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Physiology Lessons for use with the Biopac Science Lab MP40 Overview

Teachers Guide
2 3 6 7 19 8 42 9 44 10 46 11 48 12 50 13 52 14 54 15 56 16 57 17 60 18 63 EMG I Muscle Summary Answer Guide EMG II Muscle Summary Answer Guide ECG I Heart Summary Answer Guide ECG II Heart Summary Answer Guide EEG I Brain Summary Answer Guide EEG II Brain Summary Answer Guide EOG Eyes Summary Answer Guide Biofeedback Summary Answer Guide About Electrodes The Body Electric Waveforms National Science Standards Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Lesson 3

Lesson 4

Lesson 5

Lesson 6

Lesson 8

Lesson 9

Lesson 10 Aerobic Exercise Summary Answer Guide Lesson 11 Reaction Time Summary Answer Guide Lesson 12 Respiration Summary Answer Guide

BIOPAC Systems, Inc. 42 Aero Camino, Goleta, CA 93117 (805) 685-0066, Fax (805) 685-0067 info@biopac.com www.biopac.com

12.19.2007

Hands-on Physiology Lessons


11 tutorial-style lessons allow students to record data from their own bodies
GETTING STARTED
Setup Guide booklet in shipping box; also available on CD and installed to C:\Program Files\Biopac Science Lab\User Support Quick Guide avilable under Help menu or in User Support MP40 Hardware Guide available under Help menu or in User Support

LESSON FEATURES
On-screen commands prompt students throughout the lesson.

Lesson 1 EMG I Muscle Lesson 2 EMG II Muscle Lesson 3 ECG I Heart Lesson 4 ECG II Heart Lesson 5 EEG I Brain Lesson 6 EEG II Brain Lesson 8 EOG Eyes Lesson 9 Biofeedback Lesson 10 Aerobic Exercise Lesson 11 Reaction Time Lesson 12 Respiration
Sample prompts and lesson buttons

Video clips and downloadable sample data files provide additional

insight into the use of the system.


o Video clips are under the Help menu o Videos are installed to C:\Program Files\Biopac Science

Lab\User Support\Videos

Extremely easy to set up and record data. Event markers can be added throughout the recording. The system includes example data files. Active learning optionsstudents can design and record a new

experiment to test or verify the scientific principle(s) covered in the Biopac Science Lab recording and analysis segments. The lesson software is used to record new data segments to fit the students protocol.
Student prep and distance learning tools available in the software

and online.
Lessons written by experienced science teachers support national

curriculum standards.
Data Re[orts are installed with the software at C:\Program

Files\Biopac Science Lab\User Support\Data Reports

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ABOUT ELECTRODES

ELECTRODE OVERVIEW Attaching Disposable Electrodes For optimal electrode response, place electrodes on the skin at least 5 minutes before starting to record data. Connecting Electrode Leads Each lead set has three pinch leads designed to snap directly onto standard disposable electrodes (such as the EL500 series electrodes). Each pinch lead is 1 meter long. This is the general-purpose electrode cable used for almost all applications requiring the use of electrodes. These cables are used to connect the disposable electrodes that are placed on the surface of the skin to the MP40 unit. Depending on where the electrodes are placed, you can use them to measure muscle contraction, heartbeats, or even brainwaves. Red positive White Negative Black Ground Each pinch connector on the end of the electrode cable needs to be attached to a specific electrode. The electrode cables are each a different color. Follow the color code above to ensure that each cable is connected to the proper electrode. The pinch connectors work like a small clothespin, but will only latch onto the snap of the electrode from one side of the connector. Removing Electrodes Unclip the electrode leads and peel off the electrodes. Throw out the electrodes (BIOPAC electrodes are not reusable). Use soap and water to wash the electrode gel residue from the skin. It is quite normal for the electrodes to leave a slight ring on the skin for a few hours. Using Electrodes About Electrodes The purpose of an electrode is to act as a connector between the Subjects skin (where electrical signals are easiest to detect) and the MP40 acquisition unit (via the 40EL lead cable). If an electrode makes good contact with the skin, the signals that are generated will be relatively accurate.

Electrode lead with clip connector and electrode

Electrodes are very simple devices that consist of a small piece of metal designed to make indirect contact with the skin and a larger adhesive plastic disk. Each electrode is about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, and is sticky on one side so it will adhere to your skin.

If you look closely at the electrode, you can see that there is a small piece of plastic mesh filled with a bluish gel. Since gel conducts electricity (better than your skin, in fact) and is more flexible than the metal part of the electrode, your skin can flex and change shape somewhat without losing the electrical connection with the metal part of the electrode. BIOPAC disposable electrodes are standard disposable electrodes and are widely used in clinical, research, and teaching applications. These electrodes come in strips of ten, and you should not remove an electrode from the backing until you are ready to use it. The following directions will help you get good data from the electrodes by explaining how electrodes work and how to attach the electrodes and electrode leads to obtain the best signal. Electrode placement There are two basic methods of electrode placement: monopolar and bipolar. In a monopolar recording, an active electrode is placed over the region of interest and a reference electrode is attached to a more distant part of the body. In a bipolar recording, the voltage difference between two electrodes, placed over the regions of interest, is measured with respect to the third reference electrode. Leads I, II, and III are standard bipolar electrode configurations. The standard bipolar limb leads are: lead I = right arm (-), left arm (+) lead II = right arm (-), left leg (+) lead III = left arm (-), left leg (+) Preparing the Electrode Site If signals are erratic, one way you can improve electrode connections is to gently rub the area where the electrode is to be placed. This is known as abrading the skin, and removes a thin layer of dead skin from the surface of the skin. Since dead skin doesnt conduct electricity very well, removing it improves the connection between the electrode and the skin. The skin site can be lightly abraded with a clean dry cloth.

Abrading the skin surface

Attaching electrodes To attach an electrode, peel the electrode from its backing and place it on the area indicated in the lesson. Once in place, press down firmly on the electrode with two fingers and rock the electrode back and forth for a few seconds. This will ensure that it is adhering to the skin as much as possible. To help insure that the electrode will make good electrical contact with the skin, you may want to squeeze a drop or two of electrode gel (BIOPAC GEL1 or GEL100) onto either the surface of the skin or onto the electrode, without allowing any to get on the adhesive.

Optional: apply electrode gel

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Connecting the Electrode Lead Each electrode lead cable is a different color and each pinch connector on the end of the cable needs to be attached to a specific electrode. Note that the connector is polarized and needs to be clipped on such that the metal extensions inside the clip are on the down side to make surface contact with the electrode. The pinch connectors work like a small clothespin, but will only latch onto the snap of the electrode from one side of the connector. You should follow the figure provided in the lesson to ensure that you connect each lead cable to the proper electrode. Reducing Electrode Noise If an electrode does not adhere well to the skin, the signal plotted on the screen may appear fuzzy. This is referred to as noise, and although it always exists to some degree, it is best to reduce noise as much as possible. Electrodes have no moving parts, so there is nothing you have to do to get an electrode to work but there are several things you can do to reduce noise when electrodes are connected: Place the electrodes where there is the least amount of hair and/or choose the subject with the least amount of hair. A common problem is that something on the surface of the skin is interfering with the electrode contact. If there is too much hair (for instance) between the outer layer of skin and the electrode, the electrical activity taking place below the surface of the skin may not be detected. Make sure that everything is connected properly. Attach the electrodes a few minutes before you are going to use them. The best results are achieved by putting the electrodes in place about five minutes before you begin recording data. This gives the electrodes time to establish contact with the surface of the skin. Position the electrode lead cables such that they are not pulling on the electrodes. Connect the electrode cable clip (where the cable meets the three individual colored wires) to a convenient location (can be on the Subjects clothes). This will relieve cable strain. The Subject should not be in contact with nearby metal objects (faucets, pipes, etc.), and should remove any wrist or ankle bracelets.

Clip the lead to the electrode snap

Removing Electrodes Once you have completed a lesson, disconnect the electrode cable pinch connectors, peel the electrode off the skin, and dispose of the electrode (BIOPAC electrodes are not reusable). Wash the electrode gel residue from the skin, using soap and water. The electrodes may leave a slight ring on the skin for a few hours. This is normal, and does not indicate that anything is wrong.

The Body Electric Generally, people think of electricity flowing through bodies as an unusual occurrence. For instance, they may think of rather unique animals, such as electric eels, or of rare events such as being struck by lightning. What most people do not realize is that electricity is part of everything their body does...from thinking to doing aerobicseven sleeping. In fact, physiology and electricity share a common history, with some of the pioneering work in each field being done in the late 1700's by Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta and Luigi Galvani. Count Volta, among other things, invented the battery and had a unit of electrical measurement named in his honor (the Volt). These early researchers studied animal electricity and were among the first to realize that applying an electrical signal to an isolated animal muscle caused it to twitch. Even today, many classrooms use procedures similar to Count Volta's to demonstrate how muscles can be electrically stimulated. Over the next few weeks, you will likely see how your body generates electricity while doing specific things like flexing a muscle or how a beating heart produces a recognizable electric signature. Many of the lessons covered in this manual measure electrical signals originating in the body. In order to fully understand what an electrical signal is requires a basic understanding of the physics of electricity, which properly establishes the concept of voltages, and is too much material to present here. All you really need to know is that electricity is always flowing in your body, and it flows from parts of your body that are negatively charged to parts of your body that are positively charged. As this electricity is flowing, sensors can tap in to this electrical activity and monitor it. The volt is a unit of measure of the electrical activity at any instant of time. When we talk about an electrical signal (or just signal) we are talking about how the voltage changes over time. The bodys electrical signals are detected with transducers and electrodes and sent to the MP40 acquisition unit computer via a cable. The electrical signals can be very minutewith amplitudes sometimes in the microVolt (1/1,000,000 of a volt) rangeso the MP40 amplifies these signals, filters out unwanted electrical noise or interfering signals, and converts these signals to a set of numbers that the computer can read. The Biopac Science Lab then plots these numbers as waveforms on the computer. The body contains fluids with ions that allow for electric conduction. This makes it possible to use electrodes on the surface of the skin to detect electrical activity in and around the heart and use an electrocardiograph to record the activity. Conveniently, the legs and arms act as simple extensions of points in the torso, allowing the recording and ground electrodes to be placed on the wrists and ankles. The electrocardiogram is a record of the overall spread of electric current through the heart as a function of time in the cardiac cycle. The direction of polarity (+ or -) of the recorded waveforms depends upon the location of the recording electrodes on the surface of the body and whether the electrical activity during the cardiac cycle is coming toward or going away from the surface electrode. In general, as a wave of depolarization approaches a positive electrode, a positive voltage is seen by that electrode. If the wave of depolarization is traveling toward a negative electrode, a negative voltage will be seen. The term lead is defined as a spatial arrangement of two recording electrodes on the body. One lead is labeled + and the other -. The electrode placements define the recording direction of the lead, which is called the lead axis or angle. The axis is determined by the direction when going from the negative to positive electrode. The electrocardiograph computes the voltage difference (magnitude) between the positive and negative electrodes and displays the changes in voltage difference with time.

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Waveforms The BIOPAC software takes the signal input and plots it as a waveform on the computer screen. The waveform of the signal can be either a direct reflection of the electrical signal from the MP unit channel (amplitude is in Volts) or a different waveform which is based on the signal coming into the MP unit. For example, the electrical signal into the MP unit may be an ECG signal, but the software may convert this to a Beats Per Minute (BPM) waveform). When you use any BIOPAC software, it is important to at least have a basic understanding of what the waveforms on the screen represent. The waveform below is a plot of Amplitude versus Time. As shown, the earliest data appears at the left edge of the screen, and the most recent data at the right edge. Amplitude is determined by the MP unit hardware according to what it senses at one of its inputs, which is actually the signal output from a transducer, set of electrodes, or other device. The units are shown in the vertical scale region; the unit for this example is Volts. Time is the time from the start of the recording, which is to say that when the recording begins it does so at what the software considers time 0. The units of time are shown in the horizontal scale region; the unit for this example is milliseconds (1/1,000 of a second).
Units

Vertical (amplitude) Scale

start of recording (time 0)

Units

Horizontal (time) Scale Waveform plot of Amplitude vs. Time

Diving a little deeper into what a waveform represents, you are actually looking at data points that have been connected together by straight lines. These data points are established by the BIOPAC system hardware by sampling the signal inputs at consistent time intervals. These data points can also be referred to as points, samples, or data.
Data points of a waveform

The time interval is established by the sample rate of the BIOPAC software, which is the number of data points the hardware will collect in a unit of time (normally seconds or minutes). The BIOPAC software stores these amplitude values as a string of numbers. Since the sample rate of the data is also stored, the software can reconstruct the waveform. Since BIOPAC software can simultaneously record signals from up to four (education units) or more inputs, there may often be more than one waveform on the screen. It is worth noting that the BIOPAC software always uses the same sample rate for all channels on the screen, so the horizontal time scale shown applies to all channels, but each channel has its own vertical scale. A channels vertical scale units can be in Volts, milliVolts, degrees F, beats per minute, etc. A baseline is a reference point for the height or depth (amplitude) of a waveform. Amplitude values above the baseline appear as a hill or peak and are considered positive (+). Amplitude values below the baseline appear as a trough or valley and are considered negative ().

Baseline Samples

Lesson 1 EMG 1 Electromyography: Motor Unit Recruitment

MUSCLE

EMG 1 investigates the properties of skeletal muscle. Students record the EMG data associated with the maximum clench strength for their dominant hand and nondominant hand. The system records and displays both the raw and integrated EMG signals. Students compare clench strength between their two arms and listen to the sound of their EMG. It is also possible for students to perform a cross-group analysis. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

To record maximum clench strength for right and left hands. To observe, record, and correlate motor unit recruitment with increased power of skeletal muscle contraction Optional: To listen to EMG sounds and correlate sound intensity with motor unit recruitment. Record EMG from the dominant and non-dominant forearms. Clench fist four times, squeezing harder each time to reach maximum clench strength with the fourth clench. Optional: Listen to the sound of their EMG. Raw and Integrated EMG signals can be overlapped for easy interpretation of the data. Comparison between the dominant and non-dominant arms. The students listen to the sound of motor unit recruitment.

(uses six electrodes per subject)


Optional: Headphones (40HP) to

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


listen to the EMG signal

KEY FEATURES

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Lesson 2 EMG 2 Electromyography: Mechanical Work

MUSCLE

EMG 2 examines motor unit recruitment and skeletal muscle fatigue. Students lift hand weights to demonstrate the use of skeletal muscle and record EMG while inducing muscle fatigue. Students see the level of motor unit recruitment associated with the amount of applied force. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES

MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

To record EMG response to increased weights lifted by dominant and non-dominant arms. To compare differences between male and female students. To observe, record, and correlate motor unit recruitment with increased mechanical work by skeletal muscle. To record EMG and Integrated EMG when inducing fatigue. Optional: To listen to EMG sounds and correlate sound intensity with motor unit recruitment. Lift weight (bicep curl) and hold for 2 seconds. Repeat cycles of weight lifting; add weight for each cycle until the Subject is lifting the maximum weight. Lift the maximum weight to 45 degrees and hold it until the onset of fatigue. Repeat the sequence for the non-dominant arm. Optional: Listen to the sound of their EMG. Classic, clinical grid markings available for quick and easy evaluations. Raw and Integrated EMG signals can be overlapped for easy interpretation of the data. The students compare their dominant and non-dominant arms. The force values are scaled to kilograms. A clear demonstration of mechanical work.

