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LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

Report on Summer Training

TOPIC: REASONS FOR INCREASE IN ABSENTEEISM IN THE EMPLOYEES OF ACC GAGAL CEMENT WORKS (GCW)

Submitted to Lovely Professional University

In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of Degree of Master of Business Administration

Submitted by: Rupinder Kour RA17B1A21/RQ3703A18

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY JALANDHAR NEW DELHI GT ROAD PHAGWARA PUNJAB
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CERTIFICATE

July 4, 2011

TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN

This is to certify that Ms. RUPINDER KOUR D/O S. CHARANJEET SINGH, student of B-Tech. (Hons) IT+M.B.A. in HR 5th Year from Lovely Professional University (LPU), Phagwara (Punjab) has undergone Industrial Internship from 23rd May to 04th July, 2011 (Six Weeks) at our Gagal Cement Works, Barmana, Distt. Bilaspur [H.P].

She has successfully completed her Internship & submitted a detailed project report. We wish her good luck for future Endeavors.

[VIKRAMJIT SINGH] ASSISTANT MANAGER HR GAGAL CEMENT WORK

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CONTENTS
Company profile.11

Introduction to the company...11 History of ACC Cement Works..13 A Strategic Alliance15 Holcim a new partnership15 Corporate vision..16 Corporate mission17 Quality policy..18 Environment policy.18 Awards and Accolades.19 Cement plant location..21 ACC Cement wise capacity.22 ACC Gagal Plant- An Introduction23 Mines..25 Cement plant..26

Human Resource at ACC..29

Recruitment...29 Performance Management.30 Training and Development30 Employee Welfare and Prerequisites30 Employee satisfaction...31

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HRD Mission.32 HRD Objective..32 Human Resource at ACC GCW33 Grade and Designation Structure..34 Plant Organization (Gagal)35 Plant Organization - HR, IR and Admin..36 Manpower Arrangement37

Absenteeism An Introduction38

Reasons for Absenteeism..39 Causes of Absenteeism..40 Absenteeism Rate..41 Monthly Absenteeism Rate41 Annual Absenteeism Rate..41

Review of literature..42 Research Methodology..46

Need of the study..46 Objective of the study47 Universe of the study.47 Sampling plan47 Instrument for information48 Data collection48 Statistical tools used for data analysis48 Limitations of the study.49
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Data Analysis and Interpretation50

Interviews50 Frequency table...82 Factor analysis.96 Discriminant analysis.102

Findings.105 Recommendations..107 References..109 Web Links..109 Annexure.110

Questionnaire...110 Absenteeism Record.113

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Gratitude Felt but not expressed is like a gift wrapped but not presented Summer training plays an important role in exposing a student to real life situations in an industry to help him/her have an insight and understanding and prepares the students for the forth coming professional life. It was great experience for me to work as a Summer Trainee at ACC GAGAL CEMENT WORKS (GCW) on the project allotted through which I could learn how to work in a professional atmosphere and that too in large and reputed organization. My training experience at ACC GAGAL CEMENT WORKS (GCW) has been truly a fulfilling and rewarding one. Many people have contributed towards making this project a success. The text below is my humble and heartfelt expression of gratitude to all those who have contributed to this project by their valuable suggestions, inspirations, support and cooperation. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Vikramjit Singh, Asstt. Mgr. HR who entrusted me with the project and provided me an opportunity to learn and work in their esteemed organization. He proved to be a pillar of support and inspiration, and provided me with all the possible resources I required during the course of training. I would like to thank Mr. Rajesh Jamwal (Head-HR), Mr. Jagjit Singh (Manager- HR), Mr. Sandeep Thakur (Manager- HR), Mr. Vikramjit Singh (Asstt. Mgr. HR), Mr. Sandeep Sharma (Chief Manager- E& E), Mr. Hitender Kapoor (Manager- CSR), Mr. P.C.Soni (Executive Time Office), Mr. Sunder Singh (SR. Clerk-Asstt.) and to all those respondents who took time out of their busy schedule and answered our queries and without their encouraging guidance and co-operation this project was unimaginable.

DECLARATION
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This is to certify that dissertation entitled Reasons for increase in absenteeism in the employees of ACC GAGAL CEMENT WORKS (GCW), Barmana has been prepared by Ms. Rupinder Kour in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Master of Business Administration in Human Resource at Lovely Professional University. I hereby declare that all the information and the fact produced here are based on my own findings and studies at GAGAL CEMENT WORKS are original in nature. The contents of the report are a true expression of my efforts on the said topic. Any resemblance to earlier projects or research is purely co-incidental.

Rupinder Kour B.Tech (Hons)-IT+MBA Lovely Professional University

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
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The study of absenteeism is very important for any industry. The word absenteeism means the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be present at in work place. It is one of the major problems faced by companies across the globe today. Unscheduled absenteeism badly hurts the progress of an organization resulting in loss of productivity, increased costs in hiring additional staff and low morale among the workers. Absenteeism is a vital issue that requires immediate attention by both employers and employees. Employees should enjoy the work they are doing and employers on their part should help them in whatever way they can to make their experience a pleasant one. High rate of absenteeism is neither desirable to employers nor good for the employees. In majority of organizations, high rate of absenteeism has an adverse effect on quality and quantity of production, efficiency of workers and organizations intention to fulfill new market demands. The absenteeism develops considerable loss to organization because work schedules gets upset and delayed and management has to provide overtime wages to meet the delivery dates. The topic of the project is Reasons for increase in absenteeism in the employees of ACC Gagal Cement Works. The basic objective of my research study is to determine the reasons for increase in absenteeism in the employees of ACC GCW, which focus on specific objectives like to find out the reason why workers absent themselves, to have a glance on the problems they face, to develop an action plan to improve their presence, to determine the difficulties faced by the workers and to suggest steps and devise techniques that can be taken to improve their presence. This study highlights the reasons behind habitual absenteeism and also highlights on the reasons why despite being provided with all kind of facilities inside and out of work place; these employees are not willing to change their habit of regular absenteeism. The present study is descriptive in nature. The survey has been carried out among the employees of ACC Gagal Cement Works. This research was conducted using survey method. Primary data has been collected by using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included structured and unstructured type. The questionnaire contained questions relating to various parameters like nature and level of work, satisfaction level towards the leave facility, opinion regarding the pay, working conditions, job satisfaction, welfare activities, etc. The total sample size is based on 50 respondents who belong to ACC Gagal Cement Works (GCW). Sampling Unit consists of Gagal Cement Work, Barmana of ACC Ltd. Sampling element consists of Non-Management Staff at ACC Gagal Cement Works. To analyze the
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collected data from the respondents Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) tool has been used, in which each and every component has been analyzed separately with the help of graphs. Based on the interviews and analysis of data collected, the findings that have come forward are:

There is a lack of basic industrial culture in the employees (Non-Management Staff) as during the establishment of this industry, land was purchased from the local inhabitants of Barmana and the company decided to give employment to at least one member of each family from whom land was purchased.

Maximum employees of ACC GCW have their own lands. They find it necessary to take holidays during the time of sowing of seeds in the field and harvesting. So they take leaves from their work. Maximum employees are habitual drinkers. Even some do their duty under the influence of liquor which may even sometimes lead to fatal as well as non-fatal accidents. Employees are not satisfied with the amount of pay they receive, although, they themselves are responsible for it, as they remain absent. They even say that the amount of work done is more than the salary they receive from the organization. Some of the workers state financial problems also as one of the reasons for absenteeism. The reason being extra activities to earn some more income, which results into absenteeism. Illness is another major factor which has been analyzed during the conduction of interviews, which is responsible for absenteeism. Most of the workers are not satisfied with the housing facility provision of the company, as the company provides housing accommodation to only those employees who are residents of area beyond at least 10 kms of the factory premises. Some of the employees stated difficulty in coming from far- off places and want the management to start some kind of conveyance facility for the employees who come daily to the plant by other sources of transportation.
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Most of the employees remain absent from duty since there is no fear of loss of job at ACC. The sense of Job- Security gives them the freedom to be reluctant towards their duties and remain absent. Absenteeism is one of the long overdue problems at ACC. Several studies have been conducted in the past and as many suggestions were given, but till date no serious action has been taken against the problem of absenteeism. On the basis of my intense research on the topic by personally interviewing these employees as well as an in-depth study of their personal files I would like to recommend the following action plan against these employees with immediate effect: The workers who drink during the working hours should be suspended and strict steps should be taken against them. The workers who are not ready to improve themselves should be terminated. Strict disciplinary actions must be taken by the Management. Incentives should be introduced by the Management to motivate the workers. Communication gap should be reduced between workers and Management. Workers should be employed according to their education. He should be counseled to emphasize on providing good education to his children and improve his drinking habit. The company policy on Job-Security must be revised. Various training programs must be initiated for the welfare of employees.

CHAPTER 1 COMPANY PROFILE


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INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY


ACC (formerly Associated Cement Companies Ltd.) is one of the oldest cement companies which is in operations from 1936.1 Its registered office is called Cement House. It is located on Maharishi Karve Road, Mumbai2.
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ACC (ACC Limited) is India's foremost manufacturer of cement and concrete. ACC's

operations are spread throughout the country with 3 regions, 14 modern cement factories, 19 Ready mix concrete plants, 19 sales offices, 54 area offices, 194 ware houses and several zonal offices. It has a workforce of about 9500 persons and a countrywide distribution network of over 10,000 dealers. ACC's research and development facility has a unique track record of innovative research, product development and specialized consultancy services. Since its inception in 1936, the company has been a trendsetter and important benchmark for the cement industry in respect of its production, marketing and personnel management processes. Its commitment to environment-friendliness, its high ethical standards in business dealings and its on-going efforts in community welfare programs have won it acclaim as a responsible corporate citizen. ACC has made significant contributions to the nation building process by way of quality products, services and sharing its expertise.

In the 71 years of its existence, ACC has been a pioneer in the manufacture of cement and concrete and a trendsetter in many areas of cement and concrete technology including improvements in raw material utilization, process improvement, energy conservation and development of high performance concretes.

http://cement.industry focus.net/index.php/company-profiles-a-news/180-acc-ltd.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACC_Limited


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ACCs brand name is synonymous with cement and enjoys a high level of equity in the Indian market. It is the only cement company that figures in the list of Consumer Super Brands of India. Among the first companies in India to include commitment to environmental protection as one of its corporate objectives, the company installed sophisticated pollution control equipment as far back as 1966, long before pollution control laws came into existence. Today each of its cement plants has state-of-the art pollution control equipment and devices. ACC plants, mines and townships visibly demonstrate successful endeavors in quarry rehabilitation, water management techniques and greening activities. The company actively promotes the use of alternative fuels and raw materials and offers total solutions for waste management including testing, suggestions for reuse, recycling and co-processing.4 ACC has made significant contributions to the nation building process by way of quality products, services and sharing expertise. Its commitment to sustainable development, its high ethical standards in business dealings and its on-going efforts in community welfare programs have won it acclaim as a responsible corporate citizen. The company's various businesses are supported by a powerful, in-house research and technology backup facility - the only one of its kind in the Indian cement industry. This ensures not just consistency in product quality but also continuous improvements in products, processes, and application areas.5

HISTORY OF ACC CEMENT WORKS


ACC Ltd. was formed in 1936 by merging 10 cement companies, prominent among them are Tatas, Khataus, Killick Nixon and F E Dinshaw Group.6 Initially, when cement was introduced in 1914, first Cement Plant was started near Madras by South India Industry
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The

company's various businesses are supported by a powerful, in-house research and

technology backup facility Gupta (2009)


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Limited. But due to lack of labor and knowledge in manufacturing of Cement this plant, after a few months working was closed down. Many men of outstanding initiative and foresight contributed towards the development of Cement Industry in India.7

F. E. founder of ACC

Dinshaw

the

The history of ACC

spans

wide

canvas beginning with the struggle of its pioneer F E Dinshaw and other Indian entrepreneurs of the cement industry. Their efforts to face competition for survival in a small but aggressive market mingled with the stirring of a countrys nationalist pride that touched all walks of life including trade, commerce and business. Sir Nowroji B Saklatvala was the first chairman. The new company had four managing directors, one from each constituent group. Its first Board included distinguished luminaries of the Indian business world of the time J R D Tata, Ambalal Sarabhai, Walchand Hirachand, Dharamsey Khatau, Sir Akbar Hydari, Nawab Salar Jung Bahadur and Sir Homy Mody.8 The ACC Board comprises of 3 persons. These include Executive, Non-Executives and Nominee Directors. This group is responsible for determining the objective and broad policies of the Company consistent with the primary objective of enhancing long-term shareholder value.

