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6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

A Novel 20Hz Power Injection Protection Scheme for Stator Ground Fault of Pumped Storage Generator
Zheng Zhu, Yuping Lu, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract--Based on the analysis of the start-up of pumped storage generator under motor circumstance, it is found out that the conventional 20Hz injection component is influenced by the low frequency component when ground faults take place in the stator windings for static frequency converter (SFC) start-up generator. The conventional relay is just simply blocked in case mal-operation during 20Hz working condition. To overcome the disadvantage, a novel scheme is proposed to improve groundingresistance(R) calculation accuracy and enhance ability to limit impact of 20Hz component from generator. The simulation results proved its effectiveness and practicability of the scheme. Index Terms--Grounding, injection voltage source, protection, pumped storage, windings.

the methods employed in starting pumped storage units in the pumping mode are discussed. From the analysis, it is concluded that the protection is influenced by the low frequency component when ground fault occurs in stator windings for SFC start-up generator. A new algorithm is proposed from the equivalent circuit. The simulation results show that grounding resistance accuracy is improved by the novel algorithm when ground fault occurs, and it is not affected by the 20Hz component from generator, the tripping is reliable and sensitive. II. START-UP METHOD AND ANALYSIS OF PUMPED STORAGE GENERATOR A. Start-up Method The pumped storage generator is under the synchronous motor circumstance in the pumping mode. The common methods of start-up are as follows: synchronous start (back to back start), semi-synchronous start, asynchronous start, wound rotor induction motor start and SFC start. In asynchronous start, the motor is connected to grid directly when three phase short circuit occurred in excitation windings, then asynchronous torque which generated by damping windings accelerates the rotor, when reaches the rated speed, the motor is synchronized by exciting. This method adapt to the medium and small capacity units. Similarly, in semi-synchronous start, the pumping unit is started as an induction motor. When the motor reaches approximate generator speed(about 50% of rated speed), the motor field is applied to bring it into synchronism with the generator. So there has not low frequency zone because excitation is not existed at the beginning of start-up. In SFC start, synchronous start and wound rotor induction motor start, excitation is required to provide full field at zero speed, so it exists low frequency component of voltage and current in stator windings. B. SFC Start-up and Brake of Pumped Storage Generator With the development of Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) and electronic devices, the use of SFC has increased significantly and is the preferential method in pumped storage plants with more than two units [4]. The advantage of SFC is steady, high reliability, economical, small in space, and efficient. Fig. 1 shows the connection of SFC start-up.

HE construction of pumped storage power station has entered a new period of fast development in recent years. It plays an important role in power network because of the effect of peak clipping and valley filling, frequency modulation, phase modulation, load adjusting and spinning reserve, which improve the flexibility and reliability of power network operation. The great social and economic benefits produced by pumped storage plants have been recognized by more and more countries. It puts forward higher requirements for the protective relaying because of flexible operation mode. The Sub-synchronous overcurrent protection, underpower protection are the special protection of pumped storage units [1]. The starting process of a pumped storage generator-motor unit which is started by a static frequency converter is simulated in the paper [2], the results show that motor have lots of low frequency components during start-up. In some countries, the ground fault protection is blocked in case maloperation, therefore, the stator windings are not protected. The start-up is frequent during one day and duration is rather long, sometimes between 5-10 minutes [3]. The generator will be damaged if ground fault occurs near the neutral point of the stator windings. So it needs to improve the injection protection scheme to ensure operation safety of generator. In this paper, the 20Hz power injection scheme for ground fault protection of pumped storage generator are analyzed, and
Zheng Zhu, Yuping Lu are with the school of electrical engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 P.R. China. (e-mail:


978-7-900714-13-8/08/ 2008 DRPT


6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of SFC start-up

The main part of frequency converter is two rectifier bridge worked as rectifier/converter. First close CB2, then close CB1 to take power from an auxiliary source, the excitation is required to provide full field at zero speed. And ac-dc-ac converter provides a variable frequency current to the motor by transformer or ac reactor. The rotating magnetic field interacts with rotor to accelerate the motor, so the inverter frequency follows motor speed and the motor accelerates toward synchronism, close CB3 and open CB2 while reaches the rating speed. The process of electrical braking is disconnect the motor from power grid, deexcite at first, Let three-phase short circuit occurs after the speed lower than 50% rated speed, then the motor are excited in order to shutdown in a short time. After analyzing the spectrum of voltage and current by using FFT algorithm, it found that the current and voltage contain not only fundamental but also 6k 1 th harmonic wave during start-up. The zero sequence circuit does not have these components under normal condition, so the protection will avoid mal-operation. III. ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INJECTION PROTECTION SCHEME FOR PUMPED STORAGE GENERATOR