(uses six electrodes per subject) Weight set (i.e., 5-10-15-20 kg dumbbells) Subjects must lift the same weights for valid comparisons String to standardize distance lifted Ruler to measure distance lifted Optional: Headphones (40HP) to listen to the EMG signal

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


KEY FEATURES

Lesson 3 ECG 1 Electrocardiography: Components of the ECG

HEART

ECG 1 introduces the electrocardiograph and the recording of the hearts electrical signal. Students learn about Lead II ECG recording and the components of the ECG complex. They also learn to correlate the electrical events of the ECG (P, Q, R, S & T components) with the mechanical events of the cardiac cycle. After performing a number of tasks designed to promote changes in the ECG complex, students analyze their own ECG recording. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

To become familiar with the electrocardiograph as a primary tool for evaluating electrical events within the heart. To observe rate and rhythm changes in the ECG associated with body position and breathing. Lie down and relax. Take five deep breaths. Perform a physical exercise to increase heart rate. Relax while heart rate returns to normal. Rate and ECG signals can be overlapped for easy interpretation of the data. The baseline can be adjusted for precise analysis and printing. Zoom in for a closer look at an individual ECG complex. See how the ECG complex changes under different conditions. Convenient electrode placement (wrists and ankles).

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


(uses three electrodes per subject) Cot or lab pillow

KEY FEATURES

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Lesson 4 ECG 2 Electrocardiography

HEART

ECG 2 explains Einthovens triangle. Students record Leads I and III while performing a number of tasks designed to change the rhythm of the heart. They then analyze the data and estimate the mean QRS axis and potential. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES

To record ECG from Leads I and III in the following conditions: lying down, sitting up, and breathing deeply while sitting. To compare the direction of the QRS complex (+ or ) with the direction of the lead axis. To estimate the mean ventricular potential. To estimate the mean electrical axis of the QRS complex. Record ECG using bipolar Leads I and III. Lie down and relax. Sit and relax. Breathe in and out once in each position. The software makes it very easy for the student to compute the ECG vectors. Classic, clinical grid markings available for quick and easy evaluations. See how the ECG complex changes under different conditions. Students place markers for each component (P, Q, R, S, and T).

MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

(uses four electrodes per subject) Cot or lab pillow Protractor Two different color pens or pencils

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


KEY FEATURES

Lesson 5 EEG 1 Electroencephalography: Brain Rhythms

BRAIN

EEG 1 introduces electroencephalographic recording techniques. Students record EEG from the occipital lobe while performing a number of different tasks to demonstrate how the brains electrical activity varies depending on the task. The software filters the raw EEG signal to separate and display alpha, beta, delta, and theta rhythms. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

To record an EEG from an awake, resting subject with eyes open and eyes closed. To identify and examine alpha, beta, delta, and theta components of the EEG complex To compare differences between male and female students. Record EEG from the occipital lobe. Record EEG from a relaxed subject with their eyes closed, eyes open, and eyes closed again. Alpha, beta, delta and theta wave components are automatically filtered and displayed. View the different EEG wave components. Overlap the EEG wave components for a better view of the data.

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


(uses three electrodes per subject) Optional: Lycra swim cap (such as Speedo brand) or supportive wrap (such as 3M Coban self-adherent support wrap) to press the electrodes against the head for improved contact

KEY FEATURES

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Lesson 6 EEG 2 Electroencephalography: Alpha Rhythms (in the Occipital Lobe)

BRAIN

In EEG 2, students will discover how the brain constantly receives sensory input and integrates the information before processing it. Students record EEG data from the occipital lobe while performing a number of tasks. The system records and displays the raw EEG together with the alpha wave and alpha-RMS activity. Students compare baseline EEG with the data recorded during the different tasks. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES

To record an EEG from an awake, resting subject under the following conditions:
o

relaxed with eyes closed; performing mental arithmetic with eyes closed; hyperventilating (breathing quickly and deeply); and relaxed with eyes open.

MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

o o o

(uses three electrodes per subject) Optional: Lycra swim cap (such as Speedo brand) or supportive wrap (such as 3M Coban self-adherent support wrap) to press electrodes against head for improved contact Cot or lab pillow

To examine differences in the level of alpha rhythm activity during mental arithmetic and hyperventilation, compared to the control condition of eyes closed and relaxed. Record EEG data from the occipital lobe. Lie down and relax with eyes closed. Perform mental math problem with eyes closed. Hyperventilate for two minutes. Recover from hyperventilation with eyes open. Alpha wave activity and alpha-RMS waveforms are automatically filtered and displayed. Overlap the EEG wave components, raw and alpha, for a better view of the data.

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


KEY FEATURES

Lesson 7 TBA

Lesson 8 EOG 1 Electrooculogram

EYES

In EOG 1, students record horizontal eye movement and observe eye fixation and tracking. Students perform a number of tasks that allow them to record the duration of saccades and fixation. Students also record spatial position of eye movements. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES

Record EOG on the horizontal plane and compare eye movements under the following conditions: pendulum tracking, pendulum simulation, reading silently, reading aloud, and reading challenging material. Measure duration of saccades and fixation during reading. Optional: explore microsaccadic eye movement. Record horizontal EOG. Track pendulum movement with eyes only, trying not to move head or blink. Simulate pendulum movement (decreasing swing cycles) with eyes only. Read Passage 1 (easily understandable material) silently (to self) for 20 seconds. Read Passage 2 (challenging material) silently (to self) for 20 seconds. Read Passage 1 aloud. Optional: Focus on an on-screen guide; position of guide represents point of focus. Tools for zooming in to see the saccades. Great introduction to EOG.

MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


(uses three electrodes per subject)


Pendulum (metronome may be used;

signal pattern will be constant vs. diminishing) Passages for reading: Passage 1 easily understandable (i.e., entertainment article) Passage 2 challenging (i.e., scientific article)

KEY FEATURES

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Lesson 9 Biofeedback Influencing Autonomic Tone

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

The Biofeedback lesson explores the concept of biofeedback training and its effect on autonomic control of heart rate. An onscreen, thermometer-style heart rate display rises and falls with changes in heart rate, allowing students to become conscious of their heart rates. The Subject will try to influence the reading without physical movements. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

Introduce the concept of biofeedback as a technique to alter autonomic tone. Measure changes in autonomic tone via heart rate. Record ECG and heart rate. Sit and relax with eyes open, facing away from the screen to establish baseline heart rate and ECG. Watch monitor and mentally try to voluntarily increase parasympathetic tone (lower heart rate display). Watch monitor and mentally try to voluntarily increase sympathetic tone (increase heart rate display). Watch two PowerPoint presentations and try to remain relaxed. Great introduction to biofeedback techniques. Shows the student how they can influence and control the autonomic nervous system. Excellent display format for immediate visual feedback.

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


(uses three electrodes per subject) Suggested: PowerPoint Viewer 2003 or later (free download at www.microsoft.com/downloads). PowerPoint Viewer 2003 lets you view full-featured presentations created in PowerPoint 97 and later versions, which can greatly enhance the feedback segments of this lesson. Presentation 1 images or sound Presentation 2 modified Presentation 1 with startling sound or image inserted

KEY FEATURES

Lesson 10 Aerobic Exercise Physiology

HEART & METABOLIC DEMANDS

In the Aerobic Exercise Physiology lesson, students record ECG and heart rate under a variety of conditions. Students see how the electrical activity of the heart and their heart rate change to meet changing metabolic demands. Students exercise to elevate heart rate. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

Measure changes in heart rate associated with a specified set of dynamic exercises. Assess individual physical fitness by measuring elevated heart rate at the immediate end of a specific exercise period. Assess individual physical fitness by measuring the time from the end of exercise to the return of resting heart rate. Compare performance levels between groups, such as young women vs. young men, or persons with body weight 75150 lbs. vs. persons with body weight 151 250 lbs. Record ECG and heart rate. Calculate personal maximum heart rate. Sit and relax. Exercise (e.g. running in place/jumping jacks) to elevate heart rate. Recover from exercise (sit and relax). Great introduction to physiological changes associated with exercise. The equipment does not interfere with the exercise. No expensive exercise equipment required to run the lesson.

(uses three electrodes per subject) Optional: Tape or clip to stabilize lead cables during exercise

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


KEY FEATURES

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Lesson 11 Reaction Time Fixed & Pseudo-random Intervals

BRAIN

The Reaction Time lesson demonstrates the effect of learning and physiological processes on reaction times. Students hear two presentation schedules of clicks through a set of headphones. With electrodes in place to record the activity of the extensor digitorum (the primary muscle used to lift a finger), the Subject lifts finger as quickly as possible after hearing a click. Students then perform a statistical analysis of the results, including: group mean, variance, and standard deviation. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES

Measure and compare reaction times of an individual subject using two stimulus presentation schedules: fixed intervals and pseudorandom intervals. Introduce elements of statistics into data analysis. Use statistics to determine the effects of learning on reaction times. React to a schedule of fixed interval clicks (two trials). React to a schedule of pseudo-random clicks (two trials). The software automatically calculates the reaction time. Guides students through the statistical analysis of a data set. The lesson will also work with different stimuli.

MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

(uses three electrodes per subject) Stimulus-Response Set: Feedback cable (40CBLFB1), stereo headphones (40HP), and audio extension cable (40CBLEXT)

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


KEY FEATURES

Lesson 12 Respiration 1 Apnea

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

In Respiration 1, students observe physiologic modifications of the respiratory cycle associated with voluntarily increasing and decreasing blood carbon dioxide content by holding breath and hyperventilating. Students will qualitatively determine changes in respiratory minute volume by recording and analyzing EMGs from respiratory muscles of the thorax. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES

MATERIALS
Biopac Science Lab intro system

To observe and record EMGs from thoracic respiratory skeletal muscle during eupnea, or normal unlabored breathing at rest. To record changes in the EMG associated with modifications in the rate and depth of the respiratory cycle that occur before, during, and after periods of apnea vera and voluntary apnea and to compare those changes to eupnea. Record EMG and respiration. Breathe normally with mouth open. Hyperventilate. Recover from hyperventilation. Hold breath. Hyperventilate and then hold breath. Great introduction to the respiratory effects of increased or decreased blood carbon dioxide content. No expensive respiratory equipment required to run the lesson. The lesson setup can record and allow students to study other respiratory fluctuations.

TASKS PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT


(uses three electrodes per subject) Optional: Nose clip (AFT3)

KEY FEATURES

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National Science Standards


Detail options: Click the in the table to review the lesson correlation to the specified content standard. Click the content standard link (left column) to view all correlations for that standard. Click the Lesson # (top row) to view all content standards for that Lesson.
Content StandardLesson Correlation A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry B2 Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry D5 Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health S01 S02 S03 S04 S05 S06 S08 S09 S10 S11 S12

Content Standard DescriptionLevels 9-12 A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. B2 Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. D5 Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens.

Lesson Descriptions
S01 S02 S03 S04 S05 S06 EMG: Electromyography 1 EMG: Electromyography 2 EMG: Electrocardiography 1 EMG: Electrocardiography 2 EEG: Electroencephalography 1 EEG: Electroencephalography 2 S08 EOG: Electrooculography S09 Biofeedback S10 Aerobic Exercise Physiology S11 Reaction Time S12 Respiration: Apnea

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A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S01A3 Students investigate properties of skeletal muscle by recording EMG data associated with muscle contraction. They measure and correlate grip strength with recorded changes in the level of EMG activity. By measuring and comparing grip strengths of the dominant and non-dominant hands, they associate changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased strength, with increased use. They listen to audio output generated by the electrical activity associated with muscle contraction and correlate sound intensity with motor unit recruitment. Students investigate the ability of skeletal muscle to perform mechanical work by recording EMG data associated with muscle contraction. They record and measure EMG responses to increased weights lifted by dominant and non-dominant arms. They associate chronic changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased size and strength, with increased use. They listen to audio output generated by the electrical activity associated with muscle contraction and correlate sound intensity with motor unit recruitment. Students investigate the human cardiac cycle and associated electrical changes of the heart by recording the electrical signal of the heartbeat. The record of the electrical signal, called an electrocardiogram (ECG), is complex. It is divided into several distinct, sequential events, the duration and intensity of which are constant or may change under varying conditions of normal health such as body position and breathing. Students observe rate, rhythm, and other changes in heart activity by making ECG measurements and analyzing their results. S04A3 Students investigate the human cardiac cycle and associated electrical changes of the heart by recording the electrical signal of the heartbeat detected by two recording electrodes placed on the skin. The position of the electrodes is called a lead. The bipolar limb leads are Lead I (right arm- left arm+), Lead II (right arm - left leg +), and Lead III (left arm- left leg+). The ground electrode is placed on the right leg. The record of the electrical signal, called an electrocardiogram (ECG), is a record of voltage changes (millivolts) vs. time (sec). It is divided into several distinct, sequential events, the duration and intensity of which are constant or may change under varying conditions of normal health such as body position and breathing. Students record Leads I and III while performing a number of tasks designed to change the rhythm of the heart. They then compare the Lead I and Lead II records, analyze the data, and estimate the mean QRS axis and the mean ventricular potential. S05A3 Students investigate electrical activity of the human brain by recording voltage changes detected by recording electrodes placed on the scalp. The time record of the voltage changes is called an electroencephalogram, or EEG. Students learn the EEG is a complex pattern of waveforms that vary in frequency and amplitude, and that the EEG varies with the mental state of the subject. The EEG changes as the brain grows with age, and it is variable among persons of the same age. Fundamentally, however, the EEG consists of four basic rhythms designated alpha, beta, delta, and theta. Students determine the prominent EEG rhythm under different mental conditions by examining waveform frequency and amplitude. S06A3 Students investigate electrical activity of the human brain by recording, measuring, and comparing voltage/frequency changes detected by scalp recording electrodes while performing a number of tasks. Students record and analyze changes in occipital lobe alpha rhythm observed during different experimental conditions.