Report of training under Associated cement companies Ltd, GCW, Barmana (H.P) http://www.acclimited.com/newsite/pdf/acc.pdf
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The Board meets once a month. Two other small group of directors comprising Shareholders/ Investors Grievance Committee and Audit Committee of the Board of Directors also meet once a month on matters pertaining to the finance and share discipline. Its annual turnover is Rs. 25,000 million and its asset base is about Rs. 24,655 million. 12,000 employees are working in its corporate office at Mumbai. In cement ACC produces three brands ACC Suraksha, Samrat, Super. Beside cement ACC also manufacturers refractories, ready mixed concrete etc. Head office: Cement House, 121, Maharshi Karve Road, Mumbai - 400020.

A STRATEGIC ALLAINCE:
The house of Tata was intimately associated with the heritage and history of ACC, right from its formation in 1936 upto 2000. Between the years 1999 and 2000, the Tata group sold all 14.45 per cent of its shareholding in ACC in three stages to subsidiary companies of Gujarat
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Ambuja Cements Ltd (GACL), who are now the largest single shareholder in ACC. This has enabled ACC to enter into a strategic alliance with GACL, a company reputed for its brand image and cost leadership in the cement industry. 9

HOLCIM A NEW PARTNERSHIP


A new association was forged between ACC and the Holcim group of Switzerland in 2005. In January 2005, Holcim announced its plans to enter into a long-term strategic alliance with the Ambuja Group by acquiring a majority stake in Ambuja Cements India Ltd. (ACIL), which at the time held 13.8 per cent of the total equity shares in ACC. Holcim simultaneously announced its bid to make an open offer to ACC shareholders, through Holdcem Cement Pvt Limited and ACIL, to acquire a majority shareholding in ACC. An open offer was made by Holdcem Cement Pvt. Limited along with Ambuja Cements India Ltd. (ACIL), following which the shareholding of ACIL increased to 34.69 per cent of the Equity share capital of ACC. Consequently, ACIL has filed declarations indicating their shareholding and declaring itself as a Promoter of ACC.10 Holcim is the world leader in cement as well as being large suppliers of concrete, aggregates and certain construction-related services. Holcim is also a respected name in information technology and research and development. The group has its headquarters in Switzerland with worldwide operations spread across more than 70 countries. Considering the formidable global presence of Holcim and its excellent reputation, the Board of ACC has welcomed this new association.11

CORPORATE VISION
Our vision is to be world class corporation with divers businesses built around our core competencies and knowledge base in cement , refractories ,advanced materials, engineering, geology and mining and research

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We aim to secure this position through development, manufacture, sale and application, of products in India, with significant positions in the world. To remain in the pre eminent position of the largest cement manufacturer of highest quality To be the leading supplier of value added products, services and technology for the construction sector of India. To be the foremost refractory manufacturer with the most profitable mix of castables shaped products and services in India and in the world markets. To be the pace setters in advanced ceramics, -- in introducing ultra-high purity electronic raw materials and devices thereof in India, with a significant position in the world markets. To be amongst the foremost engineering enterprises in the areas of cement plant construction and manufacturers, pollution control, geology and mining and mineral processing. To be customer focused and give the best possible value for money to our customer. Provide best services to them and be deeply committed to quality. To ensure consistent and sustainable growth and adequate returns for our shareholders. People are ACCs key assets To make them team based and change oriented to their growth as well as the companys. To continue to contribute to our society and company.

CORPORATE MISSION

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LEADERSHIP Maintain leadership of the Indian cement through continuous modernization expansion of our manufacturing facilities and activities, and through the establishment of wide and efficient marketing networks. PROFITABILITY Achieve a reasonable and fair return on capital by promoting productivity through the company. GROWTH Ensure a steady growth of business by strengthening the companys position in the cement section consistent with overall corporate objective QUALITY Maintains high quality of our products and services and ensure their supply at fair price. EQUITY Promote and maintain fair Industrial Relation and an Environment for the effective involvement, welfare and development of staff at all level. PIONEERING Promote research and development efforts on the areas of product development and energy, and conservation and to innovate and optimize productivity. RESPONSIBILITY Fulfill our obligation to society, especially in the areas of integrated rural development and in safeguarding the environment and natural ecological balance

QUALITY POLICY

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We shall build quality as integral part of the system such that quality is right at first time and all the time. We believe that quality improvement is limitless and therefore it is continuous. We shall comply with all relevant requirements of the product quality. Our concern towards quality is for the entire organization and just for the product. We will satisfy the customer fully and continuously. We have establishment frame work for reviewing and quality objectives and will ensure its continuous suitability.

ENVIRONMENT POLICY
Ensure continual improvement in environmental performance by carrying out periodic review of the action plan. Prevent pollution & minimize fugitive missions. Comply with all applicable all legal and regulatory requirements. Conserve energy and mineral resources. Minimize waste generation and reutilize the source, if generated. Creative environmental awareness among employees and continuity at large.

AWARDS & ACCOLADES:12


National Award for outstanding performance in promoting rural and agricultural

development by ASSOCHAM
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Sword of Honour - by British Safety Council, United Kingdom for excellence in

safety performance.
Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Award --- by The Ministry of Environment and

Forests for "extraordinary work" carried out in the area of afforestation.


FICCI Award --- for innovative measures for control of pollution, waste management

& conservation of mineral resources in mines and plant.


Subh Karan Sarawagi Environment Award - by The Federation of Indian Mineral

Industries for environment protection measures.


Drona Trophy - By Indian Bureau Of Mines for extra ordinary efforts in protection of

Environment and mineral conservation in the large mechanized mines sector.


Indo German Greentech Environment Excellence Award Golden Peacock Environment Management Special Award - for outstanding efforts in

Environment Management in the large manufacturing sector.


Indira Gandhi Memorial National Award - for excellent performance in prevention of

pollution and ecological development


Excellence in Management of Health, Safety and Environment : Certificate of Merit

by Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association


Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puraskar trophy for outstanding performance in safety and

mine working
Good Corporate Citizen Award - by PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry Jamnalal Bajaj Uchit Vyavahar Puraskar - Certificate of Merit by Council for Fair

Business Practices
Greentech Safety Gold and Silver Awards - for outstanding performance in Safety

management systems by Greentech Foundation


FIMI National Award - for valuable contribution in Mining activities from the

Federation of Indian Mineral Industry under the Ministry of Coal.


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Rajya Sthariya Paryavaran Puraskar - for outstanding work in Environmental

Protection and Environment Performance by the Madhya Pradesh Pollution. Control Board.
National Award for Fly Ash Utilization - by Ministry of Power, Ministry of

Environment & Forests and Dept. of Science & Technology, Govt of India - for manufacture of Portland Pozzolana Cement.
Good Corporate Citizen Award - by Bombay Chamber of Commerce and Industry for

working towards an environmentally sustainable industry while pursuing the objective of creation of a better society.
National Award for Excellence in Water Management - by the Confederation of

Indian Industry (CII)

CEMENT PLANT LOCATIONS

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ACC's PLANT-WISE CAPACITY13

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S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Units Bargarh Chaibasa Chanda Damodhar Gagal

State ORRISA JHARKHAND MAHARASHTRA WEST BENGAL HIMACHAL PRADESH

Capacity (MTPA) 0.96 0.87 1.00 0.53 4.20 (Gagal I and II)

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Jamul Kymore Lakheri Madukkarai Sindri Wadi New Wadi Plant Tikaria

CHHATTISGARH MADHYA PRADESH RAJASTHAN TAMIL NADU JHARKHAND KARNATAKA KARNATAKA UTTAR PRADESH

1.58 1.70 0.60 0.96 0.60 2.11 2.60 2.00

ACC GAGAL PLANT AN INTRODUCTION

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Commissioned on 12th March 1984, Gagal Cement Works (GCW) is part of Indias largest cement company, ACC Ltd. It is located near Barmana in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh, on the National Highway NH 21, connecting Ambala and Manali. Installed with a capacity of 5.6 Lakh tonnes of cement per annum, it has modernized and expanded to a total capacity of 4.64 million tonnes of cement per annum. GCW is a market leader in the northern region and maintains its market share in all strategic markets. Located in the eco sensitive zone of the Himalayas, the company has been pro active in working towards environmental conservation and pollution control. It has reportedly planted more than 1 million trees over a period of 12 years, in and around the factory premises. As part of the environment management system, GCW has been regularly investing in technological upgradation to achieve both economic and environmental efficiency.15

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ACC was first to put up a large scale industrial house in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The plant known as GAGAL- unit started with an annual capacity of 0.56 Million Tons (with one kiln of 1700 TPD). GAGAL- unit with a capacity of 1 Million Tons of cement was installed in 1994-95. Today, the cement production capacity at GCW has been risen to an Unprecedented 4.4 Million Tons.

ACC was first to put up a large scale industrial house in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The plant known as GAGAL- unit started with an annual capacity of 0.56 Million Tons (with one kiln of 1700 TPD). GAGAL- unit with a capacity of 1 Million Tons of cement was
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installed in 1994-95. Today, the cement production capacity at GCW has been risen to an Unprecedented 4.4 Million Tons.

MINES
The total mining area with GCW is 231.25 hectares comprising Barmana Hill and Gagal Hill. Of this, 52 hectares is the active mining area and forms part of the Gagal Hill. From an initial height of 947m, the hill has been mined down to 650m and the company plans to mine down further up to 500 m. It is expected that this level would be reached over the next 25 years, after which, further reconnaissance would be carried out to assess more potential for extraction. If not found viable, the company plans to use the crater created post mining for harvesting of water.17

The Gagal mine has a belt length of 1.5km. Limestone is blasted by using a benching process i.e dividing the hill into benches. Blasting is carried out 34 days in a week and usually between 1pm and 3pm. About 20000 tonnes are mined in each blast. In 2001, ACC adopted the Nonelectric Bottom Initiation Detonator technique over the conventional detonating fuse

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technology for blasting. More sophisticated detonators are used today in order to minimize the impact of the blast on the surrounding areas. The villages surrounding the mines are at a distance of more than 500 m from the blasting site. In later interactions with local communities, the team was informed that several houses had developed cracks. ACC officials maintain that the cracks, if any, are due to faulty constructions and that, the company has conducted studies in the past to demonstrate to villagers that there are minimal vibrations to cause cracks. However, the perceptions persist. The team believes that the company should try to dispel these perceptions and also demonstrate sound techniques for constructing houses.19

CEMENT PLANT
GCW comprises two units: Gagal I and Gagal II. ACC has invested continuously and considerably to upgrade the plant infrastructure as well as cement manufacturing techniques to increase economic as well as environmental efficiency. To reduce source emissions, the company has installed 11 bag houses, 85 bag filters and 2 ESPs (ElectroStatic Processors). These have resulted in drastic reduction in the stack emission levels, which are now maintained at less than 20 ppm. In fact, not only do the bag houses filter the emissions, they also feed it back to the manufacturing process. This not only reduces emissions, but also makes great economic sense.

