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LTE Radio Network Planning Introduction


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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

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Agenda
1 2 3 4 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy

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Huawei Confidential

Page 2

Huawei LTE Radio Network Planning Main Steps


Dimensioning

Inputs: Coverage, Capacity & Service Requirement Outputs: eNodeB coverage radius and site numbers based on capacity calculation

Preplanning

Inputs: Calculated coverage radius, digital


map and subscriber distribution information

Detailed Planning

Outputs: Preliminary eNodeB numbers

Inputs: Coverage target and site survey result Outputs: Actual site location and engineering parameters

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Page 3

Detail LTE Radio Network Planning


Preparation
Agreement achieved by the operator and Huawei
n Coverage area (Dense urban, Urban, Suburban ) n Quality objective (QoS criteria) n Capacity requirement (Subscriber, traffic model) n Link budget parameters (Penetration loss, Propagation model)

Huawei deliver
nBackground Interference Test (optional) n Propagation model tuning (optional) n Link budget n Capacity dimensioning n Site numbers/configuration n Cell radius in each morphology n Network development solution

The output of dimensioning is important criteria to assess RNP solution

n Site location/ RF parameters configurations n Search ring specifications n prediction & Simulation n Cluster definition for project management

Nominal Planning

The operator provides: Naming conventions Existing sites information

Detailed Planning

n Site survey/candidate site search n Neighbor cell configuration nCell parameters configuration n Algorithm configuration

Network Deployment

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Page 4

LTE RNP Output Overview


Input
Coverage Requirement
-- Coverage Area -- Polygon Definition -- Cell Edge Throughput -- Coverage Probability

Output
Site Type

Power/Channel

eNodeB Number

Capacity Requirement
-- Frequency bandwidth -- Subscriber forecast -- Traffic Model

Active Users

S1&X2 Throughput

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Page 5

Agenda
1 2 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning
Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Active User Dimensioning S1&X2 Dimensioning

3 4

LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy


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LTE Radio Network Dimensioning Flow


Start Coverage Requirement Link Budget Cell Radius Capacity Requirement Capacity Dimensioning

Satisfy Capacity Requirement? Yes Active User/S1&X2 Dimensioning eNodeB Amount&Configuration End

No

Adjust eNodeB Number

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Agenda
1 2 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning
Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Active User Dimensioning S1&X2 Dimensioning

3 4

LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy


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LTE Coverage Dimensioning Flow


n Aim of coverage dimensioning
- to obtain the cell radius - to estimate eNodeB number for coverage requirement
Start Link Budget Propagation Model Cell Radius eNodeB Coverage Area

Total Coverage Area/ eNodeB Coverage Area

eNodeB Number End


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LTE Link Budget Procedure Uplink


Tx Power Other Gain UE Antenna Gain Slow fading margin Interference margin Body Loss

Gain Margin Loss

EIRP
Max. Allowed Path Loss
Power level

Penetration Loss

Path Loss Cable Loss BTS Ant Gain

Rx Sensitivity

Link segments
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LTE Link Budget Procedure Downlink

Tx Power

Other Gain Cable Loss BTS Ant Gain

Slow fading margin

Gain Margin Loss

Interference margin

Max. Allowed Path Loss

EIRP
Power level
Path Loss

Objective: Max. Allowed Path Loss

Penetration Loss

Rx Sensitivity

Body Loss

UE Ant Gain

Link segments
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Coverage Comparison b/w HSPA+ and LTE


Downlink Cell Edge Throughput Comparison
8000 7056

Cell Edge Throughput(kbps)

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 256 643 512 2690 1397 3634 2528 1024

LTE 2.6G has much better coverage in DL than HSPA+ 2.1G; But HSPA+ 2.1G has better coverage in UL than LTE 2.6G. LTE can reuse existing 3G sites, no additional LTE alone sites are required at the beginning of LTE deployment.
Uplink Cell Radius Comparison

HSPA+2.1G@5MHz 0 LTE2.6G@5MHz LTE2.6G@20MHz 0.90(km) 0.56(km) 0.36(km)

0.7 0.6

0.67 0.59 0.46 0.46 0.49 0.41 0.41 0.35 0.35

Cell Radius Cell Radius(km)