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S03A3

The time record of the voltage changes is called an electro-encephalogram, or EEG, a complex pattern of waveforms that vary in frequency and amplitude. The EEG varies from lobe to lobe and is influenced by the mental state of the subject. Fundamentally, the EEG consists of four basic rhythms designated alpha, beta, delta, and theta. The alpha rhythm is the prominent EEG pattern of a relaxed, inattentive state in an adult with the eyes closed. Alpha rhythm is characterized by a frequency of 8-13 Hz and amplitudes of 20-200V. Alpha waves of the greatest amplitude are recorded from the occipital lobe region of the scalp. S08A3 Students investigate eye movements using temporal skin electrodes to detect and record electrical activity associated with cortical control of extra ocular muscles. Students record horizontal eye movements and observe eye fixation and tracking. Students perform different tasks, recording and measuring the duration of saccades and fixation, and the spatial position of eye movements. Electrooculography is the measurement and interpretation of electrooculograms (EOG), which are the electroencephalo-graphic tracings obtained while the subject, without moving the head, moves their eyes from one fixation point to another within the visual field. S09A3 Students explore the concept of biofeedback training as a method of influencing output of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates visceral activities such as blood pressure and flow, gastrointestinal functions, breathing rate and depth, and so forth. Autonomic control occurs without the need for conscious input from the cerebral cortex. We do not need to think about adjusting blood pressure, for example, when we begin to exercise. The adjustment occurs automatically by way of the ANS. A widely held belief is that ANS control of visceral function cannot be altered by conscious input, that autonomic control is essentially, and necessarily, automatic. In this lesson, students explore the concept of biofeedback training as a method of influencing output of the autonomic nervous system by measuring changes in heart rate induced through application of a biofeedback technique. S10A3 Students record their electrocardiogram and heart rate at rest and during and after a specific set of dynamic exercises. Students measure changes in the electrocardiogram and heart rate and see how they change to meet the metabolic demands of physical exercise. Students measure reaction times and see how easily and rapidly a person learns, as demonstrated by his/her ability to anticipate when to press a button in response to an audible signal. As a person learns what to expect, reaction time typically decreases. Reaction time is the interval between when a stimulus is presented and when the response to the stimulus occurs. Learning, the acquisition of knowledge or skills due to experience and/or instruction, can alter reaction time in some stimulus-response situations. S12A3 Two principle functions of the human respiratory system are to supply oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. When the body is at rest, the rate and depth of breathing is stable and matches the bodys needs for oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide removal. Students learn that blood levels of carbon dioxide influence the rate and depth of breathing. When blood carbon dioxide increases above resting levels, as during physical exercise or after breathholding, the rate and depth of breathing increases. When blood carbon dioxide decreases below resting levels as a result of voluntary hyperventilation or over-breathing, respiratory rate and depth decrease. Students record and measure changes in respiratory rate and depth associated with induced changes in blood carbon dioxide. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function

S11A3

Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function.

S01A5

Students associate skeletal muscle work with skeletal muscle contraction. Because of the way skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton, contracting skeletal muscles work by pulling on parts of the skeleton, not by pushing. Students learn about the motor unit organization of skeletal muscle and correlate the strength of a skeletal muscles contraction and its ability to perform mechanical work with the structure and number of motor units. Students learn about the motor unit organization of skeletal muscle and correlate the strength of a skeletal muscles contraction and its ability to perform mechanical work with the structure and number of active motor units. Students observe that the increased number of motor units activated when an increased amount of weight is lifted is directly proportional to the increased amount of mechanical work muscles are asked to perform. Students learn that the form of the ECG, such as wave amplitudes, depends in part on the position of the heart in the chest, and the positions of the recording electrodes on the surface of the body. Students also learn to associate the structure of the heart and its internal conduction system with the sequential, individual events of the ECG. Students learn that the form of the ECG, such as wave amplitudes, depends in part on the position of the heart in the chest, and the positions of the recording electrodes on the surface of the body. Students examine the relationship between the bipolar limb lead recordings known as Einthovens law. The three bipolar limb leads can be arranged to form an electrical equilateral triangle, called Einthovens triangle. The heart is in the center of the triangle. Einthovens law says if the amplitude values of the wave forms in any two bipolar limb lead recordings are known, the amplitude values of the waveforms in the non-recorded bipolar limb lead can be mathematically determined.

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Students learn that the prominent EEG wave pattern is correlated to the subjects mental state and can be influenced by the location of the scalp electrodes. Students record the EEG from the occipital lobe, the part of the brain involved with processing visual information. The EEG is recorded from an awake, resting subject with eyes open and eyes closed. A primary function of the cortex of the occipital lobe is the processing and storage of information related to the special sense of vision or sight.. In this lesson, students examine differences in the level of alpha rhythm activity during mental arithmetic and hyperventilation compared to the control condition of eyes closed and relaxed. Students learn that binocular vision requires precisely coordinated involuntary eye movements that are initiated and controlled in the motor cortex of the frontal lobes. Coordinated control of the extra ocular muscles allows the eyes to maintain clear focus on objects that are either fixed or moving in the visual field by ensuring that light reflected from the object (pendulum, written word, etc.) falls on corresponding parts of the retinas. Students learn that a regular program of physical exercise increases skeletal muscle size and promotes the growth of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscle and remove metabolic wastes. The adaptations and physiological changes that develop during chronic exercise generally result in an increased ability of the muscle to perform work at greater levels of intensity, and an increased capacity to work at any given level for a longer period of time before fatiguing. A Physically fit person tends to have a lower heart rate at rest and immediately after moderate exercise than does an unfit person. Students learn that the ability to either involuntarily or voluntarily respond to a stimulus is dependent on a reflex or stimulusresponse pathway. Physiologically, a reflex, or a stimulus-response begins with the application of a stimulus to a sensory receptor, such as an auditory hair cell, and ends with a response by an effector, such as a skeletal muscle. Anatomical elements of the pathway include a sensory receptor, a sensory or afferent neuron, an integrating center in the brain or spinal cord, a motor or efferent neuron, and an effector.

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S12A5

The human lungs occupy air-tight compartments within the thorax or chest. Students learn that contraction of chest muscles increases volume of the thorax and lungs which results in air pressure inside the lungs falling below atmospheric pressure and air moving into the lungs. These events characterize inspiration. Expiration, or the exhaling of air from the lungs occurs at rest when inspiratory muscles relax, decreasing the volume of the lungs and the thorax, thereby increasing pressure within the lungs above atmospheric pressure, forcing air out of the lungs.

B1

Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S01B1 Students learn that some functions of skeletal muscle can be investigated using electromyography as a tool. They analyze individual experimental data and are encouraged to share data and perform crossgroup analyses. They are encouraged to share results and to suggest reasons for observed differences. Through the applications of electromyography and their observations about muscle function, students are encouraged to ask additional questions about skeletal muscle functions and to suggest methods of obtaining answers. Students learn that some aspects of the ability of skeletal muscles to perform mechanical work can be investigated using electromyography as a tool. They analyze individual experimental data regarding performance of mechanical work and time to fatigue, compare differences between male and female students, and are encouraged to suggest reasons for observed differences. Through the applications of electromyography and their observations about muscle function, students are encouraged to ask additional questions about skeletal muscle functions and to suggest methods of obtaining answers. Students correlate electrical events of the cardiac cycle with mechanical events of the cardiac cycle and learn that normal and abnormal heart functions may be investigated by using electrocardiography as a tool. They learn about normal elements of the ECG recorded using Lead II, and then explore ECG changes that may result from breathing and from changing body position with respect to gravity. Students are encouraged to compare data with other subjects to see if body size, age, or gender influence ECG values. They are also encouraged to think about and explore, using the ECG as a tool, other factors that may influence heart activity and the ECG. Students learn that normal and abnormal heart functions may be investigated by using electrocardiography as a tool. They are introduced to principles of planar or two-dimensional vectorcardio-graphy, calculate and graph the mean ventricular potential and mean QRS axis, and explore ECG changes that may result from breathing and from changing body position with respect to gravity. Students are encouraged to compare data with other subjects to see if body size, age, or gender influence ECG values. They are also encouraged to think about and explore, using the ECG as a tool, other factors that may influence heart activity and the ECG. S05B1 Students correlate electrical activity of the brain with the performance of various tasks, and determine the prominent EEG waveforms associated with specific tasks. Students learn that the prominent EEG rhythm of a resting, alert subject with eyes open is the beta rhythm, and that the alpha rhythm is associated with the relaxed, inattentive, eyes closed state. Students are encouraged to compare differences between male and female students, and to suggest methods of exploring other factors that might account for the variability of the EEG. Students record an EEG from the occipital lobe region of an awake, resting subject under the following conditions: relaxed with eyes closed, performing mental arithmetic with eyes closed, hyperventilating (breathing quickly and deeply), and relaxed with eyes open.

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Students are encouraged to offer explanations for the observed EEG changes, and are encouraged to compare differences between male and female students. They are encouraged to suggest methods of exploring other factors that might account for the variability of the EEG. S08B1 Students correlate electrical activity of the brain and extra ocular muscles with the performance of various visual tasks such as tracking a swinging pendulum, simulating tracking eye movement with eyes closed, reading silently, reading aloud, and reading difficult material. They measure and compare the duration of saccades and fixation. Using their laboratory experience as a foundation, they are encouraged to ask other questions about visual control systems and to explore microsaccadic eye movement. Students are introduced to principles of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous control and the concept of biofeedback training and how it can be used to study autonomic function. Students record their ECG as an on-screen, thermometer-style heart rate display rises and falls with changes in heart rate, allowing the student to become conscious of his/her heart rate. The subject then mentally tries, without physical movement, to increase or to decrease the heart rate reading while watching the monitor. S10B1 Students learn that physical fitness can be assessed by measuring changes in heart rate associated with a specific set of dynamic exercises, such as performing jumping jacks, running in place, or stepping up and down in place. Students record the resting ECG and heart rate, the exercise ECG and increase in heart rate at the immediate end of an exercise period, and the time it takes from the end of the exercise period to the return of resting ECG and heart rate. They compare measured values with normalized data based on gender, age, and body weight. They compare performance levels between groups, such as young women vs. young men, or persons with body weight 75 150 lbs. vs. persons with body weight 151 250 lbs. Students measure and compare reaction times of an individual subject using two stimulus presentation schedules: fixed intervals, and pseudo-random intervals. Students are introduced to elements of statistics and their application in data analysis, and use statistics to determine the effects of learning on reaction times. They discover that when pseudorandom presentation trials are repeated, it takes longer for reaction times to decrease and the decrease is less than as occurs with fixed-interval presentation. S12B1 Students observe and record EMGs (electromyograms) from thoracic respiratory skeletal muscle during eupnea, or normal unlabored breathing at rest. Changes in the EMG are associated with modifications in the rate and depth of the respiratory cycle that occur before, during, and after periods of apnea vera and voluntary apnea (cessation of breathing). Students compare changes in the EMG associated with apnea to the EMG recorded during eupnea.

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B2 Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S01B2 Based on their laboratory experience with electromyography and its applications in the study of muscle function, students appreciate the limitations in using one method. Other questions about muscle function cannot be answered using electromyographic techniques, and therefore must be answered by applying different investigative tools and methods. Based on their laboratory experience with electromyography and its applications in the study of muscle function, students appreciate the limitations in using one method. Other questions about muscle function cannot be answered using electromyographic techniques, and therefore must be answered by applying different investigative tools and methods. Based on their laboratory experience with Lead II electrocardiography, students learn that although electrocardiography is a useful tool in exploring and understanding basic functions of the heart, its usefulness is limited. For example, the human ECG is not very useful for predicting a heart attack but can be very useful for determining the location and extent of damage after a heart attack has occurred.
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S04B2

Based on their laboratory experience with bipolar limb lead electrocardiography and vectorcardiography, students learn that although electrocardiography and vectorcardiography are useful tools in exploring and understanding basic functions of the heart, their usefulness is limited. For example, neither electrocardiography nor vectorcardiography are very useful for predicting a heart attack but they can be very useful for determining the location and extent of damage after a heart attack has occurred. Electroencephalography used as tool to investigate functions of the human brain, like may other tools of neural science, has limited usefulness, and its usefulness depends on proper application. Based on their introductory laboratory experience with electroencephalography, students learn that answers to questions about brain function often require the application of more than one investigative tool. Electroencephalography used as tool to investigate functions of the human brain, like may other tools of neural science, has limited usefulness, and its usefulness depends on proper application. Based on their introductory laboratory experience with electroencephalography, students learn that answers to questions about brain function often require the application of more than one investigative tool. Students learn that the recording of electrical activity detected by skin electrodes placed lateral to the eyes can be used to study and understand visual phenomena associated with concerted eyeball movement. However, information gained through the application of electrooculography is limited, and therefore other methods of investigation must be employed to answer questions about the visual system. Students learn about the basic functions and tone of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, and, the long-held tenant that autonomic functions are independent of the will. They experiment with biofeedback, a relatively recent clinical technique, to test the tenant and find that within limits it is possible to consciously alter autonomic tone. Based on their laboratory experience with biofeedback, students learn that newer technologies can be adapted to re-examine the validity of older hypotheses long held to be true Students are encouraged to think about and explore other methods of biofeedback that could prove useful in voluntarily altering autonomic tone, and to think of reasons why this might be beneficial.

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Students are asked to think about other physiological changes related to exercise that could be measured and used as an index of physical fitness. On the basis of their laboratory experience using heart rate changes to evaluate physical fitness, and laboratory discussion, students see that changes, such as systemic blood pressure, or respiratory rate and depth, offer other avenues for assessing physical fitness. Students begin to understand that each measure is of limited value, and no single measure of physical fitness is best. Students take a relatively simple look at reaction time and how changing one variable, stimulus presentation interval, can result in differences in reaction time. Students realize that other factors could influence reaction time and are encouraged to think about and explore them using their laboratory experience.. For example, a persons reaction time could be measured and compared in two different conditions, such as reading a book vs. watching TV.

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S12B2

Students use respiratory electromyography to study changes in respiratory rate and depth associated with changes in blood carbon dioxide. They learn that electromyographic methods allow only for qualitative assessment of the changes. Quantitative measurements of changes in respiratory cycle depth and more exact measurements of changes in respiratory rate require the application of more sophisticated technology and analytical techniques. Thus, the results obtained from scientific inquiry are limited by the nature of the applied methods.

D5

Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems.

S01D5

Students learn about the basic structural and functional relationships between the nervous system and the muscular system. They develop an understanding of how the organization of the two systems allows for precise and efficient control of skeletal muscle contraction. Based on their laboratory experience with electromyography and its applications in the study of muscle function, students appreciate the limitations in using one method. Other questions about muscle function cannot be answered using electromyographic techniques, and therefore must be answered by applying different investigative tools and methods. Students learn that the human heart is a four-chambered structure. Two atrial chambers receive blood from venous systems and pump it to the ventricles. Two ventricular chambers receive blood from the atria and pump blood into arterial systems. In order for adequate circulation of blood to be sustained, the contraction / relaxation periods of the atria and the ventricles must be very carefully coordinated so that their actions do not oppose one another. The cardiac pacemaker system acts as an electrical coordinator during each heartbeat. The electrical activities associated with this coordination are recorded in the ECG. The cerebrum is divided into hemispheres and each hemisphere is divided into frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Each lobe has functions that are unique but each lobe also shares functions with other lobes. For example, as a child, we may see (occipital lobe) a flame and touch (frontal lobe) it to see what it is like, experiencing heat and pain (parietal lobe) and remembering (temporal lobe) not to repeat the experience. These functions and others such as reasoning and abstract thought occur in the outermost part of the cerebrum called the cortex. The electrical activities of the cortex are recorded as an EEG.