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The plant has installed a monitoring station to constantly monitor SOx, NOx and SPM levels. Fugitive emissions are a bigger cause for concern. ACC has put in place dust suppression systems like water sprinklers to tackle these emissions, whether on the conveyor which carries the quarried limestone from the mines to the plant, or at the enclosed stockyards which store coal, gypsum and fly ash. However, current efforts to curb fugitive emissions might need augmentation and further improvements.

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The packing area also poses a challenge in terms of fugitive emissions. Every time, a cement bag is transferred, be it along the conveyor or from the conveyor on to the truck, there is some amount of leakage. ACC management could explore and seriously pursue options like using paper bags or despatching cement in bulk quantities. (The enclosed bunkers that are used to bring fly ash to Gagal plant go back empty. These could be used to despatch bulk cement.) GCW is trying out packaging using laminated bags. The companys greening efforts even within the plant premises have ensured a cleaner, relatively dustfree environment.22

CHAPTER 2 HUMAN RESOURCES AT ACC


ACC has a large workforce of about 9,000 people, comprising experts in various disciplines assisted by a dedicated workforce of skilled persons. ACC employees, referred to as the ACC Parivar, come from all parts of the country and belonging to a variety of ethnic, cultural and
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religious backgrounds. ACC employees display a strong sense of loyalty to the Company and their special stellar qualities as value-adding human capital are well known in the industry. ACC has clearly stated guidelines concerning recruitment, termination, career advancement, performance appraisal, professional and employee ethics and code of conduct. The Companys personnel policies and processes enshrine equal opportunities to all and nondiscrimination with regard to gender, caste, creed, ideology or other opinion, whether social, political or religious. Also ensured is a due process for employee consultation and participation in organizational development and policy formulation.23 Human Resource at ACC includes: RECRUITMENT Recruitment in ACC is a very fair and transparent process with adequate opportunities to look for suitable candidates internally as well as from outside. Applicants are generally invited on the basis of specific advertisements in newspapers and websites. A Committee of officers called the Central Recruitment Committee handles the entire recruitment process comprising screening of applications, preliminary short-listing, interviews and final selection. Every attempt is made to make the selection process as objective as possible by incorporating tests of competence. In some cases, outside consultants are retained. All decisions of the recruitment committee are recorded in respect of each candidate. Candidates are informed of their short-listing and selection immediately after the interview or at the earliest thereafter. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT The Companys performance management system is in itself a benchmark that provides ample opportunities and motivational incentives to employees so as to reward and retain good talent within the Company. These incentives include Performance Linked Incentives, Good Work Awards, Letters of Appreciation, Special Increments, Promotions, Nomination to external training programs in India and abroad, public felicitation and appreciation. Some plants have Best Employee and Employee of the Month Awards and recognition. Competent employees and those
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who display aptitude are invited to become Trainers themselves and receive Train the Trainer facilitation. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT New Performance Management System incorporates a process called Competency Assessment and Training and Developmental Needs wherein appraisers are specifically called upon to identify and assess training needs of employees at specific intervals that do not coincide with Performance Appraisals. Training is imparted to take care of an individuals career development as well as functional and skill enhancement. Competency and Development training inputs include Skill and general performance enhancement, communication skills and Career development. Functional training needs are identified and conducted by functional departments while Corporate HR organizes competency and developmental inputs. EMPLOYEE WELFARE AND PREREQUISITES Employee welfare receives prime attention at ACC. There are several schemes for general welfare of employees and their families. These cover education, healthcare, retirement benefits, loans and financial assistance and recreation facilities. ACC townships have excellent schools that are often the best in the district. Education at these schools is subsidized for employees wards. Attractive scholarship allowances for children studying at places away from their parents, merit scholarships for outstanding children and financial assistance for employees children to pursue higher professional education, etc are provided by ACC.

Liberal medical benefits are made available to employees and their family members by way of reimbursements towards normal medical treatment, domiciliary treatments and special sanctions for serious illness. Each of their townships has wellequipped health care centers with qualified medical staff and facilities, ambulance, referrals and tie-ups with reputed hospitals for specialized treatment. In addition, there are regular health checkups, camps and programs. Employees are eligible to apply for loans and financial assistance for various purposes such as purchase of assets,

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residential premises as well as a scheme that provides for supply of cement at subsidized rates to those building their own houses. At the cement plants and factories, employees are provided furnished and unfurnished accommodation based on their entitlements. At many locations, the employees are given free electricity, free water supply and free bus facility for nearby places and schools. These houses are well-maintained and periodically upgraded. EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION In addition to periodic internal Employee Satisfaction Surveys, ACC participate in Employee Satisfaction and Work Places Surveys conducted by reputed external agencies and organizations like Hewitt Associates Grow Talent. And from time to time, ACC has also retained reputed firms like Mercer and Boston Consulting Group to study their internal work environment and employee policies and suggest areas of improvement. Below salient points of the latest survey of employees are being shared by them: People are treated fairly regardless of religion and gender. ACC is a safe place to work . Management is competent in running business. Employees feel good about what we do for society. Proud to tell others I work here. Management thinks positively.

The overall findings show significant job satisfaction at all levels as also deep respect for the company, its performance management system and its overall business performance.24

HRD MISSION
While human development is worthiest of the goals of civilization, ACCs responsibilities towards employees go beyond providing a competitive wage, salary and benefit payments and include many other elements such as attempting to maintain good working conditions, maximum opportunity to develop the full extent of their capacities and relatively stable environment in which they can work together effectively.
24

www.acclimited.com/newsite/hr.asp

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To have all times effective and well-motivated employees at all levels of the organization who are committed to attain organizational goals and help the company to remain a corporate leader in the country.

HRD OBJECTIVES
To attract, retain and develop efficient and effective manpower at all levels of organization to meet future and current needs of our diversified business. To empower employees for organizational effectiveness through attainment of specific tasks, appropriate organizational structure, appropriate delegation of authorities and reward system.
To identify training and development needs of the employees and to provide

appropriate facilities/environment for continuous development through training, job rotation, project management and self-development programs etc. to equip them for higher responsibilities. To evolve and implement pragmatic employees relations policy which would contribute to harmonious relations leading to optimum productivity, reduction in manpower cost and wasteful expenditure and also help in maintaining image of the ACC as an enlightened organization.

HUMAN RESOURCE AT ACC GCW:


Human resource in ACC GCW comprises of the following categories:-

WORKERS

MANAGEMENT STAFF

MONTHLY PAID STAFF

DAILY PAID STAFF

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MANAGEMENT STAFF: Under this category, all managers of seniors and juniors hierarchy are included. MONTHLY PAID STAFF: Under this category, clerical staff and lower supervisors are included. DAILY PAID STAFF: Under this category, daily paid employees are considered. They are equal to permanent employees. In this category skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers are included.

GRADE AND DESIGNATION STRUCTURE:


ACC has migrated from current classical grade structure to Job (size) Based Grade structure by Hay Methodology. Job Based Grade Structure focuses on specific accountabilities for each role. Hay methodology provides specific point/score which will determine the size of the job role. Different jobs have been slotted into a grade hierarchy based on Job size. Each grade hierarchy is known as ACC JOB BAND (AJB).

AJB AJB-24 AJB-23

DESIGNATION Chief Executive Chief Officer


Page | 33

AJB-22 AJB-21 AJB-20 AJB-19 AJB-18 AJB-17 AJB-16 AJB-15 AJB-14 AJB-13 AJB-12 AJB-11

Director Director Head Head Head Chief Manager Chief Manager Manager Associative Manager Sr. Executive / Sr. Engineer Executive / Engineer Jr. Executive / Jr. Engineer

PLANT ORGANIZATION (GAGAL):

DIRECTOR PLANT MR. RAKESH SINHA

HEAD-OPERATION MR.NAVNEET CHOUHAN HEAD-FINANCE MR.SANJAY JOHARY HEAD-HR, IR & ADMN MR.RAJESH JAMWAL

HEAD-ENGINEERING VACANT HOD-ENERGY VACANT

HEADPRODUCTION CHIEF MGRV.S.WARIER DP SECRETARY PROCUREMENT HOD CSR MR.V.K.DIWEDI MR.M.S.GOLE MR. H.KAPOOR

Page | 34

CHIEF MGR-E&I MR.K.K KHURANA

CHIEF MGRMECH MAINT. K L NANDA

HODSAFETY MR.V.K. GOYAL

EA TO DP CHIEF MGRMINING MR.S.K. SONI CHIEF MGR-E & E MR.SANDEEP SHARMA MR.SANDEEP THAKUR

PLANT ORGANIZATION - HR, IR AND ADMN.


HEAD-HR, IR & ADMN RAJESH JAMWAL (AJB-18)

CHIEF MGR HS VACANT HOD IR JAGJIT SINGH (AJB15) HOD HS DR.PARVEEN MUDGAL (AJB-15) HOD SECURITY SATYAVIR 15) (AJB-

ASST.SECURITY

Page | RAM S.VERMA (AJB-12) 35 ASST. T & D S.BHADWAL (AJB-12) VACANT

ASST. HS VACANT

ASST. WELFARE VIKRAMJIT (AJB-13) S R KATWAL

ASST TIME OFFICE P.C.SONI (AJB-11) HOD HR VACANT

(AJB-12)

ASST. HR C.S. SHUKLA (AJB-13)

MANPOWER ARRANGEMENT:
The total manpower employed at ACC, are divided in to two categories. Management staff is governed by Conduct Rules framed by the company where as Non-Management Staff is governed by standing orders certified under the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946.

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Management Staff
CHAPTER 3 ABSENTEEISM-AN INTRODUCTION

Absenteeism is the term generally used to refer to unscheduled employee absences from the workplace.25 It is the failure to attend to work. It is one of the major problems faced by
25

http://www.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/absenteeism

TM-Top Management WM-Works Manager E4- Sr.Manager


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companies across the globe today. Unscheduled absenteeism badly hurts the progress of an organization resulting in loss of productivity, increased costs in hiring additional staff and low morale among the workers. It is high time that employers address this problem on a priority basis.26 Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer; it was seen as a management problem, and framed in economic or quasi-economic terms. More recent scholarship seeks to understand absenteeism as an indicator of psychological, medical, or social adjustment to work.27 Absenteeism in Indian Industries is not a new phenomenon. It is the manifestation of a decision by employees not to present themselves at their places of work, at a time when it is planned by the management that they should be in attendance. Many research reports reveal that there has been a phenomenal increase in absenteeism in some industrial sectors. The absenteeism becomes a problem to the organizational management particularly when employees absent themselves from their work environment without giving sufficient notice & by justifying their stand by furnishing fake reasons.28

High rate of absenteeism is neither desirable to employers nor good for the employees. In majority of organizations, high rate of absenteeism has an adverse effect on quality and quantity of production, efficiency of workers and organizations intention to fulfill new market demands. The absenteeism develops considerable loss to organization because work schedules gets upset and delayed and management has to provide overtime wages to meet the delivery dates. 29 Absenteeism is a vital issue that requires immediate attention by both employers and employees. Employees should enjoy the work they are doing and employers on their part should help them in whatever way they can to make their experience a pleasant one. After all

26

http://www.paycheck.in/main/work-and-pay/paycheck-articles-archives/managingabsenteeism-in-the-workplace
27

http://absenteeism.co.tv/ http://www.citehr.com/233830-absenteeism-indian-industries.html http://www.citehr.com/233830-absenteeism-indian-industries.html

28

29

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satisfied and happy employees look forward to report to work regularly and absent themselves only for genuine reasons 30

REASONS FOR ABSENTEEISM:


The levels of absenteeism and reasons for its occurrence are dependent on many variables in an organizational environment. The seven factors can be detailed as follows: 31 Sickness is the main reason of absenteeism running as high as 50 % of the absenteeism in some cases.

