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INTRODUCTION GRAPHIC DESIGNS PAST

In October 2005 a two-day symposium on the

theme of New Views: Repositioning Graphic Design History took place at the London College of Communication, with the intention of looking at graphic design history and its relationship to design education and professional practice. As a platform for discussing issues across a range of themes (e.g. national design histories, practice of design, exhibiting the graphic object, critical theories, design education and alternative histories), New Views solicited the help of keynote speakers J. Abbott Miller (Pentagram), Professor Jeremy Aynsley (Royal College of Art), and Rick Poynor (freelance design critic) to provoke the audience to think differently about ways of engaging with their subjects history. The event was so successful that a follow-up was mooted almost immediately.

GRAPHIC DESIGNS FUTURE

Move forward to the autumn of 2007. After an exhilarating series of post-

graduate student reviews and critiques held during RMITs Graduate Research Weekend in Australia, we, the two organisers of the follow-up New Views event, met for the rst time. We talked about the interesting and challenging questions students raised about doing research in the eld of graphic design and through graphic design practice and agreed this was a vibrant yet under-theorised area with possibilities not often articulated amongst practicing designers or within the academic community. We began to ponder the possibilities of capturing this moment as part of a future New Views event. And thus, New Views 2: Conversations and Dialogues in Graphic Design was born.

GRAPHIC DESIGNS PRESENT Here we are today ready to begin symposium.

It is intended to explore what lays ahead for the profession whilst opening up our understanding of what academic conferences might be. We are deeply indebted to Professors Ken Friedman and Owen Smith who introduced us to the idea of restructuring an academic event to be more engaging and participatory in its scope. Their own symposium Event and Event Structures held at the Denmark School of Design (2007) prompted in us a new way of thinking about the productive nature of conversations using a set of propositions and thematic discussion groups. We have followed a similar model for New Views 2conversations and dialogues in graphic design.

CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES The idea of the conversation suggests the

sharing of concepts. We believe in fostering collaborative design discussions and the potential this method has for moving forward the exchange of knowledge in new and innovative ways. By facilitating large and smaller (more focused groups) of participants New Views 2 aims to identify the challenges we are currently facing in graphic design, but more importantly to propose potential ways forward under six main themes: DESIGN WRITING CRITICISM, INTERDISCIPLINARITY, PRACTICE AND METHODS, RESEARCH/INNOVATION & NEW CRITICAL THINKING, RESPONSIVE CURRICULA and CHANGING THE REAL WORLD. With the help of keynote speakers who are breaking new territories in their own research and practiceChris Downs (live/work), Terry Irwin (University of Dundee) and Professor Richard Buchanan (Carnegie Mellon University)along with the other participants, who we are very pleased to welcome aboard, we have been able to set the platform in place and table the propositions. At the symposium we simply ask that you share your views with othersshare a dialogue. We look forward to talking with you. Professor Teal Triggs & Dr Lauren Vaughan, co-organisers and moderators, London & Melbourne, June 2008

NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM DEFINING GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR THE FUTURE
SYMPOSIUM: JULY 9 11 EXHIBITION: JULY 9 21
London College of Communication University of the Arts London, UK Opens in London and then travels to RMIT, Melbourne, Australia

IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

WWW.NEWVIEWS.CO.UK

NEW VIEWS 2: CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM DEFINING GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR THE FUTURE 9-11 JULY 2008 LONDON COLLEGE OF COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTS LONDON UNITED KINGDOM

CONTENTS
3 6 7 8 10 13 62 5 5 63 About Us Sponsors Venue Information Introduction Moderators Peer Review Panel Keynote Speakers Schedule Proposition Abstracts Exhibition

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Events such as these are the result of a number of people working together. We would like to thank in particular the following students and colleagues who have gone above and beyond in ensuring the success of New Views 2:

Sir Michael Bichard Yoko Akama, Miek Dunbar, Marius Foley Keith Deverell, Greyspace Eric Eng, Eren Butler and David Lee, David Sims, Nicolas Marechal, Anthony Petrou, Danny Hollowell, Graham Diprose, Claire McAndrew, Nagma van Kampen Helen Etherington and Alysha Mirza, London ArtsCom Ltd. We would also like to thank all of our sponsors in Australia and the United Kingdom for their continued support PARTNER INSTITUTIONS: London College of Communication, University of the Arts London and the Information Environments Research Unit School of Applied Communication RMIT University and the Design Research Institute

New Views 2 identity and programme designed by Niall&Nigel at Pony Ltd., London Printed on Mohawk superne white 118gsm, supplied by GF Smith 020 7394 4660 Printed by Gavin Martin Associates, London FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON FUTURE NEW VIEWS EVENTS PLEASE CONTACT: Nagma van Kampen n.van-kampen@lcc.arts.ac.uk

ABOUT US:

THE LONDON COLLEGE OF of the University of the Arts London, which groups six COMMUNICATION is part

of the worlds best-known art, communication, design and related technologies organisations. University status was awarded following a long run of outstanding evaluation of teaching quality, and sector-leading research performance. Formerly the London College of Printing, LCC re-launched in 2004 and now operates from a striking building with stateof-the-art facilities. As a specialist college, LCC has around 9,000 students of all ages and from a variety of backgrounds and cultures with staff including successful academics and practitioners engaging in Londons thriving design, photography, broadcasting, publishing, advertising, lm, printing, retailing and media industries. For further details on courses, research and other related college activities please see: www.lcc.arts.ac.uk

THE SCHOOL OF APPLIED COMMUNICATION is located within the Design and Social Context Portfolio at
RMIT University, in Melbourne, Australia. Programs within the School span the Communication Professions; including Media, Journalism, Cinema, Communication Studies, Public Relations, Advertising and Communication Design. The diversity of disciplines results in undergraduate and postgraduate education programs, and research and professional activities which endeavour to result in innovative and professionally relevant outcomes. RMIT is renowned for collaborating with industry, providing solutions, new ideas and processes that deliver real outcomes for businesses. For further details on courses, research and other related activities please see: www.rmit.edu.au/appliedcommunication

SPONSORS:

RESEARCH UNIT FOR INFORMATION ENVIRONMENTS (IE), UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTS LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

PROFESSOR TEAL TRIGGS, CO-DIRECTOR AND DR PATRICK ROBERTS, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR The remit for Information Environments (IE) is to explore, examine and contribute to the shifting paradigms of our contemporary information and knowledge-based society. We dene Information Environments as any virtual or physical spaces where information is generated, received and experienced. IE questions what is meant by information with a view to documenting its history, engaging with the communities and environments in which it occurs and the technologies used in its mediation. What makes this research unit unique is the potential for developing new synergies between art and design with a focus on communication and information environments. Thirty members are drawn from four of the six University of the Arts London colleges and include specialist research in the areas of digital arts, site-specic installation, graphic and information design, design history, architecture, typography, spatial drawing, interaction design and oral history. IE external partners consist of organisations and professional design practices specialising in areas that enhance IEs own staff research. An International Advisory Board provides guidance and support as IEs research potential is established. Research projects are funded by the UK Research Councils and other external sponsors with outcomes published in referred books and journals, gallery and museum exhibitions, conferences, keynote presentations, workshops and other public forums.

ie

Information Environments

DR LAURENE VAUGHAN AND PROFESSOR HARRIET EDQUIST, CO-RESEARCH LEADERS, COMMUNICATION INTERFACES/ DIGITAL ARTEFACTS, GEOPLACED KNOWLEDGES PROGRAM. PROFESSOR MARK BURRY, DESIGN INSTITUTE DIRECTOR User-led design resulting in new understandings, innovative products, enhanced performance and well-being. The purpose and objectives of the Design Institute are to engage with new design technologies to enhance community and individual life. Its research focuses on the delivery of space, environments, services and products through design methodologies that elicit and guide our needs and wishes. THE INSTITUTE AIMS TO: Build design research capability and community Develop new products, services and constructed and virtual environments To be recognised internationally as a design research institute delivering excellence through a distinctive approach to the iterative integration of community with design methodologies Develop new products, services and constructed and virtual environments The Design Institute brings together researchers from a range of design disciplines to work in teams around project challenges such as new urban environments, customized manufacture of apparel, creating healthy and supportive workplaces, art in public and private places and interactive construction of spatial maps and archives. It actively explores the applied design, production and marketing potential of selected research outcomes and seeks to forge key external industry partnerships and raise awareness of the value of design. Overseen by Academic Leaders and an International Advisory Committee, the Design Institute has ve streams of inquiry: Customising Space, Rapid Manufacture, Intervention through Art, Geoplaced Knowledges and Urban Liveability. It will facilitate and fund ve major projects in 2008 and seed a number of smaller projects. The outcomes of these projects include refereed articles and books, national and international keynote presentations, exhibitions, symposia, programs, studies and products.

DESIGN RESEARCH INSTITUTE, RMIT UNIVERSITY, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA

MODERATORS:
CO-MODERATOR and Head of Research in the School of Graphic Design, London College of Communication. She is also Course Director (designate), MA Design Writing Criticism and co-Director of the University of the Arts London Research Unit for Information Environments (IE). As a graphic design historian, critic and educator her writings have appeared in numerous international design publications. She is co-editor of the academic interdisciplinary journal Visual Communication (Sage Publications) and has edited several special issues including Screens and the Social Landscape (June 2006 with Dr Carey Jewitt), The New Typography (June 2005) and a forthcoming issue on Information Environments (2009). She is author of The Typographic Experiment: Radical Innovations in Contemporary Type Design (2003); co-editor with Roger Sabin of Below Critical Radar: Fanzines and Alternative Comics From 1976 to Now (2000); and editor of Communicating Design: Essays in Visual Communication (1995). She is currently working on a book on the graphic language of fanzines from punk to present day. Triggs is co-Principle Instigator with Professor Mike Press, University of Dundee, working with an interdisciplinary team from across seven UK universities on a major UK Research Council (EPSRC) funded project Safer Spaces: Communication Design for Counter Terror. She is also a Fellow of the International Society of Typographic Designers (ISTD), and a co-signature on the First Things First Manifesto 2000. Triggs organised the rst New Views eventNew Views: Repositioning Graphic Design Historythe focus also of a forthcoming special issue of Design Issues (M.I.T. Press).

TEAL TRIGGS is Professor of Graphic Design

CO-MODERATOR

LAURENE VAUGHAN is the Director of

Research and Innovation in the School of Applied Communication at RMIT University. She is also Research Leader with Professor Harriet Edquist of the Geoplaced Knowledge Program within the newly established RMIT, Design Institute. The Program explores the possibilities of the intersections between Communication Interfaces and Digital Artefacts within diverse contexts. Originally coming from an art and design education background with a major in sculpture, Laurene has melded a career of practicing artist, designer and educator in Australia and internationally. Since 1995 she has been a lecturer and research supervisor at RMIT for both Masters and PhD students. She has supervised 25 research students to successful completion. In 2001 she co-founded the Master of Design Online program in the School of Applied Communication. This was the rst completely online design degree within RMIT that was focused on extending professional design practice for working designers. Since 2005 Laurene has been a Chief Investigator and Project Leader within the Australasian CRC for Interaction Design (ACID). Investigations have included explorations of design methodologies for interactive environments and new methods for working collaboratively in digital studios. Within her practice Laurene endeavours to explore and present comment on the interactive and situated nature of human experience, particularly creative practice. Her PhD research in this eld is entitled Anfractuous: an exploration of creative practice. Current projects within this area include The Map of Fashion and the Affective Atlas Project. Laurene has published, presented and exhibited work across these diverse areas, and continues to pursue a trans-disciplinary perspective.

My proposition is about the way in which we engage with design criticism. The rst New Views symposium (2005) was about graphic design history and showed that history and criticism are intimately connected. We have gone some way in highlighting the importance of documenting and critically engaging with the professions history and position within academic programmes. Yet, there is still more to do. Criticism can raise the bar of discussions about our discipline. Without criticism we have no benchmarks. Without criticism we are not able to reect on how we approach professional practice. Without criticism a rigorous and systematic approach to research provides little insight. But how far has the language of design criticism evolved? Do we need to rene the intellectual tools that the critics need? And why, as Rick Poynor pointed out at New Views (2005), are there so few venues for publishing high quality design writing and criticism? While there are many questions to address outside the academy, it is worth noting that such criticism is not a formal taught component within graphic design curricula in Britain. While students are encouraged to contextualise and engage with theoretical frameworks offered by the areas of visual culture and art and design history, less emphasis is placed on the way in which the visual might be used to facilitate critical engagement with design. As visual communicators we must consider ways of using our knowledge of design tools and visual methods to critique our own practice as well as that of others. We must consider ways of generating our own content and designing appropriate forms, and in this process ideally the act of writing and criticism can be explored and pushed through the act of design. Engaging in a discourse about graphic design, its future and what role design criticism and writing play in the development of practice, research and education, is what inspired me to co-create New Views 2. This event is a unique opportunity to move the discourse forward and to nd new and appropriate ways for developing a new language for design.

HOW MIGHT DEVELOPING A LANGUAGE OF CRITICISM PROVIDE NEW WAYS FORWARD FOR GRAPHIC DESIGN?

WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE SHIFT FROM GRAPHIC TO COMMUNICATION DESIGN?

The nature of graphic design practice has changed signicantly over the past 20 years. Few areas of the eld have been unmarked by the evolutions of change; these include the context of design projects (what is designed for), the methods used in their creation (how we design) and the application of design outcomes including the identity and location of design clients. From the business to the creative practice, graphic design now, is not what it was, which opens up the question of interest that drives me herewhat is it becoming? Over recent years a number of graphic design education programs have shifted the name for their program from Graphic Design to Communication Design. Some designers have adopted this new title, but many are unsure of what it means. The shift in title from a form of communication, graphic, and a particular practice of design, to embracing the eld as a whole, communication, is signicant. Communication happens in many ways through different literacies and sensorial receptors. Communication draws on sound, visual, smell, touch or motion for example, it is visual, textual, aural and ephemeral. Communication is also two-way, between something and something else. There is an exchange between the entities involved, and in this context, the designed is the medium through which this happens. Is communication design just another name for graphic design? Or, does it open up bigger questions, possibilities and challenges. What shifts in practice, in process and in outcomes emerge through this? Does this open up the possibilities for the graphic designer or create fear about a loss of recognition? It is these questions that underpinned my desire to co-create this event New Views 2: Conversations and Dialogues in Graphic Design. The time is ripe for exchange and exploration. The only people who can address these issues with any meaning and potential application are the practitioners, academics and students engaged in this design endeavour. I look forward to seeing and hearing what emerges through our explorations.

PEER REVIEW PANEL: The symposiums Call for Papers provided a submission of over 110 propositions
and interest from many more long after the closing date. In order to provide a fair and rigourous assessment of the nal submissions we called upon a panel of internationally recognized designers, educators and academics to assist us in the peer review process. Each proposition was double blind peer reviewed, with an opportunity for reviewers to comment and provide constructive feedback to authors. We are deeply indebted to our reviewers in their contribution to shaping the main strand themes of this event.

OUR GRATITUDE GOES TO:


Dr Leslie Atzmon Eastern Michigan University, USA Stephen Banham Letterbox, Australia Professor Anne Bush University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA John Calvelli Pacic Northwest College of Art, USA Dr Linda Daley RMIT University, Australia Nancy de Freitas Aukland University of Technology Kenneth Fitzgerald Old Dominion University, USA Lisa Grocott Parsons The New School for Design, USA Dr Ian Horton London College of Communication, University of the Arts London, UK Russell Kennedy Monash University, Australia Ellen McMahon University of Arizona, USA Dr Gavin Melles Swinburne University, Australia Dr Paul Micklethwaite Kingston University, UK Adrian Miles RMIT University, Australia Katherine Moline The University of New South Wales, Australia Kali Nikitas Otis College of Art and Design, USA Professor Mike Press University of Dundee, Scotland Dr Keith Robertson Swinburne University, Australia Terry Rosenberg Goldsmiths, University of London, UK Louise Sandhaus California Institute of the Arts, USA Professor Martha Scotford North Carolina State University, USA Dr Matt Soar Concordia University, Canada Dr Paul Springer Buckinghamshire New University, UK Dr Kate Sweetapple University of Technology Sydney, Australia Dr Cameron Tonkinwise Parsons The New School for Design, USA Professor Teal Triggs London College of Communication, University of the Arts London, UK Dr Laurene Vaughan RMIT University, Australia Dr Denise Wood University of South Australia, Australia Dr Alan Young AUT University, New Zealand Jeremy Yuille RMIT University, Australia

WEDNESDAY 9TH JULY 7PM

KEYNOTE SPEAKER

CHRIS DOWNS

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS:
WEDNESDAY 9TH JULY 6:45PM

Chris Downs is a Director and the founding partner of live|work. Established in 2001 live/work is the worlds rst service innovation and design company and is responsible for pioneering this new design discipline. Now 26 people, live|work has ofces in London, Newcastle and Oslo and their clients include include Sony Ericsson, Experian, Boots, Orange, Norwich Union Insurance, Vodafone, Egg.com, Macmillan Cancer Support as well as a number of public sector clients including the NHS, the Cabinet Ofce and Kent County Council. Prior to this Chris was part of the start-up team responsible for the development and implementation of The Interaction Design Institute Ivrea, in Italy and is a NESTA Pioneer Programme mentor. Chris has taught and lectured internationally on the subjects of service innovation, design and entrepreneurship. Chris holds a MA Interaction Design from the Royal College of Art and a BA Product Design from Glasgow School of Art.

OPENING REMARKS

Michael Bichard has worked throughout his career in the public sectortwenty years in Local Government and nearly ten in Central Government. He was Chief Executive of Brent and Gloucestershire Local Authorities and in 1990 became Chief Executive of the Governments Benets Agency. In 1995 he was appointed Permanent Secretary of the Employment Department and then the Department for Education and Employment. Michael received a Knighthood in the Queens Birthday Honours 1999. In May 2001 he left the Civil Service and in September 2001 was appointed Rector of The London Institute, the largest Art and Design Institute in Europe, which in May 2004 became University of the Arts London. In January 2004 he was appointed by the Home Ofce to chair the Soham/Bichard Inquiry and on 1 April 2005 he became Chair of the Legal Services Commission. He was appointed as Chair of the Design Council on 22 September 2007.

SIR MICHAEL BICHARD KCB

What does it mean to be a practicing designer in a company that uses design rather than produces designs? What are we doing to design when we treat it as a tool for solving problems and capitalising on opportunities? What is left for the professional designer when its gone all-inclusive and participatory? And what possible future might we have to look forward to when we actively encourage the idea that everyone is a designer? Basing the talk on his practice within live|work, Chris will present examples of projects where Design is being used and quite possibly abusedin new and surprising places. He will also talk about the changes in attitude, aptitude, skills, knowledge and perspective that have been necessary to survive in a world where the meaning of Design is in constant ux and the context within which we design has fundamentally altered. A passionate advocate for Design and Design thinking, Chris will be asking the question, Who is stealing design from the designers? And why is this the best thing that can possibly happen to the discipline?
1 Borrowed from the title of Lucy Kimbells blog on design leadership, design research, emerging practices such as interaction and service design, and the framing of unframed problems. http://designleadership.blogspot.com/

DESIGN LEADS US WHERE EXACTLY1

THURSDAY 10TH JULY 10AM

KEYNOTE SPEAKER

Originally from Phoenix, Arizona, Terry Irwin was classically trained as a graphic designer and worked in the Los Angeles area for several years before returning to graduate school in 1983. She received an MFA from the Basel School of Design, Switzerland in 1986, and in 1992, along with partners Erik Spiekermann and Bill Hill, Irwin opened the San Francisco ofce of MetaDesign, an international design consultancy with over 300 employees in ofces in Berlin, London and Zurich. From 1992 until 2001, Irwin served as principle and creative director for clients such as Sony, Apple Computers, Audi, Nike, The Berlin Transport Authority and Nissan Motors, among others. Since 1986 Terry has balanced three complementary roles: practitioner/educator/student. She has served as adjunct faculty at Otis Parsons School of Design, Los Angeles (1986-1989) and California College of Arts and Crafts (1989-2003) as well as institutions in Europe and the UK. As a student, Irwin studied for 10 years energetic healing and a 2-year MBA equivalent program which explored the linguistic and biological roots of human cognition. She moved to Devon (2003) to study in the Masters programme for Holistic Science at Schumacher College, an international centre for ecological studies where her thesis looked at how principles of holistic science have relevance for traditional design/design process. After completing her degree, she joined the faculty to incorporate design thinking into the Masters curriculum. In 2005, she co-authored a report for DTI, Defra and The Design Council entitled Design and Sustainability, A Scoping Report, which looked at the state of sustainable design in the UK among 5 key stakeholder groups. Irwin is currently a part-time lecturer at Duncan of Jordanstone School of Art & Design, University of Dundee and is enrolled as a part-time PhD researcher with the Universitys Centre for the Study of Natural Design where her work investigates the components of a holistic/ecological worldview as the basis for more responsible and appropriate design processes and methodologies for traditionally trained designers. She continues to balance her PhD research with teaching, lecturing and freelance design consultation and stresses that she is not an academicrather a practitioner who likes to study.

TERRY IRWIN

In his milestone book, The Turning Point, Fritjof Capra argued that the underlying dynamics of our most pressing social and environmental problems are all the same and result from what he called a crisis in perception; our inability to apply the concepts of an outdated worldview to the globally interconnected and interdependent world that we nd ourselves in. These problemsglobal warming, war and violence, poverty, ination and the energy shortage, to name but a fewcould be termed wicked problems, a term coined by designer/theorist Horst Rittel to describe problems that have incomplete, contradictory and changing requirements and whose solutions are difcult to recognize because of their complex interdependencies. Design is implicated to varying degrees in most of these problems and therefore has the potential to contribute to their solution. However, more sustainable/appropriate design must arise out of a more holistic/ecological world-view, which implies seeing and solving problems in a new way. As Thomas Kuhn said in The Structure of Scientic Revolutions, what were ducks in the scientists world before the revolution are rabbits afterwards. Systems theorist Donella Meadows believes that sweeping and fundamental change can only happen at the level of paradigm or worldview and although they are a lifetime in the making, under the right conditions, can shift in a moment. And Einstein famously said that problems cannot be solved within the same mindset that created them. Our worldview affects our perception of problems, how we frame them within a context and the way in which we set about solving them. In her talk, Terry Irwin explores how a shift in perception or worldview at a meta level can inform practice at the micro level of a specialty such as graphic design. This new way of seeingof connecting the dots between seemingly unrelated issues within much broader contextsrequires designers to seamlessly toggle between the macro and the micro in a more dynamic and effective way than traditional design process requires. This represents new ways of seeing and new ways of working that must be addressed within every specialty, within every discipline.

A CRISIS IN PERCEPTION

FRIDAY 11TH JULY 4PM

KEYNOTE SPEAKER

Richard Buchanan is Professor of Design and former Head of the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University, where he is also Director of Doctoral Studies. He teaches in the traditional areas of Communication Design and Industrial Design but is also well known for extending design thinking into new areas of application such as Interaction Design and Organization Design. Among his numerous publications are Discovering Design: Explorations in Design Studies, The Idea of Design, and Pluralism in Theory and Practice. He is an editor of Design Issues, an international journal of design history, theory, and criticism published by the M.I.T. Press. He is also a former president of the Design Research Society, an international learned society founded in the United Kingdom and serving a multidisciplinary network of design researchers in 35 countries. Professor Buchanan received his A.B. and Ph.D. from the Committee on the Analysis of Ideas and the Study of Methods at the University of Chicago, where he studied with the distinguished philosopher Richard McKeon.

RICHARD BUCHANAN

DRAWING CONCLUSIONS AND MOVING FORWARD

In his talk, Richard Buchanan will round off the symposium by summarising some of the main themes and key issues which have emerged during the two days of round table discussions. He will seek to identify what new challenges might lay ahead for practitioners, academics, industry and the design profession overall. At the same time, Buchanan will provide his own insights into ways in which we might move our ideas about graphic design forward.

SCHEDULE:
6:00pm 6:45pm 7:00pm 8:15pm

PLEASE NOTE THAT ROOM ALLOCATIONS WILL BE MADE AVAILABLE AT REGISTRATION THE SCHEDULE IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE

WEDNESDAY 9TH JULY


Registration Welcome: Sir Michael Bichard KCB, University of the Arts London Keynote: Chris Downs, live/work, London Reception hosted by Sir Michael Bichard

THURSDAY 10TH JULY


9:00am 9:30am Registration Welcome: Professor Teal Triggs, University of the Arts London & Dr Laurene Vaughan, RMIT, Melbourne 10:00am 11:15am 11:45 1:00pm Keynote: Terry Irwin, University of Dundee, Scotland Refreshment Break CONVERSATION CLUSTERS I Themed Clusters for Participants: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 1:00 2:00pm 2:00 3:30pm 3:30 4:00pm 4:00 5:30pm 6:00 8:30pm DESIGN WRITING/CRITICISM: REPOSITIONING THE DEBATE GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY GRAPHIC DESIGN: PRACTICE AND METHODS RESEARCH/INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD PAGE 13 PAGE 19 PAGE 27 PAGE 36 PAGE 43 PAGE 55

Lunch (provided) CONVERSATION CLUSTER II Refreshment Break CONVERSATION CLUSTER III Private View and IE Launch EXHIBITION: New Views 2: Conversations and Dialogues in Graphic Design, The Well Gallery, London College of Communication LAUNCH: Information Environments, University of the Arts London research unit

FRIDAY 11TH JULY


9:30am 10:00 11:30am 11:30 11:45am 11:45 1:00pm 1:00 2:00pm 2:00 3:30pm 3:30 4:00pm 4:00 5:00pm 5:00pm 5:15pm Registration/Refreshments CONVERSATION CLUSTER IV Refreshment Break CONVERSATION CLUSTER V Lunch (provided) CONVERSATION PRESENTATIONS Refreshment Break Keynote Summary: Professor Richard Buchanan, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh Closing Remarks Close

10

TEAL TRIGGS

TERRY IRWIN

SIR MICHAEL BICHARD

RICHARD BUCHANAN

LAURENE VAUGHAN

CHRIS DOWNS

11

12

CLUSTER

DESIGN WRITING/CRITICISM: REPOSITIONING THE DEBATE

1:

13

1:
DESIGN WRITING/ CRITICISM: REPOSITIONING THE DEBATE
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

A
John Calvelli
Associate Professor, Communication Design, Pacic Northwest College of Art, Portland, USA

B
Teena Clerke
University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

TOWARD A REVOLUTION IN GRAPHIC DESIGN: PREMISES AND ACTIONABLE HYPOTHESES


PREMISES Seeing as: 1 Since the release of the International Panel on Climate Changes 2007 Fourth Assessment Report there has emerged an international consensus concerning human-induced climate change, the possibility of its irreversibility, and the need to act urgently; and 2 Since the products specied by designers, according to Susan Szenasy, may contribute as much as 80% of global warming gases; and, as graphic designers in North America alone are responsible for helping to create 40% of its solid waste; and 3 Since these material effects are only a part of the problem of graphic designs immaterial communication effects, as noted by Debord and many others since, up through the present day; and 4 As the effects of these insidious communication effects could well be as irreversible as those effects indicated in the IPCC Assessment Report; and 5 Understanding that design designsthat once a designed object is released into the world it begins its real work, in Tony Frys words, of designing futures or defuturing; and 6 Seeing as we, as graphic designers, are also being designed by the designing effects of our communications, as all others are; I submit these ACTIONABLE HYPOTHESES 1 We must act urgently so that we can have positive effect before the cumulative negative effects are irreversible; and 2 We must act radically in order to reach beyond centuries of mistaken assumptions and in order to resist the usual solutions; and 3 We must refocus design away from the nished work and towards the designing of preferred sustainable outcomes; 4 We must reject all attempts to dene design as a marketdriven activity and profession and seek instead to create a new civil and sustainable society; and 5 In the education of the young and in the objectives of our advanced research; in the conferral of degrees and our licensing; in the aims of our professional associations and especially in the practice of our profession we must embody the ethics and ideals of Hippocrates as expressed in Bk. I, Sect. XI of his Epidemics: Declare the past, diagnose the present, foretell the future; practice these acts. As to [design], make a habit of two thingsto help, or at least to do no harm.
Calvelli is a designer, writer and photographer. A photographer rst, he received his MFA in graphic design from CalArts. He practiced design at three museums: the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago, and The Museum of Modern Art in New York, where he was both designer and department director. Since 2001 he has lived in Portland, Oregon, where he teaches design, art and design theory, and the histories of graphic design and photography. He has presented papers in Vancouver, Canada, in London and New York and the College Art Association 2008 annual conference. A recent paper of his was published by Visual:Research:Scholarship, the online journal of the Australian Graphic Design Association in 2007. In May of this year he had a solo show, Remnants, which explored the relation of form to social space. He is currently an Associate Professor at the Pacic Northwest College of Art.