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The cerebrum is divided into hemispheres and each hemisphere is divided into frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Each lobe has functions that are unique but each lobe also shares functions with other lobes. For example, as a child, we may see (occipital lobe) a flame and touch (frontal lobe) it to see what it is like, experiencing heat and pain (parietal lobe) and remembering (temporal lobe) not to repeat the experience. These functions and others such as reasoning and abstract thought occur in the outermost part of the cerebrum called the cortex. The electrical activities of the cortex are recorded as an EEG.

S08D5

The visual system of the human is complex. Normal stereoscopic vision requires receptors in the retinas to convert light energy into nerve impulses which are transmitted to several parts of the brain for processing, giving us the sense of sight. Although we see with two eyes, our brain forms a single image of a three-dimensional object with a perception of depth because concerted control of the extra ocular muscles allows each eye to be positioned so that light reflected from the object is focused on corresponding parts of the retinas. As we visually track the movement of an object in our visual field, the motor control system maintains this retinal correspondence while simultaneously maintaining gaze by moving the eyeballs in their orbits. The human nervous system and the endocrine system control functions of all the other body systems. Students learn that nervous control involves voluntary and involuntary mechanisms, both of which serve to maintain homeostasis. Involuntary control is the domain of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. Generally speaking, the divisions of the ANS have opposing actions controlling the function of a target organ. For example, an increase in sympathetic activity increases the heart rate; however, an increase in parasympathetic activity decreases heart rate. The two divisions work simultaneously and cooperatively to adjust visceral functions to meet body needs according to changes in the internal and external environment.

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S11D5

Students learn that a reflex is an involuntary or automatic, programmed motor response to a sensory stimulus. Literally, the word reflex is derived from a term meaning to reflect, or return back, with reference to the direction of travel of first the sensory impulses and then the motor impulses along the reflex pathway. Touching a hot object and jerking the hand away, or stepping on a tack and lifting the
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injured bare foot are examples of simple human reflexes. Reflexes in animals represent the earliest organization of neurons into a functional unit. Even in adult animals that lack a brain, such as a jellyfish, neurons have become specialized and organized to provide for simple, often life-preserving, reflex responses. In the human, reflex activities appear about five months before birth. Reflexes allow the body to react automatically and involuntarily to a variety of internal and external stimuli so as to maintain homeostasis. A stimulus-response is functionally similar to a reflex except that it is voluntary rather than involuntary, and as such, it can be learned and is subject to behavioral modification. An example is lifting a finger in response to an audible click. S12D5 Students learn that all living cells of the body require oxygen to derive energy from food. Stored chemical energy is used by cells to perform work. Cells produce carbon dioxide as a waste product of metabolism. The respiratory system works in conjunction with the circulatory system to deliver oxygen to the cells and remove carbon dioxide. G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health

Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S02G1 Given the current and general interest in the control of body weight through exercise and diet control for the purposes of preventing disease and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, it is important for students to learn about basic, normal functions of skeletal muscle. These functions involve the abilities and limitations of skeletal muscle in the performance of mechanical work, and the phenomenon of skeletal muscle fatigue. Electrocardiography is routinely used in medical practice. The well-informed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of this diagnostic tool and its limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults. Electrocardiography and vectorcardiography are routinely used in medical practice and offer the cardiologist additional tools with which to assess normal and abnormal heart function. The wellinformed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of these diagnostic tools and their limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults. Electroencephalography is often used in diagnostic neurology and investigative neural science. A good example is its application in the diagnosis, treatment, and study of various forms of epilepsy. The well-informed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of this diagnostic tool and its limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults. Electroencephalography is often used in diagnostic neurology and investigative neural science. A good example is its application in the diagnosis, treatment, and study of various forms of epilepsy. The well-informed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of this diagnostic tool and its limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults. Electrooculography is commonly used to assess visual defects involving neuromuscular control of the eyes, such as in diagnosis and treatment success of sixth nerve palsy (paralysis of the lateral rectus). Similar eye movement / cranial nerve tests using other cardinal gazes may be employed in the diagnosis and assessment of eye disorders.

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Recent applications of electrooculography involve the design of robotics, such as motorized wheelchairs and other devices that can be guided or otherwise controlled by movement of the subjects eyes. S09G1 Mental or psychological stress increases sympathetic activity and decreases parasympathetic activity, resulting in an increase in heart rate, an increase in blood pressure, reduced gastrointestinal functions, and so forth. Over the short term, these changes may be beneficial, but when they are prolonged or become chronic, they become detrimental and can cause disease. Using heart rate biofeedback techniques, an affected person can be taught to relax and to increase parasympathetic tone and thus reduce sympathetic activity, evidenced by a decrease in heart rate. Initially, a machine monitors heart rate and provides the feedback signals that help the subject develop voluntary control. Eventually, the subject is able to recognize and control reactions to stress on his own by recalling and eliciting the same relaxed state of mind used in the biofeedback laboratory when he is at home or at work. Relaxation training using biofeedback has been successfully applied to the management of asthma, cerebral palsy, hypertension, migraine headache, irritable bowel syndrome, and numerous other maladies. Physiological adaptations to chronic exercise, initiated by even the most modest physical activity, play a major role in the prevention of obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disease, adult-onset (type II) diabetes, and other maladies associated with sedentary lifestyles. This lesson helps make students aware of the value and the need as adults to maintain a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise. S11G1 Usually, longer reaction times are a sign that the person is paying less attention to the stimulus and/or is processing other information. For example, if you took more time to respond to audible clicks while also reading a book than when you were also watching TV then you could infer that you were probably paying more attention to the book than to the TV since your brain took longer to respond. Assessments from simple reaction time tests allows researchers a glimpse into the cognitive and neurological functioning of people as they perform tasks. Of current topical interest is the question of whether concurrent use of cell phones while driving an automobile impairs judgment and slows the drivers reaction time. S12G1 The normal person exhales carbon dioxide as fast as the body produces it so that blood carbon dioxide remains within normal limits. In diseases or conditions in which a person subconsciously hyper-ventilates, such as in chronic anxiety states, blood carbon dioxide may fall too low, removing the main stimulus to breathe, resulting in temporary apnea, dizziness, and fainting. Anxiety states are common in contemporary cultures. On the other hand, if blood carbon dioxide is permitted to rise above normal, as would occur if a child held his breath to spite his parents, the elevated carbon dioxide would soon become a too powerful stimulus for the brain to ignore and breathing would automatically resume.

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S01 Electromyography 1 A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S01Students investigate properties of skeletal muscle by recording EMG data associated with muscle contraction. They measure and correlate grip strength with recorded changes in the level of EMG activity. By measuring and comparing grip strengths of the dominant and non-dominant hands, they associate changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased strength, with increased use. They listen to audio output generated by the electrical activity associated with muscle contraction and correlate sound intensity with motor unit recruitment. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S01Students associate skeletal muscle work with skeletal muscle contraction. Because of the way skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton, contracting skeletal muscles work by pulling on parts of the skeleton, not by pushing. Students learn about the motor unit organization of skeletal muscle and correlate the strength of a skeletal muscles contraction and its ability to perform mechanical work with the structure and number of motor units. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry.

B2

S01Students learn that some functions of skeletal muscle can be investigated using electromyography as a tool. They analyze individual experimental data and are encouraged to share data and perform crossgroup analyses. They are encouraged to share results and to suggest reasons for observed differences. Through the applications of electromyography and their observations about muscle function, students are encouraged to ask additional questions about skeletal muscle functions and to suggest methods of obtaining answers. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S01Based on their laboratory experience with electromyography and its applications in the study of muscle function, students appreciate the limitations in using one method. Other questions about muscle function cannot be answered using electromyographic techniques, and therefore must be answered by applying different investigative tools and methods. D5 Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems.

S01Students learn about the basic structural and functional relationships between the nervous system and the muscular system. They develop an understanding of how the organization of the two systems allows for precise and efficient control of skeletal muscle contraction. S02 Electromyography 2 A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S02Students investigate the ability of skeletal muscle to perform mechanical work by recording EMG data associated with muscle contraction. They record and measure EMG responses to increased weights lifted by dominant and non-dominant arms. They associate chronic changes in skeletal muscle, such as

increased size and strength, with increased use. They listen to audio output generated by the electrical activity associated with muscle contraction and correlate sound intensity with motor unit recruitment. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S02Students learn about the motor unit organization of skeletal muscle and correlate the strength of a skeletal muscles contraction and its ability to perform mechanical work with the structure and number of active motor units. Students observe that the increased number of motor units activated when an increased amount of weight is lifted is directly proportional to the increased amount of mechanical work muscles are asked to perform. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S02Students learn that some aspects of the ability of skeletal muscles to perform mechanical work can be investigated using electromyography as a tool. They analyze individual experimental data regarding performance of mechanical work and time to fatigue, compare differences between male and female students, and are encouraged to suggest reasons for observed differences. Through the applications of electromyography and their observations about muscle function, students are encouraged to ask additional questions about skeletal muscle functions and to suggest methods of obtaining answers. B2 Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S02Based on their laboratory experience with electromyography and its applications in the study of muscle function, students appreciate the limitations in using one method. Other questions about muscle function cannot be answered using electromyographic techniques, and therefore must be answered by applying different investigative tools and methods. D5 Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S02Based on their laboratory experience with electromyography and its applications in the study of muscle function, students appreciate the limitations in using one method. Other questions about muscle function cannot be answered using electromyographic techniques, and therefore must be answered by applying different investigative tools and methods. G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S02Given the current and general interest in the control of body weight through exercise and diet control for the purposes of preventing disease and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, it is important for students to learn about basic, normal functions of skeletal muscle. These functions involve the abilities and limitations of skeletal muscle in the performance of mechanical work, and the phenomenon of skeletal muscle fatigue.

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S03

Electrocardiography 1 A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S03Students investigate the human cardiac cycle and associated electrical changes of the heart by recording the electrical signal of the heartbeat. The record of the electrical signal, called an electrocardiogram (ECG), is complex. It is divided into several distinct, sequential events, the duration and intensity of which are constant or may change under varying conditions of normal health such as body position and breathing. Students observe rate, rhythm, and other changes in heart activity by making ECG measurements and analyzing their results. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S03Students learn that the form of the ECG, such as wave amplitudes, depends in part on the position of the heart in the chest, and the positions of the recording electrodes on the surface of the body. Students also learn to associate the structure of the heart and its internal conduction system with the sequential, individual events of the ECG. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S03Students correlate electrical events of the cardiac cycle with mechanical events of the cardiac cycle and learn that normal and abnormal heart functions may be investigated by using electrocardiography as a tool. They learn about normal elements of the ECG recorded using Lead II, and then explore ECG changes that may result from breathing and from changing body position with respect to gravity. Students are encouraged to compare data with other subjects to see if body size, age, or gender influence ECG values. They are also encouraged to think about and explore, using the ECG as a tool, other factors that may influence heart activity and the ECG. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S03Based on their laboratory experience with Lead II electrocardiography, students learn that although electrocardiography is a useful tool in exploring and understanding basic functions of the heart, its usefulness is limited. For example, the human ECG is not very useful for predicting a heart attack but can be very useful for determining the location and extent of damage after a heart attack has occurred. Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S03Students learn that the human heart is a four-chambered structure. Two atrial chambers receive blood from venous systems and pump it to the ventricles. Two ventricular chambers receive blood from the atria and pump blood into arterial systems. In order for adequate circulation of blood to be sustained, the contraction / relaxation periods of the atria and the ventricles must be very carefully coordinated so that their actions do not oppose one another. The cardiac pacemaker system acts as an electrical coordinator during each heartbeat. The electrical activities associated with this coordination are recorded in the ECG.

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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens.

S03Electrocardiography is routinely used in medical practice. The well-informed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of this diagnostic tool and its limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults. S04 Electrocardiography 2 A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S04Students investigate the human cardiac cycle and associated electrical changes of the heart by recording the electrical signal of the heartbeat detected by two recording electrodes placed on the skin. The position of the electrodes is called a lead. The bipolar limb leads are Lead I (right arm- left arm+), Lead II (right arm - left leg +), and Lead III (left arm- left leg+). The ground electrode is placed on the right leg. The record of the electrical signal, called an electrocardiogram (ECG), is a record of voltage changes (millivolts) vs. time (sec). It is divided into several distinct, sequential events, the duration and intensity of which are constant or may change under varying conditions of normal health such as body position and breathing. Students record Leads I and III while performing a number of tasks designed to change the rhythm of the heart. They then compare the Lead I and Lead II records, analyze the data, and estimate the mean QRS axis and the mean ventricular potential. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S04Students learn that the form of the ECG, such as wave amplitudes, depends in part on the position of the heart in the chest, and the positions of the recording electrodes on the surface of the body. Students examine the relationship between the bipolar limb lead recordings known as Einthovens law. The three bipolar limb leads can be arranged to form an electrical equilateral triangle, called Einthovens triangle. The heart is in the center of the triangle. Einthovens law says if the amplitude values of the wave forms in any two bipolar limb lead recordings are known, the amplitude values of the waveforms in the non-recorded bipolar limb lead can be mathematically determined. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S04Students learn that normal and abnormal heart functions may be investigated by using electrocardiography as a tool. They are introduced to principles of planar or two-dimensional vectorcardio-graphy, calculate and graph the mean ventricular potential and mean QRS axis, and explore ECG changes that may result from breathing and from changing body position with respect to gravity. Students are encouraged to compare data with other subjects to see if body size, age, or gender influence ECG values. They are also encouraged to think about and explore, using the ECG as a tool, other factors that may influence heart activity and the ECG. B2 Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry.
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S04Based on their laboratory experience with bipolar limb lead electrocardiography and vectorcardiography, students learn that although electrocardiography and vectorcardiography are useful tools in exploring and understanding basic functions of the heart, their usefulness is limited. For example, neither electrocardio-graphy nor vectorcardiography are very useful for predicting a heart attack but they can be very useful for determining the location and extent of damage after a heart attack has occurred. G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens.