Industrial accidents and occupational diseases bring about absenteeism, depending upon the nature of the process and machines used.

Lack of interest or a feeling of responsibility and worth-whileness are fundamental causes of absenteeism. After pay-day, before and offer a holiday are some of the contributors of a absenteeism. Night shift duties and climates are some of the responsible factors of absenteeism. Attitude of mind caused by environmental and sociological factors. There are miscellaneous groups of causes which promote absenteeism such asreligious and social festivals, bad weather, lack of transportation, migratory character of workers, subsidiary livelihood, search for another job, etc. Misbehavior by the supervisor and difference of opinions with the management may also contribute to the absenteeism.

CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM: 32
30

http://m.paycheck.in/main/work-and-pay/paycheck-articles-archives/managingabsenteeism-in-the-workplace?switch_skin=mobile
31

http://www.scribd.com/doc/54253258/1/Chapter-I http://superfriends13.tripod.com/causes_absent.htm

32

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serious accidents and illness low morale poor working conditions boredom on the job lack of job satisfaction inadequate leadership and poor supervision
Personal problems (financial, marital, substance abuse, child care etc.)

poor physical fitness transportation problems the existence of income protection plans (collective agreement )
Benefits which continue income during periods of illness or accident.

stress workload employee discontent with the work environment

ABSEENTEISM RATE33
The first step is to determine what data to include under the term absence. When calculating absenteeism, organizations often differentiate between excused and unexcused absences and collect data only on the unexcused since these absences are most disruptive to the workplace and have the most impact on productivity. Long term leaves of absence, as defined as 5 or more days in duration, are usually excluded.

MONTHLY ABSENTEEISM RATE:


1. Total number of days lost through job absence in the month: ________ 2. Number of employees on 1st of the month: _____
33

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3541343/absenteeism-rate

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3. Number of employees on the last day of the month: _____ 4. Average headcount for the month (Line 2 + Line 3 divided by 2): ____ 5. Number of available workdays in the month: ____ 6. Average number of workdays for the month (Line 4 x Line 5): ______ 7. Monthly absenteeism rate (Line 1 divided by Line 6 x 100): _____

ANNUAL ABSENTEEISM RATE:

1. Assume a 365 base scheduling year 2.Base - week ends + public holidays = 365-113=252 3.List all planned leave, absenteeism and other reasons why an employee is not deployable including regular days off 4.Calculate the average annual not deployable DAYS for each reason and the total of all reasons 5.Convert into an annual total 6.Subtract the total not deployable days average from a 364 day base scheduling year 7.Divide the base year by the total average deployable days.

CHAPTER 4 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Fitzgibbons (1980) figured that Most empirical work on the correlates of employee absenteeism considers few predictors simultaneously or fails to distinguish among different types of, or reasons for, absences. He assessed a multivariate model of absence behavior that distinguished among the excused and unexcused absences as well as those absences that are attributed to illness. He attempts to assess the stability of findings over time.34 Breaugh (1981) determined the relationship between Recruiting sources and Employee Performance, Absenteeism and Work Attitudes. He determined whether the sources through

34

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0030507380900720

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which employees are recruited are related to subsequent job performance, absenteeism and work attitudes. He also found strong source-of-recruitment effects. 35 Seamonds (1982) demonstrates the Stress Factors and Their Effect on Absenteeism in a Corporate Employee Group. He measured the effect of health evaluation interviews on Illness absenteeism. He conducted a 20-minute interview which is done in conjunction with the periodic mental examinations which was designed to assess stress-related symptoms and coping abilities related primarily to work stress. A significant drop in illness absenteeism for the experimental group as a result of the health evaluation interview and referral was observed.
36

Gellatly (1995) examined whether an employee's level of absenteeism was affected by age, organizational tenure, perceptions of interactional justice, affective and continuance commitment, and the perceived absence norm in the employees' work unit or department. He collected the absence data following the employee survey. Hypothesized relations between the various individual- and group-level factors and employee absenteeism were specified in a structural model and tested. 37 Buschak (1996) focused on managing absenteeism for greater rate of productivity. She reveals that Unauthorized or unscheduled absenteeism is a problem for every organization or business. It creates cost and productivity problems, puts an unfair burden on the majority of employees who show up for work, ultimately hinders customer satisfaction, and drains the country's economy. She also reviews the literature related to absenteeism and suggests how managers can improve their absenteeism rate and, as a result, improve productivity.38

35

http://www.jstor.org/pss/255829 http://journals.lww.com/joem/abstract/1982/05000/stress_factors_and_their_effect_on_absenteeism_in.11.asp

36

x
37

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/job.4030160507/abstract http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000371657

38

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Lechner (1997) studied the The effect of participation in an employee fitness program on reduction of absenteeism due to illness on three different worksites (police force, chemical industry, banking). He used the longitudinal pretest-posttest designs. He collected the data and divided the study into three different groups high participation, low participation, and no participation in the employee fitness program and did the covariance analysis. 39 Muchinsky (1997) figured employee absenteeism as a form of withdrawal behavior apart from turnover. He also studied the psychometric properties of absence measures are reviewed, along with the relationship between absenteeism and personal, attitudinal, and organizational variables.40

Sagie (1998) observed that the absences were regarded as voluntary or involuntary based on the reasons provided by the employees or supervisors. It was hypothesized that voluntary as opposed to involuntary absenteeism can be predicted by organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and their interactive effect. Intention to quit was expected to predict voluntary absenteeism as well. He also suggested the relationship between the employee absenteeism and job satisfaction.41 USA (Today) (2000) briefed the article on Putting the Brakes on Employee Absenteeism. This article demonstrates the various factors and reasons for employee absenteeism which includes illness, stress, family issues, etc. It also describes that Employees are tapped out on hours put into work. It shouldn't be a surprise that they're stressed out as they attempt to juggle long hours and personal demands.42 Rost (2006) studied the The Effect of Improving Primary Care Depression Management on Employee Absenteeism and Productivity a Randomized Trial. The main objective of his
39

http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/1997/09000/Effects_of_an_Employee_Fitness_Program_on_Reduced. 5.aspx
40

http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp? _nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ160251&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ16 0251


41

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001879197915815 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2659_128/ai_61586737/

42

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study is to test whether an intervention to improve primary care depression management significantly improves productivity at work and absenteeism over 2 years. Twelve community primary care practices recruiting depressed primary care patients were identified in a pre-visit screening.43 Smith (2006) describes the two main issues emerging in most of the organizations which is Turnover and Employee Absenteeism. He observed that Absenteeism has increased by 14% since 1992. It costs employers $603 a day for each day an employee is out. He gives a report that will help us to understand what causes absenteeism and provides solutions on how to treat it. treatments.44 He also described two types of absenteeism that require different

Ybema (2010) examined the interrelations between registered employee absenteeism, job satisfaction, and burnout in a longitudinal design with four yearly waves of data. He observed the relationship between job satisfaction and absence frequency. He found that Lower job satisfaction increased the absence frequency, whereas higher absence frequency lowered the subsequent job satisfaction. Furthermore, it was found that higher burnout enhanced future time lost due to absence, and lowered future job satisfaction.45 Admin (2011) suggested the reasons for how to deal with employee absenteeism. He concluded that One of the biggest challenges that organizations face today is unplanned absenteeism. Frequent absenteeism from employees not only hampers the productivity of an organization but it also affects the morale of hard working employees. He highlighted the responsibility of a manager to identify the employees who display culpable absenteeism, and thus look for various steps to counter it.46

43

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1350979/ http://hum.sagepub.com/content/43/7/601 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a918866280~db=all~jumptype=rss http://businessarticles.co.in/category/employee-absenteeism

44

45

46

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Aldana (2011) demonstrates that the health risks and failure of employees to participate in fitness and health promotion programs are associated with higher rates of employee absenteeism. When determining how to manage absenteeism, employers should carefully consider the impact that health promotion programs can have on rates of absenteeism and other employee-related expenses.47 Tappero (2011) explained the excuses of Employee Absenteeism. He added Employee absenteeism is a costly problem for employers. He focused on the guidelines and the laws that are applicable to all the employees and they have to follow them under every circumstance. He stressed on a couple of things like Companies need to have a solid attendance policy in their employee handbook, Use of Work/Life programs to address employee absenteeism, need of flexibility to control absenteeism, etc.48

CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The chapter of research methodology will indicate the objective of the study, its universe, sampling design used, collection of data, statistical tools employed for analysis of data and the limitation of the study. Title of the project Reasons for increase in absenteeism in the employees of ACC Gagal Cement Works (GCW)

NEEDS OF STUDY:

47

http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2001/01000/Health_Promotion_Programs,_Modifiable_Health.9.aspx http://www.westsoundworkforce.com/employer-articles/excuses-excuses-employee-absenteeism

48

Page | 45

A KPI target was decided by SR. Manager HR at GCW Barmana, which was to improve the 18 employees who didnt get increment in the year 2010 due to their habitual absenteeism. In order to fulfill this requirement this topic was chosen for research.
The percentage of employees who are not getting any increment at ACC GCW is

increasing every year. Last year a total of 23 employees have been identified who were not able to complete 240 days of attendance and so could not get an increment.
This study will highlight the reasons behind habitual absenteeism and then design an

action plan to curb this problem at ACC GCW. To know the reasons why despite being provided with all kind of facilities inside and out of work place; these employees are not willing to change their habit of regular absenteeism.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:


The basic objective of my research study is to determine the reasons for increase in absenteeism in the employees of ACC GCW. I will focus on specific objectives mentioned below: To find out why workers absent themselves. To have a glance on the problems they face. To develop an action plan to improve their presence To determine the difficulties faced by the workers. To suggest steps and devise techniques that can be taken to improve their presence.

UNIVERSE OF THE STUDY:


The present study is descriptive in nature. The survey has been carried out among the employees of ACC Gagal Cement Works. This research was conducted using survey method.
Page | 46

Primary data has been collected by using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included structured and unstructured type. The questionnaire contained questions relating to various parameters of like nature and level of work, satisfaction level towards the leave facility, opinion regarding the pay, working conditions, job satisfaction, welfare activities, etc.

SAMPLING PLAN:
Sample Size: The total sample size is based on 50 respondents. The respondents of present study belong to ACC Gagal Cement Works (GCW). Sampling Unit: Sampling Unit consists of Gagal Cement Works, Barmana of ACC Ltd. Sampling Element: Sampling element consists of Non-Management Staff at ACC Gagal Cement Works. INSTRUMENT FOR INFORMATION: Primary Data: Personal Interviews were conducted on the basis of structured questionnaire.
Secondary Data:

Personal files of the employees, previous records of attendance of the employees, and various websites were consulted.

DATA COLLECTION: The selection of sample for the collection of primary data was based on simple random sampling technique.