PUTTING IT ON THE TABLE: WOMENS STORIES OF EXPERIENCE AS DESIGN ACADEMICS


How do women reect on the experiences that shape their contributions to the eld of graphic design? What kinds of research do women undertake and what choices are available to them in their work as practitioners and academics? These questions are pertinent as design engages in the process of becoming a discipline and women engage in the process of becoming academics. By examining how these matters are spoken of at a local level within one Australian university, I have identied the need to provide a broader discursive space for women to reect on their contributions to a changing discipline, to make this visible as part of the acknowledged fabric of womens work in the university. My doctoral research poses the questions of what and how women contribute to a eld that has seen a signicant increase in their presence since the mid-1980s. Additionally, the eld has witnessed fundamental shifts in traditions and practices from the male domination of the printing industry; the professionalisation of graphic design in the 1950s, and its emergence as an academic eld in the 1990s. Since then, more women have undertaken academic work in universities that have undergone major shifts. While many of these changes inform contemporary design discourse, there is a lack of written stories or histories that record or interpret the signicance to the discipline of womens experiences. Contemporary design writing can often limit the possibilities for women to conceptualise design and their academic roles that are outside of the dominant discourses. In order to reposition current debates, my paper draws on the rich data of my doctoral research. Framed by institutional ethnography (Smith 1987; 2005; 2006), enquiry begins in the local, material, everyday lives of women that are shaped by the textually mediated relations of ruling that organize our work and social interactions. Collective research methods such as memory work (Haug 1987) and ghostwriting (Rhodes 2000) generate written and spoken stories of womens experiences. Drawing on the idea that such practice is a form of enquiry, researcher and researched co-construct texts seeking to (re)present peoples lived experiences and produce meaning, rather than discover reality. This practice provides possibilities for telling particular kinds of stories that render visible the material conditions of womens lives, whilst also creating a different record of womens contributions. Thus a discursive space will be opened that moves beyond the local (Australian) data, generating international conversations among women.
[ Haug, F et al, 1987, Female Sexualisation: A collective work of memory, Trans. Carter E, Verso, London. / Rhodes, C 2000, Ghostwriting Research: Positioning the Researcher in the Interview Text, Qualitative Inquiry, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 511525. / Smith, DE 1987, The Everyday World As Problematic: A Feminist Sociology, Northeastern University Press, Massachusetts. / Smith, DE 2005, Institutional Ethnography, AltaMira Press, Lanham, Maryland. / Smith, DE 2006, (ed.) Institutional Ethnography as Practice, Rowman & Littleeld, Lanham, Maryland. ] Clerke has worked as a graphic designer and illustrator for over twenty years, focusing on community cultural development and social change. As well as her ongoing design practice, Clerke has a business in handpainted commercial tiles and has participated in ten solo and group art exhibitions, with paintings represented in private collections in Australia, UK, USA, Japan, New Zealand and Canada. Since 1995, she has taught undergraduate and postgraduate design at various Sydney universities, and now also teaches adult education at UTS, where she is a doctoral intern. She has published in the eld of design, on participatory design practices and sustainable assessment, in cultural studies, on research methodologies and writing, and in the eld of doctoral research education programs, on doctoral research portfolios. In addition to her graphic design qualications, Teena has a Dip. Ed. (VET), M.Ed. and is currently researching women design academics in her doctorate at UTS.

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DESIGN WRITING/ CRITICISM: REPOSITIONING THE DEBATE
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

C
Esther Dudley
Design Research, Faculty of Arts, University of Plymouth, UK

D
Stuart Evans
Research Fellow at Central Saint Martins, London, UK

WRITING WITH INTENT


In Becoming Designers (published by Intellect in 2000, which I co-edited with Stuart Mealing), I wrote a chapter entitled Intelligent Shape Sorting, which has a defensive tone, on behalf of the role of historical and theoretical research and writing in the study of studio based graphic design degree courses. I recognise now that the timing of that piece is signicant: at the advent of a new century, I anticipated that the design research format that I taught (and still teach), delivered by lectures and seminars and assessed mainly by essays, would become overtaken by a new system for discovering and expressing criticism. After all, one of my colleagues was at that time encouraging his students to explore a more experimental form of combining the designed image and text (resulting, for example, in the submission of Levi 501s adorned with text in highlighter pen as evidence of cultural context) which I watched with interest. Eight years later the experiment has stalled, it seems, and my colleagues and I are reading and marking essays and dissertations. The clearest indication that this may continue comes from the students themselves, whose feedback forms are evidence of a great deal of pride in their written work and certainly, by their third year of Design Research, their belief in the value of essay writing. This opportunity to research in depth and rene their ideas, their use of language and generally test their own articulacy is considered very important. Designer Daljit Singh, speaking at the Intersections Conference, Gateshead October 2007, said that what he requires from a new designer entering his practice is the ability to draw and to be articulate. I propose that by defending the role of critical writing in undergraduate design, we are developing students articulacy for practical uses and for the encouragement of some students to advance to postgraduate research. In between are the ones who are just proud of fullling a task that, initially, they feared the most.
[ I note that the Writing PAD initiative led by Julia Lockheart, Goldsmiths College is a forum for discussion of this subject. ] Dudley has lectured in Design Research at the University of Plymouth since 1995. In 2000 she co-edited Becoming Designers and has presented conference papers on teaching design theory, history and criticism to studio based undergraduates in graphic design subjects, for instance at the Beginning Design conference at the University of Portland, Oregon. She has written reviews, interviews and articles for the AOI, has guest edited the journal and has contributed to Varoom online. She has also researched extensively in archives for an ongoing project about the use of illustration in national daily newspapers. Other research projects include a photographic survey on hand cut lettering in slate, with conference papers given at the Royal West of England Academy and, most recently, at the Rural Futures conference.

REVISITING THE UNDERWORLD: EXPLORING THE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF PUBLICATIONS THEN AND NOW
Graphic Design has had a love-hate relationship with its own history, if it should engage with it and on what terms. Just as historians need practitioners to enrich their understanding of both practice and its context, so students and practitioners can enrich their understanding by detailed and sometimes speculative reection on case studies from the past. As part of a long term study of the Century Guild of Artists, its book, Wrens City Churches (1883) and its journal, The Century Guild Hobby Horse (1884-1892), are being re-evaluated in the context of their productionthose involved in design, editing and realisationand consumptionwho contributed, subscribed and read them. It is proving helpful to discuss the research with designers and students at LCCs Ph.D. Design Forum, and elsewhere, to gain the connoisseurly insights of specialists on design and production, and aiding reection on similarities between the Guilds work and the positioningpromotional publications issued by design practices today. The publications of both eras are manifestoes and polemical, both demonstrate how appearance, handle and editorial and visual content reect the principles and operation of the group which spawned them, and this allows us to speculate about what is innovative and what achieved. Through the presentation at News Views 2 and circulation of a response sheet and it is hoped that the study will be further enriched, in particular to expose how current working associations respond to Century Guild polemics and its designs. Why the Underworld? The Guilds emblem was a pomegranate, Persephones legendary fruit, split suggestively to show its seeds. Eating the pomegranate committed her to visit the Underworld each year and her return to earth symbolizes the hope of artistic regeneration.
[ Mackmurdo, AH 1883, Wrens City Churches, George Allen, Orpington, Kent. / The Century Guild Hobby Horse, 1884-1892, The Century Guild of Artists, London. ] Evans is a Research Fellow at Central Saint Martins. He qualied as a designer (DipAD & HDipDes), then as an art and design historian (PGDip & MPhil), and is now an experienced supervisor and examiner for research degrees, currently supervising 6 Ph.D. students, including practice-led projects. Prior to this he ran a methods course for students of MA Communication Design and MA Industrial Design, working with them on linking theory with practice. Evans own research is in two parts, one is research pedagogyhe organised the MATRIX series of conferences on research in art and design - the other focuses on the history of design and design practice - how the profession has chosen to organise and present itself - including a long term study of The Century Guild of Artists.

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DESIGN WRITING/ CRITICISM: REPOSITIONING THE DEBATE
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

E
James Faure Walker
Reader, SCIRIA, Camberwell College of Arts, University of the Arts, London, UK

F
Kate Ann B. LaMere Gunnar Swanson
Kable design + research, East Carolina University, Jenkins Fine Arts Center, School of Art and Design, Greenville, USA East Carolina University, Gunnar Swanson Design Ofce, Greenville, USA

DRAWING AND NOT NOTICING


There was a time when drawing was part of any designer or artists working process. You jotted down what you saw in the street or on TV. You worked it up in the studio. Your rst ideas were drawn ideas. Perhaps we still automatically sketch with pencil and paper. And in teaching, the simple exercise of drawing a still life is as good a way as any of learning the basic principles of tonality, line, or gure/eld. Does it still make sense to think in traditional terms of drawing skill and observation? If not, what are the alternatives? Some see physical mark making as the welcome antidote to working on the screen: personal mark as opposed to electronic manipulation. Others maintain that drawing is a visual language: road markings, weather maps, plumbers diagrams are all instances of utilitarian drawing. All lines do a job of one kind or another. Some see drawing as transformed by software, made redundant by camera-phones. Some see drawing as an art form in its own right. The conversations cross this way and that, between painting, digital art and graphic design. Pages from drawing manuals of the 1920s show that these argumentshow to look, permissible gadgetry, good versus bad drawinghave in the past led to some eccentric viewpoints, each with its measure of blindness. What would a sketch club of that period, armed with their dogma, make of our contemporary information environments? Some environments are in effect already drawings: car dashboards, newspaper layouts, web sites, airports, city centres covered in screens. Alternatively, how can an artist with a laptop, drawing tablet, video, cope with the rural scenery favoured at that time? The enormous Olympics construction site in East London presents an intriguing test case. It is being transformed from raw geography to a gigantic diagram. The way we see, what we see, is stillto some extentconditioned by how we learned to draw. But do we still need to draw? If designers are the visual organizers helping us navigate complex spaces, the painters are the open-mouthed spectators, trying to catch a little idea here and there. And that might be a drawing.
Walker is a painter, digital artist, and writer. Recent exhibitions include Space Now, London; Imaging by Numbers, Block Museum, Illinois, USA; 11th Japan Media Arts Festival, Tokyo; Digital View, Amsterdam; Bridge Art Fair, Trafalgar Square; Filament, London Print Studio; DAM Gallery, Berlin; 1979 Bloomberg Space, London. In 1998 he won the Golden Plotter at Computerkunst, Gladbeck, Germany. He has exhibited eight times at Siggraph. He co-founded Artscribe magazine in 1976, and edited it for eight years. His writings have appeared in Studio International, Modern Painters, Mute, Computer Generated Imaging, Wired, Garageland; catalogues for the Tate, Barbican, Computerkunst, Siggraph. His Painting the Digital River: How an Artist Learned to Love the Computer, was published by Prentice Hall (USA) in 2006, and was awarded a New England Book Show Award. In 2002 he was awarded a Senior Research Fellowship by the AHRB.

ANONYMITY, PSEUDONYMITY, AND THE GRAPHIC DESIGN CONVERSATION: CONDUCT, HONESTY, AND BLOGS
In a December, 2007 Design Observer post, www.design observer.com/archives/030925.html, Steve Heller condemned people who post to blogs under assumed names as cowardly and inherently deceitful. He called for all blog participants to use real names rather than pseudonyms or anonymous. The resultant online conversation tended to center around the right to anonymity, fears of persecution, the nature of blogs and the internet, and personal identity. One of the more interesting arguments was the notion of anonymity forming an equal opportunity on a level playing eld to become a hero or a fool in a conversation with wellknown designers and critics. That idea can provide an entry into a variety of issues in design writing and criticism as well as the less formal debate on a range of blogs: Honesty and community (Are anonymous postings dishonest or unfair and do they undermine trust and the social fabric. Are claims of honesty and community mechanisms for instituting discipline and regulating how and what can be said about graphic design?) Inuence, graphic design hierarchy, and ideas of power and control in the conversation (Does an insistence on real names unduly favor the views of leading designers and writers? Where/how does ad hominem function in graphic design discourse? Does the threat of social sanction preserve a higher level of discourse? How do the social mores of the graphic design community preserve or diminish power structures in the creation of graphic design knowledge?). Designers sense of importance and vulnerability (Does fear of sanctions for web comments represent realistic caution in an age of persistent information, levels of power within the profession or middle class paranoia? How are these modes of conduct self-initiated reactions to a larger system of differentiation within graphic design?). Finally, what are the relationships between private identity and public brand, connection to (or disconnection from) ownership of ones statements, and sense of power or powerlessness within the conversation? This position paper will take the form of a conversation between a young, new to the tenure track graphic designer/ design educator/researcher/Ph.D. in design/adherent to Foucauldian analysis of power relationships and a (less young) long time graphic designer, design writer, blog regular, and design educator.
LaMere, is an assistant professor of graphic design at East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, USA, and is the sole proprietor of the graphic design rm Kable design + research. LaMeres research focuses on networks, power, and knowledge within graphic design higher education and the profession. She conducts qualitative research that integrates methods and theories from other disciplines, such as cultural studies, history, sociology, and anthropology. Swanson is a graphic designer and design writer and teaches at East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, USA. His graphic design has received over 100 awards and his writing is widely published. He has been an author on the popular Speak Up website, was a founder of the once-popular graphics email listserv, and is an occasional participant on Design Observer, Typo-L, and the PHD-Design listserv.

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DESIGN WRITING/ CRITICISM: REPOSITIONING THE DEBATE
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

G
Stuart Medley
School of Communications and Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, Australia

H
Julia Park
University of Western Sydney, School of Communication Arts, Sydney, Australia

LESS REALITY: MORE MEANING QUANTIFYING AND CLASSIFYING IMAGERY FOR THE VISUAL COMMUNICATOR
Typography as a dening term has become interchangeable with graphic design, thanks largely to the International Typographic Style of the Swiss (Meggs 1998, pp. 363-370), and while font choice and application is seen as of paramount importance, image choice, which is virtually half of the communication design equation, is neglected in the theory and in practice. This is left to the instinct of the designer. I seek to address the paradox that we are able to communicate more accurately through less accurately rendered images. I will explain how the human visual system, evolved over time by looking only upon the natural world in all its reality (Gregory 1970, p. 32), can look upon a stick-gure and make an emotional and intellectual connection. I examine the design implications of this strange faculty of the visual system. Disciplines outside of graphic design are brought together for two principle tasks. Firstly, to show how the visual system works and how it has historically been put to work in graphic communication. Secondly, to quantify means to understand, classify and teach image (Dwyer 1972; Wileman 1993; Gropper 1963; Knowlton 1966) to the same extent that typography is understood, classied and taught. The paper covers: History of image in design: modernism as the benchmark of 20th century graphic design and its ill-informed reliance on realism through photography (Lupton and Miller 1999, p. 133) for its imagery; Interdisciplinarity. The importance of psychology for an understanding of the visual system and its implications for the designer. The key is held by face recognition experts in their work on the mechanics of caricature. Caricature, and not realism, is a mechanism for visual memory: distillation and exaggeration actually communicate more accurately to the psyche than the real thing (Rhodes 1996); Culturally specic visuality. I will show revelatory examples of visuality from outside of anglophone cultures (Asia and Europe); How to teach image: examination of images as departures from a norm; and through their position on a realism continuum, including student case studies; The paper addresses the void in graphic design theory that sits outside of typography, but its ndings can be used as a more appropriate means to classify type itself. In a time when traditional literacy skills are becoming outmoded and illustration is in the ascendancy (Mareis 2007, p. 8), this paper argues that curricula need to be in the vanguard of a new visual literacy where equal emphasis is given to image and typography.
[ Dwyer, FM 1972, A guide for improving visualized instruction, Learning Services, State College, PA, Pennsylvania. / Gregory, RL 1970, The Intelligent Eye, McGrawHill, London. / Gropper, GL 1963, Why is a picture worth a thousand words?, AV Communication Review, vol. 11, pp. 75-79. / Knowlton, J 1966, On the denition of a picture, AV Communication Review, vol. 14, pp. 147-183. / Lupton, E & Miller, JA 1999, Design Writing Research: Writing on graphic design, Phaidon, London. / Mareis, C 2005, Illustration in Practice, [in] Klanten, R & Hellige, H (eds.) Elusive: Contemporary Illustration and its Context, DGV, Berlin, p. 8. / Meggs, P 1998, Meggs History of Graphic Design, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken. / Rhodes, G 1996, Superportraits: Caricatures and Recognition, Psychology Press, East Sussex. / Wileman, RE 1993, Visual Communication, Educational Technology Publications, New Jersey, pp. 12-17. ] Medley is a lecturer in graphic design at Edith Cowan University in Perth. Formerly he lectured in design at Otago University in New Zealand and has presented design papers in Turkey and Lebanon. His work has been consistently published in Neomu magazine in New York. His designs have been published in several reference books including Rotovisions, Grids: Creative Solutions for Graphic Designers, and Harper Design Imprints Typographics 5, Big Type and Design Rules. Medley has been a professional communication designer in Australia for 14 years. He has worked in print, multimedia, animation and video graphics. Currently Stuart is a partner in and the designer for Hidden Shoal Recordings, a critically acclaimed record label with a growing stable of international artists. He is completing his Ph.D. in the area of visual perception based on the paradoxical premise that less realism in an image equates to more accurate communication.

THE MORAL DIMENSIONS OF DESIGN: THE RE-EMERGENCE OF THE DESIGN MANIFESTOS AND THEIR EFFECT
This paper examines the re-emergence of the design Manifestos* from various sources since the 1990s to articulate what they tell us about the morality of design. I hypothesise that these Manifestos offer moral dimensions to design by espousing ethical, social and civic values. Therefore, this paper proposes that the Manifestos remind us of our responsibilities as designers and suggests that the moral dimensions they prescribe should form part of a necessary framework within which a responsible designer performs. By applying theories and methods, a designer acts upon his/her acquired knowledge of the design process to research, analyse, and individually achieve an outcome. This paper sets out to develop an understanding of the graphic designers framework of responsibility and terms of reference. The moral dimensions presented in the Manifestos invite graphic designers specically to look closely at their actions as design agents and to incorporate research, theory and practice as a unit of design process. In so doing, the paper critically highlights the importance of dening the graphic designers role and responsibilities inherent in visual communication. The design Manifestos dene the capacity and conditions required to actively change and proclaim important relevant design issues. They re-afrm the beliefs and insights about design presented in our everyday life. Their function is to provoke designers to take action, address specic needs and clarify the responsibilities of the designer, on the premise that design has signicant social impact on contemporary visual culture. However, the paper does not propose that designers dictate a moral framework within graphic design education; rather the paper looks at why the Manifestos re-emerged as a reminder of individual ethical responsibility. This paper asks how we can have a moral purpose in a global/virtual village and proposes that such an objective is a civic as a well as personal project highlighting that there is both a public and private dimension to the responsibilities of the graphic designer.
* The design Manifestos from various sources include First Things First 1964 and 2000, A Scandinavian Design Council Manifesto on Nature, Ecology, and Human Needs for the Future, the Icograda Design Education Manifesto and the rst and second Declaration of the St. Moritz Design Summit. Park lives and works in Sydney, Australia. Julia is a designer and associate lecturer in visual communication in the School of Communication Arts, University of Western Sydney. In 2007 she completed her Master of Arts (Hons) in Visual Communication, her thesis titled The Moral Dimensions of Design: the re-emergence of the design manifestos and their effect. This thesis highlights the innite possibilities that graphic design offers within any given context to the community of users and determines that the incorporation of responsibility must be part of everyday design practice. The key aspects of this research resulted in a creative outcome in the form of a poster titled The First Man which is currently being exhibited in the Hong Kong International Poster Triennial 2007 until May 2008. In her graphic design practice she adheres to her new set of guidelines which she developed as part of her masters, a Design Park Manifesto.

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DESIGN WRITING/ CRITICISM: REPOSITIONING THE DEBATE
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

I
Luke Wood
The National Grid / University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

MESSAGE IN A BOTTLE
The National Grid is a graphic design publication established in early 2006 as a collaborative research project by myself and Jonty Valentine (www.thenationalgrid.co.nz). The impulse to self-publish evolved from a shared sense of disenchantment with our immediate situation living and working as designers and design educators in New Zealanda small professional and academic community dominated by the generally conservative concerns of the so-called industry. As marginal players at best, we imagined, somewhat romantically, that we might generate our own terms and conditions for successful practice via an adventure in independent publishing. Beginning work on our 5th issue now however, we have come to understand that the real benets of this exercise have been more to do with the way we have been able to establish a community of like-minded practitioners around the publication. This presentation will offer a critical reection on our experiences with the rst 4 issues of this publication exploring our successes and failures within the framework of a peculiar national context. As a precedent for our own project, I would like to introduce and discuss the typographic journal Typo, published by Robert Coupland Harding in New Zealand from 1887 until 1897. Particularly I am interested in Hardings ability to establish international networks of communication and inuence, reaching far and wide from within the isolated colonial outpost that was late-Victorian New Zealand. Within this discussion I want to explore the possibility that by operating as an independent publisher and distributor the channels one must work throughexpanding local and/ or international peer networkscan develop into something like a legitimate, alternative community of practice. I might also try to argue that, in our case, the same community might not have been established through a similar online exercise, and that the printed and bound artefact is in fact fundamental as a point of connection here.
Wood is currently based in Lyttelton, a small port town on the east coast of New Zealands South Island. Wood works as a freelance graphic designer, lecturer, and musician. He graduated from University of Canterburys School of Fine Arts in 1997, and completed a Masters in Design at RMIT (Melbourne) in 2006. An interest in practitioner-oriented writing and independent publishing evolved from his postgraduate research, motivating and informing the foundation of The National Grid project (www.thenationalgrid.co.nz). He is co-editor of The National Grid with Jonty Valentine.

18

CLUSTER

GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY

2:

19

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

A
Eric Benson John Jennings
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champain, USA

B
Alex Bitterman
School of Design, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

ETHICS OF A DESIGNER IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY (EDGE): A COURSE ON ETHICS, DIVERSITY AND SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
What is good design? What constitutes an ethical design decision? Aristotle argued that an object is good if it fullls its purpose. This philosophy dictates then, for example, that a well-designed knife is good if it cuts effectively. However if the same knife was used in the taking of an innocent life, the concept of a good design gets murky. Ethics are based on moral choices and the reasons people give to support their belief systems. Ethics also help us appreciate and evaluate our choices and allow us to be more cognizant of how we can better shape our future. When one looks at how design connects to ethics, it is fairly evident that a direct relationship exists. Every object and system in our daily lives has been intentionally created through a design process. With that in mind the designers power to enact a positive or negative ethical or equitable change is profound. This paper (details the results of the fall 2007 EDGE course) argues that the more the design student explores the ethical questions posed previously, the more they will be able to make informed moral design decisions in the professional world. This paper further explains how and why EDGE was structured into two distinct but connected modules. These divisions of study allowed the students to address the courses principal argument by exploring designs relationship to cultural and racial stereotypes and also to environmental degradation. Finally, the paper compares the traditional paradigm of design curriculum constructed on the philosophical models of egoism and hedonism (increasing students skills to fuel economic/personal success) with a more utilitarian and relativist version of design ethics where good design is conditional and provides the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
Jennings is an Associate Professor of Graphic Design at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Jennings frequently lectures on visual literacy, popular culture, and the visual communication found in Hip Hop culture. Jennings is also the co-author of the graphic novel The Hole: Consumer Culture and a co-founder of Eye Trauma, a web based collective of sequential artists, activists, and curators who seek to expand the publics perception of the comics medium. Benson is currently an Assistant Professor of Graphic Design at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His work/research has appeared in HOW Magazine, Creative Review, Communication Arts and will be featured in Blogs: Mad About Design (Maomao Publications), SustainAble: A Handbook of Materials and Applications for Graphic Designers and Their Clients (Rockport Publishing) and Reproduce and Revolt (Soft Skull Press). He has lectured internationally on the topic of sustainable design and his work has appeared in various galleries from Portland, OR to Beirut, Lebanon. Benson received his BFA in graphic and industrial design from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1998. His work professionally has been focused on creating enriching digital experiences on the web and environmentally friendly print and packaging material. In 2006 Benson received his MFA from the University of Texas at Austin with a concentration in design and social responsibility. His research is available at www.re-nourish.com, which provides a depository for practical information about sustainable materials and design theory.

DEFINING PLACE BRANDING: A CRITICAL EXAMINATION AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAPHIC DESIGNERS
Urban environments are in a state of constant change. Issues such as social integration, economic stratication, ethnic and racial composition, and immigration, test the traditional image of the city. This perceptual shift has given rise to a new method of identifying cities, the place brand. Over the past 25 years, the number of city-based place brands has increased nearly ten-fold. Place branding takes cue from the practice of modern consumer product branding, which began in the mid- to late-nineteenth century. The practice of place branding, much like consumer product branding, draws heavily upon advertising and marketing professionals to communicate and connect with the public. Traditionally, graphic, information, and communication designers have worked closely with advertising and marketing professionals to develop brand campaigns. Place branding, however, is different than branding automobiles, jeans, or lipstick. Flavors of other brand, place-making practices and customs inuence the development and evolution of contemporary place branding, and the role of the designer must adapt to these shifting demands. This information shift and focal re-alignment has created a gap in knowledge for most designers. Compounding the issue, the moniker place branding remains vague and a touchpoint for charged debate. As such the denition of place brand remains elusive for most design professionals. This paper outlines the ve main types of place brands as a mode of moving toward a clearer denition of place branding, and provides a brief historical context for designers and evaluators of contemporary place brands.
Bitterman, MArch, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor in the School of Design at the Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, New York. Dr. Bitterman is an expert on branding, identity, and identity systems, and particularly place branding. Much of his research focuses on the accessibility of branding and identity systems for people with physical, cognitive, cultural, or situational impairments. Dr. Bitterman recently completed a three-year research program funded by the National Endowment for the Arts to design an identity program for universally designed spaces, places, products, and systems. He is the founding editor and current editor-in-chief of Multi: the Journal of Diversity and Pluralism in Design. Multi is an international peer-reviewed, journal that examines issues of social responsibility in design practice and design education. The journal can be accessed at http://multi.cias.rit.edu.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

C
Jody Joanna Boehnert
EcoLabs, London, UK

D
Riitta Brusila
University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland

DESIGN & ECOLOGICAL LITERACY: PART OF THE SOLUTION


Climate change is a problem that will require a response from all sectors of society. Design is already primed to change and help inspire systemic transformation once we decide to engage in a meaningful manner with the environmental crisis. Thanks to the work of researchers studying the interface between ecological systems and human culture we now have the tools to catalyze a transition. Graphic design must embrace its unique ability to facilitate change by engaging with the emergent concept of ecological literacy, communicate key concepts and help initiate a wide-reaching social learning process (Manzini 2007). Ecological literacy is an understanding of ecological systems and an awareness of how society operates within natural imperatives (Orr 2002, pp. 92-93). Ecological literacy creates a conceptual basis for integrated thinking about sustainability. Informed by ecological systems, industry is transformed by ideas such as cradle-to-cradle, waste=food, and the necessity of staying within the current solar income (Hawken 2003, p. 182). Researchers have developed foot-printing and life cycle analysis tools that can make assessments of the environmental impacts of a system, design, process or product. These tools help communicators develop tangible characterizations of the often mis-used term sustainability. One Planet Living offers a clear vision of living within the planets carrying capacity (WWF 2006, p. 4). Meanwhile ecological economics offers accounting tools that could be the basis for carbon reduction programmes (Poritt 2005, pp. 259-262). Communication designers have an important role to pay in making these tools & principles meaningful to diverse audiences and integrating these concepts into the public arena. We are at the precipice of an unprecedented ecological crisis. The design industry needs to recognize that a societal level challenge to avoid climatic tipping points is different from other issues that compete for industry attention. The speed, scope, and scale of the communication challenge are critical (Gore 2008). So far we are losingevidenced by the signicant gap between the proscriptive action recommended by scientists and our collective response. Embedding ecological awareness into the cultural mindset is a formidable task. On a positive note, within this upheaval is the potential for profound renewal (Homer Dixon 2006, p. 23). Designers will no longer be capable of feigning innocence in an era with a challenge as great as climate change. Design motivates action and our actions have implications; designers are implicit. Design is still part of the problem, but it is capable of becoming part of the solution. It is up to us now, to make it happen.
[ Manzini, E 2007, The Scenerio of a Multi-local Society: Creative Communities, Active Networks, and Enabling Solutions, [in] Chapman, J, & Gant, N, (eds.) Designers, Visionaries, and Other Stories, Earthscan, vol. 78, London. / Orr, D 1992, Ecological Literacy, State of New York Press, Albany. / Hawken, P 2007, Blessed Unrest, Penguin, London. / WWF 2006, LIVING Planet Report 2006, WWF, Switzerland. / Poritt, J 2005, Capitalism as if the World Matters, Earthscan, London. / Gore. A 2008, New Thinking on the Climate Crisis, TED2008 [online], Monterey, Available: www.ted.com/talks/ view/id/243 / Homer Dixon, T 2006, The Upside of Down, Souvenir Press, London. ] Boehnert is founding director of EcoLabs (an ecological literacy initiative: www.eco-labs.org). EcoLabs is a network and platform for designers that is developing a range of projects to visually communicate complex environmental concepts and help instigate systemic change towards a low carbon future. She is a graphic designer at IAMBE design, a south London based studio with a focus on sustainability communications. She has written in the design press for Eye Magazine, Varoom, IdN, and Design Week. She has an MA in Graphic Design from London College of Communication (2005), and a rst degree in Fine Arts. Her work is informed her involvement with the Transition Movement that engages local communities with planning for energy descent and re-localization. She is a member of the UK Systems Society. She will be starting a Ph.D. programme in Autumn 2008: Design & Dissemination of Ecological Literacy (dependent on AHRC scholarship approval).