S04Electrocardiography and vectorcardiography are routinely used in medical practice and offer the cardiologist additional tools with which to assess normal and abnormal heart function. The well-informed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of these diagnostic tools and their limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults. S05 Electroencephalography 1 A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S05Students investigate electrical activity of the human brain by recording voltage changes detected by recording electrodes placed on the scalp. The time record of the voltage changes is called an electroencephalogram, or EEG. Students learn the EEG is a complex pattern of waveforms that vary in frequency and amplitude, and that the EEG varies with the mental state of the subject. The EEG changes as the brain grows with age, and it is variable among persons of the same age. Fundamentally, however, the EEG consists of four basic rhythms designated alpha, beta, delta, and theta. Students determine the prominent EEG rhythm under different mental conditions by examining waveform frequency and amplitude. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S05Students learn that the prominent EEG wave pattern is correlated to the subjects mental state and can be influenced by the location of the scalp electrodes. Students record the EEG from the occipital lobe, the part of the brain involved with processing visual information. The EEG is recorded from an awake, resting subject with eyes open and eyes closed. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S05Students correlate electrical activity of the brain with the performance of various tasks, and determine the prominent EEG waveforms associated with specific tasks. Students learn that the prominent EEG rhythm of a resting, alert subject with eyes open is the beta rhythm, and that the alpha rhythm is associated with the relaxed, inattentive, eyes closed state. Students are encouraged to compare differences between male and female students, and to suggest methods of exploring other factors that might account for the variability of the EEG. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S05Electroencephalography used as tool to investigate functions of the human brain, like may other tools of neural science, has limited usefulness, and its usefulness depends on proper application. Based on

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their introductory laboratory experience with electroencephalography, students learn that answers to questions about brain function often require the application of more than one investigative tool. D5 Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S05The cerebrum is divided into hemispheres and each hemisphere is divided into frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Each lobe has functions that are unique but each lobe also shares functions with other lobes. For example, as a child, we may see (occipital lobe) a flame and touch (frontal lobe) it to see what it is like, experiencing heat and pain (parietal lobe) and remembering (temporal lobe) not to repeat the experience. These functions and others such as reasoning and abstract thought occur in the outermost part of the cerebrum called the cortex. The electrical activities of the cortex are recorded as an EEG. G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens.

S05Electroencephalography is often used in diagnostic neurology and investigative neural science. A good example is its application in the diagnosis, treatment, and study of various forms of epilepsy. The well-informed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of this diagnostic tool and its limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults. S06 Electroencephalography 2 A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S06Students investigate electrical activity of the human brain by recording, measuring, and comparing voltage/frequency changes detected by scalp recording electrodes while performing a number of tasks. Students record and analyze changes in occipital lobe alpha rhythm observed during different experimental conditions. The time record of the voltage changes is called an electro-encephalogram, or EEG, a complex pattern of waveforms that vary in frequency and amplitude. The EEG varies from lobe to lobe and is influenced by the mental state of the subject. Fundamentally, the EEG consists of four basic rhythms designated alpha, beta, delta, and theta. The alpha rhythm is the prominent EEG pattern of a relaxed, inattentive state in an adult with the eyes closed. Alpha rhythm is characterized by a frequency of 8-13 Hz and amplitudes of 20-200V. Alpha waves of the greatest amplitude are recorded from the occipital lobe region of the scalp. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S06A primary function of the cortex of the occipital lobe is the processing and storage of information related to the special sense of vision or sight.. In this lesson, students examine differences in the level of alpha rhythm activity during mental arithmetic and hyperventilation compared to the control condition of eyes closed and relaxed. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S06Students record an EEG from the occipital lobe region of an awake, resting subject under the following conditions: relaxed with eyes closed, performing mental arithmetic with eyes closed, hyperventilating (breathing quickly and deeply), and relaxed with eyes open.
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Students are encouraged to offer explanations for the observed EEG changes, and are encouraged to compare differences between male and female students. They are encouraged to suggest methods of exploring other factors that might account for the variability of the EEG. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S06Electroencephalography used as tool to investigate functions of the human brain, like may other tools of neural science, has limited usefulness, and its usefulness depends on proper application. Based on their introductory laboratory experience with electroencephalography, students learn that answers to questions about brain function often require the application of more than one investigative tool.

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Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S06The cerebrum is divided into hemispheres and each hemisphere is divided into frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Each lobe has functions that are unique but each lobe also shares functions with other lobes. For example, as a child, we may see (occipital lobe) a flame and touch (frontal lobe) it to see what it is like, experiencing heat and pain (parietal lobe) and remembering (temporal lobe) not to repeat the experience. These functions and others such as reasoning and abstract thought occur in the outermost part of the cerebrum called the cortex. The electrical activities of the cortex are recorded as an EEG.

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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S06Electroencephalography is often used in diagnostic neurology and investigative neural science. A good example is its application in the diagnosis, treatment, and study of various forms of epilepsy. The well-informed adult should be aware of both the usefulness of this diagnostic tool and its limitations in providing healthcare professionals with the information they need to minister proper care. This lesson helps students build a foundation on which to base the personal health decisions they will face as adults.

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EOG: Electrooculography A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S08Students investigate eye movements using temporal skin electrodes to detect and record electrical activity associated with cortical control of extra ocular muscles. Students record horizontal eye movements and observe eye fixation and tracking. Students perform different tasks, recording and measuring the duration of saccades and fixation, and the spatial position of eye movements. Electrooculography is the measurement and interpretation of electrooculograms (EOG), which are the electroencephalo-graphic tracings obtained while the subject, without moving the head, moves their eyes from one fixation point to another within the visual field. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S08Students learn that binocular vision requires precisely coordinated involuntary eye movements that are initiated and controlled in the motor cortex of the frontal lobes. Coordinated control of the extra ocular muscles allows the eyes to maintain clear focus on objects that are either fixed or moving in the visual field by ensuring that light reflected from the object (pendulum, written word, etc.) falls on corresponding parts of the retinas.

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Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S08Students correlate electrical activity of the brain and extra ocular muscles with the performance of various visual tasks such as tracking a swinging pendulum, simulating tracking eye movement with eyes closed, reading silently, reading aloud, and reading difficult material. They measure and compare the duration of saccades and fixation. Using their laboratory experience as a foundation, they are encouraged to ask other questions about visual control systems and to explore microsaccadic eye movement. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S08Students learn that the recording of electrical activity detected by skin electrodes placed lateral to the eyes can be used to study and understand visual phenomena associated with concerted eyeball movement. However, information gained through the application of electrooculography is limited, and therefore other methods of investigation must be employed to answer questions about the visual system.

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Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S08The visual system of the human is complex. Normal stereoscopic vision requires receptors in the retinas to convert light energy into nerve impulses which are transmitted to several parts of the brain for processing, giving us the sense of sight. Although we see with two eyes, our brain forms a single image of a three-dimensional object with a perception of depth because concerted control of the extra ocular muscles allows each eye to be positioned so that light reflected from the object is focused on corresponding parts of the retinas. As we visually track the movement of an object in our visual field, the motor control system maintains this retinal correspondence while simultaneously maintaining gaze by moving the eyeballs in their orbits.

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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S08Electrooculography is commonly used to assess visual defects involving neuromuscular control of the eyes, such as in diagnosis and treatment success of sixth nerve palsy (paralysis of the lateral rectus). Similar eye movement / cranial nerve tests using other cardinal gazes may be employed in the diagnosis and assessment of eye disorders.

Recent applications of electrooculography involve the design of robotics, such as motorized wheelchairs and other devices that can be guided or otherwise controlled by movement of the subjects eyes. S09 Biofeedback A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S09Students explore the concept of biofeedback training as a method of influencing output of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates visceral activities such as blood pressure and flow, gastrointestinal functions, breathing rate and depth, and so forth. Autonomic control occurs without the need for conscious input from the cerebral cortex. We do not need to think about adjusting blood pressure, for example, when we begin to exercise. The adjustment occurs automatically by way of the ANS. A widely held belief is that ANS control of visceral function cannot be altered by conscious input, that autonomic control is essentially, and necessarily, automatic. In this lesson, students explore the concept of
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biofeedback training as a method of influencing output of the autonomic nervous system by measuring changes in heart rate induced through application of a biofeedback technique. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S09Students are introduced to principles of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous control and the concept of biofeedback training and how it can be used to study autonomic function. Students record their ECG as an on-screen, thermometer-style heart rate display rises and falls with changes in heart rate, allowing the student to become conscious of his/her heart rate. The subject then mentally tries, without physical movement, to increase or to decrease the heart rate reading while watching the monitor. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S09Students learn about the basic functions and tone of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, and, the long-held tenant that autonomic functions are independent of the will. They experiment with biofeedback, a relatively recent clinical technique, to test the tenant and find that within limits it is possible to consciously alter autonomic tone. Based on their laboratory experience with biofeedback, students learn that newer technologies can be adapted to reexamine the validity of older hypotheses long held to be true. Students are encouraged to think about and explore other methods of biofeedback that could prove useful in voluntarily altering autonomic tone, and to think of reasons why this might be beneficial. D5 Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S09The human nervous system and the endocrine system control functions of all the other body systems. Students learn that nervous control involves voluntary and involuntary mechanisms, both of which serve to maintain homeostasis. Involuntary control is the domain of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. Generally speaking, the divisions of the ANS have opposing actions controlling the function of a target organ. For example, an increase in sympathetic activity increases the heart rate; however, an increase in parasympathetic activity decreases heart rate. The two divisions work simultaneously and cooperatively to adjust visceral functions to meet body needs according to changes in the internal and external environment. G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S09Mental or psychological stress increases sympathetic activity and decreases parasympathetic activity, resulting in an increase in heart rate, an increase in blood pressure, reduced gastrointestinal functions, and so forth. Over the short term, these changes may be beneficial, but when they are prolonged or become chronic, they become detrimental and can cause disease. Using heart rate biofeedback techniques, an affected person can be taught to relax and to increase parasympathetic tone and thus reduce sympathetic activity, evidenced by a decrease in heart rate. Initially, a machine monitors heart rate and provides the feedback signals that help the subject develop voluntary control. Eventually, the subject is able to recognize and control reactions to stress on his own by recalling and eliciting the same relaxed state of mind used in the biofeedback laboratory when he is at home or at work. Relaxation training using biofeedback has been successfully applied to the management of asthma, cerebral palsy, hypertension, migraine headache, irritable bowel syndrome, and numerous other maladies.

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Aerobic Exercise Physiology A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S10Students record their electrocardiogram and heart rate at rest and during and after a specific set of dynamic exercises. Students measure changes in the electrocardiogram and heart rate and see how they change to meet the metabolic demands of physical exercise. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S10Students learn that a regular program of physical exercise increases skeletal muscle size and promotes the growth of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscle and remove metabolic wastes. The adaptations and physiological changes that develop during chronic exercise generally result in an increased ability of the muscle to perform work at greater levels of intensity, and an increased capacity to work at any given level for a longer period of time before fatiguing. A Physically fit person tends to have a lower heart rate at rest and immediately after moderate exercise than does an unfit person. Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S10Students learn that physical fitness can be assessed by measuring changes in heart rate associated with a specific set of dynamic exercises, such as performing jumping jacks, running in place, or stepping up and down in place. Students record the resting ECG and heart rate, the exercise ECG and increase in heart rate at the immediate end of an exercise period, and the time it takes from the end of the exercise period to the return of resting ECG and heart rate. They compare measured values with normalized data based on gender, age, and body weight. They compare performance levels between groups, such as young women vs. young men, or persons with body weight 75 150 lbs. vs. persons with body weight 151 250 lbs.

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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S10Physiological adaptations to chronic exercise, initiated by even the most modest physical activity, play a major role in the prevention of obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disease, adult-onset (type II) diabetes, and other maladies associated with sedentary lifestyles. This lesson helps make students aware of the value and the need as adults to maintain a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise. S11 Reaction Time A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S11Students measure reaction times and see how easily and rapidly a person learns, as demonstrated by his/her ability to anticipate when to press a button in response to an audible signal. As a person learns what to expect, reaction time typically decreases. Reaction time is the interval between when a stimulus is presented and when the response to the stimulus occurs. Learning, the acquisition of knowledge or skills due to experience and/or instruction, can alter reaction time in some stimulus-response situations. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function.
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S11Students learn that the ability to either involuntarily or voluntarily respond to a stimulus is dependent on a reflex or stimulusresponse pathway. Physiologically, a reflex, or a stimulus-response begins with the application of a stimulus to a sensory receptor, such as an auditory hair cell, and ends with a response by an effector, such as a skeletal muscle. Anatomical elements of the pathway include a sensory receptor, a sensory or afferent neuron, an integrating center in the brain or spinal cord, a motor or efferent neuron, and an effector. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S11Students measure and compare reaction times of an individual subject using two stimulus presentation schedules: fixed intervals, and pseudo-random intervals. Students are introduced to elements of statistics and their application in data analysis, and use statistics to determine the effects of learning on reaction times. They discover that when pseudo-random presentation trials are repeated, it takes longer for reaction times to decrease and the decrease is less than as occurs with fixed-interval presentation. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S11Students take a relatively simple look at reaction time and how changing one variable, stimulus presentation interval, can result in differences in reaction time. Students realize that other factors could influence reaction time and are encouraged to think about and explore them using their laboratory experience.. For example, a persons reaction time could be measured and compared in two different conditions, such as reading a book vs. watching TV. D5 Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S11Students learn that a reflex is an involuntary or automatic, programmed motor response to a sensory stimulus. Literally, the word reflex is derived from a term meaning to reflect, or return back, with reference to the direction of travel of first the sensory impulses and then the motor impulses along the reflex pathway. Touching a hot object and jerking the hand away, or stepping on a tack and lifting the injured bare foot are examples of simple human reflexes. Reflexes in animals represent the earliest organization of neurons into a functional unit. Even in adult animals that lack a brain, such as a jellyfish, neurons have become specialized and organized to provide for simple, often life-preserving, reflex responses. In the human, reflex activities appear about five months before birth. Reflexes allow the body to react automatically and involuntarily to a variety of internal and external stimuli so as to maintain homeostasis. A stimulus-response is functionally similar to a reflex except that it is voluntary rather than involuntary, and as such, it can be learned and is subject to behavioral modification. An example is lifting a finger in response to an audible click. G1 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S11Usually, longer reaction times are a sign that the person is paying less attention to the stimulus and/or is processing other information. For example, if you took more time to respond to audible clicks while also reading a book than when you were also watching TV then you could infer that you were probably paying more attention to the book than to the TV since your brain took longer to respond. Assessments from simple reaction time tests allows researchers a glimpse into the cognitive and neurological functioning of people as they perform tasks. Of current topical interest is the question of

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whether concurrent use of cell phones while driving an automobile impairs judgment and slows the drivers reaction time. S12 Respiration: Apnea A3 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Change, Constancy, and Measurement Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of change, constancy, and measurement. S12Two principle functions of the human respiratory system are to supply oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. When the body is at rest, the rate and depth of breathing is stable and matches the bodys needs for oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide removal. Students learn that blood levels of carbon dioxide influence the rate and depth of breathing. When blood carbon dioxide increases above resting levels, as during physical exercise or after breath-holding, the rate and depth of breathing increases. When blood carbon dioxide decreases below resting levels as a result of voluntary hyperventilation or over-breathing, respiratory rate and depth decrease. Students record and measure changes in respiratory rate and depth associated with induced changes in blood carbon dioxide. A5 Unifying Concepts and Processes: Form and Function Students should develop an understanding of the unifying concepts and processes of form and function. S12The human lungs occupy air-tight compartments within the thorax or chest. Students learn that contraction of chest muscles increases volume of the thorax and lungs which results in air pressure inside the lungs falling below atmospheric pressure and air moving into the lungs. These events characterize inspiration. Expiration, or the exhaling of air from the lungs occurs at rest when inspiratory muscles relax, decreasing the volume of the lungs and the thorax, thereby increasing pressure within the lungs above atmospheric pressure, forcing air out of the lungs. B1 Science as Inquiry: Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry Students should develop an understanding of science as inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. S12Students observe and record EMGs (electromyograms) from thoracic respiratory skeletal muscle during eupnea, or normal unlabored breathing at rest. Changes in the EMG are associated with modifications in the rate and depth of the respiratory cycle that occur before, during, and after periods of apnea vera and voluntary apnea (cessation of breathing). Students compare changes in the EMG associated with apnea to the EMG recorded during eupnea. Science as Inquiry: Understandings About Scientific Inquiry Students should develop understandings about scientific inquiry. S12Students use respiratory electromyography to study changes in respiratory rate and depth associated with changes in blood carbon dioxide. They learn that electromyographic methods allow only for qualitative assessment of the changes. Quantitative measurements of changes in respiratory cycle depth and more exact measurements of changes in respiratory rate require the application of more sophisticated technology and analytical techniques. Thus, the results obtained from scientific inquiry are limited by the nature of the applied methods. Life Science: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems Students should develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. S12Students learn that all living cells of the body require oxygen to derive energy from food. Stored chemical energy is used by cells to perform work. Cells produce carbon dioxide as a waste product of metabolism. The respiratory system works in conjunction with the circulatory system to deliver oxygen to the cells and remove carbon dioxide. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Personal and Community Health

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Students should be given a means to understand and act on personal and social issues, to help students develop decision-making skills, and to give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. S12The normal person exhales carbon dioxide as fast as the body produces it so that blood carbon dioxide remains within normal limits. In diseases or conditions in which a person subconsciously hyperventilates, such as in chronic anxiety states, blood carbon dioxide may fall too low, removing the main stimulus to breathe, resulting in temporary apnea, dizziness, and fainting. Anxiety states are common in contemporary cultures. On the other hand, if blood carbon dioxide is permitted to rise above normal, as would occur if a child held his breath to spite his parents, the elevated carbon dioxide would soon become a too powerful stimulus for the brain to ignore and breathing would automatically resume.