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A.

Respondents: 50 employees of Non-Management Staff of ACC Gagal

Cement Works (GCW)


B.

Tools: The questionnaire was pre-tested for clarity on one respondent (project

in charge). Improved questionnaires were used for final collection of data. The primary data received through questionnaires from the employees of ACC Gagal Cement Works (GCW) was classified and tabulated. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was done and inferences were drawn in line with the objective of the study.

STATISTICAL TOOLS USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS: To analyze the collected data from the respondents Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) tool has been used, in which each and every component has been analyzed separately with the help of graphs.

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY: The employees chosen were all habitual absentees and therefore their

availability for conducting interviews was the most difficult part. It took around 15 days to conduct interviews only. Time was another critical constraint, since the whole study was done in small During personal interviews workers were not willing to answer most of the This study was done at only one plant of ACC Ltd, i.e. Gagal Cement Works time period of 6 weeks. questions though every possible effort was made to make them reveal the truth. and so cannot be related to the whole organization.

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CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter is devoted to descriptive study and analysis of primary data collected from the Non-Management staff of ACC Gagal Cement Works. Responses receives from respondents in respect of each question of the questionnaire have been tabulated, analyzed below to arrive at an interpretation. 50 questionnaires were submitted duly filled-up.

INTERVIEWS:
I have conducted interviews of many workers (non-management staff) who are working in this organization and the ones who keep themselves absent from the work. My aim of interviewing them is stated as below:
To procure an opportunity for observing a candidate from various point of view. Page | 49

To find out personal facts about the individuals. To obtain information through face to face talk and thus to enter into ones inner most for understanding his feelings, desires, interest and aspirations. To examine the tension that an interviewer may be carrying with him.

Following are the interviews of those employees working in ACC GCW, who are habitual of keeping themselves absent from the work. Following are the reasons and various statements given by them regarding their absenteeism:

Mr. Ramesh Kumar U.E. No. 080446

Designation
Grade Deptt. Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : :

Mazdoor E Raw Mills March 12th 1962 March 15th 1984 Baht Kasol Vill Baht Kasol,P.O. Dhar Tatoh ,Teh. Sadar Distt. Bilaspur

Native place
Address

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

: :

3 2004
Page | 50

Last Increment

: : :

2004 88.09 Rs. land

Basic Salary Other sources of Income Reasons for absenteeism: Agriculture, as he owns land.

Jab mood nahin karta tab mai nahin atta Lack of interest in work The employee was admitted to hospital for3-4 months due to an accident last year. The land of the employee has been acquired in Kol Dam Power Project and he has got compensation in Crores of Rs/-. So his primary objective of doing job is fulfilled.

Action Plan: Since the employee lacks the sense of responsibility towards the job and thinks that only purpose of doing a job is getting paid for it, a counseling session should be arranged for the employee to make him realize the importance of employment. To motivate the employee a training module on motivation can be implemented. Mr. Dhani Ram U.E. No. 081297

Designation Grade
Deptt. Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Workshop Aug 8th, 1969 Dec 1st, 1997 8th Passed Baloh Vill.Baloh,P.O.Dhavan Kothi Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.) .

Qualification Native place Address

No. of Family members

1
Page | 51

Last Promotion Year Last Increment Basic Salary


Other sources of Income

: : : :

2006 2006 84.25 none

Reasons for Absenteeism: He is an alcoholic. Adverse family problems. Due to construction work

Action Plan: The problem with the employee is his habit of alcoholism, so he needs a treatment for this. Mr. Subhash Kumar U.E. No. 081270

Designation Grade Deptt.


Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Raw Mills Deptt. July 21st,1976 Dec 6th,1996 .

Qualification Native place Address

Barmana V.P.O..Barmana Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.)

No. of Family members

7
Page | 52

Last Promotion Year Last Increment Basic Salary


Other sources of Income:

: : :

2007 2007 88.87/-Rs. none

Reasons for Absenteeism: He has some shops as well as rooms on rent at his native place which is a source of extra income for him. His father is suffering from a serious illness and he has to take him for regular checkups. He never got an award till date. He is highly dissatisfied on the part of management for not getting any promotion even after 12 years of service.

Action Plan: The management should look into the employees matter, why the employee didnt get any promotion. The employees main area of concern is that he is not getting any promotions despite working equally hard. He says, Doosaron ko dekhkar bahut bura lagata hai. Jo hamare sath kaam pe lage the, unko 2 ya 3 baari promotion mil chukka hai. Phir hamen kyun nahi? The employee needs a session of counseling on making him understand the bad effects of absenteeism.

Page | 53

Mr. Roop Lal U.E. No. 081295

Designation Grade Deptt.


Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Kiln Operations Deptt. April 28th,1957 Dec 1st,1997 Matric Tikkari Vill. Tikkari P.O. Panjgain Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.)

Native place Address

No. of Family members

: :

4 2007
Page | 54

Last Promotion Year

13Last Increment

: :

2007 84.33 none

Basic Salary
Other sources of Income:

Reasons for Absenteeism: He says that he doesnt have wife so he needs to stay at home to take care of his children very often. The major problem that he faces is that he also has to take care of his land. Action Plan: He states a very unique problem and it will be a challenge for the management to find a solution. I would suggest a job rotation policy for the employees according to his convenience. Mr. Bhag Singh U.E. No. 081291

Designation Grade Deptt.


Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Raw Mill Deptt. June 2nd,1969 Dec 1st,1997 Matric Baloh Vill. Baloh P.O. Dhawan Kothi Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.) .

Qualification Native place Address

No. of Family members: Last Promotion Year : 2004


Page | 55

Last Increment Basic Salary


Other sources of Income:

: :

2004 81.17Rs.\none

Reasons for Absenteeism: He got a fracture in his leg last year and was admitted to hospital for 3-4 months. He has got trucks as an extra source of income. He says that his wife was ill and he has to take her to Shimla for treatment. Action Plan: The employee has got a very poor record of attendance and should be warned not to remain absent in future. The employee should also be made aware about the actions that can be taken against him if he continues to remain absent. U.E. No. 081225 Mr. Babu Ram

Designation Grade Deptt.


Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Workshop Deptt Aug 15th ,1968 Feb 14th ,1994 5th Barmana V.P.O.Barmana Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.) 14 2004
Page | 56

Qualification Native place Address


No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

Last Increment

: : :

2004 89.79 Has 5 trucks

Basic Salary
Other sources of Income

REASONS FOR ABSENTEESIM: He has 14 members in his family. He has a lot of extra income from the 5 trucks which he owns. He has no interest in promotion. He is an addict of alcoholism. He says,mera koi reason nai hai, peekar 1,2 ,3 ,4 ya 6-7 din nai aa pata.

ACTION PLAN: He wants management to provide some support to him for leaving his habit of absenteeism. He does not provide any specific reason except alcoholism. He earns a lot from other sources so does not requires promotion or increment. If possible management should arrange some specialists to help him in leaving his habit of alcoholism.

Page | 57

U.E. No. 081209 Mr. Ganga Singh

Designation Grade Deptt.


Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Workshop Deptt. Oct 5th , 1975 Nov 3rd ,1993 5th Khater Vill Khater.P.O. Barmana Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.) .

Qualification Native place Address

No. of Family members

4
Page | 58

Last Promotion Year Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income: Reasons for Absenteeism:

: : :

88.87 2007 2007

He says that last year due to elections he remained absent from duty, as he is indulged in politics. As 75 beeghas of his land is acquired in ACC plant and he has many shops on rent, he is very sound financially. It was very clear during interview that this employee was least interested in telling the truth and improving on his habit of absenteeism. Action Plan: The employee doesnt realize absenteeism as his fault. A recommendation of strong action against the employee. U.E. No. 080266 Mr. Om Prakash

Designation Grade Deptt. Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification Native place

: : : : : : : :

Worker B MVM.
04.03.1963 16.02.1987

Middle Lagat Vill Khater.P.O. Barmana Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.)

Address

No. of Family members

: :

4 88.87
Page | 59

Last Promotion Year

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income:

: :

2007 2007

Reasons for Absenteeism:


Mother was mentally ill from long time. She was recently murdered by her relatives. Court case in section Hamirpur.

Action Plan: The company should arrange counseling session for such employees. The company should provide some compensation.

U.E. No. 081169 Mr. Nand Lal

Designation Grade

: : : : : : : :

Mazdoor E Workshop.
22.06.1965

Deptt.
Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification Native place

01.11.1993 Under Matric Barmana Vill Khater.P.O. Barmana Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.)

Address

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

: :

4 93.03
Page | 60

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income:

: :

2007 2007

Reasons for Absenteeism:


Family Problems Health problems Drinking Habits Frequently stays out of his place when he drinks and return home when he is in his right senses.

Action Plan:
Management should arrange some specialists to help him in leaving his habit of

alcoholism.

U.E. No. 080223 Mr. Achaar Singh

Designation Grade

: : : : : : : :

Worker D Workshop.
06.03.1959 12.03.1984

Deptt.
Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification Native place

6th Lagat Vill Khater.P.O. Barmana Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.)

Address

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

: :

4 103.24
Page | 61

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income:

: :

2007 2007

Reasons for Absenteeism:


Due to court case. Due to illness of his son. Miscellaneous works. He borrows money and drinks frequently.

Action Plan: The employee needs a session of counseling on making him understand the bad effects of absenteeism. The employee should also be made aware about the actions that can be taken against him if he continues to remain absent. Mr. Ramesh Kumar U.E. No. 080427

Designation Grade Department Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification Native place Address No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

: : : : : : : : : :

Machinery Attendant D Kiln Operations January 7, 1964 March 15, 1984 Under Middle Rajipur, Himachal Pradesh Vill Rajipur,P.O. Surajpur Teh. Kalka, Panchkula, Haryana 2 2007
Page | 62

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income

: : :

2007 94.57 Rs none

Reasons for Absenteeism: He is alcoholic and drug addict. He was caught many times inside the plant having drugs. His mental condition is so upset that he changes his quarters very frequently. According to time office staff he changes his quarters 5-6 times in a year. He has never got an increment in his entire career.

Action Plan: This person is getting mental treatment and needs some time to recover.

The employee has got a lot of money and that is also a reason for his not coming to work. The company can arrange better treatment for the person to improve his mental condition. Apart from treatment a session of counseling by experts can also be helpful.

Page | 63

Mr. Suresh Kumar U.E. No. 080066

Designation Grade Department Date of Birth Date of Joining


Qualification Native place Address

: : : : : : : : : : :

Machinery Attendant D Kiln Operations 10.04.1971 01.11.1993 3rd Nalag Barmana, distt. Bilaspur 2 2007 2007
Page | 64

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year Last Increment

Basic Salary

: :

Rs 110.9 none

Other sources of Income

Reasons for Absenteeism: Agriculture. Illness. He said it is important to cultivate the land also. So he absents himself. He comes 5 km walking. During the rainy season if the road is bad he is not able to come to his job. Action Plan: The employee needs a session of counseling on making him understand the bad effects of absenteeism. The employee should also be made aware about the actions that can be taken against him if he continues to remain absent. Mr. Prem Singh U.E. No. 080168

Designation Grade Department Date of Birth Date of Joining


Qualification

: : : : : : : : : :

Machinery Attendant D Cement Mill 06.06.1957 13.03.1984 10th with I.T.I. Slapper Barmana, distt. Bilaspur 2 2007
Page | 65

Native place Address No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income

: : :

2007 Rs 140.58 none

Reasons for Absenteeism: Habitual of drinking; He used to drink a lot till 2008 and never use to have good attendance record. Agriculturist. Due to truck business; He was having his own trucks and used to remain absent if any truck driver was absent, so that he could drive the truck himself. Action Plan: The problem with the employee is his habit of alcoholism, so he needs a treatment for this. Management should arrange some specialists to help him in leaving his habit of alcoholism. Mr. Amar Nath U.E. No. 081320

Designation Grade Department Date of Birth Date of Joining


Qualification

: : : : : : : : : :

Machinery Attendant D Cement Mill 26.12.1951 01.12.1997 10th Panjgain Barmana, distt. Bilaspur 5 2007
Page | 66

Native place Address No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income Reasons for Absenteeism: He is an agriculturist. Due to illness.