LOOKING FOR SIGNIFICATION


The focus of my presentation is on how signication and narrative are constructed in layout (graphic design). I question how graphic designers or visual communication designers construct a story by arranging and manipulating their materials, especially in the printed context of newspapers and magazines. There are four logical stages in the process of producing a media message: discourse, design, production and distribution (Kress & van Leeuwen 2001, pp. 4-5). Design is understood as a multimodal function. Discourses are socially constructed knowledge of (some aspect of) reality. Any discourse may be realized in different ways. Kress and van Leeuwen see discourse as being relatively independent of genre, mode and design. Design stands midway between content and expression. It is the conceptual side of expression and the expressive side of conception. Design allows the socially constructed knowledge to be realized in social action (2001, p. 5). Within this context, design can have different ideas about how the material expresses itself in different practical contexts and for different audiences. From a semiotic point of view we can speak about codes and coding in graphic design/ visual communication. Coding brings out genres and styles, which classify the nal product in certain categories. It can also answer to the receivers expectations and make them respond to and read the material. In this case visual narratives are constructed by modes of visual expression (size, place, color, intertextual relationships). They are interpreted as a part of a story together with the thematic content. Production refers to the way the expression is organized and articulated in the actual material. Often we cannot distinguish between design/mode and production/medium. Graphic designers design/encode modes for media. The most important skill for a designer is to understand how modes are used to create a layout in a medium. Through research we can nd out how designin this case, layoutfunctions, seeing it as a hypothetical way that may be received by the receiver/user/reader does.
[ Kress & van Leeuwen 2001, Multimodal Discourse [in] The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication, Oxford University Press, London. ] Brusila is teaching and researching visual communication and graphic design at University of Lapland. She is tutoring master and doctoral students. Dr. Brusila has studied at the University of Art and Design, Helsinki (1987 M.A., visual communication) and at the University of Tampere (1997, Doctor of social sciences, communication research and visual journalism). She has published articles and books about typography (in Finnish). She has also translated some of Jan Tschicholds texts into Finnish. Brusila has been chairman of the board of Graa (Finnish Graphic Designers Association) 2003-2007.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

E
Project holder of Graphical Design of the University of Barcelona, department of design and image, Barcelona, Spain

F
Laura Chessin
Associate Professor, Graphic Design Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

Raquel Camacho Garcia Jess del Hoyo Arjona

MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE: PROPOSAL FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN INTEGRATED AND STRUCTURED MODEL FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS
There exists a lot of literature across different disciplines that highlights the importance of the semantic construction of the identity and the use of the same concepts. However, according to this bibliography, there is evidence of a lack of cohesion at the moment of dening concepts, and the lack of measure and evaluation instruments. The following investigation tries to make a proposal of parametric, hierarchic and interdisciplinary integration of bibliography to make operative and coherent all theoretical approaches. We propose a model called First Integration Phase, FIP, to contribute with certain clarity to the current state of disorder, and tries to make a systematic theoretical model for order all design variables. Moreover, we expect that it could be useful both for design practice and to other disciplines that has common elements to design practice. Firstly, this research tries to demonstrate the existence of a high disparity between different disciplinary areas. Secondly, it proposes how we might be able to analyze these areas from different points of view. DEVELOPMENT As the rst step of this research, we compared between terms used in design bibliographies and disciplines related to design bibliographies, for example, Semiotic, Image Theory, Communication Theory, Advertising Communication, Advertising Theory and Evaluation, and advertising efciency. Our initial exploration of the bibliographies revealed an absence of constructed tools and a lack of clear parameters, the utilization of different semantic elds to name the same concepts, the mixture of concepts with more general areas, and the existence of a hierarchic chaos in the majority of the discipline areas. As a rst possible solution to this semantic chaos, we realized the ISIAC, an Integration System of Image Analysis and Comprehension. This forms part of a theoretical methodology. The ISIAC is a diagram of categories that arranges the hierarchies and discipline ranges of the analytical parameters used from an integrated discipline vision that allows the analysis of concepts from the same point of view. Concepts proposed by different authors of the same discipline area are tested with the ISIAC, with the aim to organize the different disciplines under the same criteria and strata, by the arrangement of generals criteria to particularly ones, based on strata and ranges. The result of testing all disciplines by the ISIAC is named First Integration Phase (FIP). This First Integration Phase reveals different disciplines, authors, diagrams and relations between disciplines expectations, and gives answers to demonstrate our initial hypothesis.
Garcia was born in Igualada, Barcelona and lives in Collbat, Barcelona. Licensed in Bellas Artes of the University of Barcelona. She studies Advanced in Research in design, crediting the research sufciency at the Department of design and image, University of Barcelona. She is a teacher of Theory of Design, Theory of the Image and Projects in the different schools of art and design in Barcelona. Arjona was born in Antequera, Mlaga and lives in Matar, Barcelona. Awarded a doctorate in Bellas Artes / Design in 2002. He is an adviser and consultant in strategies and project denition of communication and design. He is a project holder of Graphical Design of the University of Barcelona, Department of design and image. He teaches and researches Corporate Identity, schematic-informative Graph and typography and runs design, communication, marketing, Analysis and critique of the design courses within the doctoral program (Research in Design) at the University of Barcelona. Involved in scientic communication, in the Master Ofcial, Bologna, Biodiversidad Animal.

GRAPHIC DESIGN AS MATERIAL CULTURE


This paper will assume a view of graphic design pedagogy that draws from the language and observations of documentary studies and anthropology. This view will look beyond the isolated study of form and personal expression to a more interdisciplinary approach that looks at design in the context of the culture in which it functions. This paper will argue that the understanding and study of material culture adds validity and substance to graphic design activity, the visual means through which culture is communicated and expressed. I will address the varieties of experience and aesthetics each student brings into their design process and raise the question of how well the formal educational setting is able to embrace and nurture this range. This paper will address how there are both conicts and rich rewards in attempting to build a curriculum that reinforces well-dened formal principals, and embraces individual aesthetics. I will present results from an interdisciplinary course crosslisted as both a Womens Studies and Graphic Design course, titled Documentary Studies: Gender and Identity; and provide as concrete examples the work from a Senior Seminar for Graphic Design majors at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, in the US. In the Senior Seminar course we explored issues of personal identity and culture. Readings included both ction and non-ction texts, and each student was asked to dene an area of study relative to their own personal identication of cultural identity. The areas of study reected the general population of this urban campus, which draws students from a wide sampling of cultures, both native and foreign. Each student was engaged in a semester-long design of a zine for which they generated all content, both text and images. Students self identied such cultures as Mennonite, ex-Mormon, Punk, Chinese-American, Pennsylvania farmsteader, Iranian-American. As a link to design activity, the Senior Seminar allowed students to evaluate their own formative set of values and to explore ways in which personal and cultural biases guide their aesthetic, and their approach to both formal and conceptual problem solving. We explored how culture, aesthetics and the material expressions of culture are nely interwoven. The work of this class supports the argument that design activity is enriched by an understanding of the nuances of differences in material culture, and how this recognition of difference both challenges and compliments a structured graphic design curriculum. As a form of Material Culture, graphic design activity goes beyond a form of visual communication and acts not only as a purveyor of culture but also a mediator of personal and cultural identity.
Chessin teaches courses in Graphic Design that include Typography and Publication Design as well as Sophomore-level design fundamentals and Senior Seminar. She teaches an interdisciplinary documentary studies course cross-listed as both a Womens Studies and Graphic Design course, exploring issues of gender and identity. She has produced a variety of photodocumentary completed the design of a book documenting the variety of traditional folkways in the state of Virginia and designed the Material Culture exhibitions for the National Folk Festival. She studies both classical violin, and tradition Appalachian old-time ddle.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Hoi Yan Patrick Cheung
Arizona State University, Chandler, USA

H
Michael Dunbar
Communication Design, School of Applied Communication, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

A NEW CREATIVE PROCESS: FUSING SOUND AND VISION IN GRAPHIC DESIGN


Experience is more than just visual. All senses affect our overall perception of the things we see every day. The McGurk effect substantiates that our perception of an event is dominated by the unity of multiple sensesseeing and hearing (McGurk & MacDonald 1976). Since the boundary of graphic design continues to expand due to the accessibility of modern technology, the new generation often needs to work beyond the visual realm on web design, interactive design, or movie title sequences. Is the conventional design process adequate to fulll todays interactive, multi-sensory and interdisciplinary needs? Fusing sound and vision in lmmaking is widely practiced (Chion 1994). In graphic design, some readings descriptively acknowledge the kinetic aspect of typography in motion graphics (Bellantoni & Woolman 2001); some provide technical instructions on the use of sound in software; some address the essence of creating rhythm in composition with line, dots and shapes (Hiebert 1992). However, we rarely utilize sound as a creative component in design thinking or explore sound as critical component in the totality of communication. The ABA musical structure has once been theoretically used to examine the consistency within the grid system in Typographic Design (Carter, Day and Meggs 1993). With digital technology, how may designers extract new principles from visual-aural synchronization to offer a new creative guideline with more design control? Implementing the dimension of sound reinforces the structuring of time as a design element. It not only offers signicant opportunities to strengthen the dynamism of visual communication in a trans-disciplinary level but also to unify different sensory channels along a time-based structure. Applying this time-based structure to vision and sound categorizes the two periphery channels in a co-related taxonomy based on their narrative meaning, functionality, and sequential orders in a presentation. The visibility in this time-based form reveals the visual limitations and highlights the possibilities of visual language in unity with sound. A new theoretical guideline is proposed in this paper for optimizing senses in storytelling and for integrating vision and sound in the creative process. This fusing of visible image and invisible sound advances our understanding in visually representing invisible/abstract information. If the role of the terms experience design, embodiment and emotion design played in design become as signicant as less is more or form follows function, then the notion of fusing aural sensory input to visual design is denitely worth exploring. It is time to think beyond visual.
[ Bellantoni, J & Woolman, M 2001, Type in Motion: Innovations in Digital Graphics, Rizzoli, New York. / Burrow, J 2000, Time, Motion, Symbol. Line, Eye Magazine, vol. 27, no. 37, pp. 30-37. / Carter, R, Day, B & Meggs, P 1993, Syntax and Communication, [in] Typographic Design, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Canada, pp. 43-84. / Chion, M 1994, Audio-Vision: Sound on screen, Columbia University Press, New York. / Heller, S, (ed.) 2001, The Education of an E-designer, Allworth Press, New York. / Hiebert, K J 1992, Graphic Design Processes, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. / McGurk, H & MacDonard, J 1976, Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices, in Nature, vol. 264, December, pp. 746-748. ] Cheung completed both his undergraduate and masters degrees in visual communication design at Arizona State University. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the school of design with a concentration in Arts, Media, and Engineering at ASU. His research topic focuses on the theory and methodology of integrating the element of time with visual-aural synchronization in design. As a designer and artist, Cheung has had the benet of working in several environments since 1998, including two different design studios, an in-house advertising department (Fender) and at ASU teaching graphic design foundation courses for seven semesters. His studio, Unfoldingidea, was established in 2001 as a creative venture specializing in print collateral. He is currently the creative director at the ASUs Ofce of Vice President for Research and Economic Affairs and his paintings are on display at the Rive Gauche Gallery on Main Street in Scottsdale, Arizona.

COLLABORATING THROUGH AESTHETICS: LOOKING AT THE ROLE OF AESTHETICS IN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERACTION DESIGN PROJECTS INVOLVING COMMUNICATION DESIGNERS
In many interaction design projects collaboration is common between software developers, interaction designers, web designers and communication designers. In this presentation I will use a case study of a commercial interaction design project to explore the relationships between aesthetics and identity design in digital artifacts. In particular, I will draw on the rst-hand experience in the collaborative process where misunderstandings around the role of the communication designer lead to failures in the design of the digital artifact. The communication designers role was to redesign the user interface of the digital artifacta web-based tool to support collaborative document authoringwhilst simultaneously creating an identity and surrounding communications (website, brochures, etc) to brand and market the product. The client wanted their product to be clean, simple, human and friendly; the resulting identity and surrounding communications reected these qualities. However, the software interface reected none of these qualities, resulting in a product that promised an experience that is easy and relaxed, but delivered one that is clunky, confusing and incoherent. WHAT WENT WRONG? The designer, client and developer didnt work together to design these qualities into the digital artifact. The role of the communication designer was limited to providing a style-sheet to apply colour and images to already-existing elements for the system. The interface had a new coat of paint and a shiny new sign, but underneath, the foundations were still the same. The case study highlights a perception by others outside of the eld that the practice of communication design is a surface activity. This perception disregards the deeper connection between the surface and structural elements of digital artifacts as well as the design of their surrounding identity. This case study opens up the discussion on understanding the aesthetics of digital artifacts. Discourse on aesthetic computing sheds light on the aesthetic nature of digital design artifacts. Jonas Lwgrens account from an interaction design perspective suggests that, we need to realize that a digital artifact is constituted primarily not by its static visual design but by its dynamic gestaltthe character of the interaction it allows over time (Fishwick et. al. 2005) Lwgren illustrates examples of aesthetic qualities used in digital artifacts, one being the notion of seductiveness, which describes the process of enticement, relationship and fulllment between people and artifacts. This notion is not restricted to digital artifacts, and was rst introduced to interaction design from looking at the way brands work. Such parallels in discourses in aesthetics from interaction design and communication design bring opportunities for deeper understandings between practices in interaction design projects. These shared spaces for understanding could catalyse new ways of looking at interdisciplinary practice, and afford new ways of looking at respective disciplines of communication design and interaction design.
[ Fishwick, P & Diehl, S 2005, Perspectives on Aesthetic Computing, Leonardo, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 133-141. ] Dunbar is a Ph.D. student at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. His research project, entitled Beyond Skin Deep explores what it means to be a communication designer collaborating in interaction design projects or is it an interaction designer from a background in communication design? Through his practice, he began looking at skinningreshaping the outer surface of a digital artifact. Through several projects, he moves from concrete of skin to the more abstract notions of identity and strategy to the meta of user experience and dynamic gestalt. He is supported by RMIT University and the Australasian CRC for Interaction Design (ACID).

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Lisa Fontaine
Iowa State University, Ames, USA

J
Elizabeth Guffey
Humanities Division, State University of New York, Purchase, USA

MISSING IN ACTION? GRAPHIC DESIGN IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT


This paper will identify the many missed opportunities for graphic designers to solve problems in the built environment, and will describe how one university has responded to this potential growth area within the discipline by developing a new graduate level degree in Environmental Graphic Design. Graphic Design is increasingly needed in the built environment, with expanding demands for branded environments and visitor experiences. But we are frequently not consulted or included on projects where we could be of great assistance. Many graphic designers are hesitant to expand into built space; not surprisingly, since few schools address Environmental Graphic Design in their coursework. Exemplary work does exist in the area of sign design, and professional design associations such as the Society of Environmental Graphic Design in the U.S. and the Sign Design Society in the U.K. support this specialized area within the graphic design profession. Unfortunately, however, the fact remains that only a small fraction of the 3-dimensional visual communication opportunities incorporate the expertise of graphic designers. Three-dimensional graphic design opportunities include waynding signs, interpretive museum exhibits, branded environments, and place-making initiatives in public spaces. But professionals in other disciplines often complete these design projects, since they seldom view graphic design as a unique skill. Common situations include: Commercial fabricators creating signs for small businesses that neglect the basic principles of communication and composition, therefore failing to express the clients message clearly and accurately. Architects designing waynding sign systems with no experience in typographic hierarchy, legibility, or font selection. Landscape architects designing streetscape projects for communities with little regard for coordinating graphic identity within the streetscape. City planners developing design guidelines for cities and commercial districts with little concern for signage recommendations. This allows poorly designed signs to be approved even though they bring no added value to the district or the business. Educators designing interpretive and interactive exhibits for history and science museum without regard for information design methods for ensuring clarity and readability. As a result, these well-intentioned exhibits can be misused, misinterpreted or ignored by users that cannot comprehend their messages. Iowa State University has responded to these missed opportunities in graphic design by developing a new interdisciplinary masters degree program (the rst of its kind in the US) in Environmental Graphic Design. The paper describes this new curricular direction, and how it attempts to cross the boundaries between 2 and 3-dimensional design.
Fontaine is an Associate Professor of Graphic Design at Iowa State University, where she has taught two and three-dimensional graphic design for 21 years. Recently she helped to develop the universitys new graduatelevel curriculum in Environmental Graphic Design, the rst program of its kind in the United States. She serves on the Education Committee for the Society of Environmental Graphic Design. Professor Fontaine directs downtown revitalization initiatives as well as placemaking, exhibition design, and waynding design projects for communities in Iowa and the Midwest, throughout Iowa. In addition to environmental graphic design, she teaches courses in branding, symbol design, and research methods. She speaks at many professional conferences to show the connection between graphic design and the built environment. Ongoing research includes visual analysis of retail districts in large and small communities across the US and Europe.

POST POSTERS? COMMUNICATION DESIGN AND THE PRODUCTION OF SOCIAL SPACE


Once a staple of visual communications, today the posters continuing relevance is contested. On the one hand, art historians and curators often assume that posters continue to plaster streets and thoroughfares as they once did in the nineteenth century. Designers, on the other hand, have begun referring to the form as a dead medium whose function has been usurped by postcards and email blasts. This paper argues for a middle ground, suggesting that while pronouncements of its demise are overrated, the posters purpose is transforming. Apprehending this change requires interrogating the poster, not in terms of appearance or messaging potential, but rather in regards to its social role in the production of space. In The Production of Space (1991), Henri Lefebvre argues that space is not inert or neutral; rather, he conceives space as a literal construct that is produced through ongoing social activity. Lefebvre largely engages space as a theoretical proposition but posters can concretize these ideas. First developed in the dense urban landscapes of European and American cities in the mid-nineteenth century, the poster was a by-product of the industrial revolution. Moreover, we could argue that posters contributed to a new geography of readership that encompassed dense urban centers, the growth of free market capitalism, and increased literacy. But the conditions that helped form the poster have forever changed. Indeed, the poster has repeatedly been pronounced dead over the last one hundred years. Inventions like the radio, television and automobile each congured public communications and public space in new ways. Newer forms of media, for example, mass-market publications, and especially the rise of the Internet, continue to challenge posters communicative power. But posters have hardly disappeared. In many design circles it functions as the historical and cultural equivalent of how framed painting traditionally gured in the ne arts. Moreover, museum and gallery shows, festivals, design magazines and annual competitions encourage avant-garde poster design. Posters, though, can also describe changing attitudes toward public and private space. They still communicate effectively in densely populated public spaces. But over the last century public space has increasingly privatized; poster hanging is increasingly limited by post no bills signs. Conversely, however, the poster has colonized interior spaces; posters today hang as often on college dorm walls as street corners. Indeed, using the example of the poster, we might also argue that while public space is becoming private, so too is private space is increasingly public.
[ Lefebvre, D 1991, The Production of Space, trans. Nicholson-Smith, D, Blackwell, Oxford, UK. ] Guffey is Professor of Art History at the State University of New York, Purchase. Her area of specialization is nineteenth and twentieth century design history; her most recent book, Retro: The Culture of Revival (Reaktion 2006), traces new forms of nostalgia in art, design and material culture. Professor Guffey is the author of numerous articles on design and will also be the founding editor of Design and Culture (appearing spring, 2009). She is also president of the Design Studies Forum, USA.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

K
Dawn M. Hachenski Ronn M. Daniel
Associate Professor of Graphic Design, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, USA Associate Professor of Interior Design, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, USA

L
Russell Kennedy
Monash University, Faculty of Art & Design, Melbourne, Australia

THE MANGLE OF PRACTICE: ASSEMBLAGES OF DESIGN, SCIENCE, HISTORY & NATURE


Who works alone? All designers collaborate. That is a necessary condition of practicing in a world of teams and clients and fabricators. But the mechanical fact of our interdependence with others is the simplest mode of collaboration. It is a necessary condition. When we formed our practice, Hopscotch Studio two design faculty in a School of Art and Art History, one 2-dimensional and graphic, the other 3-dimensional and architecturalinterested in exploring hybrid modes of teaching and multi-disciplinary practice, we had something more radical in mind. Borrowing concepts developed by the philosopher of science Bruno Latour in his essay Why has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern (2004), we are developing an alternative model of collaboration. We have come to see our design collaborationHopscotch Studioas a choreography of agency, forces, actions, and effects. With this understanding, the role for the designer in the creative process needs to be reconceived. No longer the Master at his tapestry-covered table. No longer even the leader of the team. Again extending Latour, the designer becomes the one who assembles the one who offers the participants arenas in which to gather (p. 246). In our minds, it is a process perhaps best described as a choreography. The designer actively gathers up the assemblages constructing forums for the emergence of new concepts; distributing agency among the participants (objects, systems, and people); connecting networks, and cultivating things fragile & emergent. A multiplication not subtraction (Latour 2004, p. 248). Our work on an exhibition for the South River Science Team in Waynesboro, Virginia, USA was a demonstration of this collaborative model of a design practice; one which is afrmative, choreographic, and generative. Afrmative in that we begin in optimism about what might be, and with admiration for the complexity of that which already is. Choreographic in that we imagine our roles as designers not as creators but rather as assemblers and connectors, facilitating an intertwined dance of forces, materials, processes, historical traces, scientists, publics and generative in seeking to cultivate things fragile and emergent.
[ Latour, B 2004, Why has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern, Critical Inquiry, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 225-248. ] Hachenski is an Associate Professor of Graphic Design at James Madison University in Virginia and is co-founder of Hopscotch Studio, a creative collaborative design rm. Her research interests include letterpress typography, history of design, artist books, exhibition design, and multidisciplinary education. Her work has been recognized by the American Institute of Graphic Arts and HOW! Magazine, is placed in permanent collections such as the Newberry Library in Chicago, Yale University, and Rochester Institute of Technology and has been exhibited at the National Building Museum in Washington, DC, among others. After collaborating within the School of Art and Art History, Hachenski is planning to collaborate with a JMU music faculty member. The course will be team-taught and the content will cover composition through the similarities of music and design structures. The course is taught through the Institute for Visual Studies and will be open to music, art, and graphic design students. Daniel is a designer and architect and co-founder of Hopscotch Studio, a creative collaborative design rm. He teaches interior and industrial design at James Madison University in Virginia. His research interests include contemporary design theory, post-war modern architecture, automobile landscapes, and turn of the century interior technologies. Last summer, he spent a beautiful lazy day kayaking down the South River.

A STATE OF MIND OR A MIND OF STATE? INTERDISCIPLINARITY: A BROADER DESIGN CONTEXT UNITES GOVERNMENT WITH THE PROFESSION
The paper from this abstract will inquire into the promotion and positioning of design around the world with the specic purpose of informing the development of a National design strategy for Australia. Design is now referred to holistically. Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary practice is growing. Countries around the world are rapidly investing in design by establishing design centres, which promote human-centred design and broker relationships between designers and business. Governments and corporations increasingly acknowledge design as an important economic and cultural driver while also respecting the role it can play in improving the human condition. Global networking, self-analysis and the redening of our traditional design areas are emerging as the major issues facing the practitioners and educators of design. A shrinking world combined with the merging of creative disciplines encourages us to, not only redene our profession but also internationalise our approach to its practice, education and government promotion. Countries like Denmark, Korea, Japan and Great Britain are beneting greatly from a strategic and holistic approach to design promotion. This paper will propose that the design professions in Australia would benet greatly from adopting a less territorial approach to promoting its discipline. It will highlight successful examples of multidisciplinary design promotion such as the UKs Design Council, the Korean Institute for Design Promotion (KIDP), the Danish Design Centre and the International Design Centre Nagoya, Japan. These case studies will illustrate how a united voice provides more clarity and focus for stakeholders such as governments, businesses, investors and the consumers of design. The move to unite the design disciplines under a single term has already occurred in some countries with professional design organizations such as BEDA (Bureau of European Design Associations), the Danish Designers and BNO (Association of Dutch Designers) who all refer to design holistically. INDEX: design to improve life, the worlds largest Design Awards program also refer to design as multidisciplinary. The most signicant demonstration of this shift is the recent formation of the IDA (International Design Alliance) between three peak professional bodies, Icsid (International Council of Societies of Industrial Design), Icograda (the International Council of Graphic Design Associations) and IFI (International Federation of Interior Architects/Designers). All three organizations have acknowledged the importance of speaking as a single and united voice for design. This paper will analyse these examples in the context of design promotion in Australia, a country with a dynamic, emerging design culture but whos Federal Government is yet to develop a National design policy. This paper will explore potential strategies for Australian design promotion based on the experience of other countries that have already re-aligned their discipline-specic past into a multidisciplinary or pan-disciplinary future.
Kennedy MA FRSA (Melbourne, Australia), President Elect, Icograda 2007-2009. Kennedy is a Senior Lecturer of Visual Communication with the Department of Design, Faculty of Art & Design at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Kennedy is a Fellow of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce (RSA) and a member of both the Australian Graphic Design Association (AGDA) and the Design Institute of Australia (DIA). He is an academic and practitioner of both graphic design and lm-making. Before joining Monash in 1994 he was the principle of Russell Kennedy Design Pty Ltd, a corporate identity consultancy and Co-Director of Onset Productions Pty Ltd, a motion picture and documentary company. Kennedy actively promotes a network interface between design education and industry. An international lecturer, he is often invited to assist other educational institutions within the Oceania/Asian region. He has been active in the development of the Icograda Education Network and the deployment and promotion of worldwide educational exchange initiatives. He is also responsible for initiating and developing INDIGO, Icogradas Indigenous Design Network.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: INTERDISCIPLINARITY
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Steven McCarthy
College of Design, University of Minnesota, St Paul, USA

FROM GRAPHICS TO PRODUCTS: CRITICAL DESIGN AS DESIGN AUTHORSHIP


Design criticism is generally thought of as critical writing about design. The critical act is not just commentary on, or criticism about, but the translation of the visual and material into the verbal. The relationship is inherently reactionary rst comes the design, followed by the criticism. The emerging eld of Critical Design, however, uses the medium of design to make statements about social, political, economic and cultural issues, or about the discipline itself. Primarily associated with contemporary product design (see explication in Dunne and Rabys 2001 book Design Noir), critical designs posture bears strong resemblance to graphic design authorship, which often takes a critical stance. The other parallel is in critical designs communicative naturethe objects may function in the traditional sense, but their main goal is to contribute to the elds discourse as polemical actors. Diverse themes of consumption, privacy, waste, sexuality, debt, technology, genetics, media and globalism are raised in critical designs broad agenda. Recent exhibitions of critical design demonstrate worldwide interest: Dont Panic (London), Products of our Time (Minneapolis-St. Paul), Connections: Experimental Design (Sydney), Designing Critical Design (Belgium) and Forms of Inquiry: The Architecture of Critical Graphic Design (London). This presentation proposes casting critical design into the wider context of design authorship. By considering historical precedents and examining similarities, the activism and entrepreneurialism of critical design will be shown to have their roots in theories of graphic design authorship. There are two primary parallels between critical design and design authorship. The rst is the act of self-initiationacting without client commissionswhereby designers frame the topic, aesthetics, process, medium, materials, and users of their designs. The second is the politicized viewpoints of the designers; their designs stake out intentional positions that range from social, cultural, economic and geo-political to personal concerns. Both design authorship and critical design, whether self-referential and art-like or populist and idealistic, pose questions as readily as they offer alternative solutions. While architectures inuence on critical design can be acknowledgedArchigram and Archizoom from the 1960-70s are appropriate modelsI maintain that the theoretical projects, exhibits and publications about graphic design authorship since the 1990s have had a more direct bearing on the discourse surrounding critical design. Specic examples include Tibor Kalmans whimsical paperweights and conceptual watches; Jonathan Barnbrooks rhetorically charged typeface designs and naming provocations; Bureaus confrontational posters for gender and sexual awareness issues; Shepard Faireys globally viral Obey Giant campaign, and Adbusters magazine as a forum for anti-consumerist designs. The eld of industrial/product design doesnt own the concepts behind critical design any more than how design authorship is the exclusive intellectual domain of graphic design. Both terms overlap and converge. Both enlarge the activist presence of the discipline of design in general, and both require society to engage in design meaning-making beyond the passive role of consumer.
[ Dunne, A & Raby, F 2001, Design noir: The secret life of electronic objects, Birkhuser, Basel. ] McCarthy is professor of graphic and interactive design at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-St. Paul, USA. He holds an MFA in design from Stanford Universitya joint program of the departments of mechanical engineering and art, and a BFA in sculpture and drawing from Bradley University. McCarthy creates and exhibits works of design authorshipmany of which have received critical recognition and are in institutional collectionsand has published on the topic in academic journals and in the trade press. In 1996, he co-curated the seminal exhibit Designer as Author: Voices and Visions. McCarthys international scholarly presentations have included Declarations (Montral), Mind the Map (Istanbul), Hidden Typography (London), Politics of Design (Belfast), New Views: Repositioning Graphic Design History (London), Wonderground (Lisbon) and ConnectED (Sydney).

