Anda di halaman 1dari 28

Control Technology a classic discipline of technical training

Advancing automation is increasingly conferring the monitoring and control of technical processes and production techniques to autonomous control systems. Mechanical controls are thus relieving humans from performing monotonous control and operating tasks. However technical systems often require a level of accuracy, speed and reliability that humans would not be able to fulfill. Our control technology training system employs an training panel system for basic and advanced courses. The multimedia training system, based on COM3LAB, is equally well suited to student self-help practice and experiment demonstrations with a PC beamer.

Basic Course
Basic courses in control technology employ real technical controlled systems. These produce non-electrical controlled variables (fill level, temperature, flow rate, angle of heel, etc.) and therefore require sensors to convert the given quantities into electrical signals. Since here explicit results take on foreground importance, these experiments are particularly well suited for a basic introduction to this thematic.

Advanced Course
Advanced courses in control technology employ pure electronic devices as controlled systems. Sensors are no longer necessary here because only electrical signals occur in the entire control circuit. Since electrical signals are easily managed, these experiments stand out as a consequence of their convincingly quantifiable results. The results assessed here also stand up to critical interpretation.

Symbols:
Experiment literature included Software included Accessories required Battery required COM3LAB compatible Bus-capable (USB, Profibus, ...)

T8.2 Equipment Set Configuration

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.1.1

Temperature Control

Temperature control with DDC controller under WinFACT.

Training Objectives
Temperature control with two-point controller Hysterisis of two-point controller

T 8.2.1.1
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.1.1

Temperature Control

Basic Course: Technical Systems

Some like it hot


Instead of the oven model 734 38 from T 8.1.3 Process Instrumentation Technology, the thermally quicker Temperature Controlled System 734 12 is used here. This increases the dynamics of control and shortens measurement time.

Foundries must maintain exacting, prescribed, temperature profiles for the molten mass.

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.1.1

Temperature Control
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 2 1 1 1

734 01 734 02 734 12 734 13 524 016 734 48 568 222

Two Position Controller Reference Variable Generator Temperature Controlled System Power Amplifier Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

T 8.2.1.1
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
T 8.2.1.2 T 8.2.1.3 Liquid Level Control Flow Rate Control

Liquid level control with DDC controller under CASSYLab.

Training Objectives
Control of fill level height on single tank model Control of fill level height on dual tank model Control of liquid flow rate Disturbance behavior in the Liquid Controlled System
T 8.2.1.2 T 8.2.1.3

T 8.2.1.2 T 8.2.1.3
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
T 8.2.1.2 T 8.2.1.3 Liquid Level Control Flow Rate Control

Basic Course: Technical Systems

Two in a boat
Liquid level and flow can both be measured with one instrument. The illustrated experiment uses the same liquid level measurement as T 8.1.3.2 to maintain a pre-selected fill level height with a closed loop controlled system. The experiment is quite clear and demonstrates, in an instructional manner, the interrelationship between reference value and actual value in feedback loops.
EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.1.2

Basic experiment: Liquid level control on a single tank model


QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

734 262 734 02 734 81 734 876 524 016 734 48 568 1012

Liquid Controlled System Reference Variable Generator Differential Pressure Transducer Immersion Tube Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Experiments with the Liquid Controlled System T 8.1/8.2

Supplementary experiment: Liquid level control on a dual tank model


The basic experiment can be extended for the dual tank model. The probes listed below can also be used in the basic experiment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 734 264 727 68 734 861 734 881 734 89 734 901 568 1012 Additional reservoir C/F-, L/F- and F/U-Converter Capacitive Bar-Type Probe Level Switch with Float Capacitive Level Switch Gravimetric Level Meter Book: Experiments with the Liquid Controlled System T 8.1/8.2

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.1.3

Flow Rate Control


QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 1 1

734 262 734 02 524 016 734 48 568 1012

Liquid Controlled System Reference Variable Generator Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Experiments with the Liquid Controlled System T 8.1/8.2

T 8.2.1.2 T 8.2.1.3
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.1.4

Gas Flow Control

Flow Control with blower and windmill type anemometer.

Training Objectives
Control of a technical system with a moderate time constant Evaluation of the step response Determination of system time constants

T 8.2.1.4
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.1.4

Gas Flow Control

Basic Course: Technical Systems

They dont all have the same time


A systems responsiveness to state changes is determined by its time constants. Technical systems can exhibit significantly different time constants: temperature : very slow flow : slow rotary speed : moderately fast brightness : very fast The control techniques investigated here are used for process control and in air conditioning systems.