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

HSPA+2.1G@5MHz 0 LTE2.6G@5MHz LTE2.6G@20MHz 128kbps 256kbps 512kbps

Cell Edge Throughput

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Agenda
1 2 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning
Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Active User Dimensioning S1&X2 Dimensioning

3 4

LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy


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LTE Capacity Dimensioning Flow


Start Configuration Analysis Cell Average Throughput Calculation

Traffic Model Analysis

Subscribers Supported per Cell eNodeB Number


(initialized by Coverage Dimensioning)

Total Subscribers

Satisfy Capacity Requirement? Yes eNodeB Number

No

Adjust eNodeB Number

End

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Page 14

LTE Cell Average Throughput Calculation Input


Scenario Parameters

Output

Morphology Sectorization Bandwidth

MC Parameters snapshot numbers Schedule Strategy

Cell Average Throughput

Cell Parameters Carrier Frequency Carrier power

MonteCarlo Simulation

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Page 15

LTE Cell Average Throughput


n LTE 2600MHz Cell Average Throughput with different bandwidth
Frequency Bandwidth Scenario Urban Suburban Urban Suburban Urban Suburban 20MHz Urban Suburban Cell Average Throughput Peak ThroughputMulti-users DL(Mbps) 8.173 6.266 16.918 12.971 25.546 19.587 34.344 26.332 UL(Mbps) 4.715 3.342 9.761 6.918 14.739 10.446 19.814 14.044 DL(Mbps) 43 43 86 86 129 129 172 172 UL(Mbps) 39 39 55 55 126 126 165 165

5MHz

10MHz 2600MHz 15MHz

n Capacity comparison with different frequency band


LTE Cell Average Throughput (Urban) Frequency Band (MHz) 2600 1800 800 Bandwidth (MHz) 20 20 20 DL (Mbps) 34.344 34.719 35.218 UL (Mbps) 19.814 21.675 24.704

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Capacity Comparison b/w HSPA+ and LTE


UL Cell Average Throughput(Mbps)
20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 HSUPA 10ms HSUPA 2ms HSUPA 16QAM LTE 5 MHz LTE 10MHz LTE 20MHz

DL Cell Average Throughput(Mbps)


LTE 20MHz 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 HSPA (16QAM) HSPA+ (64QAM) HSPA+ (MIMO) HSPA+ (MIMO+64QAM) HSPA+ (DC+64QAM) LTE 5MHz LTE 10MHz

HSPA+ (DC+16QAM)

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Page 17

Traffic Model Analysis


UL Traffic Parameters Bearer Rate (Kbps) 26.90 62.53 62.53 15.63 62.53 140.69 250.11 PPP Session Time(s) 108 36 1800 7 1800 600 1200 PPP Session Duty Ratio 0.6 1 1 0.2 0.05 1 1 BHSA 0.2 5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 BLER 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% Bearer Rate (Kbps) 26.90 62.53 62.53 15.63 250.11 750.34 750.34 DL PPP Session Time(s) 108 36 1800 7 1800 600 1200 PPP Session Duty Ratio 0.6 1 1 0.2 0.05 1 1 BLER 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

VoIP Video Phone Video Conference IMS Signalling Web Browsing File Transfer P2P file sharing User Behavior Video Conference IMS Signalling Web Browsing File Transfer Email P2P file sharing Total

Traffic Penetration Ratio 0.00% 0.00% 100.00% 20.00% 10.00% 20.00% -

Busy Hour Throughput Per User (bps) UL 6316 31 632 4737 395 33685 8355 DL 6316 31 2526 25264 632 101055 27853

Traffic Model varies from different operators which is mainly used to calculate Busy Hour Throughput per User.
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Traffic Model Comparison b/w LTE and UMTS


Standard UMTS Traffic Model
Service type Voice CS64 PS64 PS128 PS384 CS over HSPA VoIP over HSPA HSPA Unit Erl/BH Erl/BH Kbit/BH Kbit/BH Kbit/BH Erl/BH Erl/BH Kbit/BH UL Throughput 0.0400 0.000320 460.80 0.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 5299.20 DL Throughput 0.0400 0.000320 69.12 1105.92 207.36 0.0000 0.0000 15897.60 VOIP Video Phone Other PS Traffic Total UL Traffic Total DL Traffic