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: PRACTICE AND METHODS

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Boris Bandyopadhyay
Berne University of the Arts, Research area communication design, Bern, Switzerland

PICTURE LANGUAGE CAPABILITY: VISUAL COMMUNICATION OF APHASIC PATIENTS


Imagine you want to say: Please give me a glass of water and what comes out of your mouth is this: Please give me the glass of butter, but you really think that you have asked for a glass of water. This example of communication performed by aphasia patients led us to the research question: How can the communication between aphasia patients, clinic staff or the patients relatives and friends be enhanced? Therefore the research project was set up as an interdisciplinary team of design researchers, design professionals, speech therapists and speech therapists educators. The research team focused on the design analysis of existing auxiliary devices to support their communication, for example exploring how the patients could look and point at picture books and booklets to support their communication. These things were offered for aphasia patients who couldnt nd their words or who couldnt perform other speech modalities. Our main hypothesis is: The communication of aphasia patients can be improved if the design focuses on the valorisation of the patients abilities. We rstly hypothesised that the existing visual assisting devices were inadequately designed. However, it occurred to us that other forms of communication, for example, a quickly hand-drawn picture, appeared to stimulate the patients ability to undertake a word nding process. This meant that the best recognisable visual representation was not automatically the most adequate picture for the aphasia therapy. Therefore we had to reformulate the design criteria for the analysis. Furthermore the visual communication capability of people suffering from aphasia hasnt been sufciently investigated until recently, especially not within a design research perspective (Huber 1997). This research project addresses the basic communication question: What is the equivalent visual representation for a notion that can trigger a patient to select the right word for what he or she wants to express? In doing this we have referred to existing research work undertaken in the eld of visual representation, for example Arnheims visual concept (Arnheim 1954; Mitchell 1994; Lupton 1996; Sachs-Hombach 2003) or Foucaults claim that visual representation and words differs from one another. Foucault suggests that words follow each other successively which contrasts with simultaneous perception of a picture (cf. Foucault 1971, pp. 118-120). The research project Picture Language Capability starts from this point and raises questions about the possibilities and constraints of visual auxiliary devices in the eld of communication for aphasic people. The project team undertook an analysis of existing visual auxiliary devices according to design criteria such as readability, recognisability, ndability, as well as situated criteria such as improvisation and quick handling facilities. These were undertaken through the analysis of the specic communication situation, through the research teams expertise and through a literature analysis of design criteria for visual communication (Kress 2006; van Leeuwen 2004; Lidwell 2003). This design analysis is fundamentally based on intensive participatory observations by the research team and the project partners knowledge about the particularities of the communication situation of aphasic patients. The research objective is to develop a tangible prototype, which includes picture cards, a layout system or different visual auxiliaries and interfaces.
[ Arnheim, R 1954, Art and Visual Perception:A psychology of the creative eye, Berkeley. / Bonsiepe, G 1994, Visuell verbale Rhetorik: ber einige Techniken der persuasiven Kommunikation, [in] Fachhochschule Kln, Fachbereich Design (Hg), Klner Design-Jahrbuch. / Foucault, M 1971, Die Ordnung der Dinge, Frankfurt a. M. / Gtte, M et al. (Hg.), 2007, Die Welt der Zeichen, Globale Kommunikation mit Piktogrammen, Av Edition. / Huber, Poeck, Weniger, D 1997, Aphasie, [in] Klinische Neuropsychologie, Stuttgart. / Kress, G. et. al. 2006, Reading Images: The grammar of visual design, London. / Leeuwen, van T 2004, Handbook of Visual Analysis, London. / Lidwell, Holden, Butler 2003, Universal Principles of Design, A cross-disciplinary reference, Gloucester. / Lupton, E & Miller A 1996, Design Writing Research: Writing on graphic design, London. / Mitchell, WJT 1994, Picture Theory, Chicago/London. / Sachs-Hombach, K (Hg.) 2003, Was ist Bildkompetenz? Studien zur Bildwissenschaft, Wiesbaden. ] Bandyopadhyay was born 1969 in Neuss/Rhine. He studied Cultural Science and Design at the University of Lneburg (Germany) and at the University of Applied Science in Cologne (Germany), where he graduated in 2001 with a diploma in design. His diploma was about a product biography of mobile phones with his Handliche Welt (Handy World). After four years of working as a designer he started doing his doctorate at the Humboldt-University of Berlin (Germany) in the Course for Aesthetics at the Professorship of Prof. Dr. Friedrich Kittler with his Doctorate Project Biography of MediaMobile Phone (working title). Since 2007 he has worked as a design researcher at the Berne University of Arts in the eld of social communication and design for development.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: PRACTICE AND METHODS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Gene Bawden
Monash University, Faculty of Art & Design, Melbourne, Australia

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Leslie Becker
Professor, Graphic Design, Critical Studies, Visual Studies, California College of the Arts, San Francisco, USA Doctoral Candidate, Architecture, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, USA

THE SURFACE OF THINGS


For most designers, graphic or otherwise, our personal histories are littered with dalliances with all forms of design. Our lives since childhood have been a progression of sultry affairs with buildings, furniture, lms, clothes, objects, surfaces, textures, landscapes, pictures, posters, books An in-depth investigation of the things that inspire us may eventuate, but our immediate attraction is based purely on the visual: lusty, unabashed visual seduction. Why then has this base emotive element of design become such a pariah? Why can we not exploit the beauty of surface and ornament, and the seductive qualities of colour and texture without feelings of guilt and deception? One suspects that the modern economy of design (both aesthetic and nancial) has given cause to denounce the ornamentation of surface, an abundance of elements, and the satisfying gluttony of excess. The desire for contemporary communication to be clutter free, simple, global, clear and instant has given immense credibility to the sharp, generic aesthetics of digital production. Specialist typographers have made way for a couple of cds of a thousand fonts. Illustrators once chosen for their quirky individual styles are over looked in favour of easily purchased online art, or worse, poorly conceived Photoshop lter-fests. Garish, eye-popping colour has been over-painted in muted shades of tasteful warm grey. Graphic designers once praised for their genuine skills as artists, capable of wielding a pen, a brush, and a pencil with equal dexterity and wit, are now as irrelevant as rubilith and bromides. Viva la vector. It is little wonder that we see so much graphic design on a daily basis, and so little of it that stops us in our tracks in awe and wonderment. The personality, that quality that speaks to us in such a way that we reactcompletely seduced, or violently apposedhas been superseded by ho hum, inoffensive, generic good taste. It is disappointing that as a culture we have become so visually literate and design savvy that we see graphic design independent of the works creator: a publicly consumed commodity, not a piece of art that caused its creator an intoxicating journey of despair, joy and satisfaction. The intent of this paper is to restate the need for humanity and personality in mainstream graphic design; a need for good taste to be balanced by bad; for the restrained to be balanced by the excentric; for the spartan to be balanced by the over-abundant; for the full gamut of human emotion to be spurred into action by our daily interaction with graphic design. It will question the validity and continued proliferation of work that does not warrant a second glance, does not offend, nor does it excite. God knows the world has enough of those.
Bawden completed a Bachelor of Arts (Graphic Communication) at Chisholm Institute of Technology in Melbourne. In 1988 he began working at the Melbourne newspaper The Age then later moved to The Herald Sun as an editorial designer and illustrator. Since 1997 he has lectured full-time in graphic design, typography and illustration at Monash University, Faculty of Art & Design. He is currently undertaking a PhD that intends to investigate the political, historical, cultural and personal impacts of interiors constructed for display rather than use: the good room.

CONSTRUCTING WORLDS: IMAGE AS CULPRIT


When graphic designers began to discuss ethics in the latter part of the twentieth century, the physical nature of designed artifacts dominated a conversation that raised questions about the designers responsibility to the environment. As a response to global issues of sustainability, designers might focus their attention upon the integrity of the image and locate a method to query the responsibility of the representation. Although understood to be a site of production of desire, the commercial image now, tacitly or explicitly, increasingly also depicts socially responsible corporate behaviors. What lies behind the image when Target Corporation imbricates community-oriented philanthropy with consumer advertising? Or Dove, a Unilever brand, constructs a pro-aging theme that appears altruistic but works to appeal to a large, aging demographic? And BPs cheerful, yellow and green mark belies rather well documented egregious corporate behaviors. Meanwhile design pedagogy and practice, the sites at which representations are brought to life, remain mostly outside critical inquiry into the effect of the image and what lies behind it. This work interrogates the often deceptive, seemingly responsible roles that imagery plays in creating what is now understood to be an unsustainable lifestyle. Though leveling a claim of culpability at the design community in the production of the current crisis may appear to be an audacious one, understanding what constitutes an ethical image becomes more critical as electronic images circulate globally and designers begin to understand the effects of their work within a large, unstable network of images that ultimately lives far beyond the screens upon which they were so enthusiastically created. Although reading images is complex and contexts are unstable (Bal & Bryson 1991), corporate images continue to be products of tangible intent. Having vetted potentially useful methods of ethics, this project hopes to inject pedagogy and practice with a reective, yet pragmatic, space that allows for querying what lies behind problematic representations. Casuistry, a centuries-old, case-based, paradigmatic method is being used to resolve contemporary biomedical conicts (Jonsen & Toulmin 1988). Communicative Ethics, particularly in its recent feminist iteration, rejects universalization and focuses on a discourse ethics rooted in pluralistic, linguistic exchanges (Benhabib & Dallmayr 1990). Design Casuistry, over time, could develop paradigms for querying images and, in concert with recent iterations of Communicative Ethics, could provide ways to reframe what constitutes visual responsibility. The central task of the work is to embed and begin to answer, within the design process, the question: what constitutes honest representation?
[ Mieke, B & Bryson, N 1991, Semiotics and Art History, The Art Bulletin, vol. 73, no. 2, June pp. 174-298. / Seyla, B & Dallmayr, F (eds.) 1990, The Communicative Ethics Controversy, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. / Albert, JR & Toulmin, S 1988, The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning, University of California Press Berkeley, Los Angeles. ] Becker is professor and former chair of the graphic design program at California College of the Arts. She teaches Typography, Information Design, Graphic Design Thesis, and courses in Visual Studies and Critical Studies. As practitioner, she has designed and written Intels co-marketing standards for Intel/Smithsonian, designed custom furniture, consulted with 3Com worldwide and Nokia (Finland) on their print standards. She has designed brochures for the National Metalsmith Museum, Posti-Tele (Finland) borders performance project, and the AIA/SF and East Bay chapters. She developed fund-raising graphics for the Wooden Synagogue Project to reconstruct a Nazi-destroyed Polish synagogue in Northern California. She served on the AIGA/SF Board, founding and editing their publication; did pro bono work for Kelsey St. Press, a nationally recognized womens press; and has presented papers at AIGA and AICAD conferences, Tsinghua University Beijing, Harvard University, St. Louis University Business School, and University College Dublin. She has written for Print, SFDC Magazine, Graphis New Talent, Design Book Review, and several Steven Heller (ed.) texts. She was awarded a BFA in 1969 from The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art; MA (Design) in 1997 from University of California, Berkeley and she is completing her dissertation on ethics and image in the Architecture School at UC Berkeley.

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Suzanne Boccalatte
Boccalatte Pty Ltd, Surry Hills, Australia

MORE THAN SMOKE AND MIRRORS, BELLS AND WHISTLES


Lately, technologys been the worlds driving force and our sensory perceptions have grown comparatively dull. But its not technologys fault. We havent developed technology to entertain or please our cutaneous sense ... We will be approaching design from the perspective of how we perceive, and will design ways of perception. Here lies dormant a massive vein of design (Hara 2005). Boccalatte is a studio with traditional designers who produce print-based objects that involve the senses; touch, sight and sometimes smell and sound, intimate and personal. Interestingly, more clients are requesting a digital presence whilst cherishing the printed outcome, which is valued for its tactility, clarity and immediacy within its communication space. Are we in a transitory place? Is this our future in graphic design? What are the interstices and complexities that are characterised by the prevalence of digital media? Is there a need to retain and foster a diversity of human experiences and emotions around graphic design as multisensory forms of communication? Descriptions of the paucity of experiences provided by the internet as a visual medium highlight the inconsistencies and poor quality of many of its products and processes. According to Chapman (2007), the internet is perceived as a fountain of all knowledge, a techno nirvanabut he suggests it is basically prosaic, a strange labour saving device, starting and ending with google.com. Chapman believes we trade our real existence for an impoverished virtual version, a second life, having failed miserably in the rst one. In a time where audiences look to the real and authentic, can technology truly deliver? Similarly, in Turkles (2007) Evocative Objects, Susan Yee describes her rst encounter with Le Corbusiers original architectural drawings. Filled with his scribbles and markings, she felt at one with Le Corbusier. Later she experienced the same drawings as digital les, which had lost all sense of the original. She felt anonymous and a loss of her former rituals in the physical archive. What does that say about our experience and connection to real objects? Is something lost when it becomes digital? Yees response may be characterised as nostalgica hankering for authenticity of the object. It highlights the paradox of digital information, often devoid of human error and expression. Luptons (2006) descriptions of the re-emergence of DIY graphic design in recent times supports this revival of the hand made, drawing and gesture. Consider how we consume music today, the sensual experience of vinyl replaced with the downloadable MP3. No artwork, no lyrics, nothing to touchthe compressed aural le becomes the singular emphasis of the experience. How will visual design respond to this situation of the general abbreviation of language? We acknowledge the debates about the tension between the digital and the handmade. Rather than re-describe these debates, one way forward may be to envisage a transitional directionintegrated mediums that connect with all the sensesthat create unique and evocative experiences for individuals and mass audiences. As Turkle suggests, evocative objects bring philosophy down to earth ... focusing on objects means we can nd common ground in everyday experience. We wish to move beyond the idea that the physical object is ordinary and technology is extraordinary. And as Hara suggests this notion might be overtaken by a senses-driven world. This paper discusses examples of graphic design that demonstrate such an in-between transitional approach, by using digital mediums which work in conjunction with objects. This approach opens up possibilities for re-interpreting the conventions of digital designing, by placing a greater emphasis on the design of the experience which is embedded within the medium of designing, and its usage and intention.
[ Chapman, D 2007, Foreword BibliOdyessy, Fuel Publishing. / KinserHohle, M 2005, Kenya Hara: Creative Director Muji, thememagazine, vol. 3, www.thememagazine.com / Lupton, E 2006, D.I.Y.: Design It Yourself, Princetown Architectural Press, New York. / Turkle, S 2007, Evocative Objects, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. ] Boccalatte has been working in the eld of visual communications for over 20 years. She holds First Class Honours from Sydney College of the Arts, University of Sydney; a Grad Dip. in Communications Management, University of Technology; and has completed a copywriting course at UTS/Ad School. She is a practising visual artist and her work is represented in the National Gallery of Australia and the Powerhouse Museum. Suzanne Boccalatte founded Boccalatte (boccalatte.com) in 1990 in Sydney and now employs ve designers. Boccalatte designs various thingsbooks, posters, brochures, visual identities and websites. They love clients with social, artistic and cultural leanings, and designs are provided with thought and unexpectedness. Boccalette was in an exhibition called In Your Face: Contemporary Graphic Design, 2006 at the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney. They have recently won a gold award from Graphis for Sydney Design Campaign 2007 for the Powerhouse Museum (www.dhub.org/articles/640 and www.dhub.org/articles/147).

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Linda Fu
Global iCom Consulting, RMIT University, Canberra, Australia

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Lisa Grocott
Dean of Academic Initiatives / Associate Professor, Parsons The New School for Design, New York, USA

GRAPHIC DESIGN VISUAL COMMUNICATION


A few years before the world entered the new Millennium, most graphic design schools and faculties across the globe had completed a re-branding process by replacing the existing identity with the term visual communication. Many graphic design practices followed suit amid such movements. This phenomenon can be perceived as a worldwide institutional and professional acceptance of the equation of graphic design with visual communication. The unspoken yet prevalent belief in such equation within the profession is evident: As the dust of the re-branding program has now seemingly settled, it is apparent that the transformation has been, by and large, about the substitution of one name with another in terms of identity, and about the substitution of one expression with another in terms of discourse. In other words, the sameness between the two terms has been taken for granted, and the gap between the two terms has been neglected. By problematising the graphic design-visual communication equation, I aim to elicit much needed soul-searching into the meaningfulness of the disciplinary re-branding. As an advocate of greater awareness of the communicative nature of graphic design within academic and professional arenas, it is certainly not my intention to part graphic design from visual communication. Instead, my objective is to advance awareness of the substance towards this most recent re-branding. To achieve this, the differences between graphic design and visual communicationas ne or great as the gap may beneed to be debated, realised and bridged. This paper argues that the simplistic graphic design-visual communication equation is problematic to the appreciation and progression of our profession, because it can cloud our vision, mission and judgement. By its very nature, visual communication involves wider territory (both theoretically and disciplinary) and therefore represents greater challenges to the traditional boundary of graphic design. Following this vine, the unnished business of this disciplinary re-branding program is identied, and key aspects of adaptation needed to overcome the current shortcomings are suggested in this paper. In short, by suggesting that the graphic design-visual communication equation is problematic and at best conditional, this paper attempts to stimulate discussion into the real meanings of the re-branding, and propose potential steps towards the establishment of a well-dened design profession that not only has acquired a new identity, but also is committed to integrating the essence of design and communicationin education and in practice.
Fu is an Australian designer migrating from Hong Kong. She has founded the Canberra based Global iCom Consulting and Linda Fu Design, serving clients from Federal departments/agencies to major commercial/cultural institutions. With works widely awarded, exhibited, and published, Linda has received the honour to serve as a juror for several international design contests conducted in Asia, Middle East and Europe. As a consultant/strategist, she advocates for a culturally sensitive and socially responsible design approach. She was invited to address various design conferences such as the ICOGRADA Redening Design on a Changing Planet International Conference (USA), and the Identity/ Communication International Conference (China). During her previous capacity as an academic, Linda had several papers selected for scholarly conferences, including the DRS Re-inventing Design Education in the University International Conference. Fu holds a Bachelor of Graphic Design, a Research M.A. in Communication, and is now completing her Ph.D. thesis.

VISUALISING THINKING: THE DISCURSIVE AGENCY OF GRAPHIC DESIGN


This paper reports on a practice-led research project that followed up the hunch that designers oftentimes implicit understanding of what they bring to a project has compromised their potential contribution (Rust 2007), and subsequently limited the perceived agency of design. Driven by an ambition to better understand the thought processes a designer employs, the research project sought to consider the role graphic design might play in mapping what designers know. The key question was what might visual mapping as a methodology for interrogating the design process disclose for designers? This question framed a dialectic approach where the act of designing visual essays afforded a critical space to observe the communication design expertise being played out, at the same time as the essays subject concurrently explored designers knowing-in-action (Schn 1983). The transactional interplay between the design and subject of the essay aligned with Deweys notion of inquiry where conscious reection on the situation, is enhanced by the practitioners reection on the way they are thinking through and acting in the situation. In this context the agency of visual communication often ran contrary to claims made for conventional information design. Not subscribing to claims of honest data and truthful representations the research was less concerned with what these maps detailed and more driven by what mapping as a visual art practice offered (Hobbs 2003; Sladen 2001). The research never set out to trace a denitive reading of subject; the communication design of the essays alternatively embraced open-ended readings and pluralistic interpretations. The objective was to negotiate for the designer a discursive, iterative way into reecting upon the complexity of the subject (Herbert 2003) while rendering an ambiguous likeness that engaged the audience in the transactional activity of interpreting the maps. This paper introduces the key research outcomes, specically by presenting examples of how the graphic design exercise of guring out and charting the terrain led to a nuanced understanding of the process. The paper asserts the relevance of this research by arguing that this heightened knowing can enhance our capacity to draw on the speculative, iterative, propositional expertise of the designer. In highlighting the discursive agency of the visual essays as works-in-progress and the social act of designing, the research claims that the purchase of design rests not just with the utility of the artefact in the world but with the process of imagining, proposing, and negotiating to explore what might be.
[ Herbert, LM 2003 Matthew Ritchie: Proposition Player, Contemporary Arts Museum, Hatje Cantz Publishers, Houston. / Hobbs, R 2003 Mark Lombardi: Global Networks, Independent Curators Publishers. / Rust, C 2007 Unstated ContributionsHow artistic inquiry can inform interdisciplinary research, International Journal of Design, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 69-76. / Schn, DA 1992 The Theory of Inquiry: Deweys Legacy to Education, Curriculum Inquiry, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 119-139. / Sladen, M (Curator) 2001 The Americans, New Art, Barbican Gallery, London. ] Grocott is the Dean of Academic Initiatives at Parsons The New School for Design in New York and in this role her primary responsibility is the conceptualisation of an integrated suite of graduate programs. Lisa came to the United States from Australia where she was director of the Communication Design Masters program at RMIT University and creative director at Studio Anybody. The design consultancy fostered a culture of practitioner-research that directly informed the critically acclaimed studio work that has been published in Europe, Asia and the Americas. Lisas academic research is concerned with the potential role visualising can play in generating and translating design knowing. The practice-led nature of the research shapes the visual form of her conference presentations, book chapters and journal articles and is integral to her design-led approach to curriculum design.

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Luciana Gunetti
Politecnico di Milano, Dpt of Industrial Design, Arts, Communication and fashion (INDACO), Milano, Italy

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Robert Harland
School of Art & Design, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK

THE ATLAS AS A COMMUNICATION FORMAT FOR GRAPHIC DESIGN ARCHIVES: THE CASE OF THE ALBE AND LICA STEINER ARCHIVE
How do Communication Design and information technologies contribute to the construction of multilevel narrations aimed at designing digital memory/archives about communication artefacts? The Albe and Lica Steiner webarchive (www.archiviosteiner. dpa.polimi.it) is here analysed to investigate how Communication Design can contribute to making archives open resourcesopen in terms of content and interface designusing its own analytical and design instruments. The protagonist, Albe Steiner, is still viewed as a leading gure on the scene of Italian visual design on both the cultural-political and design-didactic levels. Through an observation of his cross-disciplinary design activity it is possible to reconstruct the socio-cultural context and the area of design studies and practice of his time, just by turning to the materials in the archive. The archive under study was conceived as a space for pure research images, which the designers choice to collect and arrange in notebooks and albums turns into communication images. In Steiners view, an archive should be a tool to collect visual ndings and interesting images, be them his own or someone elses creations. Regardless of the criteria adopted to organise image archives of this kind, they will in any case be evidence of doing design. These are archives of visual knowledge, which designers in general and Steiner in particular often arrange following their own distinctive methods. The archive Albe Steiner managed included different kinds of visual knowledge, with content areas as led samples were arranged and properly displayed, i.e. paged, following a strategy based on a specic display toolthe album. Based on these considerations, we re-read the whole Archive as a digital atlas of the designers visual processes of association and design thought, investigating the potential of a paradigm that can depart from the taxonomies that normally regulate archives. The atlas metaphor enables us to consider archives as places to open up new research elds, and above all, places for the localisation/representation of complex knowledge systems related to the culture of graphic design. The digital atlas is thus the design instrument that enables a narration of communication designers archives. Using the tools of Communication Design to translate into visual language collections of images and ideas as well as theories and processes, this may be enjoyed both locally (i.e. inside individual archives based on a structure dened by single designers) and globally, building the possible relations between different archives. The result is an interactive prototype based on historical and critical methodologies to be applied to teaching, or to elds of study and research, but also to the practice of graphic design.
Gunetti is an architect with a background in history of architecture and a research consultant with a Ph.D. in Industrial Design and Multimedia Communication from Politecnico di Milano. Since 2000 she has been involved in research in the area of the theory and history of Communication Design. She completed a post-graduate specialisation course in Industrial Design at the S.S.D.I. School of Naples University Federico II. In A G Fronzonis practice-workshop in Milan she has inventoried part of the archive and is still carrying out research regarding the mapping and design of new info-display systems for the archives of the main gures of Italian visual design. She has worked at the Albe and Lica Steiner Archive, Department of Architectural Design at Politecnico di Milano, with research and management roles. At Milan Politecnico she is currently collaborating with the Research Unit d.com, Communication Design Research and Teaching Unit, INDACO Department, Faculty of Design.

THE PRODUCTS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN AND THE NATURE OF URBAN DESIGN


Graphic design has been described as being everywhere, yet nowhere commonplace, yet specialised global and public (Jubert 2006, p. 6). One could add everything and nothing to this, in the same sense that other disciplines such as urban design have responded to the need to dene integrated practice (Carmona et. al. 2003, p. 5). While this duality of words is useful for conveying the potential breadth of the subject, it encourages ambiguity rather than specicity, and provokes wide-ranging interpretation and use of terminology. Consequently there is the potential for confusion and misunderstanding about what graphic design is, has been, or might be perceived to be. To the layperson, fellow design professional and academic such confusion may undermine the subjects potential to be taken seriously. This research is concerned with the somewhere and something of graphic design, and how its potential as a profession, eld and discipline is recognised, distinguished and further harnessed, to improve urban environments. It attempts to identify what the products of graphic design are, or might be, in relation to the context of the built environment. It is hypothesised that these products play a critical role in the primary and secondary functions of cities and urban places, identied by Lang as communication, economic, cognitive and display functions (1994, pp. 168-180). This research relates these products, and their function as graphic design (Barnard 2005, pp. 13-18), in context, in anticipation of better understanding the potential contribution to knowledge that graphic design can make to enhance the quality of urban design, and inuence the work of built environment professionals. In doing so, this research assesses the usefulness of the term graphic design, and what this may represent (for instance, in comparison with phrases such as visual communication), in the context of the built environment. For example, although communication is used as shorthand to describe a vast array of two-dimensional material (Heskett 2005, p. 82) as a key term it does not relate exclusively to graphic designit has been considered the central idea in the larger eld of design, from industrial and product design to architecture and urban planning (Buchanan 1985, p. 4). In conclusion, the paper argues that what might be identied as graphic design knowledge may useful to the built environment professional as a possible remedy to visual communication clutter, misuse of signs, and other related problems associated with the public realm.
[ Barnard, M 2005, Graphic Design as Communication, Routledge, London and New York. / Buchanan, R 1985, Declaration by design: rhetoric, argument, and demonstration in design products, Design Issues, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 4-22, The MIT Press. / Carmona, M, Heath, T, Oc, T, & Tiesdell, S. 2003, Public placesurban spaces: the dimensions of urban design, Architectural Press, Oxford. / Heskett, J 2005, Toothpicks and logos: design in everyday lives, Oxford University Press. / Jubert, R 2006, Typography and graphic design: from antiquity to the present, Flammarion, Paris. / Lang, JT 1995, Urban design: the American experience,Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. ] Harland is Programme Leader for BA(Hons) Graphic Design at Nottingham Trent University, and a part-time research student at The University of Nottingham School of Built Environment. His research focus is the relationship between graphic design and urban design. Before pursuing an academic career he spent 15 years in private practice in London, working for a range of national and international clients in United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Germany and Portugal in the private and public sector. He is a Member of the International Society of Typographic Designers and Fellow of the Chartered Society of Designers.

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3:
GRAPHIC DESIGN: PRACTICE AND METHODS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

I
Peter Jones
University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK

J
Bettina Minder
Lucerne University of Applied Arts and Sciences, Luzern, Switzerland

DEMOGRAPHICS: THE AUDIENCE IS THE MESSAGE?


With the vast amount of quantitative personal data collected over the last decade or so, allied to the collection of qualitative data through such methods as focus groups, combined with developments in screen and print based communications, it was anticipated by some that this may lead to a Marketeers and Communications Strategists Utopia, where these databases and developments in communications technology could be exploited in order to communicate more effectively, inventively and directly to a particular target audience. However despite this anticipated Utopia, the use of established quantitative and qualitative marketing and communications research methodologies still appears to lead to systemised, mediocre and clichd communications. One of the core components of the above methodologies is the use of demographic groupings or composites to identify relevant target audiences. These groupings or composites are generally based on, or developments of, advertising market groupings (a, b, c, d and es) that in turn within the UK, stem from historical social and class structures. Although these groupings and composites are often sophisticated in terms of how they are generated and the nature of the social groupings they identify, these groupings and composites tend to follow well established patterns such as: age, gender, income, wealth, education, employment, ethnicity, nationality, family status, sexual orientation etc. This preliminary abstract is an outline of a proposed research project/practice-based Ph.D., that intends to investigate alternatives to established marketing and communications research methodologies. Initially, this will be achieved by investigating the context, nature and use of existing demographic groupings and composites, but also more signicantly exploring alternative groupings or composites and how the use of the latter may impact on the authorship, content and synthesis of the message.
Joness professional practice background was primarily in brand and corporate identity strategy, design and management, prior to teaching at the University of Plymouth. He graduated from the London College of Printing during the early 80s and subsequently worked for various design consultants including: Pentagram, Henrion Ludlow & Schmidtt, Banks & Miles and Interbrand Newell & Sorrell on such projects as: London Underground sign system and corporate/brand identities for British Airways, Cunard and Faber & Faber. Jones also taught on a part-time basis at the London College of Printing and at Central Saint Martins. At Plymouth he is currently authoring and managing the development of an MA in Communication Design due to start in Sept 08. His current research interests are the research methodologies used by design, branding, marketing and advertising practitioners. He is hoping to develop the latter investigation into a practice-based Ph.D.

VISUAL STORYTELLING IN CROSSMEDIA


Crossmedia communication is being used widely and has contributed to the information environment in terms of continuity of the communication. Crossmedia communication is not only restricted to billboards, spots on TV, cinema, screens in public spaces and the internet, but it is also used in emerging technologies like handy-TV, In-Game-publicity or SMS- or MMS-marketing (crossmedia instruments also include event marketing and point-of-sale-marketing but these will not be discussed here). The process of designing campaigns that are successful in its efciency to communicate, is well documented and researched. The dynamics of narrative, however, is widely applied by experience. In terms of narrative dramaturgy, crossmedia forms of mulit-linear communication are not used consciously. The investigation of crossmedia dramaturgy acts on the assumption of both psychological and physiological knowledge about cognition and compositing (such as Sakkad-movement and Schema-Theory) and on narrative theories from varies elds such as literature, lm and comix and game design. The Lucerne University of Arts has undertaken investigation into the communication of out-of-home-displays. The Crossmedia project has set out to look into the various components that are piloting crossmedia narratives. This project has been inspired on two levels. Firstly, we determined that there is a lack of systematic investigation or analysis on the visual level. There is a gap in knowledge on the level of dramaturgy, rhythm and dynamics of crossmedia campaigns. From interviews conducted, we have discovered that visual storytelling in crossmedia functions more or less intuitively. Secondly, we observed that narrative has become a focus in communication design, and thus, we have investigated the visual principals that are operating on the narrative and dramaturgic structure. A prototype model for an analysis tool has been designed and this will be tested on a set of Swiss national Campaigns and other European countries such as the UK and Russia for comparison. Focusing on storytelling-parameters such as cut, montage and vocalisation, the model outlines a set of themes within the visual communication of crossmedia. During the presentation, different levels of dynamics will be visualized to give an idea what is (visually) happening withinbetween and outside the media and in different combinations.
Minder (*1971) is a design researcher, initially graduated from Zrich professional school for design as a graphic designer in 1995. Several years of professional experience as freelance communication and set designer, amongst others for the fringe theatre company You Lucky People and for Fresh Air in St. Petersburg, Russia. Graduation from Zrich University in 2005 (lm and literature studies, Lic. Phil I). She works as a researcher at the Lucerne University of Applied Arts and Sciences in the research eld visual narration & explanation. www.hslu.ch/design-kunst/d-forschung-en twicklung.htm

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: PRACTICE AND METHODS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

K
Arina Stoenescu
Sdertrn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design, Stockholm, Sweden

L
Karel van der Waarde Maurits Vroombout
AKV | St. Joost, Avans University, Breda, The Netherlands

UBIQUITOUS DESIGN: GRAPHIC DESIGN GUIDES THE USER


At the end of the 80s the desktop revolution had just started. At the end of the 90s it was the web revolution that had just started, and at the beginning of the 2000s we became familiar with ubiquitous computing and ubiquitous design. But where is the graphic designer to be found? What is s/he doing now, what has changed in the last three decades, and how much can we predict on the future of this profession? The paper will attempt a closer look at the impact of digital communication on the graphic design profession. It will follow the career of a graphic designer raised in the Romanian totalitarian regime of Nicolae Ceausescu, from the rst years of graphic design training in Romania through the graphic design education in Stockholm, and from the contact with Scandinavian design to the practice in Stockholmand Bucharest. Must we redene the meaning of graphic design? What role will the graphic designer play in the new era of ubiquitous design? There will be three main themes included in the presentation: 1 Graphic Design Education in Romania at the end of the 80sfocused on engraving and hand painted typography. No experimental thinking was encouragedthe curriculum included classical drawing, and proletkult (short for the Russian for proletarian culture, coined by Alexander Bogdanov) in painting and sculpture, which were the main direction that had to be followed. 2 Graphic Design Education in Sweden at the beginning of the 90sfocused on experimenting with new techniques and was a far cry from the totalitarian way of thinking taught in Romanian schools. It encouraged more on the practitioner than the reective designer (Schn 1983). Graphic design for the web was not a part of the curricula and print design was synonymous with graphic design. 3 Graphic Design Practice in Sweden and Romania between 1995 and 2008undertook illustration and graphic design for print for the largest daily newspapers in Scandinavia, Daily News and Expressen; magazine design for Ordfront in Stockholm and Plural in Bucharest; graphic design for art projects. New communication means, including Skype and pdf technology, allow a new way of working with graphic design on a global level. Each of these themes will invite a closer look at the graphic design timeline (Heller & Petit 2000) and the technology of immediate interest for the respective periods. This will show evidence on the implications of the social context on graphic design education, practice, and the new role of graphic design.
[ Heller, S & Petit, E (eds.) 2000, Design Dialogues, Allworth Press, New York. / Schn, D 1983, The Reective Practitioner: How professionals think in action, Basic Books, New York. ] Stoenescu (born 1969, Bucharest, Romania) graduated from the Art and Design Faculty in Stockholm, the Graphic Arts Department, where she received her MFA in 1994. She studied in Germany on an Erasmus grant. She started her graphic design education in the mid 80s in communist Romania, and has lived in Sweden since 1987. She worked with numerous exhibitions as a book designer and curator, and contributed to several Swedish publications as an illustrator. She participated in group and individual exhibitions in Sweden, Romania, Croatia and Lithuania. She taught experimental typography at Beckmans Design School. Presently she teaches visual communication at the Media Technology department of the School of Communication, Technology and Design in Stockholm and is the director of the educational programme IT, Media and Design. In parallel with teaching she is contributing as a designer to various cultural projects of the Romanian Cultural Institute in Stockholm, and researching on typography and politics.