: : :

2007 Rs 93.99 none

If there is any happening in the relationships He is satisfied with the management policies but he stated that hamare bolne se paisaa badhega nahin, ghatega nahin Action Plan: The employees main area of concern is that he is not getting enough salary to fulfill his family demands. To motivate the employee a training module on motivation can be implemented. The employee needs a session of counseling on making him understand the bad effects of absenteeism. Mr. Shiv Kumar U.E. No. 080235

Designation Grade Department Date of Birth Date of Joining


Qualification

: : : : : : : : : :

Machinery Attendant B Cement Mill 12.02.1957 21.12.1993 10th Slapper Barmana, distt. Bilaspur 4 2007
Page | 67

Native place Address No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income

: : :

2007 Rs 96.24 none

Reasons for Absenteeism: He has 4 members in his family. Last year he operated upon his eye which resulted in his absents. Death of his father also added to no. of absents he made.

Action Plan: He is fully satisfied with the management and admits that the absents could be reduced. There should be some source of motivation to work in the organization with full conviction. Mr. Madan Lal U.E. No. 080295

Designation Grade Department


Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification Native place Address No. of Family members

: : : : : : : : : :

Machinery Attendant D Cement Mill 04.10.1956 22.08.1995 8th Bilaspur Bilaspur 5 2007
Page | 68

Last Promotion Year

Last Increment
Basic Salary

: : :

2007 Rs 102.96 none

Other sources of Income

Reasons for Absenteeism: He got a fracture in foot and therefore was absent for many days. He has got a truck as an extra source of income. He is having a skin allergy problem while working in the plant, he needs a change in job which can prevent his skin from the allergies of workplace. Action Plan: His deptt. must be shifted from immediate effect as he is having health problems by working there. His attendance this year should be closely monitored.

Mr. Sanjay Kumar U.E. No. 081168

Designation Grade

: : : : : : : : : : :

Mazdoor E Cement Mill 02.04.1966 21.04.1999 10th Barmana Barmana, distt. Bilaspur 3 2007 2007
Page | 69

Department
Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification Native place

Address
No. of Family members

Last Promotion Year Last Increment

Basic Salary

: :

Rs 91.87 none

Other sources of Income

Reasons for Absenteeism: The employee says that his mother is very old and his wife was also very ill and therefore he remained absent from duty in order to take care of them. He also takes care of his land and therefore makes absents from work.

Action Plan: It was not clear from the interview of the person why he remains absent from duty. A Counseling session must be arranged for such employees.

Mr. Ashwani Kumar U.E. No. 081224

Designation Grade Deptt.


Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : :

Mazdoor D Raw Mills March 07th 1967 March 15th 1985 Baht Kasol Vill Baht Kasol,P.O. Dhar Tatoh ,Teh. Sadar Distt. Bilaspur

Native place Address

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

: :

5 2005
Page | 70

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income Reasons for absenteeism: Agriculture, as he owns land. Lack of interest in work

: : :

2005 Rs.97.79 land

He got a chest infection due to which he couldnt attend his duty. He has conveyance problem in coming to the plant.

Action Plan: A counseling session should be arranged for the employee to make him realize the importance of employment. To motivate the employee a training module on motivation can be implemented. He says that the attitude of management is not good. The management needs to change such mindset of its employees.

Mr. Ramesh Chand U.E. No. 081078

Designation Grade Deptt.


Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : :

Machinary Attendent D MVM Deptt. April 20th 1958 Feb 16th 1987 Shastri Dehar Vill Devaram,P.O. Dehar, Teh. SunderNagar, Distt. Mandi (H.P.)
Page | 71

Qualification Native place


Address

No.of Family members


Last Promotion Year

: : : : :

5 2005 2005 Rs. 93.96/none

Last Increment Basic Salary


Other sources of Income

Reasons for Absenteeism:


One of his sons is a trained professional, who in future can be a good earning member

of the family, therefore may be he is lacking in motivation to come to his job. In the last one year his wife was seriously ill, so he remained absent from duty. His old mother also lives with them, so he has to take care of her health also. Action Plan:
Attendance record of employee should personally be supervised by the HR Deptt.,

since he is not satisfied by the dealing of time office. The employees personal request should be taken care of while arranging a counseling session. Mr. Seva Das U.E. No. 080721

Designation
Grade Deptt. Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : : (H.P.) :

Mason A Civil Deptt. Oct 7th 1956 March 14th 1984 Middle Bahot Kasool V.P.O.Bahot Kasool,Distt. Bilaspur 7
Page | 72

Qualification Native place


Address

No. of Family members

Last Promotion Year Last Increment

: : : :

2007 2007 Rs. 134.64

Basic Salary
Other sources of Income

Reasons for Absenteeism:


In the year 2007 due to serious health reasons, he could not attend his duty regularly

and was absent for almost 3.5 months. His is not satisfied by the promotion strategies of the company.

ACTION PLAN:
After observing the previous record of the employee it is very clear that he was absent

from duty due to some genuine reasons and therefore is not to be blamed.
During the interview he himself was feeling very bad for not getting increment this

year, and so does not requires any serious effort from the managements side Mr. Roshan Lal U.E. No. 081299

Designation
Grade Deptt. Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor C Mining Deptt. Dec 11th,1953 Aug14th, 1993 Under Matric Baloh Vill.Baloh,P.O.Dhavan Kothi Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.)

Qualification Native place


Address

Page | 73

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income

: : : : :

8 2007 2007 Rs.91.12/-

REASONS FOR ABSENTEEISM: He is having some health reasons, like allergy on the skin due to work conditions.
In 2009 he remained absent due to the death of his father for more than 2 months.

He is the stockist for ACC cement at Panjgain and has a lot of extra income.
He is having close (cousin is union president) links with the union.

He says company ke liye jitna bhi kaam kare yeh to khush hi nahi hote.
He says that he does not get enough recognition from the company for his efforts

though he is accused of fraud with the company twice. He says that higher management should take more interest in the problems of employees.

ACTION PLAN: On the basis of interview it was observed that person was not much concerned about his habit of absenteeism as much he was concerned about being rewarded by management. He did not sound true in his response.
He needs a counseling session by experts to make him realize the importance of the

organization in his life.


Since his business is also dependent on the company so his liability towards the

company is more.
Page | 74

U.E. No. 081242 Mr. Sanjeev Kumar

Designation Grade Deptt. Date of Birth Date of Joining Qualification Native place Address

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Cement Mill Deptt. Jan 4th,1976 Dec 14th,1994 Middle Panjgain V.P.O. Panjgain Teh.Sadar Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.) .

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

: :

2 2007
Page | 75

Last Increment Basic Salary Other sources of Income

: : :

2007 85.56 none .

Reasons for Absenteeism:


He has got no. of trucks.

He is an alcoholic and drug addict. He comes to attend the job from his home but never attends it. He is in a very bad company and is spoiling himself. He is highly indulged in bad activities. Action Plan: The employee is a habitual absentee and it is very difficult to improve him. He needs counseling sessions making him realize that he is spoiling his family alongside his own wrong deeds. U.E. No. 081217 Mr. Kashmir Singh

Designation
Grade Deptt. Date of Birth Date of Joining

: : : : : : : :

Majdoor E Packing House Deptt. April 12th,1964 Nov 3rd,1993 7th Delag Vill.Delag P.O. Distt. Bilaspur (H.P.)

Qualification Native place


Address

No. of Family members Last Promotion Year

: :

7 2007
Page | 76

Last Increment

: : :

2007 92.18Rs/-. none

Basic Salary
Other sources of Income

Reasons for Absenteeism: Last year his wife got a paralysis attack and for her treatment he has to remain absent from duty. He is the only earning person in the family and dont own any trucks. He has got 2 awards in his entire career and wants promotion. Action Plan:
This employee is satisfied on the part of management and we completely hope for his

attendance of 240 days in the year 2011. His reason was quite genuine and his attendance this year should be keenly examined as he promises not to be absent this year. OVERALL REASONS FOR ABSENTEEISM:
Due to Health Problems most of the employees could not attend the duty. Some of

them have fractured body parts, many have normal illnesses and some got operated upon their body parts.
A number of workers were addicted to various intoxicants like alcohol and

smoking which affects their punctuality at workplace. Though some of these are casual drunkards, most others are habitual drunkards and even have cases of abuse against others after having excess liquor.
Some workers state the reason behind their absenteeism as the poor state of health

among their family members. This affects their state of mind at the work place and for the treatment of their close relatives and family members they remain absent from duty.
Some of the workers state financial problems also as one of the reasons for

absenteeism. The reason being extra activities to earn some more income, which results into absenteeism.
Page | 77

Most of the workers are not satisfied with the housing facility provision of the

company, as the company provides housing accommodation to only those employees who are residents of area beyond at least 10 kms of the factory premises.
Some of the employees stated difficulty in coming from far- off places and want the

management to start some kind of conveyance facility to be started for the employees who commute daily to the plant by other sources of transportation.
Some of the employees were not satisfied with the salary structure at ACC. They

think that the amount of salary they are getting is very less in comparison to the work done by them.
Most of the employees are satisfied with the housing loan facility offered by ACC.

But many of them are misusing the money which is resulting into absenteeism.
Most of the employees remain absent from duty since there is no fear of loss of job at

ACC. The sense of Job- Security gives them the freedom to be reluctant towards their duties and remain absent.
Many workers have some other sources of income in the form of Trucks,

Accommodations on rent at various places, Dealerships of Cement agencies etc. which are a good source of income for them .So they are doing the job for the sake of doing it and dont feel any reason to come regularly.
Some workers want change in their working shift to be able to fulfill their family

obligations.
Many workers are not satisfied with the promotion policy of the ACC. Many workers state that they were absent due to family functions. Some of the workers told that their primary source of living is agriculture and to take

care of their land they remain absent during season of sowing or reaping etc.
Some workers were facing mental problem and therefore remains absent from duty.

According to a Time-office Staff member, These people have got jobs without facing any struggle and therefore they dont know the value of employment. Another
Page | 78

member states that. ACC has very lenient attitude towards the problem of absenteeism which is affecting the company now. Lack of sense of responsibility is another major reason for absenteeism.

ACTION PLAN: Absenteeism is one of the long overdue problems at ACC. Several studies have been conducted in the past and as many suggestions were given, but till date no serious action has been taken against the problem of absenteeism. During the course of my interactions with the employees, I was able to get the reasons as stated above and also in their individual interview sheets. On the basis of my intense research on the topic by personally interviewing these employees as well as an in-depth study of their personal files I would like to suggest the following action plan against these employees with immediate effect:
Revise the company policy on Job-Security :

After observing the records of these employees, it was quite clear that most of them know very well that whatever may happen but there job at ACC is secure. Company should realize that this mindset of workers is dangerous for the future of the company. Therefore the management should devise some changes for regular absentees as below: Termination from job in extreme cases Deduction in Salary No grant of loan Facilities No grant of special benefits enjoyed by a normal ACC employee No provision for housing accommodation for regular absentees.
Page | 79

Arrange Counseling Sessions with Experts:

The management at ACC should organize counseling sessions for those facing psychological problems to help them, but this should be the final chance given to them. Since some are alcoholic to extreme extent, so counseling by experts can help them.