Standard LTE Traffic Model


Unit mErl/BH mErl/BH Kbps Kbps Kbps Value 40 10 50 11.27 41.27

n UMTS traffic model is much more complex than that of LTE because there are many

kinds of CS and PS services in UMTS. n There are only PS services (even VOIP and Video Phone) in LTE so that LTE traffic model can be very simple;

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Page 19

LTE Capacity Dimensioning Case Study


Step 1

DL Cell Average Capacity

a 34.344Mbps/cell

Step 2

Designed DL Cell Loading

b 50% Cell loading assumed

Step 3

Designed DL Cell Capacity

c = a x b =17.127Mpbs

Assumptions: S111 20MHz 20kbps per user in DL Peak to Average Ratio 20% in BH

Step 4

Peak to Average Ratio

d 20%

Step 5

Average DL BH Throughput/sub.

e 20kbps

Step 6

Sector number per site

f 3 sectors

Step 7

Subscribers supported in a site

g = c * f / (1+d)/e = 2140 subscribers

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Agenda
1 2 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning
Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Active User Dimensioning S1&X2 Dimensioning

3 4

LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy


Huawei Confidential Page 21

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Active User Dimensioning


Active User Definition
Active users is also called RRC-Connected Users which refer to the users having a RRC connection with the network Directly influences eNodeB quotation and controlled by software license

PPP Session
Data call (session) WWW Data call (session) WWW

time

BHCA: Busy Hour Session Attempt PPP Time: Duration of PPP Session Ratio of RRC to PPP: Percentage of RRC during one PPP session Number of User: Number of users using service i

RRC_Connected (Active User)

RRC3

RRC

RRC1

RRC2 RRC_Idle

time

Packets

Packet2 Packet1 Packet3

time

Number _ ActiveUser _ i = BHSA * PPP _ Session _ Time * RatRrcToPPP * Number _ User / 3600
Total _ Number _ ActiveUser = Number _ ActiveUser _ i * Percentage _ Service _ i
i

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Active User Dimensioning Case Study


User Parameter DL Ave data rate in packet( kbps) 128 500 300 50 220 300 UL Ave data rate in packet(k bps) 128 100 100 50 100 100

scene

UE Type

BHCA

PPPTime (s)

Percenta ge

RatRrcT oPPP

RatPack ToRrc

RatRrcT oPPP

RatPack ToRrc

Handset Dense Urban Data Card Wireless DSL Handset Urban Data Card Wireless DSL

1.4 2.5 1 1.3 2 0.8

300 300 2400 80 300 1800

70% 20% 10% 50% 30% 20%

1 0.8 0.9 1 0.8 0.6

0.4 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.7

1 0.8 0.9 1 0.4 0.3

0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.7

Dense Urban Parameter Throughput/User/BH (kbps) number of subscribers in one Site Num Active User Active Ratio Ave data rate /Active User (kbps) DL 31.9 398 70 0.18 181.5 43.5 UL 7.6 DL 17.4

Urban UL 3.6 800 82 0.10 169.8 34.8

=Min (Total number of Subscribers / Total number of eNodeBs, maximum subscribers supported considering traffic requirement)

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Active User Dimensioning Case Study


User Behavior VoIP Video Phone Video Conference Real Time Gaming Streaming Media IMS Signalling Web Browsing File Transfer Email P2P File Sharing Traffic Penetration Ratio 100.00% 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00% 20.00% 10.00% 20.00% BHSA 1 1 0.2 0.2 0.2 5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 PPP Session Time(s) 108 36 1800 1800 3600 7 1800 600 50 1200 RatRrcToP PP 1 1 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Active Time 108.00 36.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 576.00 19.20 0.80 76.80

Active Time per Subscriber Active Factor per Subscriber Max. Subscriber Number Supported per Site Actual Subscriber Number per Site Active User Number per Site

816.80 0.23 860.00 135.00 30.63

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Agenda
1 2 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning
Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Active User Dimensioning S1&X2 Dimensioning

3 4

LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy


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S1&X2 Interface of LTE


2G/3G: Legacy Architecture LTE: Flat Architecture

MSC/SGSN/GGSN

BSC

RNC

BTS

BTS

NodeB

NodeB

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S1&X2 Dimensioning Case Study (1)