SNAPSHOT OF A PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE IN A CITY


Statements about the profession of graphic design are frequently based on assumptions. Examples of these assumptions are that a lot of graphic design work is done by tiny agencies who work below the normal rates from lofts and bedrooms, graphic design in large cities differs from graphic design in small cities, a lot of graphic designers do not have any formal education in graphic design and their clients must be local trade and small and mediumsized enterprises. These statements regularly appear in discussions related to the creative class, graphic design education, and the visibility of the profession of graphic design. It is likely that the discussions would benet if data about actual graphic design practice would be available. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: The main aim of this project is to investigate if general assumptions are applicable to graphic design practice in a relatively small city in the Netherlands. The research questions focus specically on the design-methods and quality-judgments of graphic designers. APPROACH: An inventory of all companies who describe themselves as graphic designers in Breda was made through internet and database searches (Breda is a city of 130.000 inhabitants with an art-school and a new graphic design museum). A series of 15 interviews was conducted with a variety of companies. After an analysis of these interviews, more interviews were conducted to focus on more specic topics. RESULTS: The initial results are: There are about 100 registered graphic design agencies in Breda at the moment. One in 1400 citizens owns a graphic design rm. Employed graphic designers are not included. The rst set of interviews indicate that a clear division between different activitiessuch as web design, advertising, writing, photography and editingis not maintained in practice. The different activities are frequently brought together through a combination of personal interests and commissioner demands. The relations between graphic designers and commissioners are long term and are based on pleasant personal contacts. The criteria that are used in practice to judge the quality of graphic design can be subdivided into four categories. Criteria are related to the designer (income; pleasure), the commissioner (benets; costs; appropriateness), the reader/ viewer (depending on the artifact: this is to a large extend unknown), society (the profession of graphic design itself; the visual cultures). This study only provides a description of a single city. The results can be used as benchmarks to gauge graphic design practice in other cities.
van der Waarde (1963) studied graphic design in the Netherlands (Eindhoven) and in the UK (Leicester, Reading). He received his doctorate in 1994 for a dissertation entitled: An investigation into the suitability of the graphic presentation of patient package inserts. In 1995, he started a designresearch consultancy in Belgium specializing in the testing of information design. Most of the projects are related to pharmaceutical information for patients, doctors and pharmacists. His company develops patient information leaets, instructions, forms, protocols, and the information architecture for websites. van der Waarde is moderator of the InfoDesign and InfoDesign-Caf discussion lists and professor in Visual Rhetoric at AKV|St. Joost, Avans University, Breda (The Netherlands). He frequently publishes and lectures about visual information. He is a board member of the International Institute for Information Design (IIID) and a life fellow of the Communication Research Institute (CRI). Vroombout (1981) studied graphic design at the academy of ne arts and design St. Joost in The Netherlands (Breda). He followed a course at the Media Academy (training centre for public broadcasting) about new media and cross-platform formats. He worked for the VPRO Gids (Dutch television guide) as a designer. Nowadays he works as a designer for Kroon en Partners, agency for marketing, communication and design. He also works as a researcher in Visual Rhetoric at AKV|St. Joost, Avans University, Breda (The Netherlands).

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3:
GRAPHIC DESIGN: PRACTICE AND METHODS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

M
Joyce S. R. Yee
Centre for Design Research, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

DESIGN RESEARCH IN A GRAPHIC DESIGN PRACTICE


The Chartered Society of Designers (CSD)the worlds largest chartered body of professional designers, has recently introduced an Accreditation Program for design consultancies where research activity will be considered one of the key criteria for successful design business development (Peters 2006). While this is an encouraging move by a professional design body to recognise the importance of research in design practice, how much of this view is shared by design practitioners? Do graphic designers actually do much research in their day-to-day projects? If so, what do they consider to be research and how much consideration do they give to it? This research draws from the researchers own practice as a design researcher within a commercial design setting. Hence, design projects carried out at the Centre for Design Research at Northumbria University will be used as case studies in order to identify the range, type and value of design research in a commercial setting. Projects will be analysed using Fallmans (2005) continuum model of design research ranging from Design-oriented research projects to Research-oriented design projects. The former describes projects, which emphasises new knowledge as an outcome while the latter describes projects that uses research as a means to a design outcome. The analysis of the projects will help identify: a) the range and purpose of design research methods used in relation to different design projects, b) the value of research activity in graphic design practice and c) suggests ways to incorporate research activity within graphic design projects.
[ Fallman, D 2005 Why Research-oriented Design Isnt Design-oriented Research, Proceedings of Nordes: Nordic Design Research Conference, May 29-31, Copenhagen, Denmark. / Peters, F 2006, Key note speech by CEO of CSD, Finding the Question to the Answer: A Graphic Design Research Symposium, Nottingham Trent University,13 September 2006, UK. ] Yee is a practising designer and researcher in visual communication. She is part of the Interactive Design team at the Centre for Design Research, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne. She has over 10 years experience in graphic and interactive design practice and seven years in design research. She was trained as a graphic designer and received an MA in Visual Communication at Londons Central Saint Martins School of Art and Design. Joyce has recently completed a Ph.D. degree at Northumbria University, on developing a practice-led framework to promote the practise and application of typography across different media. She is passionate about advocating the importance of research and teaching in a design practice. Her research interests are in the areas of: theory and practice of research-led practice, specically developing practice-based research methods for designers and in developing a knowledge-based model for typographic pedagogy.

35

CLUSTER

RESEARCH/INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING

4:

36

4:
RESEARCH/ INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

A
Barbara Brownie
University of Hertfordshire, Hateld, UK

C
igdem Demir
Gazi University of Fine Arts Faculty Of Visual Communication Department, Ankara, Turkey

FLUID TYPOGRAPHY: DEFINING A NEW FORM OF TEMPORAL TYPOGRAPHY


Theorists including Michael Worthington (1998) and Jessica Helfand (1994) recognise in temporal media the capacity to add additional dimensions to typography. Type in motion is indeed an established eld of typographic practice. In most cases, however, texts fail to acknowledge that temporal media allow type to do more than just move. Contemporary examples feature typography that evolves, or exhibits behaviour, further blurring the boundary between image and type. At present, no method of analysis, or even terminology, exists to sufciently identify and describe this kind of typography. Perhaps the most appropriate term, uid typography, was identied by Eduardo Kac (1996) as typography that presents different identities over time. This aptly describes the typography that is currently encountered, for example, in MPCs Channel 4 identity, in which the gure 4 is constructed from environmental objects. These objects are, for a time, pictorial (a part of the landscape), then their identity changes; they become abstract components of a letterform. Kacs term, however, was never intended for such artefacts. It was formulated specically for his holographic poetry, in which letterforms appear to change when the viewer changes his or her physical location relative to the hologram. Similar features can now be seen in contemporary, digital examples, such as the uid, typographic works of artists such as Dan Waber and Komninos Zervos. Yet these examples go further than Kacs own works. They present forms in ux that are, in a moment, text, and in another, image. This presentation will propose a denition of uid typography that can incorporate this new form of temporal typography, and observe how theorists have, as yet, failed to acknowledge this unique hybrid of text and image. I will ask how typographic theory can be updated to allow for such type, propose new terminology to distinguish varying forms of temporal typography, and propose methodologies for the analysis of uid typographic artefacts.
[ Worthington, M 1998, The New Seduction: Movable Type, AIGA Journal of Graphic Design, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 9. / Helfand, J 1994, Electronic Typography: The New Visual Language, [in] Beirut, M, Drenttel, W & Heller, S (eds.) Looking Closer 2: Critical Writings on Graphic Design, Allworth Press, Canada. / Kac, E 1996, Key Concepts of Holopoetry, [in] Jacksin, D, Vos, E & Drucker, J (eds.) Experimental-Visual-Concrete: Avant-Garde Poetry Since the 1960s, GA, Rodopi, Amsterdam, Atlanta, pp. 247-257. ] Brownie lectures in Graphic Design and Illustration at the University of Hertfordshire and is currently engaged in Ph.D. research into the nature and analysis of uid typography.

THE RESEARCH OF TODAYS TURKISH GRAPHIC DESIGN (THE INNOVATIONS AND CULTURAL REFLECTIONS) AND A SHORT LOOK OF THE CARREER CHOICES OF THE SUCCESSFUL TURKISH GRAPHIC DESIGNERS
This paper focuses on innovations of the new Turkish visual communication and their carreer choices of successful Turkish graphic designers in the world. Despite Turkeys short history of graphic design, they have found their own language. This language allows people to talk within their own nation but also with the rest of the world. With the help of Turkish Society of Graphic Design (founded in 1978) and their yearly graphic design exhibitions, designers from all over the country are able to communicate with each other and exchange information on trends and innovations. Although it is a great privilege to be a graphic designer and discover new ways of thinking for the country, life is not easy for a Turkish graphic designer. This is due to the insufcient working conditions of the advertising agencies (working hours, salaries etc.); undiciplined ambiance and competitive work choice in freelance and low salaries as teachers in univerities. New generations of Turkish graphic designers have to guide their carrers very carefully to enjoy their job while maintaining good standarts of living. In the last ve years Turkish graphic design has established a good combination of visual communication language that combines the modern culture and its traditional roots. This has helped many brands to reach its target audience effectively. Advertisement can potentially reach audience in many towns and villages across Turkey through television, newspapers and magazines. But due to the social and cultural differences between large cities and villages, the use of visual language in advertisement may not always engage its target audience. Using traditional and cultural details in the communication materials, which are still an integral part of the region, may assist the designer in this process. Even though designers were reluctant to use cultural hints and details in their design, they are now boldly using them to communicate with the public. These designers incorporate daily trends of the modern world as well as the traditional, cultural elements of Turkey in their graphic language.
Demir was born in Ankara, Turkey in 1975. She graduated from Faculty of Fine Arts, Graphic Design Department Hacettepe University in 1998. Finished Master of Arts in 2001 and Ph.D. in 2006 in Graphic Design Department, Social Sciences Institute, Hacettepe University. She studied in Multimedia Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, Brera Unversity in Italy in 200-2002 with a scholarship from the Italian Government. She worked as a research assistant in the Department of Fine Arts Teaching, Gazi University Education Faculty during 2003-2007 and as an instructer during 2007-2008 and currently working as an Asstant Professor in the Department of Visual Communication, Faculty of Fine Arts, Gazi University. She is giving lessons of vectorel illustration, digital art practices, photography, illustration, computer design graphic and design history. Demir has six awards in Graphic Design, has four personal exhibitions, participated in six international exhibitions and 26 international exhibitions. Speaks English, Italian, Spanish.

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4:
RESEARCH/ INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

D
John Francis
Boise State University, Rochester, USA

E
Jacqueline Gothe
Senior Lecturer, Visual Communication Design, DAB, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia

THE ECHOES OF DYNAMIC MEDIA IN PRINT DESIGN


Is it not evident that the moment the sequence yields to the simultaneous, one is in the world of the structure and of conguration? Specialized segments of attention have shifted to total eld, and we can now say, The medium is the message quite naturally (McLuhan 1964, p. 13). Marshal McLuhan could have been describing dynamic media but he wasnthe was talking about Cubist painting. Cubism was a departure from Early Modern paintings perspective space; it showed simultaneous multiple views of the picture plane. This paper will examine how print design has been changed by dynamic medias inuence similar to the way that Cubist painting was changed by the inuences of newer media, like lm, in its time. The author will analyze instances of print where dynamic medias visual look, the suggestion of implied motion, or nonlinear narrative structures have been re-synthesized and translated to print design. In his seminal text Understanding Media, McLuhan wrote that the effect of a medium is much more signicant than the mediums content. Author Steven Heller (2001) likewise noted in Genius Moves that although the concept of interactivity is not new, dynamic media is the leading edge of communication and changes everything for the future for how design must relate to its audience. Much has been written elsewhere by authors such as Rick Poynor (2003) on contemporary typography and design in regard to deconstruction, the digital type revolution, and the erasure of typographic rules and boundaries. This paper while recognizing past work regarding these issues, looks at it from a different perspective by focusing on the aspects and characteristics of the dynamic media environment that inuence the design of print. It will be proposed through this examination that the development of dynamic media has shaped the way the creators and users of that shared digital space think about media, including print media, in both how it is designed and read.
[ Heller, S & Ilic, M 2001, Genius Moves, North Light Books, Cincinnati. / McLuhan, M 1964 Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, McGraw-Hill Company, New York. / Poynor, R 2003 No More Rules: Graphic Design and Postmodernism, Yale University Press, New Haven. ] Francis is Associate Professor of Graphic Design Department of Art at Boise State University. Francis teaches all levels of undergraduate graphic design at Boise State University. He also developed and leads a short-term summer study program at Boise State University to study different forms of design in Japan. He received his undergraduate study in graphic design at the Kansas City Art Institute from 1970-72 and the University of Cincinnati, School of Design, Architecture, Art from 1972-74. He received a BS in Graphic Design from the University of Cincinnati in 1974. He worked professionally in both the public and private sectors on a diverse range of projects including corporate identity, signage, exhibit, multi-media and publication design until 1991. In 1991, he entered the graduate program at Florida State University, and with an Interactive Technology emphasis, received an MS in Communication in 1995.

ON THE ROLE OF GRAPHIC DESIGNERS AND THE IDENTITY OF GRAPHIC DESIGN


This paper proposes that the major challenge for the contemporary designer of visual languages is a reinvention of the ways that visual communicators/graphic designers understand and speak of their relationship to themselves and others within their practice sphere and in relation to what is created. The theoretical framework for this engagement takes as its starting point experiential based, design projects viewed through the lens of post structuralist theoretical understandingsin particular, intersubjectivity. The projects include engagements in indigenous led projects in Australia working with Kuku-Thaypan elders, KukuYalanji and Wik Mungan with Traditional Knowledge Revival Pathways (TKRP) through the TKRP-UTS partnership and transdiciplinary engagement in catchment management in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Participation in these projects has revealed the ambiguity and multiplicity of the roles and relationships that a designer simultaneously experiences and embodies as an insider researcher. What has emerged is that the identity of the designer is not fully constructed by the designer and the community of design. Identity is a result of reciprocal recognition within the specic contexts of engagement. How one captures and brings to light the negotiation of these questions is a major project for designers in the contemporary world. The enquiry and openness required to engage in questions of identity and simultaneously act within the identity becomes a methodological practice. Judith Butler (2001) in her article, Giving An Account of Oneself, refers to Adriana Cavavero who suggests the question who are you? needs to be addressed to the other. So the question for the designer is not who are you, asked of themselves but rather who are you asked of the relationally connected and other in the designing process. The framing of the notion of other in certain designing contexts is a commitment. It begins to bring an openness to the current paradigm particularly if the other is congured as what is made as well as who we make for. The framing of a methodological practice for a designer that nds a way to work with the question of identity is at a speculative moment. To engage with identity as a designer, as well as an interrogation of the role the designer plays in practice, requires a critical engagement with self and other. This process may bring closer the ambition to make visible the invisible dynamic of human relations that embeds itself in the material world, through the design process.
[ Butler, J 2001, Giving An Account of Oneself, Diacritics, Winter, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 22-40. ] Gothe is a Senior Lecturer in Visual Communication Design University of Technology and has a background in communication and information design. She maintains a research and teaching prole in visual communication design. Her research practice has two strandsdesign research projects and an ongoing commitment to a creative practice. The funded research projects include a long-term partnership with indigenous communities in Cape York and interdisciplinary engagements with catchment management authorities in order to build transdisciplinary approaches to natural resource and management. These projects are connected not only through content and knowledge issues in contemporary landscape decision making but also methodological alignments. This includes an insider research approach in collaborative, participatory contexts and recognition of the value of emergent processes in research projects. Her recent exhibition of drawings, prints and paintings titled Worldviews asks the questionis it possible to construct a visual language that positions itself between scientic and spiritual systems of representation?

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4:
RESEARCH/ INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

F
Michael Hohl
CCI / Art and Design Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hateld, UK

G
Narelle Lancaster
MKTG Marketing Outsourcing, Melbourne, Australia

BEYOND THE SCREEN: VISUALISING SOCIAL DATA AS AN EXPERIENCE IN PHYSICAL SPACE


Form follows emotion Lev Manovich 2007. In 1991 Marc Weiser wrote The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it (Weiser 1991). With this text by Weiser, the concept of ubiquitous computing emerged; a world of intelligent objects exchanging data with one another and in which the network would become the computer. Another idea that Weiser introduced was that of information being displayed at the periphery of perception, and thus distinguishing between a centre and a background for digital information. He associated these with calm technologies (Weiser 1995). His argument was that there was a growing need for calm technologiesas a result of information technology more often being the enemy of calm with mobile phones, email, pagers and the web overwhelming us with information. These calm technologies, he wrote, possibly were the key challenge in technology design for the next decade. Our project WebPresence is such a calm technology. It visualises visits to a website through a natural, ambient display in physical space in real-time using air and water. We regard it as a sensual addition to the cold and abstract visualisations of web statistics, which usually consist of graphs, charts or diagrams. Our goals are to develop cumulative displays as well as ephemeral displays and to understand how individuals perceive their usefulness, their experiential qualities (being sensual, emotional, exciting) and their ambient vs. their intrusive propertiesleading to new iterations. We see this as part of a larger integrated visualisation strategy: Since the rise of Web 2.0 technologies such as Blogs, RSS feeds, open APIs and Mashups have created a proliferation of tools to communicate across various mediabut they also generate rich meta-data (location, time, social network). When this data is visualised it is usually informative and not experiential, taking on the form of maps, graphs, charts or diagrams. While the voice of a blog and the communication among author and visitor is warm and personal those visualisations are not. We assume that media convergence together with Mashups and the proliferation of social media (such as Flickr, Del.icio.us and Twitter) provide rich opportunities for exciting information visualisations. This is especially relevant for graphic designers and communication designers as they are familiar with structuring information and visualising complexity. Among other novel visualisations this data could be presented beyond the screen with ambient-informative or natural sensual-experiential displays.
[ Manovich, L 2007, TATE Lecture, September 8th, 2007, viewed 27 April 2008, www.manovich.com/TEXTS_07.HTM / Weiser, M 1991, The computer for the 21st century, Scientic American, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 94-104, viewed 27 April 2008, www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/SciAmDraft3.html / Weiser, M & Brown, JS 1995, Designing Calm Technology, Xerox PARC, 21 December 1995, viewed 29 March 2008, www.ubiq.com/weiser/calmtech/ calmtech.htm ] Hohl Ph.D., Dipl.-Des., is a designer and researcher working with digital media. He likes making things, thinking about things and what they mean to people. Presently he is investigating telematic technologies in combination with multimodal visualisation, or sensual natural displays; trying to understand how media changes people and what people are doing something with media. Hohl began with a very traditional apprenticeship as a graphic-designer in the town of Ulm, Germany and graduated in 2000 with a Diploma (MA) in Digital Media Design from the University of the Arts, Berlin. He worked extensively in media companies as a media conceptionist and designer and holds an interdisciplinary practice-based Ph.D. between ne art and computer sciences. Since November 2007 he is a research fellow at the Creative and Cultural Industries/Art and Design research Department of the University of Hertfordshire in Hateld, UK.

GRAPHIC DESIGN: THE UNRECOGNIZED HERO OF BUSINESS


Graphic design is the most undervalued aspect of business. Ironically, whilst it does not generate income in the accounting sense, it is the graphic designers who conceptualise and develop the foundations of every company brand. Without the creative vision and inuence of the graphic designer, there would be no company identiers; no logo, no brochures, external communications or marketing collateral. There would be no brandsimply a skeleton. The visual strength and branding identiers that companies rely on, and go to great lengths to protect, would be irrelevant and purposeless. The inuence that a graphic design concept delivers to an organisation is signicant. In terms of value and return on investment, the graphic designers contribution outweighs many other employeesalthough few would acknowledge this. Creating exclusive brand that has recognizable visual images can connect a business with its audiencethis cannot be dismissed as offering no perceived value. Whilst a balance sheet demands accountability, why is the graphic design contribution overlooked? Unfortunately, the undervaluing of graphic design as a functionary discipline is not unique. The role of graphic design in the modern Western business management context remains a begrudging expensedevaluing the conceptual thinkers and creative services, and unrewarding any measured contribution. Generally, business does not perceive graphic design as adding real value to the companys bottom line. As Neumeier (2000) acknowledges in The Brand Gap, business strategy and creativity, in most companies, are separated by a mile wide chasm. Encouraging the opportunities for recognition of graphic design means doubtlessly tweaking existing business perceptions. With promotion of graphic designs inuence on marketing and brand, companies can begin to positively evaluate the impact and reinforce the relevance graphic design brings to business. An opportunity exists in promoting the graphic design function as a signicant creative expertise that forms an integral part of a multidisciplinary marketing team. This highlights the unique skill set of the graphic designer and the value of creativity. Similarly, another opportunity would be to strategically align graphic designers with branding experts. As contributors to brand development and strategy, graphic designers could be valued for their creative input and recognized accordingly. By recognising the contribution of graphic design to brand and marketing, and highlighting the value this creativity adds to an organisation, should be a blueprint for any company and its brand identity, development and management. This is the future for graphic design.
[ Neumeier, M 2003, The Brand GapHow to Bridge The Distance Between Business Strategy and Design, New Riders Publishing, Berkeley, California. ] Lancaster BA, MBM, CPM AMAMI, has always been a little bit alternative and always very creative. And not just since she got a fonts book and spirograph for her 10th birthday. After completing an Arts degree, Lancaster worked in marketing for several years. In 2006, she completed her MBA and decided it was time to go it alone and started MKTG. MKTG is a professional outsourcing and consulting company, specialising in marketing, brand and online services. But she never forgot the inuence of visual image, art or the value of creativity and initiated her own MKTG corporate social responsibility program called Ahhrt (aptly titled due to the belief that art, in every form, can take your breath away). Each year Ahhrt holds its own exhibition and offers a scholarship to a chosen designer and/or artist.

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RESEARCH/ INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

H
Michael Longford
Associate Professor, Department of Design, York University, Toronto, Canada

I
Peter Maloney
Course Director, Graduate Diploma Motion Graphics, Chelsea College of Art and Design, University of the Arts London, London, UK

DESIGNING FROM THE MIDDLE INSIDE OUT ORTHE STORY OF THE DISAPPEAR-IT-ALL BOY MAGICIAN
National networks, multidisciplinary collaboration, strategic clusters, and knowledge mobilization inform much of the current thinking in university research ofces and government funding agencies. The design disciplines with an emphasis on experimentation, and an intuitive holistic approach to research/creation seem poised to play a key role building bridges between the many stakeholders that make up large scale research projects. However, are designerly ways of knowing (Cross 2007) enough to bridge the complex relationships that emerge between researchers, institutions, and funding bodies that drive research agendas? In 2007, I completed a three-year research project, the Mobile Digital Commons Network (MDCN), a national network made up of artists, designers, social scientists and engineers. MDCN research projects developed a range of interactive mobile experiences exploring the potential for mobile technologies to enhance and transform our culturally situated experiences of urban spaces. Utilizing one of those projects as a case study, I will explore the many ways in which design played a key role on stage and behind the scenes as an active research agent in project development. The Haunting is a cell phone based ghost capture game in which players are invited by VFB Mobility (Voices From Beyond) to use the phone as the means to explore paranormal disturbances and to communicate with the dead in Mount Royal Park in Montreal. Using GPS and Bluetooth beacons in a networked environment, this project treats the territory of the mountain as a lively and volatile interface playing with the potential of mobile technologies to augment our experience of space and place. Throughout this project, MDCN designers found themselves working in the middle, the space in between disciplinary boundaries occupied by social scientists, artists, and engineers. Negotiating different languages, ways of knowing, working methods and methodologies all contributed to a lively and volatile interface between researchers on and off the mountain. Harry Houdini, magician, escape artist and debunker of spiritualists plays a major role in The Haunting, acting as guiding spirit and mediator between players and malevolent ghosts. With an emphasis on process, MDCN designers also played the role of mediators facilitating collaboration through sketching, rapid iteration, participatory collective action, and provoking the senses, in order to navigate research streams from the middle inside out.
[ Cross, N 2007, From a Design Science to a Design Discipline: Understanding Designerly Ways of Knowing and Thinking, Design Research Now: Essays and selected projects, Michel, R (ed.), Birkhuser Verlag AG, Basel. ] Longford recently joined the Department of Design at York University in Toronto. His creative work and research activities reside at the intersection of photography, graphic design, digital media, and wireless and mobile communication technologies. He recently completed a three-year project as the co-principal investigator for the Mobile Digital Commons Network (MDCN), a national research network developing technology and media rich content for mobile devices. He is a founding member of Hexagram: Institute for Research and Creation in Media Arts and Technologies in Montreal, and served for three years as the Director for the Advanced Digital Imaging and 3D Rapid Prototyping Group. Currently, he is launching the Mobile Media Lab, which will be co-located at York and Concordia University.

FILM AS DATABASE: A VISUAL ANALYSIS OF 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY


This paper discusses research that explores how graphic design methods offer new possibilities for experiencing lm by applying concepts of lm as database. The way we access, interact with and experience lm has changed with the advent of digital tools. The paper will present a project that demonstrates initial visual experiments towards the design of a graphic interface, which reects this change. Digital tools allow us to access and experience lm in a non-linear way. We are able to jump to specic scenes and watch them in fast-forward, slow motion, stop-frame or loop with no loss in quality. There is increased content generated in addition to the lm itself: DVDs include extra features such as commentaries, a directors cut, interviews, storyboards, lm art and documentaries. Certain lms are the subject of critical writing and debate that address specialist audiences and this contributes to an expanding context. The paper describes how micro aspects of lm can be identied and plotted with methods for visualising narratives in time and space. This was explored as a means to graphically map these micro aspects as three-dimensional lm objects. These experiments will be demonstrated as short moving image sequences on DVD as part of the presentation. The lm 2001: A Space Odyssey is the focus for the graphic design experiments and the resources offered by the new Stanley Kubrick archive housed at the London College of Communication have contributed greatly to the research. 2001 A Space Odyssey was chosen because it is in essence a visual lmit is unconventional in that it relies on the visual and not dialogue or commentary to tell its story. In 2001 Kubrick specically makes use of colour and composition to express mood and communicate narrative. Two graphic experiments that seek to explore the use of the colour red as both narrative and compositional device within the lm will be described in detail and visual outcomes presented. These experiments are initial studies that explore new ways of experiencing the lm by taking into account the new publicly accessible archive. The paper outlines future directions for the research, working towards the design of an interface for the lm as a navigable digital database. It is hoped that such research might suggest further possibilities for the visual mapping of cultural artefacts against their archived micro and macro contexts and suggest further examples of the cross disciplinary possibilities for graphic design as an discipline.
Maloney is the Course Director of the Graduate Diploma in Motion Graphics at Chelsea College of Art and Design, University of the Arts London. Outcomes from this current research project were exhibited in February 2008 at the Barbican Centre as part of the KUBRICK08 season. Previous research work has been conducted in the elds of Graphic Design, Interactive Media, Motion Graphics and Virtual Reality. Previous research outcomes have been exhibited and presented in the UK at venues such as the Tate Britain, ICA and National Gallery and abroad at conferences such as ISEA and Ars Electronica.

