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AP Bio Unit 7 Study Guide Chapter 42


Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Which of the following blood components would interfere with the functioning of an open circulatory system but not a closed one? a. electrolytes b. water c. red blood cells d. amino acids e. antibodies 2. In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body? a. annelid b. mollusc c. fish d. frog e. insect 3. Three-chambered hearts generally consist of which of the following numbers of atria and ventricles? a. one atrium; one ventricle b. two atria; one ventricle c. three atria; no ventricles d. no atria; three ventricles e. one atrium; two ventricles 4. To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n) a. open circulatory system. b. hemocoel. c. lymphatic system. d. two-chambered heart. e. four-chambered heart.

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Refer to the diagram of the human heart in the figure below to answer the following questions.

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5. Chambers or vessels that carry oxygenated blood include which of the following? a. 1 and 2 only b. 3 and 4 only c. 5 and 6 only d. 1, 2, and 4 e. 3, 5, and 6 6. Blood is carried directly to the lungs from which of the following? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 e. 6 7. In order for an insect to grow as large as an elephant, what changes or modifications would need to be made in the circulatory systems of insects? a. The circulating body fluid would need to be contained in closed vessels. b. The heart would need to have multiple chambers. c. The heart would need to have multiple ostia. d. Only A and B are correct. e. A, B, and C are correct. 8. Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans a. is a major contributor to heart attacks. b. would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers. c. would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance. d. would disrupt the rate and timing of cardia muscle contractions. e. would have an effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta.

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9. What can be expected to happen to the blood pressure of a healthy individual during inhalation? a. The systolic pressure would rise and the diastolic pressure would decrease. b. The extra pressure exerted by the inflating lungs will increase blood pressure. c. There will be a transient decrease in blood pressure. d. Blood pressure will initially increase and then immediately decrease. e. Nothing will happen in healthy individuals.

____ 10. What is the reason that fluid is forced out of systemic capillaries at the arteriole end? a. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood. b. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid. c. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood. d. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood. e. The osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid. ____ 11. If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then a. hemoglobin will not release oxygen. b. fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues. c. the pH of the interstitial fluids will increase. d. most carbon dioxide will be bound to hemoglobin and carried away from tissues. e. plasma proteins will escape through the endothelium of the capillaries. ____ 12. If a person were suffering from edema, which of the following conditions would help to reduce the accumulation of interstitial fluid? a. decrease of plasma protein production by the liver b. constriction of the smooth layer of the arteriole c. removal of an obstruction in the lymphatic system d. decrease of the systolic blood pressure e. enlargement of clefts between capillary endothelial cells ____ 13. Which of the following is not a function of plasma proteins in humans? a. maintenance of blood osmotic pressure b. transport of water-insoluble lipids c. blood clotting d. immune responses e. oxygen transport ____ 14. Cyanide acts as a mitochondrial poison by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. What will happen to human red blood cells if they are placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide? a. The cell shape will be maintained, but the mitochondria will be poisoned. b. The cells will lyse as the cyanide concentration increases inside the cell. c. As a protective mechanism, the cells will switch to anaerobic metabolism. d. The cells will not be able to carry oxygen. e. The cells will probably be unaffected.

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The following phrases refer to the five terms below. Each term can be used as an answer once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. low-density lipoproteins immunoglobulins erythropoietin epinephrine platelets

____ 15. speeds up heart rate a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E ____ 16. involved in the early stages of blood clotting a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E ____ 17. The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein? a. fibrinogen b. fibrin c. thrombin d. prothrombin e. collagen Match the following phrases to the conditions. Each condition may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. atherosclerosis arteriosclerosis hypertension heart murmur cardiovascular thrombus

____ 18. high blood pressure a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E

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____ 19. defect in one or more of the valves of the heart a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E ____ 20. Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common? a. The exchange surfaces are moist. b. They are enclosed within ribs. c. They are maintained at a constant temperature. d. They are exposed to air. e. They are found only in animals. ____ 21. If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all of the following structures except the a. right atrium. b. pulmonary vein. c. alveolus. d. trachea. e. right ventricle. ____ 22. Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because a. the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume. b. pressure in the alveoli increases. c. gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. d. pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs. e. a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes. ____ 23. Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs? a. The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases. b. The residual volume of the lungs decreases. c. The diaphragm contracts. d. The epiglottis closes. e. The rib cage expands. ____ 24. A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of a. 1,450 mL. b. 4,000 mL. c. 4,450 mL. d. 5,000 mL. e. 5,450 mL. ____ 25. Air flows in only one direction through the lungs of which animals? a. frogs b. birds c. mammals d. crocodiles e. flying insects 5

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____ 26. Why is the respiratory system of a bird more efficient than the human respiratory system? a. The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air. b. A bird lung contains multiple alveoli, which increases the amount of surface area available for gas exchange. c. The human respiratory system ends in small parabronchi, which reduce the amount of surface area available for gas exchange. d. Only B and C are correct. e. A, B, and C are correct. ____ 27. The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate? a. nitric acid b. nitrogen c. oxygen d. carbon dioxide e. carbon monoxide ____ 28. Breathing is usually regulated by a. erythropoietin levels in the blood. b. the concentration of red blood cells. c. hemoglobin levels in the blood. d. CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level sensors. e. the lungs and the larynx. ____ 29. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Oxygen gas is approximately 21% of the total gases in the atmosphere. What is the approximate partial pressure of oxygen? a. 0.2 mm Hg b. 20.0 mm Hg c. 76.0 mm Hg d. 160.0 mm Hg e. 508.0 mm Hg ____ 30. At the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is 380 mm Hg. If the atmosphere is still composed of 21% oxygen, what is the partial pressure of oxygen at this altitude? a. 0 mm Hg b. 80 mm Hg c. 160 mm Hg d. 380 mm Hg e. 760 mm Hg

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Use the data shown below to answer the following questions. Blood entering a capillary bed of a vertebrate was measured for the pressures exerted by various factors. Arterial End of Capillary Verous End of Bed Capillary Bed Hydrostatic pressure 8 mm Hg 14 mm Hg Osmotic pressure 26 mm Hg 26 mm Hg PO 2 100 mm Hg 42 mm Hg P CO 2 40 mm Hg 46 mm Hg ____ 31. For this capillary bed, which of the following statements is correct? a. The pH is lower on the arterial side than on the venous side. b. Oxygen is taken up by the erythrocytes within the capillaries. c. The osmotic pressure remains constant due to carbon dioxide compensation. d. The hydrostatic pressure declines from the arterial side to the venous side because oxygen is lost. e. Fluids will leave the capillaries on the arterial side of the bed and re-enter on the venous side. ____ 32. The site of this capillary bed could be all of the following except the a. pancreas. b. muscle tissue. c. medulla. d. alveoli. e. kidneys. ____ 33. Which of the following is false concerning the hemoglobin molecule? a. It contains amino acids. b. It contains iron. c. It is composed of four polypeptide chains. d. It can bind four O2 molecules. e. It is found in humans only. ____ 34. Which of the following is a characteristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin? a. found within blood cells b. red in color c. contains the element iron as an oxygen-binding component d. transports oxygen e. occurs in mammals ____ 35. How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans? a. bicarbonate ions in the plasma b. CO2 attached to hemoglobin c. carbonic acid in the erythrocytes d. CO2 dissolved in the plasma e. bicarbonate attached to hemoglobin