Lesson 1
I.

EMG 1Motor Unit Recruitment

Data and Calculations

EMG Measurement A. Complete the table with data from your recordings.
Table 1.1 Cluster # 1 2 3 4 Min [CH1] Forearm 1 (Dominant) Max [CH1] P-P [CH1] Mean [CH40] Min [CH1] Forearm 2 Max [CH1] P-P [CH1] Mean [CH40]

Note Clusters are the EMG bursts associated with each clench. The mean measurements will be dependent on the amount of time for each cluster. The area measurements should be for 1-second midsection. Mean Measurements B. Use the mean measurement from the table above to compute the percentage increase in EMG activity recorded between the weakest clench and the strongest clench of Forearm 1. Calculation:

Answer: __________________% Tonus Measurements C. Complete the following table with data from your recordings.
Table 1.2

Cluster # 1 2 3 4 5

Forearm 1 (Dominant) P-P Mean [CH1] [CH40]

Forearm 2 P-P [CH1] Mean [CH40]

II. Data Summary and Questions D. Compare the mean measurement for the right and left maximum-clench EMG cluster. Are they the same or different? ________ Same ________ Different

Which one suggests the greater clench strength? ________ Right ________ Left ________ Neither

Explain. The larger measurement suggests greater clench strength because the strength of the muscle is dependent on the size (cross-sectional area) of the muscle fibers and the number of active motor units. The greater the size of the muscle fibers and/or the greater the number of simultaneously activated motor units, the greater the EMG.
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E. What factors in addition to gender greatly contribute to observed differences in clench strength? Clench strength can be influenced by resistance training of high intensity, quick movements practiced in short bouts. This type of anaerobic exercise causes muscle enlargement due to synthesis of actin and myosin more cross-bridges formed increased contractile strength. F. Does there appear to be any difference in tonus between the two forearm clench muscles? ____ Yes ____ No

Would you expect to see a difference? Does the Subjects gender influence your expectations? Explain. Because tonus is influenced by many individual factors, tonus could differ between forearms if an individual uses one arm more than the other arm or if the muscle fibers were larger in one arm than the other arm. Tonus is indirectly influenced by gender because muscle fiber size is influenced by testosterone levels, which vary between males and females. G. Explain the source of signals detected by the EMG electrodes. Basically, signals detected by the EMG electrodes come from the bioelectrical activity of nerve fibers and muscle fibers. H. Define motor unit recruitment. Motor unit recruitment is the activation of increasing numbers of motor units in a muscle to achieve graded levels of contractile strength. I. Define skeletal muscle tonus. Skeletal muscle tonus is the baseline activity level of a muscle reflected by a slight state of contraction and internal tension when the muscle is at rest. Tonus is due to alternate periodic activation of a small number of motor units within the muscle by control centers in the brain and spinal cord, and serves to maintain the muscle in a state of readiness. J. Define electromyography. Electromyography is the detection, amplification, and recording of changes in skin voltage produced by underlying skeletal muscle contraction. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 1 Data Report Answer Guide

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Lesson 2 I.

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY 2 Mechanical Work

Data and Calculations

Mechanical Work A. Complete Table 2.1 to calculate the mechanical work for each weight used.
Table 2.1Segments 1 & 3 data

Weight Lifted 1___ kg 2___ kg 3___ kg 4___ kg 5___ kg

Arm 1 Distance of Lift


cm cm cm cm cm

Arm 2 Distance of Lift


cm cm cm cm cm

Mechanical Work
kg.cm kg.cm kg.cm kg.cm kg.cm

Mechanical Work
kg.cm kg.cm kg.cm kg.cm kg.cm

The distance of the lift must be the same for each arm and for each weight lifted. Motor Unit Recruitment B. Complete Table 2.2 using Segment 1 and Segment 3 data (increasing weight for each lift). Enter the weights that you used for each lift in the column labeled Weight Lifted.
Table 2.2Segments 1 & 3 data Weight Lifted 1___ kg 2___ kg 3___ kg 4___ kg 5___ kg Arm 1 Raw EMG [CH1] P-P mV mV mV mV mV Integrated EMG [CH40] Mean mV mV mV mV mV Raw EMG [CH1] P-P mV mV mV mV mV Arm 2 Integrated EMG [CH40] Mean mV mV mV mV mV

Few students will exceed 30 kg clench force. Fatigue C. Complete Table 2.3 using Segment 2 and Segment 4 data from each arm.
Table 2.3Segments 2 & 4 data Maximum Weight Arm 1 ___ kg Arm 2 ___ kg Time to Fatigue [CH40] Delta T* seconds seconds

The dominant arm should be able to lift more weight and/or take longer to fatigue.

II. Data Summary and Questions


D. Is the strength of your dominant arm different than your non-dominant arm? Yes No Yes No E. Is there a difference in the absolute values of weight lifted by males and females in your class? What might explain any difference? Force generation is dependent on size (cross-sectional area) of muscle fibers. The size differs with type of training and levels of testosterone. Resistance training of quick actions, short bouts, and high intensity contribute to increased synthesis of actin and myosin and more crossbridge formation during contraction.
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Testosterone affects muscle mass by increasing the number of myosin and actin proteins in muscle fibers. F. When holding an object, does the number of simultaneously active motor units remain the same? No Yes Are the same motor units used for the duration of holding the object? No, different motor units are used in order to delay fatigue in specific motor units. G. Define mechanical work. Mechanical work is the product of a force applied over a distance. Mechanical work occurs when skeletal muscle contracts, shortens, and exerts a force great enough to overcome inertia, or the force of gravity acting on an object. The amount of mechanical work performed can be calculated by multiplying the force generated by the contracting muscles (which is equal to the weight lifted) by the distance the weight was lifted. For example, the amount of work performed by muscles in the arm when a 5 kg weight is lifted 30 cm is 150 kg.cm. H. Define fatigue. Fatigue is a decrease in the muscles ability to generate a level of force it was formerly able to generate. I. J. The primary energy source for skeletal muscle contraction is adenosine triphosphate. Name two causes of skeletal muscle fatigue: a. Failure of the circulatory system to supply nutrients at a rate adequate to meet the muscles demand for ATP. b. Failure of the circulatory system to adequately remove metabolites. K. What are the effects of long-term training relative to skeletal muscle fatigue? Long-term training of skeletal muscles through repetitive exercises stimulates the growth of blood vessels in the muscles, increasing blood flow, thereby delaying the onset of fatigue. L. Jocelyn lifts 8 kg a distance of 25 cm and William lifts 10 kg a distance of 20 cm. Does Jocelyn or William perform more mechanical work? Explain your answer. Both Jocelyn and William perform the same amount of mechanical work (200 kg.cm). Mechanical work = force (weight lifted) x distance. Jocelyn: 8 kg x 25 cm = 200 kg.cm William: 10 kg x 20 cm = 200 kg.cm End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 2 Data Report Answer Guide X

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Lesson 3

ELECTROCARDIOOGRAPHY 1 Components of the ECG

I. Data and Calculations BPM Results A. Complete Table 3.2 with the lesson data indicated, and calculate the Mean and Range as appropriate.
Table 3.2 ECG (CH40) BPM results Condition Supine After Sitting SeatedDeep Inhale SeatedFull Exhale After ExerciseStart After ExerciseEnd 1 Cardiac Cycle 2 3 Mean Range

Average Delta T = 0.83 secs, range of 1.0 sec to 0.6 sec. Average values = 72 bpm, range of 60-100 bpm. Ventricular Results B. Complete Table 3.3 with the lesson data indicated, and calculate the Mean as appropriate. Note QT Interval corresponds to ventricular systole. End of T Wave to Subsequent R Wave corresponds to ventricular diastole.
Table 3.3 ECG (CH40) ventricular results Ventricular Readings 1 QT Interval End of T Wave to Subsequent R Wave Supine, Normal Breathing Cycles 2 3 Mean After Exercise Cycles 2 3

Mean

The QT Interval when the person is at rest is 0.036 sec (HR = 75 BPM). During exercise, the QT Interval decreases (HR = 120, QT = 0.29 sec.) Component Results C. Complete Table 3.4 with the lesson data indicated, and calculate the Mean as appropriate.
Table 3.4 ECG (CH40) Component results for Segment 1: Supine, resting, regular breathing
ECG Component P Wave PR Interval PR Segment QRS Complex QT Interval ST Segment T Wave Cycle Duration [Delta T] 1 2 3 Mean 1 Cycle Amplitude (mV) [Delta] 2 3 Mean

The duration of one cardiac cycle is about 0.8 seconds. For young children, the duration of one cycle could be 0.02 sec. or less). II. Data Summary and Questions D. Heart Rate Review BPM results (Table 3.2) and describe the changes in heart rate between conditions. Resting Parasympathetic dominance causes low heart rates. Inhalation and exhalation See answer below on sinus arrhythmia. After exercise-during exercise Heart rate increases to meet the increased metabolic demands of the exercising muscles. Post-exercise, the heart still pumps more blood because muscles use more oxygen and nutrients to restore energy, blood moves waste products like carbon dioxide, and moves heat to the skin. As metabolic demands decrease, the heart rate slows down.
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Review BPM results (Table 3.2). Define sinus arrhythmia and describe how the respiratory cycle impacts heart rate. Sinus arrhythmia is the cyclic increase and then decrease of heart rate corresponding with inspiration and expiration during the respiratory cycle. Review ventricular results (Table 3.3) and describe changes in the duration of systole and diastole between resting and post-exercise. The heart rate increases due to a large decrease in the duration of ventricular relaxation. During ventricular relaxation (diastole), most of the filling occurs in the early stages, so decreasing diastole still allows for ventricular filling. The duration of systole (ventricular contraction during the QT interval) decreases slightly. F. ECG Components Review Component Results (Table 3.4) 1. Is there always one P wave for every QRS complex? Yes No Normally, yes. Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) are occasionally seen within groups of healthy individuals. PVC has a QRS complex with no preceding P wave followed by a long (compensatory) pause. PVC is due to the action of an ectopic focus or latent pacemaker in the ventricles. Compensatory pause occurs because cells are refractory during the time of the normal SA node depolarization, so the heart skips a beat. 2. Describe the P-wave and T-wave shapes: P waves and T waves are usually rounded and upright (positive) for Lead II. 3. Do the wave durations and amplitudes for all subjects fall within the normal ranges listed in Table 3.1? Yes No 4. Do the ST segments mainly measure between 0.1 mV and 0.1 mV? 5. Is there baseline drift in the recording? 6. Is there baseline noise in the recording? Yes Yes No No Yes No Generally, the ST-segment is isoelectric or with little variation in the recorded potential.

Noise can be due to problems with interference or more likely, inadequate contact between the electrode and skin. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 3 Data Report Answer Guide

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Lesson 4

ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY 2

I. Data and Calculations Direction of R-Waves for Different Leads A. Put a check in the column to indicate whether the R-wave is positive (+) or negative () for each lead configuration:
Table 4.1 Lead Lead I Lead III + R-wave

The R-wave is normally upright or positive in all three bipolar limb leads. Mean QRS Potential and Axis Graphical Estimate Using R-wave Amplitude
Graph 1: Lead I and Lead III Vectogram
0,0

magnitude of R wave from leads


0,0

-.1

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5

mV 1

1.5

0 Lead I

I
1

10

.5

+ - - + + +++
E an Me is Ax

20
30

1 mV .5

40
50

an Me is Ax

III

2 120

e L 60

ic ctr E le

Mean Ventricular (QRS) Potential and Axis B. Mean ventricular potentials Use Table 4.2 to record Lead I and Lead III Max measurements for each condition, and then add the Q, R, and S potentials to obtain net potentials for each condition.
Table 4.2 QRS Potential and QRS Axis

Condition Q-wave potential R-wave potential S-wave potential Net QRS potential

Typically Q and S are small and negative, with Q smaller than S, and R is always positive and by far the largest. C. Use Table 4.2 to record measurements from the Data Analysis section, and then use Graph 1 to determine the mean QRS potential and the mean QRS axis:
Table 4.2 QRS Potential and QRS Axis Condition Potential Lead I Lead III Max Max Supine Seated Breathe In Breathe Out QRS Mean QRS Axis (degrees)

al tric lec

110

70

2
80

100

Le ad III

II ad

90

Supine
Lead I CH1 Lead III CH2

al

Seated
Lead I CH1 Lead III CH2

Breathe In
Lead I CH1 Lead III CH2

Breathe In
Lead I CH1 Lead III CH2

Mean QRS Potential (mv)

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Explain the difference (if any) in mean QRS potential and the mean QRS axis under the four conditions: The mean QRS potential and the mean QRS axis can change as a result of a change in the hearts position in the chest, or a change in the size of the heart with reference to the recording electrodes. For example, when lying down, the heart can shift slightly to the right, nearer the mid-sagittal axis of the body. This shift may result in a small normal change in the mean QRS axis and potential. D. Mean QRS Potential and Magnitude More Accurate Approximation Add the Q, R, and S potentials to obtain net potentials. Lying down: Lead I Q R S QRS Net 1 II. Data Summary and Questions E. Define ECG. The electrocardiogram is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart as detected by recording electrodes on the surface of the body. F. Define Einthovens Triangle. Einthovens Triangle is a visualization of the vectors of the standardized limb leads as a triangle surrounding the heart. G. What factors affect the orientation of the mean QRS axis? Normal changes in the orientation of the mean QRS axis occur as a result of changes in heart position due to altered body position and breathing. Mean QRS axis variations also occur with a normal or abnormal increase in the size of the heart. H. Refer to Table 4.2: How did the amplitudes of Lead I and Lead III change between inhalation and exhalation? Did the hearts axis and magnitude change? In some cases, there may be no significant changes compared to resting respiration. In others, deep respiration may cause a shift in the mean QRS axis to the right and an increase in the mean QRS potential. What factors affect the amplitude of the R wave recorded on the different leads? i. The amplitude is affected by the agreement of the lead axis with the vectors axis. Larger amplitudes for the same electrical activity will be recorded when the axes are the same. ii. The muscle mass of the heart itself. Larger amplitudes are recorded for larger hearts even if all other recording variables are equal. Compare the mean QRS axis and the mean QRS potential obtained when using just the amplitude measurement of the R wave vs. using the net QRS potentials. The mean QRS axis would remain unchanged if the Q-wave and the S-wave values for Leads I and III were identical, but the mean QRS potential would decrease slightly because both the Q-wave and the S-wave are normally negative and therefore reduce the net value of the QRS potential. Depending on the values of the Q-wave and the S-wave in Lead I and Lead III, the mean QRS axis also could shift slightly to the right or to the left, yet remain within the normal range. Potential Lead III Q R S QRS Net 2 Potential

I.