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RESEARCH/ INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

J
Sally McLaughlin
University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

K
Giles Rollestone
Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, University of the Arts, London, UK

METAPHOR AND THE IMAGE


Consideration of metaphor in visual communication and graphic design practice has traditionally drawn on models of rhetoric that view metaphor as one among many gures of speech. In this paper I draw on the work of Paul Ricouer (2003), Martin Heidegger (1962) and Hans Georg Gadamer (Gadamer 1989; Lawn 2004; Vedder 2002) to consider an alternative view of metaphor in visual expression. The alternative view arises out of the insight that metaphor is fundamental to all facets of language and to expression more generally. It is a resource that shapes our perception and our way of being in the world. Metaphoric expression is the means by which we draw out, draw attention to, and maintain the perspectives that constitute our practices, our beliefs, and our values. The empirical work of two image-based researchers working with metaphorCharles Forceville (1996) and Elisabeth El Refaie (2003)will be explored, identifying omissions and limitations of this research. I will address the issues identied with reference to Ricouers exploration of the relationship between simile and metaphor; Heideggers insights about the equipmental nature of language and the as structure of language as a whole; and Heidegger and Gadamers concepts of horizons of understanding. A selection of social advertising images will be analysed in order to explore the relevance of concepts of immediacy, rupture and surprise to our understanding of the communicative potential of images. An argument will be made that images have the potential to succinctly evoke a multiplicity of metaphoric associations, thus exhibiting a high level of immediacy in this form of expression. On the other hand, the immediacy of the reception, the degree of abruptness or surprise, experienced by the viewer may not necessarily be of a high intensity. The associations operating within images are often so highly integrated that they work at a subliminal level resulting in a form of blind impression. This work is part of a larger project. I will conclude by discussing implications for a model of metaphor analysis that I have been developing with a view to providing a research tool for researchers, practitioners and/or clients engaged in processes of evaluating the strategic potential of images.
[ El Refaie, E 2003, Understanding Visual Metaphor: The Example of Newspaper Cartoons, Visual Communication, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 75-95. / Gadamer, HG 1989, Truth and Method, trans. Weinsheimer, J & Marshall, DG, 2nd rev. edn, Sheed & Ward, London. / Heidegger, M 1962, Being and Time, trans. Macquarrie, J & Robinson, E, Harper & Row, New York. / Lawn, C 2004, Wittgenstein and Gadamer: Towards a Post Analytic Philosophy of Language, Continuum, London. / Ricoeur, P 2003, The Rule of Metaphor: The Creation of Meaning in Language, trans. Czerny, R, McLaughlin, K & Costello, J, Routledge Classics, London and New York. / Vedder, B 2002, On the Meaning of Metaphor in Gadamers Hermeneutic, Research in Phenomenology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 196-209. ] McLaughlin is a Lecturer in Visual Communication at the University of Technology Sydney. McLaughlins current research explores the relevance of the philosophical hermeneutics of Heidegger and Gadamer to design practice. Philosophical hermeneutics is an ontological position that has signicant implications for the conception practice within a research context. Philosophical hermeneutics is a position that acknowledges the perspectival nature of our understanding, opening up the task of building awareness of the perspectives that are constructed through visual media practices.

DYNAMIC TYPOGRAPHY AND EMOTION: TYPOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATIONS OF EMOTION (PROSODY) EXPRESSED IN ORAL HISTORIES OF URBAN LIFE IN KINGS CROSS, LONDON
The increasing sophistication of computation based speech recognition systems and ability to detect prosody (emotion) in speech opens up possibilities for the design of dynamic typographic forms that extend the traditional vocabulary of typography. In the context of printed media, artists, designers and poets have attempted to evoke emotional aspects of speech by arranging or designing typefaces for use in books or posters. More recent experimentation and research has considered the exploration of typographic forms in the context of dynamic typography for the screen. The term dynamic typography refers to an area of study within digital media/interaction design and communication design, concerned with the dynamic, expressive and interactive possibilities of typography in digital computerised environments focussing on the dynamic treatment of text as an extension of written language. Prosody in this research refers to the rhythm, stress and intonation in speech. Prosodic features in speech directly map to features of the speech signal: amplitude, pitch, duration and intensity. Variations in the speech signal typically reect changes in the emotional state of the speaker. This practice-led research project builds on previous research concerned with potential paralinguistic mappings that explore and extend the traditional vocabulary of typography in order to visually extend an audiences ability to interpret voiced emotion through dynamic typographic form. This research acknowledges the dialogic aspects of speech and texts surfaced and further evoked in the context of digital media; and investigates ways in which dynamic typographic interventions can surface additional layers of interpretation and open up new dimensions of engagement with audio based recorded oral histories of place. Technical issues have been encountered as well as some difculty in questions of interpretation. Evaluation has been conducted through user testing. Dynamic typographic interpretations of emotion (prosody) expressed in recorded histories are based on audio recordings of oral history interviews conducted for the Kings Cross Voices Oral History Project between 2005 and 2007. The use of the oral history interview method provided an opportunity to record a range of different emotionally expressive voices and encounter conventions and practices of oral history interviewing and documentation. The nal outcome of this research is a web application designed to provide researchers and users of digital archives the potential to scrutinize emotion expressed in recorded oral histories of urban life in Kings Cross, London, through dynamic typographic form and motion graphics.
[ Bachscher, G, Robertson, T 2003, From Movable Type to Moving Type Evolution in Technological Mediated Typography, AUC 2005 Conference Proceedings, pp.1-10. / Bahktin, M 1982, The Dialogic Imagination: Four essays, Austin: University of Texas Press. / Marinetti, FT 1912, Exhibition of Works by the Italian Futurist Painters, London: Sackville Gallery. / Massin, R 1970, Letter and Image, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. / Mealing, S 2003, Value-Added Text: Where graphic design meets the paralinguistic, Visible Language 37.1: 42 57. / Rosenberger, T 1998, Prosodic Font: the Space between the Spoken and the Written, Masters Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. / Small, D 1999, Rethinking the Book, Doctoral thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. / Wong, YY 1995, Temporal Typography: Characterization of time-varying typographic forms, Masters thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ] Rollestone has a background in Graphic Design, Interaction Design and Information Architecture. He brings over fteen years experience in the conceptual design, development and implementation of software-based tools and digital media experiences; eleven years in industry based user

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RESEARCH/ INNOVATION: NEW CRITICAL THINKING
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

L
Nicole Wragg Denise Whitehouse
Faculty of Design, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia

centred web application development and four years in interaction design research at the Royal College of Art (RCA) as tutor in Computer Related Design (now Interaction Design) and as an Interval Research Fellow. During this time, Giles created the multi-award winning CD-ROM projects Urban Feedback and Urban Feedback London Tokyo, Tokyo Nomad. Urban Feedback was published on Neville Brodys Research Arts Label. After the RCA, Giles worked for Meta Design, Scient, SBI and Company, Sapient and Icon MediaLab amongst others, as a Senior Information Architect and User Experience Design Consultant. His research interests range from; audio & speech visualisation; memory & experience of place; networked information services and design methods for innovation. Giles is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Communication Design at Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, University of the Arts, London.

EXAMINING HOW COMMUNICATION DESIGNERS UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF INTERACTIVITY AND THE DESIGN APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES THEY USE TO IMPLEMENT THEIR UNDERSTANDINGS IN DESIGN FOR THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WEB)
An issue that confronts us when speaking about design is the breadth and ambiguity of design terminology. In particular, in relation to web design concepts such as interactivity, it is not clear whether tacit knowledge has marginalised Communication Designers entry into web design and whether their understanding of interactivity continues to pose a problem when designing for the web. To understand current changes in design thinking relating to web design, it is important to explore the multifaceted role interaction plays within the design process and trace the origins of the web and the gradual involvement of Communication Designers. This paper will explore the implications and impact of Web Design for Communication Designers focusing on how designers perceive and implement interactivity within web design and the driving forces behind this. We intend to investigate how previous design practise has inuenced perceptions of the web and shaped the way Communication Designers design for the web. It is my intention also to establish a common framework within which interaction and interactivity is understood and contextualised in terms of web design. The rst section of this paper addresses the changes in the practice of graphic design due to the impact of the Apple Macintosh (Mac) computer in the 1980s as evidenced in magazines such as migr, Creative, Print and promotional writings such as Typography Now: The next wave. Within this analysis we note the changing perception and distinction between embodied interaction; actor-network interaction and computer mediated interactivity in the design process. Finally we will reect on earlier inuences and assumptions that have shaped Communication Designers perceptions and implementation of interactivity and interface within Web design.
Wragg is the Academic Leader of Communication Design at the Faculty of Design, Swinburne University. She has worked extensively in the design industry and taught in Higher Education both in Australia and Internationally. She is published within the elds of design and is undertaking her Ph.D. that focuses on the notion interactivity in Web Design and the implications for Communication designers. Whitehouses work as a design educator and design historian has involved the development of innovative design and cultural history programs the most recent of which involves the online delivery of an introductory undergraduate course in Twentieth Century Design. She is published within the elds of design history and Australian design - historical and contemporary, and is a leader of an Australian Research Council funded Designed Learning Environments research project.

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CLUSTER

RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS

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43

5:
RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

A
Jonathan Baldwin
School of Design, Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK

B
Roberto Bruzzese
MDes. (Communication Design) Candidate, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

THE LOST BOYS (AND GIRLS): IS THE DESIGN INDUSTRY WASTING GRADUATE TALENT BY MAKING IT START AT THE BOTTOM? A PROVOCATION
According to Creative and Cultural Skills, an organisation that claims to represent employers in the creative industries, British design is under threat, and its all the fault of academics. It seems we churn out far more designers than anybody needs and, among that number, employers cannot nd enough with the right skills. The design industry has never quite grasped the purpose or value of a degree. It seems to think that the only reason anyone would study design is to be a designer, and that more graduates means lower standards. No one really questions how it is that industry uses graduates, treating them like low-paid (or even unpaid) dogsbodies instead of intelligent, creative and innovative individuals who are more at ease in the modern world than any of the suits who run the company. It is odd that the creative industries should be so lacking in creativity and vision as to waste such a valuable resource in this way. Compared with other industries, where graduates are taken into roles with strategic responsibilities and allowed to direct the future of the company (the denition of a graduate job), design still insists on recruits starting at the bottom and working their way up, often over many years, no matter what their qualication. Could this be why British design is in trouble? Not only is it wasting the talent on offer by hiding it away for several years while it earns its stripes, it is also turning people off a career in design. Richard Florida has identied the things that todays creative class crave, and it isnt being stuck in front of a Mac for 50 hours a week, often for little or no pay. Maybe this is why employers cannot nd the people it needsthe jobs on offer are crap. Making graduates undergo yet another apprenticeship, and expecting them to have basic technical skills rather than higher thinking skills, is a bit like the construction industry putting newly qualied architects to work as brickies. Why does the design industry distrust academia so much? Why does it undervalue degrees in design? And why are UK policies signalling a shift towards industry-controlled training? Is the real threat to British design in the 21st century not a lack of technical skill, but the design industrys lack of vision and creativity when it comes to using graduate talent? This paper seeks to open up discussion about the role of the graduate in the design industry, (and the design graduate within non-design industries), and to establish an international sense of the value and expectations of the product of universities. Are we alone in Britain in losing our graduates by expecting them to start at the bottom, or is this an international phenomenon?
Baldwin is a lecturer at the University of Dundee where he teaches the cultural and social history of design to students from a number of disciplines. He has a wide range of experience in higher education, running graphic design courses at all levels. He co-authored, with Lucienne Roberts, the award-winning book Visual Communication: From Theory to Practice, which has quickly established itself as a core text on design courses worldwide. His research interests lie in design education and the links between academia and industry.

LEARNING AND TEACHING PRINCIPLES: A GATEWAY TO FACILITATE A RESEARCH-LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN GRAPHIC DESIGN EDUCATION?
This presentation explores the question of how teachers are adjusting to the urgent need of research integration in graphic design curricula and what may be alternatives for creating a research-learning environment. The institutional environment has changed. With high enrolments and a wide range of academic ability of students in university, as in many disciplines, there is a focus on vocationally oriented courses. The design industry has also voiced concerns over the ability of graphic design graduates that can handle the analysis and solution of complex communication problems faced today. There has been much advancement towards the investigation of diverse methodologies and their relationship with practice and learning environments but there still remains a prevailing cloud on how to encourage process-led enquiries and deeper learning approaches in graphic design education. Recent studies have found that even with the awareness and use of research-led teaching, some methods are still directed towards the nal product instead of process outcomes (Brew 2001). In her article on the conceptions of research, Brew found that learning principles, theories and methods maybe the vital link between research and teaching. Another educator, John Biggs (1999), discusses and details the structure of an aligned curriculum and how it can support and promote a rich research environment where the teaching activities are student-focused. If we now understand why design research education is important, then, the next obvious step would be to investigate how to teach this within a practice and educational system where project-based learning environments prevail. Drew (2000) argues that it is the way teachers conceive of and approach teaching that encourages deep learning. Ramsden (2003) also describes how the goal in any teaching is to change the students approach to the subject matter they are learning. By actively inviting students to participate in their own learning teachers may nd channels towards higher cognitive levels of understanding. These deep learning environments can facilitate understanding. While they may not be directly linked to design research they can provide a pathway for students to actively participate in their learning of reection and process. In light of these changes, universities may need to investigate perceptions of teaching and learning in design departments and explore how pedagogical principles may be integrated in curricula that encourage process-based research. By doing so, we may be able to establish a strong relationship between design research and learning methods in graphic design education.
[ Brew, A 2001, Conceptions of Research: a phenomenographic study, Studies in Higher Educations, vol. 26, pp. 271-285. / Biggs, J 2003, Teaching for quality learning at university, Buckingham, Philadelphia, Society for Research into Higher Education, Open University Press. / Drew, L 2000, A disciplined approach: Learning to practice as design teachers in the university, Paper presented at Reinventing Design Education conference, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. / Ramsden, P 2003, Learning to teach in Higher Education, Routledge Falmer, London, New York. ] Bruzzese graduated in Publishing and Design at Langara College and trained at Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design. He has worked as an in-house print designer and advertising manager for various colleges in Canada and Italy. For a number of years he was co-director of Parpfo Communications, an identity design studio located in Vancouver, Canada. He has previously taught graphic design in Florence, Italy for ve years and currently teaches in the communication design department at RMIT University. His practice encompasses corporate identity and exhibition design. Currently, he is pursuing a Master of Design degree in communication design and his research covers the integration of design research in undergraduate curricula.

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RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

C
Piers Carey
Department of Visual Communication Design, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa

THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME, OR A STAB IN THE DARK? SPECULATIONS ON THE DIRECTION OF GRAPHIC DESIGN EDUCATION IN DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA
This presentation will discuss a probable future issues relevant to Graphic Design education, particularly at the Masters degree level, in the Department of Visual Communication Design at the Durban University of Technology (DUT), Durban, South Africa. The current social context in Durban is highly complex in terms of culture and of the effects of historical and economic processes. South African society deals daily with factors such as the health crisis, (including HIV/ AIDS, Malaria, and TB), the effects of globalised media on indigenous languages and cultures, and fundamental social changes and disruptions brought about or exacerbated by processes such as consumerism, development and globalisation. These difculties are unlikely to be ameliorated soon, and may be further complicated by issues like climate change. The Graphic Design profession in South Africa is still dominated by the hegemonic cultural effect of contemporary Western graphic design, and the notion that designs primary function is to service consumerism. Both these issues affect South Africas ability to establish and/or maintain a viable and sustainable environment, culture and economy. The department sees its role as moving towards the development of designers who can contest these forms of dominance and contribute positively to the society, as a consequence of engaging in research that will assist both them and the process. There are signicant barriers to achieve this role for the department, students and designers. Cultural pressures in favour of Globalised or Eurocentric models of development, education, and the Graphic Design profession are probably the most signicant. In education our own experiences are mirrored in disciplines as unrelated as Law, where Majeke has reported on the complete lack of interest in Indigenous law on the part of students in two South African universities. We nd ourselves in a similar position to that described by Crossman and Devisch: most people recognised the problem (of localisation) and believed it to be an important issue, yet stated that little has been or can be done because of insufcient resources or because demands of participation in the global system of education and research made it impossible. Pityana restates this issue as part of the requirements of Transformation, which he clearly sees as part of a project of educational de-colonisation. In Graphic Design, the contest is between the Globalised visual culture, visual language and norms, centring on the printed English language and its typographical norms for the computer-typeset Roman alphabet, and computerised design technology; and the long but almost abandoned African visual traditions and graphic Systems. The South African designer of the future, if they do not wish to be a mere imitation of an American or European model of society, will need to develop a constructive accommodation between these disparate models.
[ Crossman, P & Devisch, R 2002 Endogenous Knowledge in Anthropological Perspective, [in] Odora Hoppers, CA (ed.), Indigenous Knowledge and the Integration of Knowledge Systems, pp. 96-127. / Majeke, AMS 2002 Towards a Culture-based Foundation for Indigenous Knowledge Systems in the Field of Custom and Law, [in] Odora Hoppers, CA (ed.), Indigenous Knowledge and the Integration of Knowledge Systems, pp. 141-157. / Pityana, N B 2004, A Decade of South African Higher Education Post Democracy: An Overview, viewed 2 August 2006 www.unisa.ac.za/contents/about/principle/docs/ AAU%202005% 20Assembly_1.doc ] Carey was born in England 1955. Studied Fine Art, and worked as Art School technician, freelance graphic designer and illustrator, and assistant cameraman on documentary lms, etc, before three years in the London printing industry. This led to two and a half years with a printing co-operative of ex-guerillas in Zimbabwe, which in turn led to South Africa, marriage, two children and eighteen years as a lecturer in Graphic Design at what is now the Durban University of Technology. Carey completed a Masters degree on African Graphic Systems, and currently teaches Graphic Design History and supervises senior students. At the end of 2007, the Department of Graphic Design merged with Photography to form the Department of Visual Communication Design, which he now heads.

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RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

D
Bronwyn Clarke
Programs Coordinator, Communication Design, School of Applied Communication, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

SINGAPORE: AN OFFSHORE PROGRAM


There has been much discourse of the challenges of globalization in education (UNESCO report 1999). Inuence of globalization on universities has led to an internationalizing of curriculums that are appropriate to the local market place. Communication Design at RMIT University in Australia has been no exception. This presentation discusses the obstacles faced and lessons learnt from developing a teaching and learning curriculum in its Singapore campus. RMIT has committed to maintain educational integrity by keeping our course content identical between onshore and offshore campuses in Singapore and Melbourne. For Communication Design this has taken 11-years of association, rstly with La Salle College of the Arts and now Singapore Institute of Management. Both of these institutions proles, service based structures; Singapores own citizenship education (Print & Sim 2005); the differences in educational expectations; models of intensive delivery and communication by distance; have inuenced the type of student cohort and the expectations of learning and teaching methods and outcomes. Research highlights that educational expectations of international students are as diverse as those of domestic students (Biggs 2003: Ryan 2005). With approximately half of RMITs onshore student body from international backgrounds, our program has developed many approaches to and understanding of internationalized learning and teaching. Our design pedagogy models on studio-based learning models (Lackey 1999) with an emphasis on a reective practitioner (Schn 1983). With an internationalized student body we have reviewed and broadened these models to accommodate diverse cultural needs, linguistic backgrounds, international perspectives and design issues within a global context. These reviews have included common strategies to enhance learning (Arkoudis 2002) and consideration of Confucian heritage cultures (Le & Shi 2006). Based on RMITs commitment to consistency in graduate capabilities, we expected that our learning and teaching curriculum could be portable. We naively expected that the approaches to internationalised learning and teaching development would transpose easily. However, a transition to a global market and a changed expectation of its people, the Singapore environment proved to be our teacher. Our rst lesson was that the students were uncomfortable with a participatory model of learning. They had expectations of lecturer-centered delivery models, which were endorsed by our partner institutions. Educating our institutional partners through dialogue continues to be an important ongoing process to highlight the importance of the participatory teaching methodology. Individual public expression has certain restraints in Singapore. Engaging students in conversations around communication design require references to historical, religious, social, political, economic, cross-cultural and technological perspectives. In classrooms that are monitored through cameras, this has been particularly difcult. It is a challenge for the lecturers, especially as the opinions or discussions among students can often boarder on the sterile in fear of upsetting the status quo. Building trust between the lecturer and student has been a signicant aspect to achieving our outcomes. However, as trust builds, students have sought validation of their opinions from the lecturers. The lecturers had to develop strategies to ensure student empowerment, rather than endorsement. Through reective discussions with students, we are continuing to build further understanding of our teaching methodologies. We recognise the need to become an international academic in a local market, to reect on this experience and further inform our design pedagogy for international students in Melbourne and Singapore.
[ Arkoudis, S 2005, Teaching International Students: Strategies to enhance learning, viewed 2 April 2008, www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/pdfs/ international.pdf / Biggs, J 2003, Teaching for Quality Learning at University, Berkshire, Open University Press. / Lackey, JA 1999, A History of the Studiobased Learning Model, viewed 12 April 2006, http://schoolstudio.engr.wisc. edu/studio basedlearning.html / Le, T & Shi, L 2006, Chinese-background Students Learning Approaches, AARE, 27 November-1 Dec 2006, Adelaide, Australia. / Print, M & Sim J 2005, Citizenship Education & Social Studies in Singapore: A National Agenda, Citized: International Journal of Citizenship & Teacher Education, vol. 1, no. 1, July. / Ryan, J 2005, Improving teaching and learning practices for international students; implications for curriculum, pedagogy and assessment, [in] Carroll, J, & Ryan, J, (eds.) Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All, Routledge, New York. / Schn, D 1983, The Reective Practitioner: How professionals think in action, Basic books, New York. / UNESCO Report, 1999, Globalization & Living together, the challenges for educational content in Asia, viewed 10 May 2008, www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/regworkshops/newdenal.htm ] Clarke has been a design practitioner for over 15 years. She is currently the Program Manager of the Communication Design Program at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. She has been teaching in design for 10 years. She is also a member of Australian Graphic Design Association and Icograda Education Network of International Council of Graphic Design Associations. She has recently begun undertaking a Masters in Education.

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RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Mark Fetkewicz
Coordinator Graphic Design Program, School of Art and Design, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, USA

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R. Hakan Ertep
Associate Professor, Izmir University of Economics, Faculty of Fine Arts and Design, Department of Communication Design, Izmir, Turkey

BRAVE NEW WORLD: PREPARING OUR DESIGN STUDENTS FOR CHANGE


Change is inevitable. As we all know, the technological oodgates are open and consequently, we in practice and academia are constantly engaged in the adaptation process. Keeping up with the techno-cultural evolution that is driven by new media and evolving languages guides both pragmatic market driven decision making as well as theoretical models for emerging design curricula. This paper looks at the seemingly divergent sets of pedagogical assumptions about the role of new media, and broader liberal arts applications in design education. There are those who see emergent media as an extension to conventional design practice and others who feel that with new media comes new communication modalities and a landscape altered altogether. For designers and design educators it is not simply learning new tools but coming to terms with how these new tools impact the greater process of visual communication. As a consequence, there is a growing set of innovative educational models that attempt to recontextualize the conventional role of design education beyond vocational, tool-centered terms. They are typically positioned as a separate emphasis area or at postgraduate levels. I would advocate that this type of educational model should not only exist in larger institutions that have the exibility to offer non-traditional opportunities for design study or at graduate levels, but that these ideas should nd their way into the smaller programs and ultimately to academies whose mission it is to train primary and secondary art educators. Most graphic design programs do what is expected: they prepare their students to become graphic designers. But what about the majority of students who do not go on to become design practitioners? And, what precisely is a wellprepared graduate of such programs? Given the constant shifting in communication modalities between the traditional and emergent, how prepared are our students to adjust to change? When it comes to this change, how malleable and innovative is their strategic thinking? Is their present exposure to diverse media and the broader understanding of the big picture sufcient enough to set the stage for design practitioners, who, not only design, but also shape the future of design itself? What I propose considers a design pedagogy, which may also operate outside of conventional object-tool driven models. With a liberal arts cast, the goals and objectives of each course can be dened by a broader matrix of teaching strategies, conversant media applications and a softer focus on the object.
Fetkewicz has over 20 years experience in graphic design, art direction, and marketing. He has worked in agencies in Illinois, Philadelphia, Denver and Vienna, Austria. His work has won regional and national awards and is published internationally. He received his Masters degree in Graphic Design at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he began his career as an educator. After teaching at Moore College of Art in Philadelphia and Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, he took over as coordinator of the Graphic Design program at the University of Northern Colorado. Fetkewicz teaches graphic design, foundations and co-teaches in UNCs Monfort School of Marketing.

POSITIONING VISUAL COMMUNICATION DESIGN IN COMMUNICATION FACULTIES: A NEW MODEL OR A NEW PROBLEM?
Visual communication design or communication design has recently become a rather popular term in design education, and also a favourite departmental title particularly in Turkish academia. Although its roots emanate from the graphic design discipline, a thorough enquiry shows that these new departments are being alienated from their ne arts and graphics origin and are being positioned in communication faculties rather than ne arts and design faculties. This recent trend does not stand on any rm grounds or rationale; in contrast it appears to be merely due to the existence of the word communication in the title of those faculties. This appears to be a relatively new model being applied in Turkey, which does not have a pervasive practice worldwide either. The programs of these departments carry the word design in their titles, yet in most cases they do not have proper communication design courses or academic staff members educated in design elds, nor do they share the responsibility to carry or display the aim of raising or educating potential designers. This recent trend, which is taking place predominantly in private Turkish higher education institutions, needs to be critically probed and discussed as this arrangement is becoming a conventional treatment in this country. The paper intends to analyse the relationship between graphic design and visual communication design in terms of paradigm, discipline, design education. The study will reveal a fairly comparative and comprehensive study between the practices of visual communication design departments in Turkey and many other countries. It also aims at describing the risks that exist in this recent model displaying the many precarious outcomes. The study further intends to discuss the issue in the framework of todays design education in order to attain a more modern and comprehensive set of academic standards.
Ertep studied graphic design at Kent State University, USA (BFA-1982), and Michigan State University (MA-1985) where he worked as a teaching assistant. Later, completed his Ph.D. at Bilkent University, Turkey in Media Studies (1996). He worked as an art director and graphic designer at advertising agencies in Istanbul and Izmir; taught classes in Graphic Design, Typography, Advertising Design, Portfolio Design, Signage Systems, and the History of Graphic Design at undergraduate as well as graduate level at prominent Turkish design schools such as Anadolu University, Bilkent University, and METU since 1990. He also holds a special interest in photography, which has lead him to enter various photography contests and open several exhibitions. Ertep joined the teaching staff of Izmir University of Economics in September 2004, where he continues teaching and also runs the Department of Communication Design as the Department Head.

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NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Will Hill
Senior Lecturer in Graphic Design, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK

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Sarah Jones
Monash University, Faculty of Art & Design, Department of Design, Melbourne, Australia

TYPOGRAPHIC LITERACIES
This paper develops themes introduced in my recent paper Teaching typography in the 21st century: Reviewing the fundamentals of typography in a post-modern design culture, delivered at the AGRAFA International design education conference in Katowice, Poland in December 2007. The paper will identify and consider emerging issues in the teaching of typography at degree level. It considers the view that while a typographic education remains fundamental to a designers visual literacy, its parameters and precepts need to be re-examined in the light of the post-modern conditions of the twenty-rst century. The paper contrasts the modernist perception of typography as a practical organizational discipline with the postmodern development of typography as an interrogatory or interpretative medium, and considers the nature of contextual and theoretical teaching required to complement and support intelligent and informed typographic practice. The paper develops the view that educating informed, intelligent typographers depends upon enhancing their knowledge in two key areas: perception of language and perception of history. The development of reective practice depends upon effective and informed contextualization, which requires a sound working understanding of design history, and a corresponding knowledge of critical debate within the discipline. The paper considers the concept of the typographer as both reader and collaborative author, and proposes the study of language as a key element of typographic education. The paper maps the emergence of typography as a medium of cultural awareness, an expression of response to language, and a medium for exploration of ideas and meanings. It will be argued that current conditions require a more extensive and varied typographic vocabulary than is offered by the modernist ideal. The paper considers the extent and variation with which these priorities are recognized or implemented in curricular design at undergraduate level in the UK. The paper will conclude that the possibilities of a postmodern condition, require a different kind of typographic literacy, that the education of a typographer extends beyond the mechanics of process into the exploration of culture; and that in order to ensure that students develop the necessary typographic literacies to function effectively, we must ensure that they develop an awareness of the culture of typography. These questions will be explored through reference to the authors own research and teaching but also to sources including David Crystal, Gunnar Swanson, Robert Bringhurst, Ellen Lupton, Rick Poynor, Hrant Papazian.
Hill is Senior Lecturer in Graphic Design at Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, and has for the past four years been pathway leader for the MA in Typographic Design. He is the author of The Complete Typographer (2nd edn.) 2004, and has given conference papers at the annual St Brides conference 2005, the Moving Type conference 2007 and the AGRAFA International Design conference in Katowice 2007. He has recently completed an MA in Typeface Design at the University of Reading, based around the design of a dual Latin/Cyrillic typeface and a dissertation addressing issues of postmodernity in type revivals. His work has been published in journals including Ultrabold, Zed and the Journal of the International Association of Word and Image Studies. He has also exhibited recent experimental print work at the Plus International design festival in Birmingham in 2007, integrating letterpress wood type and digital processes. He is a member of ATYPI and a participant in the ATYPI educators network.

CONNECT A THREAD, A THOUGHT AN IDEA, A WORD, A MESSAGE AND THEN CONNECT TO ME


Connect is an ongoing collaborative design project which begun in 1997. It is centred on dialogue and discussion requiring students from various design institutions, such as United States of America, El Salvador, United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia to pose questions via the Internet and to respond through traditional graphic and material means. Since its conception it has mutated and shifted into many visual forms, however, its objectives and ideals have remained consistent. This paper will describe the Connect project (specically focussing on Connect 2006) and draw on sent emails as a reference point to describe the processes and aims of this project. I will focus on the role of dialogue within the design process and how this can facilitate the designers awareness of their cultural specicity. I will argue for the need for educators to facilitate a studio centred environment in which individuals feel empowered to ask, listen, reect, suggest and act. As an educator, I sought to link and unite my students with individuals who were involved in a similar career trajectory, which is reected in the title of this paper. I wanted to see how geographical distance affected and impacted upon the design process. Could students associate and join together through design? Would the design process connect them to each other or would personal and local culture derail the process? Designers are increasingly adept in engaging with commercial and cultural markets. Connect challenges the student to critique relations of production and cultural exchange; to participate more in real life and to be socially engaged. As a design project Connect is grounded in a desire to critically reect on the real lives of the students. Its fundamental aim is to test whether Visual Design, as a practice, has the potential to connect with individuals and instigate visual and verbal dialogue, which can re-shape our lives.
Jones (Stubbs) has worked within the visual arts for the past 16 years both as a collaborative and solo artist. Exhibitions since 1990 include West Space, Platform, CCP, Linden, Para/Site Art Space Hong Kong, Annandale Galleries, CCP, Ian Potter Gallery. Sarah co-founded West Space Inc. with Brett Jones in 1992. She is a lecturer in Visual Communication at Monash University, Faculty of Art & Design.