While wind force and direction are constantly being measured in wind power generators, the availability of wind cant be controlled by man.
EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.1.4

Gas Flow Control


QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 1 1 1

666 630 666 631 666 632 524 016 734 48 568 342

Blower Venturi Tube Windmill Type Anemometer Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Flow-Through Measurement of Gases T 8.1.3.4

T 8.2.1.4
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
T 8.2.1.5 T 8.2.1.6 Brightness Control Speed Control

Small but super! Light controlled system and mini-machine system. The motorgenerator set consists of two coupled DC machines and an optical tacho-generator.

T 8.2.1.5 Training Objectives


Brightness Control with PI controller Dynamic properties of fast closed loop control

T 8.2.1.6 Training Objectives


Speed control of a motor-generator set with PID controller Voltage control with the motor-generator set

T 8.2.1.5 T 8.2.1.6
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
T 8.2.1.5 T 8.2.1.6 Brightness Control Speed Control

Basic Course: Technical Systems

Light-Velocity
Brightness control is a practical example for the control of fast systems. This finds application in large lighting systems in sports arenas, halls, etc. Speed control is another daily life application. In the experiment the controlled system (= motor) provides the non-electric controlled variable speed. The generator coupled to the motor acts as a sensor that converts the motors rotary speed into an electrical voltage signal.

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.1.5

Brightness Control
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

578 51 734 02 734061 734 13 734 16 734 31 524 016 734 48 568 222

Si Diode 1N 4007 Reference Variable Generator PID Controller Power Amplifier Manual/Automatic Switch Light Control System Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.1.6

Speed Control
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

505 23 734 02 734 061 734 11 734 13 734 19 734 39 524 016 734 48 568 222

Lamp 24 V / 5 W Reference Variable Generator PID Controller Motor-Generator Set, 24V Power Amplifier Gain and Offset Adjust Load Switch Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

T 8.2.1.5 T 8.2.1.6
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.1.7

Listing Control

Listing controllers ensure a balanced course tracking for big transportation vessels.

Training Objectives
Putting listing control into service Control parameter settings for stable stationary operation Creating oscillating instabilities

T 8.2.1.7
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.1.7

Listing Control

Basic Course: Technical Systems

Ship shape in bad shape


The list (heeling over) of a container ship or ferry changes as it is loaded. Difficulties can also arise, for example, in keeping the pitch of railroad tracks aligned while moving railroad cars onto a ferry. The appropriate filling of ballast tanks can help to compensate for such undesirable ship list and pitchangles.

Profi-CASSY and its CASSYLab software combine to serve as a convenient controller. Controller parameters, as well as the controlled, manipulated and reference quantities are visible at a glance.
EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.1.7

Listing Control
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

734 02 734 061 734 300 524 016 734 48 510 48 568 222

Reference Variable Generator PID Controller Listing Controlled System Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Pair of Magnets Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

T 8.2.1.7
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.2

Fuzzy Control

Air conditioning system with fuzzy controller. The controlled system can be electrically heated with a halogen lamp and cooled by a fan.

Training Objectives
Implementation of an electronic gas pedal (drive by wire) Control of an air conditioning system with fuzzy algorithm Speed control of vehicles with differing loads List control with fuzzy algorithm

T 8.2.2
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.2

Fuzzy Control

Basic Course

Of approximate values and membership functions


Fuzzy describes an approach to the control of technical systems which avoids sophisticated mathematical modeling. The control strategy is defined in terms of conditional language. Fuzzy control is particularly well suited for systems with multiple controlled variables and is used frequently today in many common appliances, from washing machines to cameras.

Fuzzy techniques can even be found in automotive engineering. The drive by wire technology transmits the drivers wish to change speed to a fuzzy controller.
EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.2

Fuzzy Control
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

734 02 734 061 734 10 734 11 734 12 734 13 734 14 734 56 734 300 524 016 734 4722 510 48 568 222

Reference Variable Generator PID Controller Servo Set point Generator Motor-Generator Set, 24V Temperature Controlled System Power Amplifier DC-Servo Tensile Test Bar Listing Controlled System Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-Student License Type B Pair of Magnets Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

T 8.2.2
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.3

Continuous Control

Experimental set-up of an electronic control loop.