J.

End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 4 Data Report Answer Guide

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Biopac Science Lab

Lesson 5
I.

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY 1 EEG and Brain Rhythm

Data and Calculations

EEG Amplitudes A. Complete Table 5.2 with standard deviation (Stddev) measurement results.
Table 5.2 Standard deviation results Rhythm CH Eyes Open Alpha Beta Delta Theta 2 3 4 5 Eyes Closed Eyes Re-Opened

The alpha standard deviation will be higher for eyes closed than for eyes open. Beta standard deviation will not change systematically. The amplitude values are generally lower for lab situations than reported in Table 5.1 in the Scientific Principles section of the lesson, repeated here for easy reference:
Table 5.1 Typical frequencies and amplitudes of synchronized brainwaves

Rhythm alpha beta delta theta gamma

Frequencies (Hz) 8-13 13-30 1-5 4-8 30-90

Amplitude (V) 20-200 5-10 20-200 10 5-10

EEG Frequencies B. Complete Table 5.3 with three frequency (Freq) results for each rhythm and compute the mean. Note It is not necessary to change channels for Frequency measurements because the software recognizes the beginning and end of the selected area regardless of channel.
Table 5.3 Frequency results for Eyes Closed

Rhythm Alpha Beta Delta Theta

CH
2 3 4 5

Cycle 1
Hz Hz Hz Hz

Cycle 2
Hz Hz Hz Hz

Cycle 3
Hz Hz Hz Hz

Mean (computed)
Hz Hz Hz Hz

Typical frequency values were listed in Table 5.1 in the Scientific Principles section of the lesson, repeated above for easy reference. II. Data Summary and Questions C. List and define two characteristics of regular, periodic waveforms. 1. Frequency number of wave cycles per unit of time. 2. Amplitude the height or peak measurement of the cycle as measured from the baseline. D. Compare and contrast synchrony and alpha block. Synchrony occurs when the positive and negative input to the cerebral cortex occurs during the same time period, producing a smooth, rhythmic waveform under the recording electrode. Alpha block occurs when the synchronous rhythmical input producing the alpha waves is desynchronized due to input from other parts of the brain.

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E. Examine the alpha and beta waveforms for change between the eyes closed state and the eyes open state. a. Does desynchronization of the alpha rhythm occur when the eyes are open? Yes, there is less synchrony (unison of input) being recorded by the electrodes. b. Does the beta rhythm become more pronounced in the eyes open state? Yes, the beta rhythm is characteristic of more alert states so there will be a shift in frequency away from the alpha rhythm (so the alpha rhythm will decrease). However, the amplitude of the beta rhythm may not increase when the eyes are open. The change in mental activity causes both positive and negative inputs to be generated at the same time. The negative inputs subtract from the positive inputs producing lower waveform amplitudes. F. The amplitude measurements (Stddev) are indicative of how much alpha activity is occurring in the Subject. But, the amplitude values for beta do not truly reflect the amount of mental activity occurring with the eyes open. Explain. The amplitude recorded by the electrodes is the sum of all the inputs under the electrodes. Because 1 square millimeter of cortical surface can have +100,000 neurons, the individual positive and negative inputs can add to a lower amplitude when there is no synchrony or unison of rhythm. G. Examine the delta and theta rhythm. Is there an increase in delta and theta activity when the eyes are open? Explain your observation. These rhythms are variable between individuals and depend on their mental states while recording so answers will vary. Students can explain their observations: delta wave amplitudes can increase with attentional processes; delta and theta rhythms could decrease because of less relaxation; theta waves might increase due to emotional response to sensory input with eyes open. H. Define the following terms: Alpha rhythm Synchronized brain pattern with frequency of about 8-13 Hz and varying amplitudes, associated with relaxed, eyes closed, inattentive state. Beta rhythm Brain pattern recorded of alert, eyes open individual with frequencies of 13-30 Hz, low amplitudes. Theta rhythm Brain pattern of slow frequencies (4-8 Hz) and low amplitudes, reliably recorded during certain sleep phases. Delta rhythm Brain pattern of slow frequencies (1-5 Hz) and variable amplitudes, reliably recorded during certain sleep phases. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 5 Data Report Answer Guide

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Lesson 6
I.

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY II Alpha Rhythms in the Occipital Lobe

Data and Calculations

EEG Amplitudes A. Complete Table 6.1 with the amplitudes of the recorded data in the control and experimental conditions
Table 6.1 Amplitude results Segment 1 2 3 4 Experimental Condition Eyes Closed (control) Eyes Closed, Mental Arithmetic Eyes Closed, After Hyperventilation Eyes Open EEG [1-Stddev] Alpha [40-Stddev] Alpha-RMS [41-Mean]

EEG Frequencies B. What is the frequency of an alpha rhythm from Segment 1 data? Does this agree with the expected values? Yes No Expected frequency values for an alpha rhythm: 8-13 Hz C. Complete Table 6.2 with the mean values of the Alpha RMS channel (CH41) from Table 6.1. The Control Mean is the mean Alpha RMS from Segment 1. You will need to calculate the difference between the Experimental Mean and the Control Mean. Summarize whether the Experimental Mean was larger (+), smaller (), or the same (=) as the Control Mean.
Table 6.2

Hz

Segment 2 3 4

Experimental Condition Mental Arithmetic After Hyperventilation Eyes Open

Experimental Mean

Control Mean (Seg 1)

Calculate the Difference (Exp. - Control)

Summary (+, , =)

II. Questions D. Refer to Table 6.1: When was the general amplitude of the EEG highest? When a person hyperventilates (breathes rapidly and deeply), too much carbon dioxide is eliminated from the blood, causing the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid that bathes the brain to become too alkaline. These changes increase the overall electrical activity of the brain, including the amplitude of alpha waves. E. Refer to Table 6.1: When were the alpha wave levels highest? The alpha wave levels tend to be highest when subjects are relaxed, drowsy, and inattentive. According to recent research results, alpha wave levels increase with decreases in blood and CSF carbon dioxide, as may be induced by hyperventilation. F. Refer to Table 6.1: How do your results compare with the information presented in Section 1 (Scientific Principles)? Answers will vary. G. Did the Subject need to concentrate during math problems? Yes How would the level of concentration required affect the data? No

If the math problems were too difficult, the subject may just give up trying to answer, and since alpha activity is inversely correlated with attention or concentration, the alpha activity would increase. If the math problems were too easy, the concentration level would be low, and youd see the same result (increased alpha). You will only see a decrease in alpha activity when the Subject is properly challenged by the questions. H. What might account for the amplitude difference of waves recorded from a subject tested alone in a darkened room, and subjects tested in a lab full of students?
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Distractions or stimuli that disrupt relaxation levels will affect amplitudes of the alpha wave. Delta and theta waves also can be changed with stimuli or emotional responses. I. Which conditions produced the lowest alpha activity? Studies show that eyes open or attending to stimuli lowers alpha activity. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 6 Data Report Answer Guide

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Lesson 8

ELECTROOCULUOGRAM I Eye Movement: Tracking & Saccades

I. Data and Calculations Subject Profile Name Gender: Male / Female A. Complete Table 8.1 using Segment 1 and Segment 2 data. Be careful to be consistent with units (msec vs secs). Table 8.1 Segment 1 Tracking vs. Simulation
Cycle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slope Pendulum Delta T P-P Slope

Age Height Weight

Simulation Delta T

P-P

Generally, the Delta T per cycle will be larger for the simulation. B. Complete Table 8.2 with Segment 3, 4, and 5 data. (Note: You may not have seven saccades per line.) Table 8.2 Saccade data
Measurement Number of saccades Duration of saccade #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 Total duration of saccades/line Total reading time/line Saccade % of reading time total Read Silently st nd 1 line 2 line Read Aloud-Easy st nd 1 line 2 line Read Aloud-Hard st nd 1 line 2 line

II. Questions C. Explain how an electrooculogram is recorded. The electrooculogram is recorded using standard EEG techniques. The recording electrodes are placed at the lateral margins of the orbits, horizontally aligned with each other and the pupils of the eye. The ground electrode is placed on the forehead or wrist. D. Define visual field. Visual field is the view that an eye can sense without moving the head. (The right and left visual fields are distinct, with a region of overlap.) E. Define saccade.
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Saccades are voluntary, larger movements of the eye while fixating on a series of points in rapid succession. F. Note and explain Amplitude and Frequency variations: i. Did amplitude increase, decrease or remain constant during pendulum movement? ii. Did amplitude increase, decrease or remain constant during simulated movement? iii. Did the period frequency increase, decrease or remain constant during pendulum movement? iv. Did the period frequency increase, decrease or remain constant during simulated movement?

G. Looking at Table A (Delta T from peak to peak), does the period of each cycle diminish for each peak? For the pendulum, the period remains constant but the amplitude gradually decreases. For the simulation, the period is irregular as is the decrease in amplitude. H. Looking at Table B (saccades data), why is eye movement slower when you read a challenging passage? Eye movement slows to allow for difficult material to be absorbed. I. Looking at Table B (saccades data), why is eye movement slower when you read aloud? When you read silently, the eyes move more quickly from left to right. When the lines are read aloud, the auditory input slows eye movement to allow time for each seen word to be spoken. J. Compare your saccade results with at least three students. What is the range of variation in % time of saccades per line? What factors might explain this? Factors that help explain saccades variation are individual differences in reading abilities (word recognition, comprehension, vocalization, pronunciation, etc.) and interest in the subject matter. K. Define double vision (diplopia) and a cause. Diplopia is a loss of retinal correspondence. A disruption in the alignment of the eyes can cause diplopia. L. What cranial nerves are tested if you hold a pencil in front of a subject and ask the subject to follow it with the eyes as you move the pencil in a circle? Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI. This tracking movement tests the extraocular muscles, their cranial nerves and motor control centers in the brain. M. Name two clinical applications of electrooculography. Electrooculography can be used to diagnose eye disorders and in designing robotics, such as motorized wheelchairs and other devices that can be guided or otherwise controlled by movement of the subjects eyes. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 8 Data Report Answer Guide

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Lesson 9

BIOFEEDBACK Influencing Autonomic Tone

DATA REPORT I. Data and Calculations Experimental Data & Calculations A. Complete the following table.
Table 9.1 Heart Rate (BPM)
Measurement (CH46) Value Delta T Mean P-P Baseline Seg. 1 Parasympathetic Tone Seg. 2 Sympathetic Tone Seg. 3 Autonomic Tone Pres. A Seg. 4 Autonomic Tone Pres. B Seg. 5

II. Data Summary and Questions B. Based on the data from Table 9.1, was the Subject able to voluntarily increase parasympathetic tone or sympathetic tone? Support your answer with the appropriate experimental data. Some subjects may be able to voluntarily increase parasympathetic and/or sympathetic tone; others may not. The evidence for increased parasympathetic tone is a decrease in the mean value of heart rate in the selected area of Segment 2 compared to the mean value of the heart rate in the baseline segment. The evidence for increased sympathetic tone is an increase in the mean value of the heart rate in the selected area of Segment 3 compared to the mean value of the heart rate in the baseline segment. C. How would you characterize the presentations (i.e., scary or calming)? How would you expect the Subject to respond to the stimulus? During and immediately after a frightening or scary presentation, the response should be an increase in sympathetic tone coupled with a simultaneous decrease in parasympathetic tone. The effects of a calming presentation should be the opposite, that is, an increase in parasympathetic tone and a decrease in sympathetic tone. D. Name the divisions of the autonomic nervous system and explain their general functions. Sympathetic Nervous System fight or flight system. It heightens awareness, dilates the pupils of the eyes, increases heart rate, dilates airways, increases breathing rate and depth, increases blood flow to skeletal muscles and causes many other internal changes that prepare the body to preserve itself in the face of an acute or short-term stress. Parasympathetic Nervous System maintenance system. It maintains the relatively stable internal environment of the body on a daily routine basis during resting, non-stressful conditions. It reduces heart rate, slows breathing, increases blood flow to organs of the digestive system, increases gastrointestinal secretions, promotes the formation of urine in the kidneys, and stimulates many other body processes that promote daily well-being. E. Define biofeedback and explain in general terms how it works. Biofeedback is the use of a biologic signal, such as heart rate, that can be monitored and fed back to the subject for the purpose of teaching the subject how to exert conscious control over physiological processes normally involuntarily controlled by the autonomic nervous system. F. What is meant by the term autonomic tone? Use heart rate as an example. Autonomic tone is the displayed dominance of one of the divisions of the autonomic nervous systems (the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems). For instance, increased sympathetic stimulation increases heart rate, but increased parasympathetic stimulation decreases heart rate. The heart rate at any given time of the day or night reflects the dominance of one division over the other at that time. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 9 Data Report Answer Guide
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Lesson 10

AEROBIC EXERCISE Cardiovascular Adjustments During & After Exercise

I. Data and Calculations A. Heart Rate vs. Respiration Complete Table 10.1 with the requested measurements from each recorded segment.
Table 10.1 Segment Cycle 1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean Heart Rate [CH46] Mean Respiration [CH46] BPM Breaths Per Minute

Baseline

During Exercise

Recovery

B. Heart Rate During Exercise Complete Table 10.2 with the requested measurements for Segment 2 data. *Note Time references are the starting points of the exercise segment and do not correspond to the data windows horizontal time scale. You may not have collected 5 minutes of data.
Heart Rate (CH46 Value) Time* (secs) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Segment 2 During Exercise Segment 3 After Exercise