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NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIG

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Beth E. Koch
Assistant Professor of Design, University of Minnesota, Duluth, USA

GRAPHIC DESIGN EDUCATION ISNT ENOUGH: INTERACTIVE AND DIGITALLY RESPONSIBLE COURSE DESIGN
Design educators teach a range of skills and topics that expands in direct proportion to the speed of technological change. In 2008, many graphic design programs require students to take courses in web, animation, interactive, or motion graphics in addition to other course requirements. To many educators it seems there isnt enough time in the already overcrowded design curriculum to teach these additional subjects. Even so, it is believed that incorporating a greater range of media will make students more marketable (Dyson & Picho-Owiny 2000). Employers want students who can manage digital media workows and develop creative projects, as well as implement the programming algorithms and technologies that power their digital projects. Yet students are overwhelmed about learning complex software and programming and they dont understand the four-dimensional problem-space of time-based projects. But learning software is the least of the problems in digital design. More than ever, design education must prepare students for change (Poggenpohl & Ahn 2002). Graphic design has long been organized around a problem solving approach (Kelly 1994), but recently Dyson & Picho-Owiny (2000) and Raein (2004) have suggested that teaching should embed theory within design projects to develop concepts that can transfer to different technologies. Most educators would agree that design instruction must include art, science, and technology (Findeli 2001) and that complex problems like those in nature and humanity require overarching orientations like systems theories, social sciences, and human studies. Swanson (1994) noted that design is integrative in that it has the potential to connect to many disciplines. By understanding cognition, emotion, physical, social, and cultural factors, designers can improve designs performance (Poggenpohl & Ahn 2002). What is needed is a new pedagogy for design. When considered in a purely philosophical sense, experience design could be the next pedagogical platform. It transcends technology, focuses on human beings and multiple senses, and suggests an interdisciplinary approach. It considers human perception, action, reection, and aesthetics (Findeli 2001). Importantly, the experience philosophy explores characteristics common to all media (Shedroff 2008). Still, graphic designers need to know how to design for a number of contexts. Software training is not the answer. Rather, principles and classical frameworks from allied disciplines can help designers think in new ways. Projects in advanced typography and interactive design subjects have begun introducing classical frameworks from cinema, lmmaking, acting, and music in order to help students understand time-based environments and broaden the range of creative responses.
[ Dyson, M & Picho-Owiny, C 2000, The integration of theory and practice in teaching designing for the screen, Digital Creativity, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17-33. / Findeli, A 2001, Rethinking design education for the 21st century: Theoretical, methodological, and ethical discussion, Design Issues, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 5-17. / Kelly, RR 1994, Postwar graphic design education: A conclusion, Graphic Design Education Association Bulletin, January. / Poggenpohl, SH & Ahn, SS (2002), Between word and deed: the ICOGRADA design education manifesto, Seoul 2000, Design Issues, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 46-56. / Raein, M 2004, Integration of studio and theory in the teaching of graphic design, Art Design & Communication in Higher Education, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 163-174. / Shedroff, N 2008, viewed 20 April 2008, www.nathan.com/me/index.html / Swanson, G 1994, Graphic design education as a liberal art: design and knowledge in the university and the real world, Design Issues, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 53-63. ] Koch is an Assistant Professor of Design at The University of Minnesota Duluth (USA) where she serves on the graduate faculty and teaches typography, graphic design, interactive design, and senior and graduate studio courses. Apart from teaching and academic administration, her extensive experience in practice has garnered numerous awards including prestigious CLIOs, International Advertising Festival, Echo, Midwest Book Awards, AAAI Golden Circles, ADDYs, and the Mary Hoover Award for Teaching Excellence. She holds an MFA with Honors in Design, Housing & Apparel with an emphasis in Interactive Design from the University of Minnesota, and a BFA in Visual Communications from Herron School of Art at Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis. She is currently pursuing a Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota to investigate how emotional design might improve learning in interactive experience design.

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NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Louise J.I. McWhinnie
University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Eilish ODonohoe Howard Riley
Faculty of Art & Design, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, UK

GRAPHIC PRODUCTION: CULTURAL REPRODUCTION?


A seismic shift has occurred in graphic design/visual communication and its pedagogy over the last two decades. Whilst often simply attributed to the substantive and highly visible impact of the technological revolution, what too often goes unacknowledged, is the impact upon the eld and its pedagogy that has occurred through its absorption into the university sector. Whilst graphic design is increasingly nding its academic voice and recognising its inherent pedagogic strengths within such institutions, the author contends that other shifts have occurred within the short span of one academic generation, but that the impact has often been either misunderstood or ignored. Recognising that design programs within western universities are increasingly comprised of international students, the author questions how we as design academics have responded to increasingly linguistically and culturally heterogenous student cohorts. With reference to the exploratory framework of French sociologist and thinker Pierre Bourdieu, this paper presents a summary of data gathered over a three year period, from a population of academics and International Asian students within one visual communication undergraduate program. Utilising the words of the population, the author questions how both students and academics as players within a culturally and linguistically mediated eld, often fail to recognise its arbitrary structuring and pedagogy that creates its own internal logic. In locating the subject specic dilemmas that international students and academics encounter, this paper questions how graphic design/visual communication pedagogy is perpetuated and student performances reproduced. The author contends that until dilemmas and issues are recognised, explored and addressed, that as academics our response to such cohorts will simply result in the perpetuation of reproduction, rather than production.
McWhinnie is acting Associate Dean of Teaching and Learning in the Faculty of Design, Architecture & Building at the University of Technology Sydney. Lecturing in Visual Communication in the School of Designs undergraduate and postgraduate programs, her specialist areas are Typography and Information Design. Prior to lecturing in Australia, she worked as a graphic designer and design educator in London, and spent two and a half years as a seconded course director, establishing the Central Saint Martins graphic design course in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. McWhinnies particular research interests reside within the areas of international design and design education, cultural and linguistic diversity within visual communication educational practice and Typography. Her doctorate examined the subject of Visual Communication as studied by International Asian students within the context of Australian universities, and her recent work explores the implementation of the ndings of such research back into teaching practice.

THE RESPONSIVE CURRICULUM: A SYSTEMIC-FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF GRAPHIC DESIGN


This paper presents pedagogical research in progress on the Foundation Diploma course, where students are introduced to the basics of visual communication through an adaptation of Michael Hallidays systemic-functional semiotic model of language. The authors adaptation is illustrated as a matrix of Hallidays three functions of visual communicationthe Compositional, the Modal and the Representationalrelated to the range, or systems of compositional choices available to the designer in order to position the viewer in terms of mood and attitude towards the subject-matter represented in the work. It is argued that such a model allows a shared language, useful in both in the practicalities of construction and negotiation of meaning in the students graphic design work, and also in the analysis of existing graphic work. The efcacy of the model as a teaching strategy is illustrated with examples of student projects.
ODonohoe is Lecturer in Visual Communication in the Faculty of Art and Design. Riley is Head of the School of Research, Faculty of Art and Design. He teaches drawing and visual communication theory.

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NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Eden Potter
Designers Institute of New Zealand (DINZ) Associate Member, Education Sector and AUT Universitys School of Art & Design, Auckland, New Zealand

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Assistant Professor, Graphic Design, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Boston, USA

Joseph A. Quackenbush

READING, WRITING AND DESIGNING: LITERACY IN GRAPHIC DESIGN


Writingdened as alphabetical and graphical writingis a form of communication design. Through writing, critical thinking is developed as ideas are discovered, claried and reected upon, and their relationships determined. This paper will explore how graphic designers might engage with writing in their practice as agent of creative process as well as a generator of content that further binds the personal connection to their own design outcomes and discourses. The activity of ideating and composing written forms is analogous to the process of designing; writing can also process creative thought and articulate ideas. Structural, narrative and semantic aspects of writing are integral to visual communication. A design approach which deliberately incorporates concepts of narrative and storytelling shapes visual information to the needs and concerns of audiences and for specic purposesrather than being an applied veneer of style. Research has shown that students of graphic design tend to regard their written and their visual outputs as requiring distinctly separate approaches. For many students and professional designers, the purpose of their own writing is solely to justify or explicate visual outcomes; it appears that they devalue written language, privileging the process and practice of the visual. Ironically, this notion contradicts the fundamental relationship in visual communication between written and graphic content. As digital technology continues to transform communication and information systems, designing multimodal forms of data will not only require a deep understanding of meaningmaking; it will demand new ways of thinking about how visual language is accessed, read and transformed. This may entail some reconsideration of what denes reading and writing within visual communication in the future. A graphic design culture where literacy is a keystone of visual communication has implications not only for personal practice. Designers who are driven to reect and comment on design as both activity and cultural force could amplify the skill, condence and critical vocabulary with which practitioners present the eld of design to the wider community.
Potter is a practicing graphic designer of predominantly corporate print communications and corporate identities. Her design interests include information design, typography and sustainable design practices. Following a peripatetic youth spent in Canada, USA, Kenya and Australia, she studied graphic design in Auckland, New Zealand and has worked since 1992 as Senior Designer at studios and agencies based in Auckland, Melbourne and London. In 2007, she was engaged by Aucklands AUT Universitys School of Art & Design to teach Graphic Design Studio. Her aim in teaching practice is to broaden design students awareness of the importance of articulate, thoughtful, yet creative visual communication and to promote a questioning curiosity about the world they inhabit.

CREATIVE CONTINUUM: BRIDGING THE WORLDS OF CREATIVITY AND COMMERCE


The radical success of Apple, hyperbolic buzz about innovation and precarious economic circumstances have set the stage for an unlikely white knight in the business worldcreativitythat has long been the essential currency of designers and artists. How do businesses tap the creative potential artists and designers possess? How do artists and designers realize their value in the global economy? In an effort to bridge the world of commerce and creativity, the Massachusetts College of Art and Design partnered with a business school, Bentley College, and two local arts organizations (Art Services Coalition and Fort Point Cultural Coalition) to develop The Creative Continuum, a three week mini-MBA program for working artists and designers. Launched in January 2007, the program is funded by the Massachusetts Cultural Councils John and Abigail Adams Arts Program for Cultural Economic Development. The Creative Continuum features two complementary tracks: coursework and case studies. During coursework sessions, students attend lectures by seasoned business educators on subjects ranging from marketing, nance, and accounting to operations, strategy, and organizational behavior. During case study sessions, students work in groups to develop responses to real-world business problems posed by client rms. Firms have included a multi-national investment corporation, an independent bookstore, and a regional energy company. While students engage in some conventional business analysis (informed primarily by their coursework), the point is to respond as designers and artists. The responses unorthodox, iterative, physical, experiential, and intensely visualembody the creative process. They do not t the PowerPoint mold. The program culminates with formal presentations to the sponsoring clients. Students leave the program versed in the language of business, able to articulate their ideas in the commercial world, and condant that their creative skills have value beyond traditional roles. Businesses executives, having peered into the creative process, receive new perspectives on specic issues while experiencing new models for integrating creative problem solving into their organizations. The Creative Continuum is one of a number of emerging programs that are investigating how to better integrate the worlds of creativity and business. Innovative programs such as the Institute for Design at Stanford (the D school) or the AIGA / Yale School of Management Business Perspectives for Creative Leaders offer a range of educational experiences for different types of students. The Creative Continuum offers working artists and designers a way to quickly engage with formal and applied business principles while relying on their innate and seasoned creative skills.
Quackenbush is an Assistant Professor of Graphic Design at The Massachusetts College of Art and Design in Boston, Massachusetts USA. He teaches undergraduate courses in typography, visual systems, design, and media as well as graduate courses in new media aesthetics, history, and writing. He is a member of the national AIGA Design Educator Community steering committee and recently developed the AIGA Design Educator conference Massaging Media: Graphic Design Education in the Age of Dynamic Media held in April 2008 in Boston, MA. He is also president of Jam Design, an interactive and print design studio. Jams clients include the Boston Athenaeum, The University of Pennsylvania, Reebok, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and The New York Times. Professor Quackenbush holds an MFA in graphic design from the Rhode Island School of Design.

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NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Patrick Roberts
University of the Arts, London, UK

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Department of Graphic Design, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of the Arts in Qatar, Doha, Qatar

THE IMPACT OF EMERGING EASTERN DESIGN SENSIBILITIES ON ESTABLISHED DESIGN STRUCTURES SUCH AS THE GRID
What are the relevance of traditional communications concepts such as grid systems in contemporary multi-modal environment? This paper will endeavor to establish that Western ideals such as the grid are no longer relevant in a society. It proposes the need to shift from the reductive/rational ideals of Western thinking to an international mindset that blends Eastern and Western ways of thinking. The paper will then evaluate what is being pursued within contemporary design to take the grid forward, which incorporates new ways of thinking. It will also investigate new developments within science and technology and the ways in which these are affecting society as an insight in to how the grid may further develop as a central systematic communication concept.
Roberts is a subject leader/principle lecturer BA Graphic Design at Camberwell College of Arts and Asociate Director of the research unit for Information Environments. His Doctoral thesis (London School of Economics) researched language as a structuring principal of knowledge management. Commercial experience includes Habitat catalogue design and art direction, wagamamaconcept creation, Adidas, Heals corporate identity, BBH, Carluccios, Unicef, HSBC, Alessi, Alvar Aalto Foundation, M&S, Sainsburys, Kings College, UNICEF. Directorships include Design director London Lighting Co., Architectural Lighting Ltd, and Pradesign. Publications include most recently Graphic Design: This Way, co-author with Peter Anderson and designer (Zidane Press 2007); with Judith Passow, Shattered DreamsIsrael and the Palestinians (Halban, 2008); and author and designer of Laws of Informationwhen does data become information and when does information become knowledge (Zidane press, 2008).

Muneera Umedaly Spence Peter Martin Pornprapha Phatanateacha

COLLABORATION: A CASE STUDY IN CONTEXTUAL CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT


There is a problematic propensity for the transplantation of Eurocentric based curricular into cultures that have different identiers, cultural specicity, and world understanding. Variances in delivery, critical thinking, creative problem solving mechanisms, and incentive development for best processes and practices in education, must be considered as we move to appreciate cultural diversity. Curricular assumptions are made in course content and the layering of information with little regard for the local and regional context, preferred modes of communication, multilingual requirements, technological prowess and engaging learning as a second language. For a favorable educational outcome that is performance based, deeper curricular considerations must be embedded. The importance of being a branch campus to a top rated American university, in this case, cannot be minimized. VCU Qatar Design University is one of ve top rated programs/institutions invited to a conceptual dream campus, Education City, Doha, inspired by the Emir and Shaika Mozas understanding of the power of excellent education for it citizens. But both students and faculty vary between sensing the disconnect, and knowing the incongruities between the methods, practices, and applications of the home campus curriculum to regional ideologies and needs. The curriculum, therefore, needed to evolve, innovate, and reect the context, while including essential quality and relevant aspects of the parent curriculum from the campus at VCU in Richmond, Virginia. The core ideology was to identify essential principles of localizing a curriculum, retain rigor, while creating a safe learning/teaching environment. The team of Graphic Design educators embarked on an ambitious journey in Fall 2006. In a little more than a year we re-designed the entire Graphic Design curriculum including 19 new courses. The thinking was based on a strong philosophical foundation embedded with understanding of the practical/ inspirational needs of the region. Our team presentation will take you on the extraordinary exploratory journey, including the methodologies used to ensure a thoughtful and inclusive look at the pedagogical concerns. An important aspect of this process was to build a strong collaborative team of educators who could shift the educational concerns from a teacher/institutional-centered curriculum to a student/regional centered foundation for learning and teaching. We will then show our curricular explorations while speaking about the philosophical foundations of the new curriculum including the layering of courses, methods of embedding theory and practice while permitting student-centered diversity of interests. The presentation will include the nal outcome of the curriculum and the implementation and assessment plans.
Spence graduated with her MFA from Yale University in Graphic Design, and has taught at the undergraduate and graduate levels in the eld at university level for 22 years in the USA. Her interest in international development/design projects have manifested in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. She is presently the Chair of the Department of Graphic Design at Virginia Commonwealth University in Qatar. Her funded research interests are in developing collaborative interdisciplinary teaching and learning and in innovations in critique methodologies, while her focus is in developing curricular design processes. She has presented on these topics at numerous international conferences. Her professional work in Graphic Design constitutes a wide range of projects from branding, book design, museum catalogs, posters, brochures and signage systems. Spences personal work explores mediums such as painting, drawing, photography, adornments, and concrete poetry focusing on issues pertaining to the family in a multicultural context.

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RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Joshua Trees Yvn Martnez Arguiarro
Art Center College of Design, Gerrit Rietveld Academie, San Francisco Art Institute, San Francisco, USA

3 CITIES, 3 SCHOOLS, 3 STUDIES: NEW GENRES OF GRAPHIC DESIGN


In the 70s, before the institutional concept of interdisciplinarity, Howard Fried founded the New Genres Department at the San Francisco Art Institute, to address a paradigm shift in contemporary art that was no longer based on mediums, but a hybrid of many practices. This paper sets out to demonstrate how New Genres, a philosophy rooted in social dialogue, rigorous critique, and borderless experimentation, is an effective model for developing responsive curricula that anticipate ever-shifting social, political and technological conditions that inuence graphic design; for preparing graphic designers for critical cultural roles; and for provoking conversation informed by self-reexive practices (namely conceptual art, installation art, performance art, radical design and anti-design) with an openness to what graphic design might evolve into as a result of its interdisciplinarity and criticality. From 2004-2007, three educational studies were conducted in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Amsterdam, to investigate new pedagogical approaches and vocabularies for teaching unpredictable and unprecedented cultural production; one at the San Francisco Art Institute; one at Art Center College of Design; and one at Gerrit Rietveld Academie. Results indicate that graphic design students have extraordinary capacities for independence, initiative and innovation, yet lack language and guidance to express the impulse to contribute and participate in culture beyond client-centered, market-specic and discipline-specic norms. Urgently needed are curricula that recognize and support self-initiated, experimental and conceptual projects, in any context regardless of entrepreneurial value, as valid areas of study and practice. Methodologies are discussed, namely the role of educators in facilitating work of this nature. Study 1 involved two interconnected courses: Inltrate Design, a preliminary course of what would become the Design+Technology Department at the San Francisco Art Institute, which challenged writers and visual artists (not graphic designers) to use the communication strategies of graphic design; and Experimental Typography, a course at Art Center College of Design, which challenged graphic designers to use the communication strategies of writing and visual art. Study 2, Who Knew, supported by Art Center College of Design and IdN Magazine, is an information design network for difcult content (confusing, complex or censored elsewhere) published as free downloadable documents. Students studied the thresholds of graphic design in the access, efciency and transparency of information. Study 3, LSTN, supported by Gerrit Rietveld Academie, is an online archive of audio and graphic documents. Participants recruited, recorded and interpreted conversations with cultural outsiders, to examine how meaning is produced and conveyed.
Trees and Arguiarro have been collaborating on a project called Fake I.D., an investigation of graphic design as an independent, interdisciplinary and critical practice. They currently live and work between Los Angeles and Amsterdam. Trees was an associate professor at Art Center College of Design between 20022007, and is visiting faculty at the San Francisco Art Institute. Trees holds an MFA in New Genres from the San Francisco Art Institute. Martnez Arguiarro holds an MS in Mathematics from Universidad Simn Bolvar, Caracas, Venezuela.

Phatanateacha is originally from Thailand and is an Assistant Professor currently teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts in Qatar. She received her Bachelor of Fine Arts from the University of Utah and Master of Fine Arts from Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, Virginia. She had worked at the international multi-disciplinary design rm RTKL Associates Inc. for branding and environmental design in Baltimore, Maryland USA. She also served as Alumni Managing Liaison, supervising and supporting communication and cooperation between the Fitch Qatar Ofce of Fitch London and VCU Qatar. In addition Ms Phatanateacha is an author of Passage Through Qatar and Charm of the City, publications about Qatar with Photographer Hani Nakib. She is also a co-author of Revival of the Fittest: Digital Versions of Classic. Her work has also been published in The Color Management: A Comprehensive Guide for Graphic Designers, a publication dealing with the physical and psychological effects of color. Her current research interests concern the transitional period from academic environment to professional environment. She is working on the development of a model for the organizational structure for design studio that will be implemented in design curricula. As a result of her research interest, Phatanateacha has been involved in the development of the design curriculum for VCU Qatar. Martin has been teaching graphic design at Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts in Qatar since September 1999. His experience of working in design education within a multi-cultural context has inspired his particular interest in design problem denition methodology, contextual design, design performance evaluation, design education, and cross-cultural information design. These interests are actively being pursued in his scholarly research. Martins background includes a B.S. in Environmental Design and Analysis from Cornell University and an M.F.A. in Communication Arts and Design from Virginia Commonwealth University, as well as ve years of professional design experience. Also, his travels and photography in nearly 50 countries has exposed him to the tremendous diversity of form, meaning, and context that is critical to the performance of design.

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RESPONSIVE CURRICULA: SHIFTING PARADIGMS
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Assistant Professor of Visual Communication, Herron School of Art and Design (Indiana University), Indianapolis, USA

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Jeremy Tridgell
University College Falmouth, Falmouth, UK

Lee Vander Kooi

A CONTEXT IN FLUX: ADDRESSING CURRICULAR CHANGE IN DESIGN EDUCATION


Today design education programs struggle to respond to the multiple forces vying for consideration. Technological advances facilitate greater connections and catalyze social, cultural, and environmental change. While there is no shortage of discourse about the signicance and impact of these changes, a natural reaction might be to wait, to base appropriate responses on clear outcomes. This perspective assumes that we are in transition; moving from one coherent system to another. But John Thackara, author of In the Bubble: Designing in a Complex World, describes our current context more appropriately as being in-ux; with each factor individually and independently in motion. GK VanPatter observes that [t]oday all disciplines including design are patterns in motion. Some patterns are moving at a snails pace while others are rapidly accelerating. The complexity and interrelationship of the factors shaping design education today calls for fresh curricular perspectives to prepare students to solve complex, cross-disciplinary problems. Design practice continually struggles to respond to social, technological, and economic factors. By addressing new challenges and engaging new questions the professional practice of design continues to mutate. By contrast higher education programs are less able to respond quickly and nimbly to changes perceived in society and culture. Meredith Davis, Design educator, observes that because the adoption of curriculum in academic institutions is both a democratic and bureaucratic process design education is less able to mirror the changes in professional design practice. In order to deliver relevant competences to students, faculty at the Indiana University Herron School of Art and Design redirected the focus of learning to emphasize collaborative creative process knowledge and the process skills needed to perform real-world, team-based creative problemsolving in complex, fuzzy situations. Faculty introduced a creative problem solving process that began with problem nding and problem denition. Specic process skills like challenge mapping and collaborative action research were introduced to help students identify contextual factors and to understand audiences. Working experientially by addressing situated design challenges and working with community partners, students engaged audiences by recognizing the physical, cognitive, and social human factors relevant to the design challenge. As patterns continue to shift the challenge to design education remainsHow can students be prepared for problem solving in a complex world? By emphasizing collaboration, process knowledge, and process skills faculty can build curricula capable of responding to the forces driving social, cultural, and environmental change resulting in students better able to facilitate change in the world.
Vander Kooi was appointed to the Visual Communication faculty at the Herron School of Art and Design in 2006. Previously, he was a design educator at the University of Hawaii. At Herron Vander Kooi teaches studio design courses at the undergraduate and graduate level. Prior to teaching, Vander Kooi has worked as a designer on multi-disciplinary teams solving design challenges for leading companies including GE, National City Bank and Smuckers. His areas of research interests include exploring the application of form making to different stages in the design process; how visualization can facilitate research, and the impact of unstable media on visual cultural production.

A GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: THE SEARCH CONTINUES


As a contribution to the discourses of responsive curricula and shifting paradigms this paper reports on the authors ecoloqo project, an attempt to envision a graphic design for sustainability though its expression on the web. The innovative, visually based, social bookmarking site www.ecoloqo.net aims to search out the best and most useful websites about sustainability. The project suggests the possibility of a future graphic design as a cultural as opposed to necessarily commercial activity, examining, tagging and valuing the ways a visual language might develop beyond a materialist and aspirant culture. In the past we apprehended in the International Style a visually-based ideological expression of early twentieth century concerns and their resolution in graphic design. The author questions if it is possible to suggest that, in similar fashion, visual expressions of twenty-rst century concerns can be analysed and thereby proactively set out in a graphic design for sustainability? Can we create a visual culture of a sustainable twenty-rst century, a graphic design aligned to current concerns? Many would suggest the ways that graphic design trends proliferate and variegate are an expression of a post-modern late capitalism. We celebrate diversity; the cutting edge is still new. Free markets are aligned with free societies and a freely expressed graphic design. Such free markets are now deemed to have suffered catastrophic market failure; our culture requires, in Bruce Maus termsmassive change. If graphic design for the web is to make a contribution to the concerns of the twenty-rst century, the best websites will emerge through the ecoloqo site for analysis and review. As a web 2.0 technology it threatens the status quo, through its use of user-generated content and folksonomy. To add to an interdisciplinary perspective the author introduces further insights from the visual anthropology of sustainable communities and from the challenges of visualising sustainable design products in use, such as in Manzinis sustainable lifestyles. If the project succeeds, graphic design then could entertain a proactive role in the interpretation and representation of sustainability, with the potential to develop a visually-based ideology that expresses the cultural or paradigm shift that we require.
Tridgell has worked previously with the mad, the bad, the young, old and poor. He took a rst degree in psychology at University College London and started in educational research, moving on to work with disturbed kids for a number of years. He changed direction, bought a computer (1981) and worked as action researcher/development worker both at the level of community business (coops) and strategic intervention. A further degree in resource management fed his interest in the role of communication in sociotechnical change. He has worked as a consultant to Bristol Development Corporation, Friends of the Earth, Cornwall County Council, the Isle of Guernsey; and taught on the Open University MBA and at the University of the South Bank. This century he has refocused on what led him to Cornwalla research project to transform the countys ecological footprint. He is interested in developing a range of new media applications and other exemplary realisations to this endcommunicating sustainability. He has been teaching graphic design students for nearly twenty years.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Yoko Akama
Communication Design, School of Applied Communication, RMIT university, Melbourne, Australia

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Carolyn Barnes Simone Taffe
Senior Research Fellow in the Faculty of Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia Coordinator of the Communication Design programs in the Faculty of Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia

WHOSE ROLE IS IT ANYWAY? COMMUNICATION DESIGN AND DESIGNERS ROLE IN SOCIETY


Design is often perceived as both an intensely commercial practice and a signicant mode of cultural production. Furthermore, design also plays a central role in shaping and informing the ideas and behaviours of people and their environment (Frascara 1995). This presentation focuses on the role of designers and their practices to understand how design expresses social priorities and carry cultural values. The social priorities and cultural values are often invisible and yet are pervasively inscribed into the design process by the way designers, clients and other project stakeholders engage with and create the designed outcome. This presentation will discuss the need for designers to understand how and whose values become embedded in the outcomes of design. The presentation will propose that through this understanding, it may lead to a better understanding of the social worth of the outcomes and experiences of communication design. The presentation begins by drawing on the discourse by many scholars who have argued for many years that designers need to think more critically about what they are doing and the cultural, social and environmental conditions they contribute to. However, contrary to their good intentions, these arguments are yet to achieve a signicant impact where practitioners of communication design are addressing them daily within their own practices. Within the debate on designs social role, arguments for social responsibility are still largely framed by charity and good intentions. In this argument, a designers responsibility is framed by ideas of doing pro bono work for socially oriented organisations, or using environmentally friendly methods of printing and production (Bush 2003). The literal and simplistic provision of solutions to this complex debate is one of the impetuses for this presentation. The presentation will critique the approach that many scholars have made, that a large part of the argument surrounding a designers responsibility places importance on adopting values that designers may nd difcult in applying or translating to their daily, commercial practices. The critique points to the lack of understanding of how values are discussed, communicated and knowing of ways that can be manifested in a designers practice. In contrast, the presentation puts forward the importance of self-reectionbeing aware of ones values and how that manifests in ones practice as a key understanding for a communication designer in creating a social practice.
[ Bush, A 2003, Beyond Pro Bono, [in] Heller, S & Vienne, V (eds.) Citizen DesignerPerspectives on Design Responsibility, Allworth Press, New York, pp. 25-31. / Frascara, J 1995, User-Centred Graphic Design: Mass communications and social change, Taylor & Francis, London. ] Akama has recently completed a practice-led Ph.D. in communication design at RMIT University. She continues to pursue a socially oriented practice in communication design, which spans over 10 years in various locations including London and Melbourne. Her research is situated within the practice of communication design where she investigated how design scaffolds can capture, articulate and manifest stakeholder values that can become embedded in design projects. Yoko has been teaching communication design for six years into various undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Australian universities. She is also involved as a researcher in an Australian CRC for Interaction Design (ACID) projects. She was born in Japan, grew up in Australia, England and Japan; studied (and hated) living in Los Angeles; did her BA (Hons) at Ravensbourne College of Art and Design, England and now she calls Australia home. And, no, she wasnt named after the infamous woman who split up the Beatles

KNOWLEDGE IN PRACTICE: USING PARTICIPATORY GRAPHIC DESIGN TO ENCOURAGE SAFE AND SUSTAINABLE INDOOR CLEANING
The theory of mode 2 knowledge production, while in some respects contentious, suggests a socially engaged way of being a design researcher, codifying a pattern of interdisciplinary research that engages with specic problems in real world contexts. This paper describes such a project, being based on research carried out as part of the Safe and Sustainable Indoor Cleaning project (SASI Clean), a government-funded pilot study into the promotion of sustainable cleaning in childcare centres in the Australian state of Victoria. Low-chemical cleaning practices are recommended for cleaning surfaces like baby change mats and play tables in childcare. Currently, however, a medley of surface sprays, disinfectants, harsh detergents and air-fresheners are used in many childcare centres, demonstrating that information alone can be inadequate to the task of inuencing attitudes and behaviour. To address this problem the project brought together a team consisting of sustainable cleaning consultant, bureaucrats from three tiers of government, childcare workers, environmental scientists, graphic designers and microbiologists. The projects rst objective was to demonstrate worthwhile reductions in environmental impacts while maintaining hygiene. The second was to identify the real and perceived barriers to the adoption of safe and sustainable cleaning and to propose solutions as a result of this study. The project undertook a participatory design process to integrate childcare workers knowledge of the human and material context for information delivery with designers knowledge of visual communication and design production. In elds including architecture, urban design, humancomputer interaction and product design, participatory design encompasses a diversity of methods and motives for involving end-users and other stakeholders in design. Graphic design, however, lacks signicant applied studies in participatory design as the paradigms and methodologies for its application are not yet established. In the SASI Clean project, its participatory design process incorporated various graphic design techniques for idea generation and design renement. These were oriented to the philosophical perspectives of the global investigation, which was not simply to deliver quantiable environmental benets but to afford childcare workersso often the subjects of externally imposed expectationsa measure of self-determination in their working life. Scope for mutual learning, the exchange of critical knowledge and collaborative creation was thus privileged over more basic issues of the efcacy of information. The paper uses a case study approach for its capacity to address the whole context of the applied project, allowing for the drawing of specic insights and the beginnings of theory development; the vignettes we present revealing the challenges in applying participatory design within multidisciplinary projects.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Noel Douglas
Senior Lecturer, Programme Leader in Graphic Design and Illustration, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK

MYSPACE?
To call on people to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. Karl Marx Imagine a city where grafti wasnt illegal, a city where everybody could draw wherevever they liked. Where every street was awash with a million colours and little phrases. Where waiting standing at a bus stop was never boring. A city that felt like a living breathing thing which belonged to everybody, not just the estate agents and barons of big business. Banksy Neo-Liberal Capitalism has drastically altered the shape and fabric of key cities around the world. More than any other country in Europe the UK has slavishly followed these policies for the last quarter of a century. London in particular represents a city that embodies these values in explicit ways in its organization of space and public life. This presentation will address how Neo-Liberal values and ideology are expressed and visualized through the forms of graphic imagery and systems that adorn the urban spaces of London. It uses the theories of alienation, commodity fetishism, semiotics and the everyday, drawn primarily from Marx, Trotsky, Lefebvre, Berger, Fromm, Voloshinov, Harvey and the Situationists. It will focus on how imagery is used to help the commodication and privatization of space and make an argument for how this impoverishes, not only the space we live in, but also our relations with each other and our very being. The presentation will contrast this enclosure with examples of artists, designers and activists projects drawn from the social and political movements of the past decade that attempt to either open up the urban space to dialogue and debate or re-imagine what the city could be through graphical forms. By looking at a range of contemporary and historical examples, the presentation will attempt to look forward to ask, what is the potential for the city to become a space beyond alienation and commodication? What role does imagery play in this? Ultimately the kind of cities we want to live in the future cannot be divorced from what kind of people we want to be. We face an uncertain future and we need to examine our options. This presentation will make an argument for an engaged graphic practice that attempts to raise questions and open up new possibilities for the eld of art and design.
Douglas is an artist, designer and activist who work across a range of media. He completed an MA in Computer-Related Design at the Royal College of Art in London and also holds a BA in Fine Art. Recent projects have included a residency using Europes largest slide projection system at Ars Electronica in Linz, Austria and the bestselling satirical pack of playing cards Regime Change begins at Home and with the Greater London Authority as an organiser of a three-day cultural programme for the European Social Forum. He writes regularly for cultural publications including Eye the International Journal of Graphic Design and his publications include, as Editor Website Graphics Now (Thames and Hudson 1999). His work is part of the permanent collection of the British Museum and has been featured in Adbusters magazine (Canada), Atlas magazine (USA), Art Monthly, Blueprint, Dazed and Confused, The Economist, The Guardian, Malababa (Spain), Mute, NME and Time Out.

