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A2 Anatomy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. what are the functions of the vertebral column? a.

It protects the spinal cord, supports the weight of the body, superior to the pelvis, provides muscle attachments, gives the body shape how many cervical/thoracic/lumbar/sacral/coccygeal vertebrae are there? a. 7, 12, 5, 5, 4 which curvatures are convex anterior and secondary curvatures? a. Cervical, lumbar which curvatures are concave anterior and are primary curvatures? a. Thoracic and sacral how are the curvatures arranged in the foetus? a. They are all concave anterior- they are the primary curvatures at what age do each of the secondary curvatures develop? a. Cervical curvature (convex anterior) forms when the infant starts to raise its head- 3-4 months b. Lumbar curvature (convex anterior) forms when the infant starts to assume an upright position what is kyphosis? a. An exaggerated thoracic curvature- hunchback. It may be caused by a bad posture or collapsed vertebrae what is a lordosis? a. An excessive lumbar curvature. It may be caused by faulty posture or disease of the spinal musculature/vertebrae what is scoliosis? a. Lateral deviation of the vertebrae. It is congenital or caused by acquired abnormalities where do the head of the ribs attach to the vertebrae? a. Superior and inferior costal facets where do the tubercles attach? a. The transverse costal facets which ribs articulate with more than one vertebra at the head? a. True ribs- 1-7 which ribs do not articulate at the tubercle? a. Floating ribs- 11, 12 what type of joints are costovertebral joints? a. Synovial joints what type of joint is the atlanto-occipital joint? a. Synovial joint between the occipital condyles of the skull and the facets on the superior surface of the atlas what movements are involved in the atlanto-occipital joint a. flexion, extension and lateral flexion (up, down and sideways tilting) what type of joint is the atlanto-axial joint? a. They are 3 synovial joints. The 2 lateral are gliding synovial joints and the medial is a pivot joint what movements are involved in the atlanto-axial joint? a. Rotation of the atlas, therefore rotation of the head what are zygopophyseal joints? a. The plane, synovial joints between adjacent vertebral arches what are the ligaments that support the zygopophyseal joints and where do they attach? a. Ligamentum flavum i. Attach to adjacent vertebral lamina- this forms the posterior wall of the vertebral canal, where there is a gap b. Ligamentum nuchae

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i. A thickened fibroelastic tissue from the external occipital protuberance of the occipital bone and posterior border of the foramen magnum, it attaches to the spinous process of the cervical vertebrae. (from C3-C5 it provides muscle attachment because the spinous processes are so small) c. Intertransverse ligament i. Attaches to the transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae d. Interspinous ligament i. Attaches to spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae e. Supraspinous ligament i. Connects the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum f. Anterior longitudinal ligament i. Strong and wide ii. Runs down the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies g. Posterior longitudinal ligament i. Weak and narrow ii. Runs down the posterior surface of the vertebral bodies what is the function of the zygopophyseal joints? a. They permit gliding movements between the vertebrae what do intervertebral discs consist of? a. Annulus fibrosus (peripheral) nucleus pulposus (central) what is the annulus fibrosus? a. Fibrous ring surrounding the nucleus pulposus. Its fibres run in concentric circles known as lamellae which strengthens the disc what is the nucleus pulposus? a. It is a semi-fluid core that is placed more posteriorly. It is avascular and receives nutrients via the annulus fibrosus what is the function of the intervertebral disc? a. Shock absorber, flexibility and resilience how does the IV disc alter with age? a. Becomes dehydrated, stiffer and loses elastin; it therefore becomes more resistant to deformation what happens when the IV disc prolapses? a. The semi-fluid nucleus pulposus becomes herniated and the disc is exposed, crushing the spinal nerves what are the movements of the vertebral column? a. Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, lateral extension and rotation where do the spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal? a. Intervertebral foramen at which vertebral level does each spinal nerve exit the vertebral canal? a. C1-C7- above the body of same vertebra b. C8- below C7 c. T1-T12- below vertebral body d. They form much higher up and then descend as a nerve What arteries supply the spinal cord? a. 1 anterior and 2 posterior spinal arteries. Where do the anterior and posterior spinal arteries arise froim? a. Anterior spinal and posterior spinal artery arises from vertebral arteries. Why do we have radicular arterial supply? a. Spinal arteries are insufficient in supplying the region below the cervical vertebrae. Where do the radicular arteries arise from? a. ascending cervical, intercostal arteries and lumbar arteries. How do the radicular arteries enter the vertebral canal? a. Intervertebral foraman. Which vessels drain venous blood supply from the spinal cord? a. 3 anterior and 3 posterior spinal veins, then into the radicular veins and then into the internal vertebral venous plexus (between the dura matter and the vertebral periosteum).

37. Which arteries supply the vertebrae? a. Periosteal equatorial branches of the cervical segmental arteries. 38. Where does the venous blood drain into? a. Internal venous plexus (between the two layers of dura mater) 39. Where does the internal venous plexus drain? a. External venous plexus (anterior aspect of the vertebral body) 40. learn the nervous plexuses