is calculated from the USEF and ISEF. If motor-generator started by asynchronous or semisynchronous method, it has a little residual voltage because there is no excitation on the rotor until it reaches the rated speed, the injection scheme is not influenced, so it is not necessary to block the protection. However, the motor has excitation at the beginning by static converter start, when in the low speed, the zero sequence components of motor will enter the circuit which interfere the 20Hz injected signals. Especially if the frequency of motor is 20Hz, the current in the circuit and the voltage across the loading resistance of the distribution transformer have 20Hz component generated by the injection source and generator, they can influence the admittance criterions seriously.

Fig. 3 Equivalent circuit of injection scheme

A. Equivalent Circuit and Principle of Injection Scheme At present, stator ground fault protection by injecting 20Hz voltage are adopted in some pumped storage generator, the subharmonic injection scheme can provide 100% coverage of stator windings and sensitivity is irrelative to the position of ground fault. It can also detect the insulation deterioration of the stator windings.

In order to analyze the influence of zero sequence components which generated by generator, suppose ground fault occurs at stator windings of phase A through resistance Rf. Fig. 3 is the equivalent circuit of the Fig. 2. Rf is fault resistance, Cg is each phase capacitance to ground in generator stator windings. Rn is the resistance loaded secondary of the distribution transformer, r is the internal resistance of the injection voltage source, U is the injected voltage. USEF is measured through voltage divider. ISEF is measured from the secondary of TA. All above parameters have been resolved to the secondary of the grounding transformer. is the fault position in stator windings. U '0 = E 'A (1) Where U '0 is zero sequence voltage of fault point. Suppose ground fault occurs while the frequency of generator is f10<f1<50Hzduring start-up. from Fig. 3, it is obtained that USEF is not the voltage of parallel branch of Rf and 3Cg, but the voltage drop on Rn from U0' and U, ISEF is no longer the current inflow the parallel branch. Therefore, the resistance calculated by algorithm deviates from the true value, which causes protection mal-operate. B. Proposed Algorithm According to Superposition Theorem, The circuit shown in Fig. 3 can be divided into two parts, as it is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of 20Hz stator single-phase ground protection

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of microprocessor-based 20Hz injection scheme [7]. The principle of this scheme is connecting 20Hz injection voltage source to the secondary side of a distribution transformer, the stator ground resistance



6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

Where I S 0 U S 0 are measured from TA and VD before the ground fault occurs, so the phase angle of U Ad is obtained.
' arg(U Ad ) = arg( I SEF U SE F

IS 0 ) U S0


' Suppose is the angle between U SEF and E 'A ; is the

(b) Fig. 4 Separation of the equivalent circuit

angle between U Ad and E 'A . Based on the Sine Theorem, it is obtained that
U Ad

From Fig. 4(a), (b):

U '0 U1 = R +r ' + j 3 Cg ) + 1 R 'f ( n Rn r






U2 = U

U r Rn R 'f
' Rn + R 'f + j 3 C g R 'f Rn


Equation (9) can be written as ' U SEF U Ad = sin sin Hence U Ad is obtained from (8) and (10)
R 'f = U Ad


Where U1 and U 2 are the voltage across the loading resistance. Hence from (1) (2) (3), U Rn R 'f E 'A r Rn ' (4) U SEF = U1 + U 2 = ' r R 'f + (1 + j 3C g R 'f ) Rn + Rn R 'f
' Where U SEF is the voltage across the loading resistance of the distribution transformer.

(11) IS 0 I SEF U U S0 Where the parameters in (11) is 20Hz sine wave after digital filtering. The resistance in the stator side is (12) R f = N 2 R 'f

Where N is the ratio of grounding transformer.

C. Proposed Scheme In this scheme, the current and voltage data are sampled and filtered; the frequency of generator is measured by frequency tracking, if it is far away from 20Hz, narrow band pass digital filter is feasible, otherwise, if frequency is 20Hz, the ground resistance is calculated by proposed algorithm. The tripping signal is achieved while the value meets the operation criterion. The resistance calculation scheme can be derived as below: Case 1: tripping an alarm signal (Rf<Rset.h) Case 2: tripping a shutdown signal (Rf<Rset.l) Where Rset.h=5k, Rset.l=1k. According to the above analysis, the proposed algorithm could reflect the insulation deterioration and provide sensitive protection for 100% of stator windings.


U Ad

' EA


Fig. 5 Vectorial relations of voltages for units


Fig.5 is phasor diagram of voltage in pumped storage units. If the ground fault occurs, U Ad is the voltage of fault point.