Training Objectives
Transient functions from P-controller and I-controlled systems Feedbacks in transfer elements Output quantities in an open loop control chain Simulation of a pneumatic pressure closed loop control Pneumatic pressure closed loop control Step-responses of PT1 and PT2 elements Characteristic of a temperature closed loop control Dead time element Transient function of various controls: PI-control, PIP-control with 1st order delay, PIDP-control with 1st order delay
T 8.2.3
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.3

Continuous Control

Advanced Course

A cybernetic base model


The set-up photo shows a typical course T 8.2.3 experiment configuration. The electronic control loop is made of discrete components. This type of structure is ideal for the simulation of technical control loops. The advantage to this approach is its simple mastery of electrical quantities in comparison to (somewhat more complex) physical process quantities.

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.3

Continuous Control
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

Control loop odels: 1 controller 2 actuator 3 controlled system 4 sensor The upper block diagram shows a closed loop control in general form. The controlled variable X and the reference variable W are different physical quantities and must be transformed for compatibility to one another by way of sensor technology. The actuator provides the control loop with the necessary power. The lower block diagram illustrates a simplified closed loop control. The actuator is integrated into the controller or the controlled system. Here the controlled variable and the reference variable are of the same physical nature, this makes sensors unnecessary.

1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

734 02 734 03 734 04 734 05 734 07 734 08 734 089 734 09 734 12 734 13 734 40 524 016 734 48 568 232

Reference Variable Generator P Controller Integral-Action Element Derivative-Action Element Summing Point, 2 Inputs Summing Point, 5 Inputs Dead Time Element Simulated Controlled System Temperature Controlled System Power Amplifier Test Function Generator Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 1

T 8.2.3
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.4

Discontinuous Control

The steam iron is a classic example of an application with a two-point controller.

Advanced Course Training Objectives


Temperature control with a two point controller Discontinuous control with feedback

T 8.2.4
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.4

Discontinuous Control

Advanced Course

Discrete steps
The temperature of a steam iron will rarely take on directly the desired reference value. In contrast to continuous control systems, the controlled system (heater) here can only be turned on or off. There are no intermediate values. There isnt even an active cooling mechanism available.

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.4

Discontinuous Control
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

734 01 734 02 734 08 734 09 734 095 734 12 734 13 524 016 734 48 568 232 568 222

Two Position Controller Reference Variable Generator Summing Point, 5 Inputs Simulated Controlled System Second Order Transfer Element Temperature Controlled System Power Amplifier Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 1 Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

T 8.2.4
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.5

Controlled System Classes

Experimental set-up for computer-aided recording of step responses.

Training Objectives
Simulation of fill level control Investigation of reference behavior Investigation of oscillation behavior Control of a controlled system with start-up time and dead time by a PID-controller Discussion of disturbance transient function

T 8.2.5
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.5

Controlled System Classes

Advanced Course

Class reunions
Controlled systems which are important from a technical point of view will be systematically classified here according to their recorded time behavior characteristics. Experiments with 10-turn PID-controllers achieve astonishing quantitative correlation between theory and measurements. For anyone who places value on theoretically quantifiable control techniques, this controller is a recommendable alternative to the standard design (734 061).

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.5

Controlled system Classes


QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

734 02 734 03 734 04 734 063 734 07 734 08 734 089 734 09 524 016 734 48 568 232

Reference Variable Generator P Controller Integral-Action Element PID Controller, 10 Turn Summing Point, 2 Inputs Summing Point, 5 Inputs Dead Time Element Simulated Controlled System Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 1

T 8.2.5
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.6

Electronic Systems

Recording the locus diagram on a system with dead time.

Training Objectives
Step response Frequency response Systematic of controlled systems Systematic of controllers Digital controllers Systematic and frequency behavior of closed loop controls

T 8.2.6
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.6

Electronic Systems

Advanced Course

Idea and reality


Electrical control systems that replace their physical counterparts while maintaining the same system behavior are investigated here. pressure closed loop control temperature closed loop control

Control and evaluation with the PC. In DDC (Direct Digital Control) mode, the Profi-CASSY acts as the interface between the control loop and the PC. Together with CASSY Lab or WinFACT software, the computer can take over various tasks: to provide a freely-configurable digital controller taking over of recording tasks as an XY/Yt recorder or step response plotter This also allows experiments to be performed in the time and frequency domain, e.g. the recording of step responses or the presentation of locus diagrams.

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.6

Electronic Systems
QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

734 03 734 04 734 41 734 061 734 07 734 08 734 089 734 09 734 095 524 016 734 48 568 222

P Controller Integral-Action Element Sample and Hold Element PID Controller Summing Point, 2 Inputs Summing Point, 5 Inputs Dead Time Element Simulated Controlled System Second Order Transfer Element Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

T 8.2.6
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.7

Stability & Optimization

Locus diagrams of an open loop control system for stability evaluation per Nyquist.