Table 10.2 Heart Rate Response to Exercise

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Biopac Science Lab

C. Heart Rate Response How long did it take subjects heart rate to rise from baseline to target? __________________ seconds How long did it take subjects heart rate to return to baseline from target? __________________ seconds Compare the Subjects time to target heart rate and time to return to baseline heart rate with several other groups of students in the class. Use the groups suggested below and/or make up your own comparison groups.
Table 10.3 Heart Rate Response to Exercise Comparison Among Groups Time to Raise Heart Rate From Baseline to Target Group Subject [CH46] Delta T 1. 2. Young Women 3. 4. 5. Average Time 1. 2. Young Men 3. 4. 5. Average Time 1. 2. Weight of 75-150 lb 3. 4. 5. Average Time 1. 2. Weight of 151250 lb 3. 4. 5. Average Time 1. Group (write in type of group) 2. 3. 4. 5. Average Time 1. Group (write in type of group) 2. 3. 4. 5. Average Time Time for Heart Rate to Return to Baseline From Target [CH46] Delta T

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II. Questions: D. What physiological mechanisms are operating during the post-exercise period? Immediately after exercise, lactic acid is taken up by the muscle, converted back to pyruvic acid, and metabolized to form ATP through oxidative pathways. Thus, an additional amount of oxygen, above the amount required by the resting muscle, must be supplied by the circulatory and respiratory systems in order for the muscle to process the lactic acid and pay back the oxygen debt. Also, excess heat produced during exercise must be eliminated by way of the skin and respiratory tract. Consequently, cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation remain elevated for a period of time after exercise. E. Name two physiological changes that occur as a consequence of a chronic exercise program. Chronic exercise generally results in an increased ability of the muscle to perform work at greater levels of intensity and an increased capacity to work at any given level for a longer period of time before fatiguing. F. Define adenosine triphosphate and explain its origin and how it is used in skeletal muscle. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a chemical compound containing large amounts of stored energy in some of its chemical bonds. An ATP molecule consists of a base, called adenine, combined with a sugar, called ribose, to form adenosine, to which are attached three inorganic phosphates. The energy required for contraction of skeletal muscle is derived from the chemical energy released by breaking the terminal high-energy phosphate bond of ATP in a process known as hydrolysis. G. Explain the benefit of creatine phosphate in skeletal muscle. Muscle stores of creatine phosphate, a high-energy phosphate, can quickly generate the ATP needed for skeletal muscle fibers to endure continuous exercise. The energy in creatine phosphate cannot directly be used for contraction, but it can be transferred with phosphate to ADP, thereby replenishing ATP. H. Which sequence of cellular chemical reactions produces the largest amount of ATP? How much ATP is generated? Figure 10.5 shows that oxidative phosphorylation (oxidation of hydrogen and the phosphorylation of ADP) generates the largest amount of ATP (32). I. What does the term oxygen debt refer to? Immediately after exercise, lactic acid is taken up by the muscle, converted back to pyruvic acid, and metabolized to form ATP through oxidative pathways. The additional amount of oxygen, above the amount required by resting muscle, to process the lactic acid produced during exercise is called the oxygen debt. J. Cardiac output increases as a higher level of maximum intensity dynamic exercise is achieved with training but heart rate decreases. Explain how this is possible. Cardiac output (CO) is the product of stroke volume (SV), the volume of blood ejected per beat, and heart rate (HR), the number of beats per minute: CO = SV x HR. The increase in cardiac output associated maximal and submaximal dynamic exercise intensity in the physically trained person is due to an increase in stroke volume. If stroke volume increases more than heart rate decreases, then for a given level of exercise intensity, cardiac output will increase. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 10 Data Report Answer Guide

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Lesson 11

Reaction Time

I. Data and Calculations Reaction Time A. Manually calculate the reaction time for the first click in Segment 1: Delta T = Subjects Results B. Summarize the subjects results (copy from the software Journal)
Table 11.1
REACTION TIMES (ms) STIMULUS NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean Pseudo Random Segment 1 Segment 2 st (1 trial) (2nd trial) Fixed Interval Segment 3 (1st trial) Segment 4 (2nd trial)

_____

Fixed-interval reaction times are usually lower (faster) than pseudo-random reaction times. Reaction Time vs Number of Presentations C. Complete Table 11.2 with data from the first fixed-interval trial (data Segment 3) and calculate the mean for each presentation to determine if reaction times vary as each Subject progresses through the series of stimulus events.
Table 11.2 Comparison of Reaction Times
Pseudo-random Trial 1 Data (Segment 1) Students Name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calculate the Means: Stimulus 1 Stimulus 5 Stimulus 10 Fixed Interval Trial 1 Data (Segment 3) Stimulus 1 Stimulus 5 Stimulus 10

Fixed-interval reaction-time means should decrease slightly as the students progress through the series of stimulus events. Group Summary D. Complete Table 11.3 with the mean for five students, and calculate the group mean.
Table 11.3
Class Data Student Means 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calculate the Group Means: Pseudo-random trials First Second Fixed-interval trials First Second

Group means for the pseudo-random trials should be higher than for the fixed-interval trials. Group means for the second trials should be slightly lower than for the first trials.
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Data Report Answer Guide Variance and Standard Deviation E. Calculate the variance and standard deviation for five students with data from Segment 2: Pseudorandom Trial 2 (Table 11.4) and from Segment 4: Fixed Interval Trial 2 (Table 11.5).

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Variance =

1 n (xj - x ) 2 n 1 j =1

Standard Deviation = Variance Where n = number of students Xj = mean reaction time for each student X = Group mean (constant for all students)

= Sum of all student data


j=1

Table 11.4 Segment 2: Pseudo-random Trial 2 Data ENTER Mean Reaction time for Student Student 1 2 3 4 5 Sum the data for all students = = ENTER Group Mean CALCULATE CALCULATE Deviation
2

(X j )

(X)

(X j - X)

Deviation

(X j - X)

Variance ( ) = Standard Deviation =

Multiply by Take the square root of the variance =

= =

Table 11.5 Segment 4: Fixed Interval Trial 2 Data ENTER Mean Reaction time for Student Student 1 2 3 4 5 Sum the data for all students = = ENTER Group Mean CALCULATE Deviation CALCULATE Deviation
2

(X j )

(X)

(X j - X)

(X j - X)

Variance ( ) = Standard Deviation =

Multiply by 0.25 = Square root of Variance =

= =

Standard deviation and variance should be greater for the pseudo-random trial than for the fixed-interval trial.

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Page 62 II. Questions F. Describe the changes that occurred in the mean reaction time between the 1st and 10th stimuli presentation: For Segment 1 (Pseudo-random Trial 1):

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There should be no significant difference or a slight decrease in the mean reaction times for Segment 1 between the stimulus 1 and stimulus 10. For Segment 2 (Pseudo-random Trial 2): There should be a slight decrease in the mean reaction times for Segment 2 between stimulus 1 and stimulus 10. Which segment showed the greatest change in mean reaction time? Segment 2 should show the greatest change in mean reaction time G. Refer to Table 11.2 and Table 11.3: Estimate the minimal reaction time when reaction time becomes constant: What physiological processes occur between stimuli presentation and the motor response? After stimuli presentation, the sensory signal is sent to the brain, the brain processes the sensory information, and sends a motor signal response to skeletal muscles. H. Refer to Table 11.2: Which presentation schedule had the lowest group mean? Fixed-interval I. Refer to Table 11.2 and Table 11.3: Which of the presentation schedules seems to have less variation (lower variance and lower standard deviation)? Fixed-interval J. Refer to Table 11.2 and Table 11.3: sec

State a plausible relationship between the difficulty of a task and the reaction time statistics: mean, variance, and standard deviation. The more complicated the stimulus-response situation, the greater the mean reaction time, variance, and standard deviation. As the stimulus-response is repeated, people learn what to expect, and mean reaction time, variance, and standard deviation decrease. K. What differences would you predict in reaction times and learning between your right and left hands? Repetitive transmission through a sensory-motor pathway, such as occurs in some forms of learning or when motor dominance is established, results in new connections between neurons and facilitation of transmission through the pathway. The facilitation decreases reaction time; thus, a reaction time involving the non-dominant extremity is usually longer than the reaction time involving the dominant extremity. End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 11 Data Report Answer Guide

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Data Report Answer Guide

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Lesson 12

RESPIRATION 1 Apnea

I. Data and Calculations Eupnea A. Complete Table 12.1 with data from Segment 1 (Eupnea). Measure two cycles of data from the beginning of the segment and two cycles from the end, and then manually calculate the average for each measurement.
Table 12.1 Eupnea Cycle 1 2 3 4 Average (calculate manually) Breaths per Minute [CH2 BPM] Respiratory Effort [CH2 P-P] Cycle Interval [CH2 Delta T]

* CH2 will indicate relative effort; use CH1 for a more precise EMG (muscle) measurement, if preferred. Measurements for cycles 1 and 2 should be similar to measurements for cycles 3 and 4. Apnea Vera B. Complete the following Table 12.2 with data from Segment 2 (Apnea Vera).
Table 12.2 Hyperventilation and recovery Breaths per Minute Selected Area [CH2 BPM] During Hyperventilation After Apnea Vera

Respiratory Effort [CH2 P-P]

Measurements for the period after apnea vera should be less than the measurements for the period during hyperventilation, and should be similar to the average measurements in segment 1. C. Measure the duration of apnea vera in Segment 2 (Apnea Vera): CH2 Delta T= The average length of apnea vera is10-15 seconds. The more deeply, faster, and longer the respiratory effort, the greater the length of apnea vera. Voluntary Apnea D. Complete Table 12.3 with data from Segment 3 (Voluntary Apnea). Select one cycle from the beginning and end of each section, and then manually calculate the averages.
Table 12.3 Comparison of eupnea and apnea recovery BEFORE APNEA Cycle Breaths per Minute Respiratory Effort [CH2 BPM] [CH2 P-P] 1 2 Average (calculate manually)

AFTER APNEA Breaths per Minute Respiratory Effort [CH2 BPM] [CH2 P-P]

The rate and depth of breathing after voluntary apnea will be greater than before voluntary apnea. The longer the period of voluntary apnea, the greater the difference between measurements made before and after voluntary apnea.

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E. Complete Table 12.4 with data from Segment 3 (Voluntary Apnea) and Segment 4 (Voluntary Apnea after Hyperventilation).
Table 12.4 Hyperventilations effect on voluntary apnea Selected Area Voluntary Apnea (Seg 3) [CH2 Delta T] Duration of Apnea Voluntary Apnea After Hyperventilation (Seg 4) [CH2 Delta T]

The duration of voluntary apnea immediately following a period of voluntary hyperventilation will be greater than the duration of voluntary apnea immediately following a period of normal resting respiration. II. Data Summary and Questions F. Compare the respiratory cycle frequency (BPM) and depth (P-P) during eupnea in Segment 1 to the frequency and depth immediately after the period of apnea vera in Segment 2. Are the values for frequency and depth slightly lower immediately after apnea vera? If so, account for the difference in terms of blood carbon dioxide content. The values for frequency and depth should be slightly lower immediately after apnea vera, and then quickly return to normal resting values. When voluntary hyperventilation ceases, breathing temporarily ceases for several seconds (apnea vera) because the principal chemical stimulus for breathing (CO2) has been lowered. As the blood carbon dioxide level slowly returns to normal, the main stimulus to breathing slowly increases causing breathing rate and depth to return to normal. G. Examine the data from segments 1 (Eupnea) and 2 (Apnea Vera) and compare the length (Delta T), frequency (BPM), and depth (P-P) of the respiratory cycles during voluntary hyperventilation versus during eupnea. Does the length of the respiratory cycle shorten as breathing frequency increases? Yes

Why? As breathing frequency increases, the length of each respiratory cycle decreases because of less time available to fill and empty the lungs in each cycle. Describe the changes in respiratory rate and depth that occurred during voluntary hyperventilation. Voluntary hyperventilation occurs when a person at rest voluntarily breathes faster and more deeply; this rids the body of carbon dioxide faster than it is being produced. H. It is possible to increase the frequency of breathing while simultaneously developing hypocapnia. Explain how this is possible. When a person at rest voluntarily hyperventilates, or breathes faster and more deeply, carbon dioxide is expelled from the body faster than it is produced. This produces a condition known as hypocapnia, a lower than normal blood carbon dioxide level, which reduces respiratory drive. I. It is possible to increase the frequency of breathing while simultaneously developing hypercapnia. Explain how this is possible. RMV = TV x BPM. If BPM increases but TV decreases more, then RMV will decrease and blood carbon dioxide level will rise. In other words, rapid, shallow breathing causes the blood carbon dioxide level to increase. J. What is the cause of apnea vera and how does it differ from the cause of voluntary apnea? When voluntary hyperventilation ceases, breathing temporarily ceases for several seconds because the principal chemical stimulus for breathing (CO2) has been lowered. Apnea vera is the involuntary temporary cessation of breathing after hyperventilation. Voluntary apnea occurs when a person voluntarily holds their breath. This voluntary cessation of breathing results in hypercapnia, a condition in which blood carbon dioxide levels rise above normal, producing a stronger chemical stimulus to the respiratory centers that overcomes the cerebral breath-holding input and initiates breathing. Immediately after voluntary apnea ends, breathing resumes at a higher than resting rate and depth.

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Data Report Answer Guide

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K. Examine the data from segments 3 (Voluntary Apnea) and 4 (Voluntary Apnea After Hyperventilation). Is the duration (Delta T) of voluntary apnea longer if it is preceded by a period of hyperventilation? Give a physiological reason explaining why or why not. Yes. (The voluntary apnea after a period of hyperventilation should be longer in duration.) Hyperventilation produces a condition known as hypocapnia, a lower than normal blood carbon dioxide level, which reduces respiratory drive. That reduced respiratory drive allows for the person to voluntarily hold the breath for longer. L. Physiologically, the duration of voluntary apnea is limited by involuntary respiratory center controls. Explain how the control system limits the duration of apnea. Voluntary apnea results in hypercapnia, a condition in which blood carbon dioxide levels rise above normal, producing a stronger chemical stimulus to the respiratory centers that overcomes the cerebral breath-holding input and initiates breathing. Thus, the child who holds his breath to spite his parents will, if ignored, begin to breathe anyway. M. Define the following terms: a. hypocapnia a lower than normal blood carbon dioxide level. b. hypercapniaa higher than normal blood carbon dioxide level. c. tidal volumethe volume of air inspired or expired during a single respiratory cycle. d. respiratory minute volumethe rate at which air is moved into and out of the respiratory system (also called pulmonary ventilation) and the product of tidal volume and respiratory rate. N. Explain the effects each of the following has on respiratory cycle frequency and depth: e. increased blood concentration of carbon dioxideincreases respiratory rate and depth f. increased blood concentration of hydrogen ionincreases respiratory rate and depth g. decreased blood concentration of oxygenincreases rate and depth of respiration End of Biopac Science Lab Lesson 12 Data Report Answer Guide

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