Traffic Ratio of UL == Traffic Ratio of UL 1/(1+4) = 20%
x

Traffic Ratio of DL == Traffic Ratio of DL 4/(1+4) = 80%

1) Uplink and downlink busy hour data traffic volume per subscriber is 25kbps 2) Traffic data ratio for uplink and downlink is 1:4 3) Peak to average traffic ratio is 1.2 4) Number of subscribers per eNodeB is 1000 5) Assuming IPV4 and IPsec with tunnel mode is used for IP over Ethernet transmission 6) Assuming the packet size is 300 bytes which means the ER is 1.37
Data Traffic Throughput/Subs. In Mac layer = Data Traffic/Subs *ER = 5 * 1.37 = 6.85(UL) Data Traffic Throughput/Subs. In Mac layer = Data Traffic/Subs *ER = 20 * 1.37 = 27.4kbps(DL) BH Data Traffic/Subs. (UL) Data Traffic/Subs. (UL) Data Traffic/Subs. (UL) == Data Traffic ofall QCI type/Subs. * * Data Traffic of all QCI type/Subs. = BH Data Traffic/Sub.*Traffic Ratio of UL Traffic Ratio of UL Traffic Ratio of UL = 25kbps * 20% =5kbps
x

BH Data Traffic/Subs. Data Traffic/Subs. (DL)(DL) Data Traffic/Subs. (DL) == Data Traffic ofall QCI type/Subs. * * Data Traffic of all QCI type/Subs. =BH Data Traffic/Subs.*Traffic Ratio of DL Traffic Ratio of DL Traffic Ratio of DL = 25kbps * 80% = 20kbps

Traffic Peak Ratio = 1.2 T_UL_Data Traffic/Subs. = 6.85*1.2 = 8.22kbps Subs/Site = 1000 T_UL_user plane/site = T_UL_Data Traffic/Subs. * Subs/site = 8.22 * 1000 = 8.22Mbps T_DL_user plane/site = T_DL_Data Traffic/Subs. * Subs/site = 32.88 * 1000 = 32.88Mbps T_DL_Data Traffic/Subs. = 27.4*1.2 = 32.88kbps

T_Total_user plane/site = T_UL_user plane/site + T_DL_user plane/site = 8.22 + 32.88 = 41.1Mbps

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S1&X2 Dimensioning Case Study (2)


Control Plane
T _ control plane = T _ Total _ user _ Plane / Site * 2 = 41.1* 2% = 0.82Mbps

S1 Bandwidth
T _ S1 / Site = T _ control _ Plane / Site + T _ Total _ user _ plane / Site = 0.82 + 41.1 = 41.92 Mbps

X2 Bandwidth
T _ X 2 / Site = T _ S1 / Site * 3% = 41.92 * 3% = 1.26Mbps

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Comparison between Iub and S1 Bandwidth


Iub Bandwidth
Input
Subscribers
Subs per NodeB

S1 Bandwidth
Output
Iub Bandwidth

Iub Dimensioning
CS Iub Bandwidth

Input
Uplink and downlink data Traffic per subs. Extension Ratio (ER)

S1 User Plane Dimensioning

Output

CS Traffic
Voice Traffic VP Traffic

PS Iub Bandwidth HSPA Iub Bandwidth

GoS Requirements

Throughput at Mac layer/Subs.

S1 user Plane Throughput

PS Traffic
PS64 Throughput PS128 Throughput PS384 Throughput

Bandwidth for Traffic Common Channel Bandwidth Signalling Bandwidth O&M Bandwidth

PS Retransmission

Peak to Average Ratio

Peak Throughput at Mac layer/Subs.

HSPA Traffic

Subscribers Per eNodeB

Peak Throughput at Mac layer/Site

IubTotal = Max [ IubCS _ Peak , ( IubPS + IubCS _ Average + IubHSPA )] + IubSignalling + IubCCH + IubO& M

S 1 = T _ user plane + T _ control plane = (1 + 2%) * T _ user plane

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Agenda
1 2 3 4 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy

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LTE Co-location General Consideration


Co-existing Systems Interference
Guard band & isolation requirement

Installation Space Tower Load Impact on existing network


Coverage performance, optimization

Civil Work & Maintenance Cost


Reuse & replacing

etc

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Typical Co-location Scenario - Separate Antenna & Feeder


Just taking wide-band for example Single-band 2600 (K80010541)

Advantages
No impact on the performance of existing network. Independent tilt and azimuth, independent network planning and optimization.