Organizing Training Programs:

The management at ACC should design training program for the employees who are lacking motivation to work. The training program can be helpful on following aspects: Inculcate sense of responsibility Teaching value of employment

Effect on productivity due to absenteeism to make them realize the amount of loss, company is suffering due to them.

To tell them the importance of organization in their lives. Conveyance Facility : The company should look into the matter of providing conveyance facility to and fro the residence. It will enhance the habit of punctuality and reduce absenteeism. Promotion Policy: Company can revise its promotion policy by promoting those employees, who remained absent due to genuine reasons.
The job- rotation as well as change in work shifts can be provided according to the

seriousness of the employees problem. Since one of the employees stated during
Page | 80

interview that he was very upset and couldnt attend the duty as his work shift was not changed despite numerous requests. The Sr. Manager at GCW should take personal interest in the problems of the employees and should personally arrange counseling sessions with them as far as possible. Also he should track the records of all the stated employees personally.

FREQUENCY TABLE:
1.Gender Valid Frequency Valid Male 47 Female 3 Total 50 Percent 94.0 6.0 100.0 Percent 94.0 6.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 94.0 100.0

Page | 81

INTERPRETATION: In this graph, 1 denotes those respondents who are male and 2 denotes those respondents who are female and it is clear that 47 respondents out of 50 are male and only 3 respondents are female that is, 94% constitutes male and only 6% constitutes female. 2.Marital status Valid Frequency Valid Married 44 Unmarried 6 Total 50 Percent 88.0 12.0 100.0 Percent 88.0 12.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 88.0 100.0

Page | 82

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the marital statuses of employees. 1 denotes those respondents who are married and 2 denotes those respondents who are unmarried and it is clear that the out of 50 employees, 44 employees are married and 6 employees are unmarried.

3.Number of members in the family Valid Frequency Valid Three 5 Four 21 Five 13 above five 11 Total 50 Percent 10.0 42.0 26.0 22.0 100.0 Percent 10.0 42.0 26.0 22.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 10.0 52.0 78.0 100.0

Page | 83

INTERPRETATION: This graph shows the frequencies of number of members in the family of employees. 1 denotes those respondents having three members in the family; 2 denotes those respondents having four members in the family; 3 denotes those respondents having five members in the family and 4 denotes those respondents having more than five members in the family. It is clear from the above graph that out of 50 respondents, 5 respondents are having three members in the family; 21 respondents are having four members in the family; 13 respondents are having five members in the family and 11 respondents are having more than five members in the family. 4.Number of working members in the family Valid Frequency Valid One 29 Two 15 above two 6 Total 50 Percent 58.0 30.0 12.0 100.0 Percent 58.0 30.0 12.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 58.0 88.0 100.0

Page | 84

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of the number of working members in the family and it is clear from the above graph that 29 out of 50 respondents have only 1 working member in the family; 15 respondents have 2 working members in the family and only 6 respondents have more than 2 working members in the family. 5.Do you find any requirement to take long absence from duty? Valid Frequency Valid Yes 17 No 33 Total 50 Percent 34.0 66.0 100.0 Percent 34.0 66.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 34.0 100.0

Page | 85

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of requirements to take long absence from the duty. 1 denotes those respondents who find the requirement to take long absence from the duty and 2 denotes those respondents who do not find any requirement to take long absence from the duty. 6.if yes, for what reasons do you prefer long absence Cumulative Valid family matter social matter legal matter none of the above NA Total Frequency 10 2 2 3 33 50 Percent 20.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 66.0 100.0 Valid Percent 20.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 66.0 100.0 Percent 20.0 24.0 28.0 34.0 100.0

Page | 86

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of various reasons to take long absence from the duty and it is found that 10 respondents out of 50 gave family matter as a reason to take long absence from duty; 2 respondents gave social matter as a reason to take long absence from duty; 2 respondents gave legal matter as a reason and 3 respondents did not give any particular reason for their long absence from the duty. 7.Are you aware of various authorized leave facilities available in your organization? Valid Frequency Valid Yes 48 No 2 Total 50 Percent 96.0 4.0 100.0 Percent 96.0 4.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 96.0 100.0

Page | 87

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of awareness of various authorized leave facilities available in the organization and it is found from the above histogram that 48 respondents out of 50 respondents aware of the various leave facilities available in their organization and only 2 respondents are unaware of the leave facilities. 8.Whether you have any other source of income? Valid Cumulative Frequency Valid Yes 19 No 31 Total 50 Percent 38.0 62.0 100.0 Percent 38.0 62.0 100.0 Percent 38.0 100.0

Page | 88

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of any other source of income and it is clear that 19 out of 50 respondents have other source of income and rest of the respondents do not have any other source of income. 9. if yes, specify the source Cumulative Frequency Valid agriculture 11 Business 1 Transport 7 NA 31 Total 50 Percent 22.0 2.0 14.0 62.0 100.0 Valid Percent Percent 22.0 22.0 2.0 24.0 14.0 38.0 62.0 100.0 100.0

Page | 89

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of the other source of income. It is found that the 11 respondents gave agriculture as other source of income; 1 respondent gave business as other source of income and 7 respondents gave transport as other source of income. 10. Whether you are satisfied with the present leave structure? Valid Frequency Valid Yes 43 No 7 Total 50 Percent 86.0 14.0 100.0 Percent 86.0 14.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 86.0 100.0

Page | 90

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of the satisfaction with the present leave structure and it is clear that 43 respondents out of 50 are well satisfied with the present leave structure while rest 7 respondents are not satisfied with the present leave structure.

11. Whether you need any extra health and hygienic benefit? Valid Frequency Valid Yes 32 No 18 Total 50 Percent 64.0 36.0 100.0 Percent 64.0 36.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 64.0 100.0

Page | 91

INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows the frequencies of need of any extra health and hygienic benefit and it is found from the histogram that 32 respondents out of 50 respondents need extra health and hygienic benefit and rest 18 respondents do not need any health and hygienic benefit. 12. Do you need any improvement in the working conditions? Valid Frequency Valid Yes 22 No 28 Total 50 Percent 44.0 56.0 100.0 Percent 44.0 56.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 44.0 100.0

Page | 92

INTERPRETATION: This graph shows the frequencies of need of any improvement in the working conditions and it is clear from the above histogram that 22 out of 59 respondents need an improvement in the working conditions and rest 28 respondents do not need any improvement in the working conditions. 13. If yes, please specify

Page | 93

Cumulative Valid Compensation pay scale should be wised transport facility difference between MS and Frequency 2 1 5 Percent 4.0 2.0 10.0 4.0 4.0 10.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 56.0 100.0 Valid Percent 4.0 2.0 10.0 4.0 4.0 10.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 56.0 100.0 Percent 4.0 6.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 34.0 38.0 42.0 44.0 100.0

2 NMS should be narrowed better activities 2 increase in salary 5 educational and recreational 2 trips proper training 2 more allowance 1 NA 28 Total 50

Page | 94

INTERPRETATION: This above graph shows the frequencies of the improvements that the respondents need in their working condition and it is clear from the frequency table that 2 respondents need more compensation; 1 respondent need wise ness in the pay scale; 5 respondents need improvement in the transport facility; 2 respondents suggest that the difference between the Management staff and the Non-Management staff must be reduced; 2 respondents need better activities; 5 respondents need increase in salary; 2 respondents needs more educational and recreational trips; 2 respondents need proper training and 1 respondent suggest more allowance.

Page | 95

FACTOR ANALYSIS:
KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square Df Sig.

.615 436.366 171 .000

INTERPRETATION: Kaiser- Meyer Olkin and Bartletts test has been applied to check the adequacy of data and the value is 0.615 which is more than idle value 0.5 hence data is adequate.

Page | 96

Communalities Initial Extraction is your work tiring 1.000 .683 are you required 1.000 .729 overtime in your work is it possible for you to take leave whenever possible how often do you take leave without giving information which of the following do you avail often are you satisfied with leave facility what is your opinion regarding the pay what is your opinion about your wages related to your work what is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization?Aworking conditions B-medical provision C-welfare activities D-job satisfaction E-leave facilities F-relationship with coworkers H-communication system G-relationship with supervisor I-transport system J-social life K-recreational activities 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 .830 .735 .644 .802 .884 .783 .819 .858 .674 .864 1.000 .669 1.000 .843 1.000 .578

1.000 1.000 1.000

.658 .830 .757

1.000

.870

Page | 97

It is assumed that Eigen value is 1 for all variables which refers that all variables are equally important for the research. Mostly it was found that some lies below than 0.5 and some lies above the 0.5. Those variables which are above than 0.5 are only considered for the research. But here in this research all variables are above 0.5, it means that the research is considerable and all the variables are taken for the research. INTERPRETATION: The above table states that there are 7 factors having an Eigen value of more than 1. The last column of the table (cumulative %) shows these 7 factors extracted together account for 76.371% of the total variance.

Page | 98

Page | 99

is your work tiring are you required overtime in your work is it possible for you to take leave whenever possible how often do you take leave without giving information which of the following do you avail often are you satisfied with leave facility what is your opinion regarding the pay what is your opinion about your wages related to your work what is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization? Aworking conditions B-medical provision C-welfare activities D-job satisfaction E-leave facilities F-relationship with coworkers H-communication system G-relationship with supervisor I-transport system J-social life

Rotated Component Matrixa Component 1 2 3 4 -.622 .027 -.125 .430 -.269 -.246 .016 .044

5 .304 .746

6 .030 .116

7 .031 .157

.323

.062

.607

-.094

-.025

-.284

.105

.033

.032

-.059

.081

.856

-.127

-.288

.015 .121 .174

.011 .089 .688

-.780 .817 .328

-.023 -.045 -.127

.053 -.030 -.273

.143 .352 .186

.157 .114 .142

.051

.087

-.027

.010

-.081

.039

.922

.757

.127

-.077

.059

.085

.252

.013

.194 .276 .444 .692 .153 .591 -.034 -.081 .597

.078 .327 .234 .001 .009 -.034 .061 .894 .407

.000 -.071 .362 .324 -.123 .307 .052 -.081 .224

.106 -.018 .156 .124 .910 .462 .871 .109 .124

-.112 .066 -.470 -.345 -.069 -.280 .141 -.138 -.072

.873 .732 .095 .289 -.108 .211 .179

.012 .081 -.085 .012 -.002 .035 .005

.053 -.105 .121 Page | 100 .258

is your work tiring are you required overtime in your work is it possible for you to take leave whenever possible how often do you take leave without giving information which of the following do you avail often are you satisfied with leave facility what is your opinion regarding the pay what is your opinion about your wages related to your work what is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization? Aworking conditions B-medical provision C-welfare activities D-job satisfaction E-leave facilities F-relationship with coworkers H-communication system G-relationship with supervisor I-transport system J-social life

Rotated Component Matrixa Component 1 2 3 4 -.622 .027 -.125 .430 -.269 -.246 .016 .044