Training Objectives
Simulation of electric motor speed control Stability testing a 3rd order control system Stability testing a simulated gas flow controller Controller settings for a controlled system with dead time Nyquist evaluation of a control system Nyquist evaluation of an oscillating closed loop control Experimental optimization by means of ISE criteria Optimizing according to Ziegler / Nichols Optimizing according to Chien / Hrones / Reswick Fundamental stability investigations Higher order systems Stability test on an open loop control Integral criteria for system optimization Controller optimization
T 8.2.7
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

T 8.2.7

Stability & Optimization

Advanced Course

On the swing
Control loops are feedback coupled systems. As such, they tend to oscillate under certain conditions. This effect is generally undesirable and demands all of the engineers talents to create a design that is adequate for its dynamic behavior yet does not lead to parasitic oscillations that could endanger the system or the process.

EQUIPMENT LIST T8.2.7

Stability & Optimization


QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

Some have their own intuitive notions about stability and process optimization. For the technician, this subject is a more somber matter but certainly no less interesting.

1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

734 04 734 063 734 08 734 089 734 09 734 095 734 19 524 016 734 48 727 71 568 222

Integral-Action Element PID Controller, 10 Turn Summing Point, 5 Inputs Dead Time Element Simulated Controlled System Second Order Transfer Element Gain and Offset Adjust Profi-CASSY WinFACT 6-COM3LAB / CASSY-Edition Function Module Book: Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology II, Vol. 2

T 8.2.7
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
70082 70083 COM3LAB Course Control Technology I COM3LAB Course Control Technology II

COM3LAB: master unit and course board are the only training materials required to conduct the computer-aided experiments.

Training Objectives 70082


Everyday open and closed loop control Analysis of controlled systems Plants with/without compensation Higher order systems PID and PI control Digital control Performance criteria PID controller settings Temperature control Rotary speed control Light Control Control with discontinuous controllers Fault simulation

Training Objectives 70083


Control system stability Controller design per Ziegler / Nichols Systems with deadtime Reference variable limitations Cascade control Introduction to frequency response Frequency responses of individual basic elements Frequency response of combined elements Controller design in the frequency domain Fuzzy control Adaptive Control

70082 70083
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 1 of 2

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
70082 70083 Multimedia COM3LAB Course Control Technology I COM3LAB Course Control Technology II

Measuring in the virtual laboratory


COM3LAB frees you of the inconvenience associated with obsolete measuring instruments. PC and master unit are all that is required and then the courses software unfolds on any pupils desk into a richly equipped instrument laboratory with the following instruments: static characteristic plotter step response plotter (for analog control) DDC plotter (for sampling control) controller design computer for calculating optimal controller parameters from specified system parameters two multimeters function generator (synthesizer) oscilloscope frequency analyzer logic analyzer

EQUIPMENT LIST

COM3LAB Control Technology I/II


QUANTITY CAT. NO. DESCRIPTION

The control process is recorded on the DDC plotter versus the time axis. The reference variable is red, the manipulated variable is green and the controlled variable is blue. The example shows the rotary speed control of a fan motor as affected by a PID controller for various reference variables.

1 1

700 82 700 00

COM3LAB Course: Control Technology I COM3LAB Master Unit recommended:

700 83

COM3LAB Course: Control Technology II

The COM3LAB Control Technology II course is a supplementary course to 700 82. It uses the same experiment board and can be released by a dongle on course I.

70082 70083
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Page 2 of 2

LEYBOLD DIDACTIC

Educational Systems Practical and Efficient Motivating and Fun


Request additional information about...
Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering / Electronics Installation Technology / EIB Instrumentation and Control Control / Automation Technology Mechatronics Information Technology Communications Technology High Frequency Technology Energy Technology Electrical Machines Power Electronics Drive Technology Automotive Electric / Electronics Multimedia / COM3LAB LeyLAB: Laboratory Equipment / Power Supply
Modern educational systems for the future Cost effective system solutions Computer-assisted measurement and evaluation systems Interactive multimedia training Literature with exercise sheets Comprehensive counseling Commissioning and seminars Global references Hotline for problem solving ISO 9001 quality management system

Around the world...

Telephone: +49 2233-604-0 Email: info@leybold-didactic.de

LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH Leyboldstrasse 1 50354 Huerth, Germany Telefax: +49(0)2233-604-222 Internet: www.leybold-didactic.com

LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH