f
f
D
D
2
D
2
i
=
=
ln ⎜
⎟ =
2.3log ⎜
1 / f ,tot
2
2
2
L
C
f
L
C
f
L
C
f
f
ox
ox
1
ox
1
1

• Important to realize that total flicker noise depends on the number of frequency decades

– Same total noise in 1…10Hz as in 10…100Hz

• Example: I D =10µA, L=1µm, C ox =5.3fF/µm 2 , f 2 =1MHz

f

1

f

1

=

=

1Hz :

1 / Year :

2 i = 722 pArms 1 / f ,tot 2 i = 1082 pArms 1
2
i
=
722 pArms
1 / f ,tot
2
i
=
1082 pArms
1 / f ,tot

1/f Noise Corner

1/f Noise Corner • By definition, the frequency at which the flicker noise density equals the

• By definition, the frequency at which the flicker noise density equals the thermal noise density

K

f

I

D

f

2

L

C

ox

f

co

=

4kT

γ

g

m

f

• Example: g m /I D =10V -1 , γ=1

f

co

=

K

f

1

1

4kT

γ

2

L

g

m

/ I

D

 

f

co,NMOS

f

co,PMOS

L=0.35µm

 

192kHz

 

34kHz

L=1µm

 

24kHz

 

4kHz

• In more recent technologies, 1/f corner frequencies can be on the order of 10MHz

MOS Model with Noise Generator

MOS Model with Noise Generator C gd G D + v C r gs gs o

C gd

G D + v C r gs gs o - S - i 2 g
G
D
+
v
C
r
gs
gs
o
-
S
-
i
2
g m v gs
g mb v bs
d
v
C
C
C
bs
gb
sb
db
+
B
Noiseless!
K I ∆ f 2 f D i = 4kT ⋅γ ⋅ g ⋅∆ f
K
I
f
2
f
D
i
=
4kT
⋅γ ⋅
g
⋅∆
f
+
d
m
2
L
C
f
ox

Other MOSFET Noise Sources

Other MOSFET Noise Sources • Gate noise – "Shot noise" from gate leakage current – Noise

• Gate noise

– "Shot noise" from gate leakage current

– Noise from to finite resistance of gate material

– Noise due to randomly changing potential/capacitance between channel and bulk

• Relevant only at very high frequencies

• Bulk noise

• More in EE314…