5 .304 .746

6 .030 .116

7 .031 .157

.323

.062

.607

-.094

-.025

-.284

.105

.033

.032

-.059

.081

.856

-.127

-.288

.015 .121 .174

.011 .089 .688

-.780 .817 .328

-.023 -.045 -.127

.053 -.030 -.273

.143 .352 .186

.157 .114 .142

.051

.087

-.027

.010

-.081

.039

.922

.757

.127

-.077

.059

.085

.252

.013

.194 .276 .444 .692 .153 .591 -.034 -.081 .597

.078 .327 .234 .001 .009 -.034 .061 .894 .407

.000 -.071 .362 .324 -.123 .307 .052 -.081 .224

.106 -.018 .156 .124 .910 .462 .871 .109 .124

-.112 .066 -.470 -.345 -.069 -.280 .141 -.138 -.072

.873 .732 .095 .289 -.108 .211 .179

.012 .081 -.085 .012 -.002 .035 .005

.053 -.105 .121 Page | 101 .258

INTERPRETATION: From the data in the above table, we may conclude that there are only 7 components and the components having value more than 0.7 are taken into consideration component wise and grouped/combined together to form a new factor. In the first component, the component having value greater than 0.7 is:

What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization Aworking conditions? .757

In the second component, the component having value greater than 0.7 are:

What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization Itransport system? .894 What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization K-recreational activities? .720

In the third component, the components having value greater than 0.7 are:

Are you satisfied with leave facility? 0.817

In the fourth component, the component having value greater than 0.7 are:

What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization Frelationship with co-workers? 0.910 What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization G-relationship with supervisor? 0.871

In the fifth component, the component having value greater than 0.7 are:

Are you required overtime in your work? 0.746 How often do you take leave without giving information? 0.856

In the sixth component, the component having value greater than 0.7 are:

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What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization Bmedical provision? 0.873 What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization Cwelfare activities? 0.732

In the seventh component, the component having value greater than 0.7 is:

What is your opinion about your wages related to your work? 0.922

Using this matrix, following factors are important in my research. These are the factors which will decide the reasons for absenteeism in the employees of ACC Gagal Cement Works.

Satisfaction in various factors like working conditions, transport system, recreational activities, medical facilities, leave facilities, welfare activities, relationship with co-workers and supervisors.

Satisfactory wages related to the work. Overtime required in the job. Appropriate information about the leave facility.

DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS:

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Tests of Equality of Group Means Wilks' is your work tiring are you required overtime in your work is it possible for you to take leave whenever possible how often do you take leave without Lambda .864 .969 .985 F 7.587 1.519 .726 .136 .707 3.135 .098 df1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 df2 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 Sig. .008 .224 .399 .714 .405 .083 .756

.997 giving information are you satisfied with leave facility .985 what is your opinion regarding the .939 pay what is your opinion about your .998 wages related to your work what is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization? .963 A-working conditions B-medical provision C-welfare activities D-job satisfaction E-leave facilities F-relationship with co-workers G-relationship with supervisor H-communication system I-transport system J-social life K-recreational activities 1.000 .999 .947 .949 .958 .937 .973 .920 .907 .947

1.870 .010 .031 2.684 2.574 2.128 3.203 1.308 4.167 4.900 2.700

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48

.178 .921 .860 .108 .115 .151 .080 .258 .047 .032 .107

INTERPRETATION: The above table shows the Tests of Equality of Group Means and calculated the Wilks Lambda, F values, df1, df2 and significant values of the questions. The questions having F value greater than 1 are significant. In the above table, there are 12 significant values out of 18.

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Wilks' Lambda Test of Function(s) 1 Wilks' Lambda .606 Chi-square 19.552 df 18 Sig. .359

INTERPRETATION: The above table shows Wilks Lambda value and it comes out to be 0.606 which is greater than the significant value which is 0.359.

Classification Resultsa whether you have any Predicted Group Membership other source of income yes Original Count Yes 18 No 4 % Yes 94.7 No 12.9 a. 90.0% of original grouped cases correctly classified. INTERPRETATION: The above table shows the Classification results and 90% of original grouped cases are correctly classified No 1 27 5.3 87.1 Total 19 31 100.0 100.0

FINDINGS:
Based on the interviews and analysis of data collected, the findings that have come forward are:

LACK OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CULTURE: Prior to this industry there was no industry in this area. During the establishment of this industry, land was purchased from the local inhabitants of Barmana. The company gave employment to at least one member of each family from whom land was purchased. But they lack in the basic industrial culture.

LAND: Maximum employees of ACC GCW have their own lands. They find it necessary to take holidays during the time of sowing of seeds in the field and harvesting. So they take leaves from their work.
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ILLNESS: Illness is another major factor which has been analyzed during the conduction of interviews, which is responsible for absenteeism.

DRINKING HABITS: Maximum employees are habitual drinkers. Even some do their duty under the influence of liquor which may even sometimes lead to fatal as well as non-fatal accidents.

LACK OF SATISFACTION: Employees are not satisfied with the amount of pay they receive, although, they themselves are responsible for it, as they remain absent. They even say that the amount of work done is more than the salary they receive from the organization.

LEVEL OF PROSPERITY: General level of prosperity among the people of Barmana is very high.

FINANCIAL PROBLEMS: Some of the workers state financial problems also as

one of the reasons for absenteeism. The reason being extra activities to earn some more income, which results into absenteeism.
HOUSING FACILITY PROVISION: Most of the workers are not satisfied with the

housing facility provision of the company, as the company provides housing accommodation to only those employees who are residents of area beyond at least 10 kms of the factory premises.
CONVEYANCE FACILITY: Some of the employees stated difficulty in coming

from far- off places and want the management to start some kind of conveyance facility for the employees who come daily to the plant by other sources of transportation.

JOB SECURITY: Most of the employees remain absent from duty since there is no fear of loss of job at ACC. The sense of Job- Security gives them the freedom to be reluctant towards their duties and remain absent.

According to Mr. Roop Singh Thakur, Ex-president of I.N.T.U.C. (Indian National Trade Union Congress), for last 17 years: Maximum workers of ACC, GCW are financially sound. Their main business is of Trucks. They only work in the organization to pass their time. Therefore, they absent themselves.
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RECOMMENDATIONS:
There are few recommendations, which if followed, by the management can be of great help to improve as well as to manage the problems of absenteeism.
Revise the company policy on Job-Security :

After observing the records of the employees, it was quite clear that most of them know very well that whatever may happen but there job at ACC is secure. Company should realize that this mindset of workers is dangerous for the future of the company. Therefore the management should devise some changes for regular absentees as below:

Termination from job in extreme cases. Deduction in Salary. No grant of loan Facilities.
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No grant of special benefits enjoyed by a normal ACC employee.

No provision for housing accommodation for regular absentees.


Arrange Counseling Sessions with Experts:

The management at ACC should organize counseling sessions for those facing psychological problems to help them, but this should be the final chance given to them. Since some are alcoholic to extreme extent, so counseling by experts can help them.
Organizing Training Programs:

The management at ACC should design training program for the employees who are lacking motivation to do work. The training program can be helpful on following aspects: Inculcate sense of responsibility Teaching value of employment

Effect on productivity due to absenteeism to make them realize the amount of loss, company is suffering due to them.

To tell them the importance of organization in their lives. Conveyance Facility : The company should look into the matter of providing conveyance facility to and fro the residence. It will enhance the habit of punctuality and reduce absenteeism. Promotion Policy: Company can revise its promotion policy by promoting those employees, who remained absent due to genuine reasons.
Communication gap should be reduced between workers and Management.

Workers should be employed according to their education. Differences between Management staff and Non-Management staff must be reduced to improve their relationship.
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Various educational trips as well as recreational trips must be organized for the employees.
The job- rotation as well as change in work shifts can be provided according to the

seriousness of the employees problem. Since one of the employees stated during interview that he was very upset and couldnt attend the duty as his work shift was not changed despite numerous requests. The Sr. Manager at GCW should take personal interest in the problems of the employees and should personally arrange counseling sessions with them as far as possible. Also he should track the records of all the stated employees personally.

REFERENCES:
Mc Clenney, Mary Ann, "A Study of the Relationship Between Absenteeism and Job

Satisfaction, Certain Personal Characteristics, and Situational Factors for Employees in a Public Agency", 1992
Rhodes, Susan, Managing Employee Absenteeism, New York: Addison-Wesley,

1990
Goodman, Paul S., and others. Absenteeism, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984 Jones, Absenteeism:a study prepared for the department [of Employment],Great

Britain, Dept.of Employment, 1971

WEB LINKS:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACC_Limited
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http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_trip_report_to_acc_gagal.pdf http://www.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/absenteeism http://www.paycheck.in/main/work-and-pay/paycheck-articles-archives/managingabsenteeism-in-the-workplace

http://absenteeism.co.tv/ http://www.citehr.com/233830-absenteeism-indian-industries.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/54253258/1/Chapter-I http://superfriends13.tripod.com/causes_absent.htm http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3541343/absenteeism-rate http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0030507380900720 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001879197915815 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2659_128/ai_61586737/

ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE
Filling this questionnaire is a part of my research work on topic Reasons for increase in absenteeism in the employees of ACC Gagal Cement Works (GCW) and the information provided by the respondent would be used only for project work and would be kept private. Name: Department: 1. Age (in years): a. less than 25 2. Gender: a. Male 3. Marital Status: a. Married b. 25-35 c. 35-45 d. Above 45

b. Female

b. Unmarried
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4. Number of members in the family a. Three b. Four

c. Five

d. above five

5. Number of working members in the family a. One b. Two c. above two 6. Monthly Income a. Below 10000 b. 10000-13000 7. Experience a. Below 5 years

c. 13000-16000

d. Above 16000

b. 5-10 years

c. 10-20 years

d. Above 20 years

8. Nature of the work a. Hard b. Moderate 9. Is your work tiring? a. Always b. Often

c. Better

c. Sometimes

d. Never

10. Which shift do you find more difficult to work? a. Day b. Evening c. Night 11. Are you required overtime in your job? a. Always b. Often c. Sometimes 12. Is it possible for you to get leave whenever you require? a. Always b. Often c. Sometimes 13. How often do you take leave without giving information? a. Always b. Sometimes c. Never 14. Which of the following do you avail often? a. Medical Leave b. Casual Leave c. Privileged Leave 15. A. Do you find any requirement to take long absence from duty? a. Yes b. No B. If yes, for what reasons do you prefer long absence? a. Family Matter b. Social Matter c. Legal Matter Matter e.) None of the above 16. Are you satisfied with leave facility?
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d. Never

d. Never

d. All

d.

Religious

a. Highly satisfied dissatisfied

b. satisfied

c. Neutral

d. Dissatisfied

e.

highly

17. What is your opinion regarding the pay? a. Highly satisfied b. satisfied c. Neutral dissatisfied

d. Dissatisfied

e.

highly

18. Are you aware of various authorized leave facilities available in your organization (causal leave, sick leave, paid holidays)? a. Yes b. No 19. A. Whether you have any other source of income? a. Yes b. No B. If yes, specify the source. 20. Whether you are satisfied with the present leave procedure? a. Yes b. No 21. What is your opinion about your wages related to your work? a. Above average b. Average c. Below Average d. No Idea 22. Whether you need any extra health and hygienic benefits? a) Yes b. No 23. What is your opinion on the following facilities offered by the organization? PARTICULARS HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED

A:Working conditions B:Medical provision C:Welfare Activities D:Job Satisfaction E:Leave facilities F:Relationship with Co-workers G:Relationship with Supervisor
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H:Communication system G:Transport system 24. A. Do you need any improvements in the working conditions? a. Yes b. No B. If yes, please specify ..........

THANK YOU

ABSENTEEISM RECORD:

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2009 RECORD:

2010 RECORD:

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2011RECORD:

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