Disadvantages
Require more installation space for both antenna and feeder. Require higher tower load. Too many antennas, causing vision pollution.

Recommendation
The highest priority of 2G/3G 2G/3G LTE 2600 consideration

Existing equipments

Existing 2G/3G
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Typical Co-location Scenario - Separate Antenna, Shared Feeder


Advantages
Single-band 2600 (K80010541) Reusing existing feeder, no need additional space for new feeder. Independent tilt and azimuth, independent network planning and optimization.

Disadvantages
Require more antenna installation Combiner is required. space and higher tower load. Additional diplexer cost. Additional diplexer loss, negative impact on existing network Too many antennas, causing vision pollution.

Recommendation
2G/3G Applicable to impossible 2G/3G LTE additional feeder Existing equipments

Existing 2G/3G
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Typical Co-location Scenario - Shared Antenna, Separate Feeder


Multi-band without interior combiner (K80010544/ K80010622)

Advantages
No need additional space for new antenna . No or Small impact on performance of existing network.

Disadvantages
Require more feeder installation space. Replacing new antenna. Independent tilt but same azimuth, partly independent network planning and optimization.

Recommendation
New antenna should keep same beam width and gain for least 2G/3G 2G/3G LTE negative impact on existing network. Existing equipments

Existing 2G/3G
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Typical Co-location Scenario - Shared Antenna & Feeder (1)


Multi-band without interior combiner (K80010544/ K80010622)

Advantages
No need additional space for new antenna and feeder. Reusing existing feeder.

Disadvantages
Replacing new antenna. Independent tilt but same azimuth, partly independent network planning Combiner is required. and optimization. Additional diplexer cost and loss, negative impact on existing network.

Recommendation
New antenna should keep same beam width for least negative impact on existing network. 2G/3G RRU installed near the antenna. 2G/3G LTE Thicker feeder (optional). Existing equipments

Existing 2G/3G
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Typical Co-location Scenario - Shared Antenna & Feeder (2)


Advantages
Wide-band (K80010621) No need additional space for new antenna and feeder. Reusing existing feeder.

Disadvantages
Replacing new antenna or existing antenna is wide band. Combiner is required. Same tilt & azimuth, impossible independent network planning and optimization. Additional diplexer cost and loss, negative impact on existing network.

Recommendation
New antenna should keep same beam width for least negative impact on existing network. 2G/3G 2G/3G LTE It s not recommended if other solution is applicable. Existing equipments

Existing 2G/3G
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Agenda
1 2 3 4 LTE RNP Overview LTE RNP Dimensioning LTE Co-location Solution LTE Deployment Strategy

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LTE Multi-band Deployment Strategy


High frequency for capacity enhancement Low frequency for nation wide coverage
Throughput
l l l

Area

Urban/Hot Spot
GSM900, GSM1800 UMTS2100 LTE2600, LTE1800
l l l

Suburban
GSM900, GSM1800 UMTS2100 LTE1800
l l l

Rural/Remote
GSM900, GSM1800 UMTS2100 LTE900

Initiate LTE 2600, refarm GL1800/900 from urban to rural

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LTE Multi-band Deployment Strategy


Shifting Voice Traffic to LTE

Shifting DATA Traffic to LTE

Shifting Voice Traffic to UMTS

Year X

Year X+1

Year X+2 Huawei Confidential

Year X+3 Page 39

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LTE Deployment Strategy Case


Phase
Year X Year Y Year Z

Deployment Strategy

Description

Continuously cover Dense Urban area and some hotspots in Urban area such as CBD, malls, resorts, VIP area, Rich area and so on.

Extend to all Suburban area and Continuously cover all cities in Rural/Desert populated spots, as Urban area. Perform optimization well as highway to cover whole and introduce indoor DAS based country. Continue optimization on existing coverage area. and indoor DAS coverage.

Number of Sites

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Thank you
www.huawei.com

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