E'A =

U Rn R U r R +(1+ j3 C R ) Rn Rn R U Rn r It is obvious obtained from the Fig.5 that

' f ' SEF ' f ' ' g f ' f
' U Ad = E 'A + USEF = ' ' U Rn USEF ( r + Rn + r j3Cg Rn )

E 'A can be obtained from (4)

IV. SIMULATION OF THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM (5) The simulation of the proposed protection scheme is implemented by the Matlab software. The ratio of transformer is 26.4, the capacitance of stator winding to ground is 0.6F per phase, the frequency of motor is 20Hz. Rn=2.54; the ground fault occurs at 0.4s. The results are as follows:


Rn r



' ' U USEF USEF ' ' =( USEF j3Cg ) R'f r Rn

From the relation of currents in Fig. 3, (6) becomes

' U Ad = ( I SEF U SEF

IS 0 ) R 'f US0



6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

50% 80% 100% 1205 1251 1267 1004 1054 1062 1120 1133 1157 5018 5015 5058

(a) Rf=1k

Tab. 1 is the comparison of conventional scheme and proposed scheme when ground fault occurs at different position of stator windings. From Tab. 1, we can draw the conclusion that the conventional algorithm is not suitable for start-up of pumped storage units in the pumping mode; the resistance is calculated accurately by proposed scheme after one cycle. V. CONCLUSION The paper proposed a 20Hz power injection protection new scheme used in pumped storage generator. The resistance calculation accuracy can be greatly improved under 20Hz low frequency zero sequence component of motor. A narrow band pass digital filter is designed to mitigate influence from the low frequency component of motor. The simulation shows its reliability and sensitivity improvements. VI. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] Weijian. W. "Principle of Large Generator-units Protection", China Electrical Power Publish House, 2002. Lijun Tian, Yuping Lu, Heng Chen. "Digital simulation for starting process of a pumped storage generator/motor," Automation of Electric Power Systems. 1997, 21 (7):38-41. Zuyan Mei, "Pumped storage station technology" china machine press. 2000. Konidaris, D.N. "Investigation of back-to-back starting of pumped storage hydraulic generating units," IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion. 200217 (2):273-278. Ji'an Wu; Hui Wan; Yuping Lu. "Study of a fresh subharmonic injection scheme based on equilibrium principle for hydro-generator stator ground protection," IEEE PES Winter Meeting Proceedings. 2002, Vol2: 924929. Zielichowski, M.; Fulczyk, M, "Analysis of operating conditions of ground-fault protection schemes for generator stator winding," IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion. 2003. Vol.18. No.1:57-62. SIPROTEC Multifunctional Machine Protection 7UM62 Manual C53000-G1176-C149-5, V4.6, SIEMENS AG, 2005. NengLing Tai, XiangGen Yin, Zhe Zhang, DeShu Chen, "Research of subharmonic injection schemes for hydro-generator stator ground protection," Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2000. IEEE, Volume: 3, 2000 Page(s):1928-1932. Qixue Zhang, Kangqing Xi, Jiasheng Chen, Xiang Wang, Quanrong Shen, "Field application and analysis of the stator earth fault protection with voltage injection for large-sized generator" Automation of Electric Power Systems. 2007, 31 (11):103-107.

(b) Rf=5k Fig. 6 calculation results of conventional scheme

Fig. 6(a),(b) show that when ground fault occurs at terminal through 1k and 5k, the calculation of resistance deviate from the true value. From (a), Rf=1k, the calculation value is 1267, the protection will refuse to trip; from (b), Rf=5k, the calculation value is 1157, the protection will maloperate.


(a) Rf=1k

[6] [7] [8]

(b) Rf=5k Fig. 7 calculation results of proposed scheme


Fig. 7(a), (b) show the results of resistance calculation by using proposed algorithm. Before the ground fault occurs, the value is much higher than setting value. After the ground fault occurs, an accurate ground resistance can be obtained without regard to transient in data window.

Zheng Zhu was born in Nantong, China, in March, 1983. He has received the Bachelors degree in electrical engineering from Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics in June 2005. Now he is pursuing his M.E. in Southeast University. His current interesting area is power system protection.


1000 Conventional scheme 818 New scheme 1002

5000 Conventional scheme 2522 New scheme 5011 Yuping Lu was born in Danyang, China, in Oct, 1962. He has received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the City University, UK in 2003.


6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

He is working as a professor in Southeast University of China. His research interests are power system protection, especially in digital relaying of generator-transformer unit and control technique in distribution system with DGs.