Barnes is a Senior Research Fellow in the Faculty of Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, where she is involved in a range of research projects investigating the role of art and design in public communication. These include the role of design and national self-representation in Australias pavilions at world expositions; the use of participatory design as a resource for public information campaigns and designs role in brokering knowledge, meaning and visitor experience in the contemporary museum. Carolyn holds a Ph.D. from the University of Melbourne. Her monograph on the Hong Kong Australian artist John Young was published by Craftsman House in 2005. She is an assistant editor of the International Journal of Design. Taffe is Coordinator of the Communication Design programs in the Faculty of Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia. Simone has 15 years industry experience working in leading Australian design consultancies, including FHA Futurebrand where she worked on many large-scale branding projects. For seven years she managed the City of Melbournes design and communication service, leading a comprehensive re-branding project that saw the municipality be the rst to shift from a heraldic crest to a modern corporate identity system. She later managed this process for four other Victorian municipalities. Simone holds a Master of Arts (Design) from Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology and is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Faculty of Design, Swinburne University of Technology, researching the role of participatory design in design management.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Anna Gerber Zo Whitley
Independent V&A Museum, London, UK

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Neal Haslem
Ph.D. candidate, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

FROM THERE TO HERE: NEW DIRECTIONS IN CONTEMPORARY GRAPHIC DESIGN


Contrary to what was thought in the past, the joint phenomena of globalisation and increased connectivity have given rise once again to the local dimension. Ezio Manzini. The international graphic design discourse is shifting. The canon is moving away from a Western-biased discourse to one that includes a rapidly changing political, social and economic landscape of emerging regions (and, in turn, emerging designers) from around the world. With this changing landscape, we are seeing an emerging graphic language. A language that is new, one that aims to reect not only regional changes, but one that retains a sense of place, culture, history and locality. In the wake of exhibitions such as Global Cities and books such as World Graphic Design, this paper will raise aspects of emerging creative industries in Zimbabwe and India and their visual idioms in a bid to reassess our view that graphic design is necessarily rooted in a Modernist aesthetic and Westernised discourse. The authors will examine emerging graphic design practice in India and Zimbabwe and through that prism, consider what Zimbabwe-based designer Saki Mafundikwa has called, the pluralism of inuence wrought by the globalization of the canon. Both countries are in political, social and economic ux, one busy moving ahead, the other seemingly blighted by its government. This status quo will make for an arresting portal into the graphic design emerging from these regions. Globalisation in India can be thought of as another form of colonialism. American advertising agencies such as Weiden + Kennedy are opening new ofces in New Delhi. The annual Indian design conference, Kyoorius Design Yatra are purporting to deal with contemporary Indian graphic design yet boasts a roster of Western graphic designers. At the same time, the paper will reveal a return to Gandhian swadeshi philosophies, whereby designers are utilising local crafts, materials and traditions, in their work. In the case of Zimbabwe, it will be shown how until recently, African design most often signaled either a Western designers source of inspiration or Western design technology mobilized for African aid and how that led to graphic design which was either about or altruistically/condescendingly for Africa. In this context, design practice has too often upheld the false dichotomy of timeless primitive Africa versus a technologically advanced and design-savvy West.
Gerber is an independent writer, designer and lecturer, based in London. She writes regularly for design publications such as Creative Review, Eye, Print, Idea and Varoom. Her visual commissions have appeared in Idea, shift! and +rosebud. She is the author and designer of All Messed Up: Unpredictable Graphics (2004) and co-author/co-designer of Inuences: A Lexicon of Contemporary Graphic Design (2006) with Anja Lutz. She is a lead tutor on the BA Graphic Media Design course at London College of Communication and has lectured extensively worldwide, including Malaysia, India, the U.S. and Australia as well as in museums, including Tate Modern and the V&A. Bringing together her academic backgrounds in politics, philosophy and communication design (MA Communication Design, Central Saint Martins and MSc Political Philosophy, LSE), she is currently working on her third book, Beyond Green: Graphic Design and Sustainability. Written by Gerber and co-designed with Rathna Ramanathan, the book will be published by Laurence King in 2009. Whitley is a Curator of Contemporary Programmes at the V&A. She manages temporary exhibitions, new commissions, and contemporary design-led initiatives. Previously, she served as Assistant Curator and Bursary Curator of the Schreyer Poster Collection at the V&A, overseeing the acquisition and cataloguing of a signicant collection of 19th and 20th century propaganda graphics. Exhibitions to her credit include Uncomfortable Truths: the shadow of slave trading on contemporary art and design (touring 2007-2008) and she has organised others including Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon (2006), Blood on Paper (2008) and Telling Tales (2009). She has lectured and provided artists translation at Kingston University, the Royal College of Art, Camberwell College of Art & Design, University of Trier, Tate and Harvard University. Her writing has appeared in catalogues for Mode Museum Antwerp, the Studio Museum in Harlem and the V&A. Forthcoming writing includes contributions to Phaidon Graphic Classics. Whitley received her MA from the RCA in the History of Design.

I HAVE LEARNT A LOT FROM THIS POSTER AND IT IS MY POSTER


Jan van Toorn initiated the conference design beyond Design: critical reection and the practice of visual communication in November 1997. During this conference he described a new form of politicised practice for graphic design; a dialogic design that required the user or reader to take a part in creating the meaning of the artefact. Van Toorns concept remains radical today in its contradiction to the predominant understanding of what graphic design is (and is for). This seminal conference, and the publications it produced, took place over a decade ago, what has happened to the design beyond Design vision? This proposition develops van Toorns proposal and suggests a graphic design practice that goes beyond dialogic design into a holistic communicative interplay between content, form, self and other. This interplay connects all involved parties in the design process through an exchange of teaching, learning, and expression. Design for the other, and the designer. Through visualization and materialization, the implicit becomes explicit and the ineffable is given form. Language is a technology that allows us to verbalize, communicate and think. Visual language, likewise, allows designers to externalise nebulous responses (ideas and emotions) and render them out(side), cohesive and concrete. The artefact produced is then read, it can then start to work, and reply back to inform both the designer and the other. In this way graphic design constructs the metonym with which we understand (and create) the world. This is (visual) speaking, not as a way of demonstrating knowledge, but as a way of creating, and allowing the phase transition of knowledge. This New View reects on a recent project to discuss a socially-situated design activity, one that is intrinsically linked to context and, rather than acting from the nalised or the known, situates itself in a state of uncertainty, generating the possibility to move both designer and user.
Haslem is a design educator and practicing communication designer. He has recently completed a research Masters degree in communication design, concerned with a proposition for community facilitation through communication design. He is a current Ph.D. candidate at RMIT University, School of Applied Communication, in Melbourne Australia, and lectures into the communication design stream at Swinburne University of Technology. His current practice-led research investigates the potential for a sociallysituated communication design ontology through a focus on the role of the other in the design activity.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Russell Kerr
RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

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Susan King Roth
School of the Arts, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

FOR WE ARE YOUNG AND FREE. DESIGN + MANIFESTO = A NEW WORLD ORDER
The real world can be a nasty place; rampant consumerism and wealth generation now underpin all aspects of human function. This way of life is not sustainable and generally does not value equality or human life in any meaningful way. The graphic design industry thrives on income earned from peddling misconceptions, and the virtues of lust and excess. These actions lead to gentrication of culture and the degradation of living standards for the vast majority of inhabitants of this planet. This paper outlines the role socially aware graphic designers can play in shaping a just real world. It discusses the need for a real world manifesto that positions graphic design in a wider social context, not one that compromises its principles by failing to acknowledge the inherent problems of consumerism. Attempts have been made to change the landscape in which graphic design occurs, most notably the First Things First manifesto. For me First Things First doesnt go far enough in specifying the underlying link between graphic design and the problems mentioned above. First Things First raised important issues but failed to adequately relate graphic design to the personal accountability of the designer. Another example to be discussed is the Designers Accord (www.designersaccord.org). While being an advancement on First Things First I believe that it does not go far enough in its vision, merely focusing on sustainability and failing to address graphic designs capacity to effect positive social change through socially responsible and ethical practice. A meaningful manifesto needs be hard hitting and address three key areas of concern; sustainability, social responsibility and ethical practice. A meaningful manifesto would denounce designers who work on sustainable projects while simultaneously undertaking commissions for companies who engage in questionable practices. Such a manifesto would set the bar for entry deliberately high. Adopting such a stance would give the manifesto relevance and command respect, and would not merely be a feel good initiative. I believe the way to formulate such a manifesto is to begin discussions on these issues where the formulation of graphic design thinking is at its most impressionable; within design curriculums. I will present a survey of graphic design students, staff and recent graduates from the Communication Design at RMIT University, (a structure indicative of the majority of design curriculums across the industry). This survey will be used to support a discussion on what needs to be done to formulate a meaningful manifesto. Further I will discuss a project conducted by graphic design students who were asked to develop a position statement discussing What is graphic design? The resulting submissions clearly dene a vision for the future of graphic design.
Kerr is an Artworker, Activist and Educator based in Melbourne, Australia. He creates hand-made, screen-printed posters for grassroots political organisations and social causes. Since 2006 he has been the Honours coordinator at The Works, RMIT Universities Design Consultancy. He has a Masters in Public Advocacy and Action from Victoria University and a Bachelor of Arts in Graphic Design with Honours from the University of Ballarat. He has extensive professional experience in the design industry, he spent three years working at one of Australias premier design studio, Inkahoots, before moving on to set up his own studio, Transfer Press. Kerr continues to practice design working with grassroots community organizations and creating street based art and screen-printed posters with political content. His work is in the permanent collections of the State Library of Victoria and the Centre for the Study of Political Graphics, Los Angeles. Russell is a founding member of Australian Disruptive, a collective of graphic activists established to cultivate social change through graphic agitation. In 2006 Russell formed the Whale Conservation Front, a not for-prot organization advocating the conservation of whales through visual communication.

MOVING ON, MOVING OUT: FUTURE SCENARIOS FOR DESIGN EDUCATION & PRACTICE
Jared Diamond, author of Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (2007) examined factors that caused civilizations of the past to collapse. One factor appears to be the isolation of leadership from problems experienced by the rest of society. Industrialized nations support the pursuit of prot and accumulation of wealth through incentives and policies that benet some, but do not necessarily promote democratic ideals or address basic needs. Design has participated in this worldview by association with business and industry but an underlying current of altruism and social responsibility has surfaced at the beginning of the twenty-rst century with the potential to become mainstream. This focus on ethical issues, expanded models of practice, challenges to the status quo, and a sustainable role for design and education in the real world are explored through alternate future scenarios. The global context for design activity is sobering. Reports of oppression, genocide and religious extremism dominate the media; poverty and preventable diseases continue to devastate populations around the world. Climate change is irrefutable and possibly irreversible. Environmental degradation and the socioeconomic impact of addiction to fossil fuels (war, ination, terrorism) are as threatening today as nuclear attack appeared to an earlier generation. Access to clean water is a challenge in many parts of the world and thousands of children die each day due to unsafe water and poor sanitation. Not long ago it seemed possible to envision a utopian future based on the development of new technologies, global communities of interest, freedom from disease and hunger and an increasing standard of living. Since 9/11 the possibility of a dystopic future seems equally feasible. Under such daunting circumstances, can design intervention really make a difference? Will designers develop products and communications that produce long-term benets for society as well as short-term gains for business and industry? Which signicant or seemingly intractable problems can be addressed successfully by design, and who will fund design in the public interest? Future scenarios provide a device for envisioning models of design with the potential to address problems experienced by the rest of society. The rst scenario extends pro bono design activity through mass collaboration with a visionary twist. The second overwrites traditional practice with concept design, strategic thinking and a global perspective. The third has predictive potential. Scenarios are presented with reference to recent writings on the topic to provoke dialogue on the future of design and education.
[ Diamond, J 2007, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Penguin Books, London. ] Roth is Associate Dean for Research and Academic Affairs and Associate Professor of Graphic Design in the School of the Arts, Virginia Commonwealth University. She has an undergraduate degree from Cooper Union and graduate degree from Ohio State University and has practiced design for New York City, the Whole Earth Epilog and others. She was Chair of Industrial, Interior & Visual Communication Design and Co-founder/ Co-director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Art and Design at Ohio State University. Publications and presentations focus on design research, human-centered design and interdisciplinary education. Research on the design and usability of voting systems received widespread attention following the presidential election of 2000 including testimony for national panels, citations and interviews in the media and participation in federally-funded research. She is Vice President of NASAD, reviews educational programs of art and design throughout the US, and chairs the Design Futures Working Group.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Paul Linnell
Senior Lecturer, Graphic Design, De Montfort University, Faculty of Art and Design, Leicester, UK

I
Peter S. Martin
Department of Graphic Design, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of the Arts in Qatar, Doha, Qatar

THE GRAPHIC DILEMMA IN USER INSTRUCTIONS EXPLORING THE GAP BETWEEN PAST GRAPHIC DIVERSITY IN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AND CURRENT PRACTICE
The history of user instructions demonstrates a graphic diversity and freedom from the conventionality that typies current examples, especially those that attempt to explain the operation of new technology products to ordinary consumers. This paper shows how ideas from graphic design history can be used both critically and creatively to question and improve current practice. The overall aim of the project is to formulate a new model that will benet both the user and the manufacturer as an integrated part of brand communication. Firstly, this paper will dene the problem: it will attempt to trace and explain the separation of research into the effectiveness of user instructions from the broader ow of graphic design practice and research. Current user instructions demonstrate a limited graphic language that has evolved through a science-based quantitative research methodology. This process measures the readers cognitive responses in articial test conditions. The visual outcomes have failed to satisfy the increasing need for user instructions to be both simple and an integrated, consistent tool of brand communication between manufacturer and user. Secondly, the paper explores the potential through a range of examples from the history of user instructions. Examples will focus on those that introduce new technology to a domestic context. These demonstrate both the aesthetic and rhetorical breadth of graphic language, as well as their signicance to specic audiences. They illustrate attempts to resolve the conicting demands of technical instruction whilst promoting brand values and persuading users of the benets of new technology. Design historians such as Brockmann and Atteld have shown that exploring design ideas from a real-user context can provide an alternative, more meaningful and relevant assessment of designed artifacts. Finally, this paper will describe research practice, showing how visualised qualitative methods can analyse rich and signicant graphic communication content, considering visual rhetoric and relevance to the users context in addition to instructional content. This method can be used to extract ideas and content from instructional documents, which could provide design principles incorporating contextual relevance and value to the user. This parallels recent trends in other areas of design that explore beyond mere functionality to the emotional signicance and users experience of design.
Linnell is Subject Leader for Graphic Design and Course Leader for BA (Hons) Graphic Design at De Montfort University. His specialist areas are typography, information and instructional design. He is also External Examiner for BA (Hons) Graphic Design at University College Suffolk in Ipswich. Before teaching, he worked in Higher Education as a graphic designer and design team leader in educational technology, producing instructional materials and graphic information systems. He designed a series of self-study workbooks on transferable skills for undergraduates, published by Kogan Page. Other includes a teachers pack on racist bullying for Leicestershire Constabulary. He is also currently studying part-time towards a Ph.D., which investigates the effectiveness of graphic communication of user instructions for new consumer technology. He is a member of the Typographic Circle, IIID, Design History Society and Design Research Society. He has presented papers at the Design History Society conference, TU Delft, and the Design Research Education East Midlands (DREEM), Nottingham, both in 2006.

PAINTING NEW SHADES OF GRAY IN THE DESERT: A CASE OF EXPLORING GRAPHIC DESIGNS CAPABILITIES IN IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION OF YOUNG MODERN ARABIC WOMEN
Buckminster Fuller declared that change is our only constant. This seems to be an increasingly apt paradox to attribute to our globalizing world as it aggressively equips itself for rapid adaptation, integration, and innovation. Systems of identity perpetuation operating within the intergenerational relationships inherent in traditional societies are being transformed, abandoned, or assimilated into mediated environments comprised of increasing degrees of hybridity. Individuals less automatically assume identities provided to them by their culture as they increasingly negotiate and utilize identity fragments that are encountered within the diverse and mediated contexts of everyday living in a globalizing world. If this modern context is navigated without sensitive support and contextual processes of identity construction, individuals can become vulnerable to arbitrarily selected identities or can become susceptible to a desperate reaction of localization; of which both situations are not sustainable leaving individuals subject to depressive and/or violent conditions. This paper presents a graphic design potential-seeking project that is pursuing identity construction strategies and methods for the modern Arab woman. This project is the quest of a community of 25 senior-level graphic design students who are all young Arab women living in the modern context of a hybridized society where it is impossible for them to live the same lives as their mothers. With themselves as a point of departure, this project is following a process of research and innovation in graphic design to develop visually communicated identities for the Modern Arab Woman that will be proposed (5 May 2008) for development and implementation to augment an ongoing multi-year Arab women identity research project funded by Qatar National Research Fund. This paper will present a model of graphic design that asserts that identity construction is at its core. Using this perspective as a foundation the paper will establish a case study of this project to demonstrate and evaluate the capacity of graphic design (research, process, thinking, and generation) to construct functional identities for members of communities and demographic sectors within dynamic and hybridized societies. In conclusion, this paper will argue that the process of graphic design is one of globalizing worlds most powerful tools to construct sustainable social identities within the modern condition of change that is constant.
Martin has been teaching graphic design at Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts in Qatar since September 1999. His experience of working in design education within a multi-cultural context has inspired his particular interest in design problem denition methodology, contextual design, design performance evaluation, design education, and cross-cultural information design. These interests are actively being pursued in his scholarly research. Martins background includes a B.S. in Environmental Design and Analysis from Cornell University and an M.F.A. in Communication Arts and Design from Virginia Commonwealth University, as well as ve years of professional design experience. Also, his travels and photography in nearly 50 countries has exposed him to the tremendous diversity of form, meaning, and context that is critical to the performance of design.

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GRAPHIC DESIGN: CHANGING THE REAL WORLD
NEW VIEWS 2 CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

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Ellen McMahon Erin Moore
School of Art, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona USA School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona USA

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Alistair S. Ross
Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design, University of the Arts, London, UK

BEING THERE: CROSSING THE BORDER TO FORM SUSTAINABLE DESIGN PARTNERSHIPS


In 2007 the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum exhibition Design For the Other 90% showcased design innovations intended to address the basic needs of resourceimpoverished populations. One important factor governing the effectiveness of these projects is the designers understanding of the situations for which they are designing. Some members of organizations like KickStart, International Development Enterprises, and Designers Without Borders have spent years living with and getting an understanding of the end users before initiating designed responses. This calls to question how designers can create useful products for those whom they are less familiar with. It is a challenge for designers who work from a distance and have little understanding of the local conditions, or those who are too focused on technological innovation. The University of Arizona is located sixty miles north of one of the most contrasting border regions in the world. One hundred miles south of the border, there are massive unsustainable high-rise tourist developments, which are mostly built by and for Americans. These are rapidly urbanizing the small shing village of Puerto Peasco, Mexico. For 27 years, Centro Intercultural de Estudios de Desiertos y Ocanos (CEDO), a small nonprot organization, has been a center of research, environmental education and conservation in this area. One of their strategies for protecting the vulnerable wetlands is to support the land rights of sustainable oyster farming collectives. The center is broadening their economic base through ecotourism, thus keeping the farmers on the land and protecting them from environmentally damaging development. Over the last few years the authors have taken university students to CEDO to work with biologists, conservationists and oyster farmers on a variety of projects. They include designs of interpretive kiosk structures; identity, signage and murals for a restaurant and eco-tour businesses; and communication materials. It is an ongoing challenge to understand and be responsive to the needs of our collaborators and the end users. Traveling to Mexico is particularly benecial for a group of students who live in a politically charged border region. For some, it means returning home. For students who cross the border to work in interdisciplinary teams for the long-term benet of the people and the environment, this can become critical preparation for their future work as designers.
McMahon is an Associate Professor in the School of Art at the University of Arizona. She has been teaching art and design as well as lecturing and publishing about design education since 1990. As a delegate to the 2007 World Design Congress (ICOGRADA) in Havana Cuba, she presented a paper about the bi-national conservation project shes doing with her American students in Mexico. Other recent presentations include Experiencing Agency as a Designer Through Service to the Community at the AIGA Education Conference at the Art Center in Pasadena. Her artist books are in numerous collections including those of UCLA, Scripps, Occidental, Texas Tech, and the New York and Boston Public Libraries. Her multifaceted creative practice is discussed in Clean New World: Culture, Politics by Maud Lavin. She is the recent recipient of a Fulbright Grant to contribute design, art and writing to an interdisciplinary conservation project in Puerto Peasco, Mexico. Moore is a Visiting Assistant Professor in the School of Architecture at the University of Arizona. In her research and in the design studios she teaches, Moore looks for ways that the processes, media, and craft of architectural design can engage the experience of material and place over time. Her research and writing is often collaborative and draws on cultural geography, gender studies and ecology. Moore is co-founder of Floodspace, a partnership in research on design innovations for communities subject to climate change-related ooding in Bangladesh. Moore was a selected artist for The Eleventh Shade of Green, at The Berkeley Art Museum and panelist at the conference of the International Association for Environmental Philosophy, Thinking Through Nature: Philosophy for an Endangered World, in Eugene, Oregon. Her publications include Smart Materials and Self Regulating Envelopes, in the Proceedings of the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction in South Africa.

BI/MULTILINGUAL DOCUMENT DESIGN IN THE REAL WORLD


What is the real world? Recent advances in digital technology and computer software enable the design and production of documents in any language that the client or designer could wish for. However, the reality is that design training has not caught up with the technology. The use of the non-Latin writing systems, with or without the accompanying Latin text, seems to require more ability, effort or knowledge than many Western designers are currently able to muster. An ongoing study is examining the processes and problems of designing and commissioning bi/multilingual public information documents in the United Kingdom. British society is now more ethnically and culturally diverse than at any other time. Yet, given this diversity one is forced to conclude from empirical evidence that the design of information in languages other than English is often perfunctory at best or strewn with basic error at worst. Currently, there is no resource relating to the design of multilingual, multiscript documents. Few Western designers are acquainted with the mechanics of a non-Latin script, such as Arabic. Often it is a case of the designer sending the Arabic text to a specialist typesetter and then inserting the scanned le into a Latin-biased design. Alternatively, in local authorities many bilingual documents are commissioned and implemented by local government ofcersnon-design professionals. Thus, the resulting documents are, at best, barely utilitarian. Frequently, document design now requires the inclusion of unfamiliar writing systems (the non-Latin) that are increasingly becoming familiar with the impact of internationalization in the UK. Yet, today, UK graphic designers and typographers seldom encounter non-Latin scripts in their formal design education. Little thought is given to other cultures or visual culturesare we to assume that they have been subsumed into McLuhans global village and have automatically adopted the English language? Global brands such as Coca Cola and McDonalds have long understood the need to localize branding for markets outside the US (with varying success) and yet none of this limited knowledge seems to have ltered down to the design schools and their curricula. Can we assume that the design educators will develop courses that take in the potential need for designing with other languages and cultures? Is the current nomenclature accurate and appropriate, employing culturally pejorative terms such as non-Latin, retrograde script? What is the rationale for creating bi/multilingual documents? How can this be addressed?
Ross is a nal year Ph.D. researcher at Central Saint Martins College, University of the Arts London and is investing aspects relating to the design of bi/multilingual public information documents. He has several years experience in the design industry as a designer and typographerprior to undertaking extended academic study. His particular research interests lie in the sphere of bi/multilingual document design and non-Latin type. He holds postgraduate degrees in Communication Design (CSM/UAL) and Information Science (City, London) with teaching experience in Beirut (Lebanon).

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PRIVATE VIEW NEW VIEWS: CONVERSATIONS IN GRAPHIC DESIGN AN EXHIBITION OF 40 POSTERS FOCUSSING ON THE FUTURE OF THE PROFESSION
THE WELL GALLERY THURSDAY 10TH JULY 6:00 8:30PM THE EXHIBITION CONTINUES 9 19TH JULY 2008 MONDAY FRIDAY 10:00AM 6:00PM, SATURDAY 10:00AM 4:00PM
Situated within an academic symposium, New Views: Conversations in Graphic Design makes a vital contribution to the events exploration of conversations and dialogues in graphic design. Typically academic investigations into a eld design practice and theory are undertaken through written or spoken text that links to imagery. In this case, we wanted to extend the possibilities of critical and reective discourse in graphic design, and do this through the medium of design itself. The exhibition has been conceived of as a conversation, where images speak to others and to the audience. Submissions based upon the themes of the symposium have been received from around the world from students, design professionals and academics. The exhibition is divided into two components: physical and digital. All works that are presented were selected through a rigorous curatorial process. 40 of the submissions were selected to be part of of the physical travelling exhibition that is featured in this catalogue. These, plus another 60 images, combine to create the visual conversation that is the digital exhibition. The exhibition is rst shown in conjunction with the symposium, at London College of Communication, London. It then travels to Melbourne, Australia, where it will be exhibited in the Design Gallery at the Museum of Victoria.

CO-CURATORS: Dr Laurene Vaughan, Professor Teal Triggs with the assistance of Dr Yoko Akama SOUND RECORDINGS: Marius Foley PRINTING: Graham Diprose DIGITAL EXHIBITION DESIGN: Miek Dunbar, Keith Deverell, Greyspace TECHNICAL SUPPORT: Nicolas Marecha, David Sims Special thanks to those involved in the exhibition and to our partner institutions and sponsors.
The digital gallery may be accessed through:

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SYMPOSIUM VENUE: London College of Communication University of the Arts London Elephant & Castle SE1 6SB London UK TRAIN: The Elephant & Castle site is connected by Thameslink trains from Blackfriars Station UNDERGROUND: Both the Bakerloo and Northern Lines stop at Elephant & Castle BUS: Elephant & Castle is extremely well provided for with buses including: 1, 12, 40, 45, 53, 68, 133, 171, 176, 188 CAR: LCC does not have the provision for on-site parking. Please also note the college is inside the Central London Congestion Charging Zone For up-to-date and more detailed travel information see TRANSPORT FOR LONDON: www.t.gov.uk

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NEW VIEWS 2: CONVERSATIONS AND DIALOGUES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM DEFINING GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR THE FUTURE 9 11 JULY 2008 LONDON COLLEGE OF COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTS LONDON UNITED KINGDOM

WWW.NEWVIEWS.CO.UK