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A&P Exam 4 Review 1. Know the names, functions, and locations of various parts of the CNS: a.

Cerebrum The largest & most superior part of the brain, divided into two convoluted cerebral hemispheres separated by a deep longitudinal fissure. b. Limbic system Important center of emotion & learning that encircles the corpus callosum. The most anatomically prominent components are the cingulated gyrus, hippocampus, & amygdale. c. Cerebellum A large portion of the brain posterior to the brainstem & inferior to the cerebrum, responsible for equilibrium, motor coordination, & memory of learned motor skills. d. Brainstem The stalklike lower portion of the brain composed of all the brain except the cerebrum & cerebellum. Often regarded only as the medulla oblongata, pons, & midbrain. e. Spinal cord A cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem at the foramen magnum of the skull. i. Cervical enlargement gives rise to nerves of the upper limbs. ii. Lumbar enlargement gives rise to nerves of the pelvic region & lower limbs. f. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A liquid that fills the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord, & the space between the CNS & dura mater. g. Meninges Three fibrous membranes between the central nervous system & surrounding bone: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, & pia mater. 2. Understand lateralization a. Lateralization is the idea that the two hemispheres of the brain's cerebral cortex -- left and right -- execute different functions. The cerebral cortex is a part of the brain that exists only in humans and higher mammals, to manage our sophisticated intellect. The two hemispheres are joined by the corpus collosum. This is a bundle of more than 200 million nerve fibers which transmit data from one hemisphere to the other so that the two halves can communicate. Although this nerve connection would seem to be vital, it is severed in a surgical procedure for some people who have epilepsy. The corpus collosum is up to 40 percent larger in women than it is in men. 3. Know functions and locations of the UMN and LMN. Where are the motor and sensory cells located? a. The upper motor neuron begins with a soma in the cerebral cortex or brainstem and has an axon that terminates on a lower motor neuron in the brainstem or spinal cord. i. A part of a descending motor pathway involving different descending tracts. b. Ascending tracts carry sensory information up the spinal cord and descending tracts conduct motor impulses down. c. The upper motor neuron (pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus) originates on one side of the brain and most cross in the medulla to synapse on the opposite side with a spinal cord neuron (lower motor). d. The lower motor neuron is known as the Final Common Pathway (convergence sum of all incoming information from all the upper motor neurons) and most lower motor neurons are located in the ventral horns of the spinal cord.

A&P Exam 4 Review i. Sends its process out of the CNS via the ventral roots of the spinal nerves to terminate on skeletal muscles. 4. Know the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and plexuses. a. 12 cranial nerves i. Olfactory I strict sensory nerve for smell. ii. Optic II strict sensory nerve for vision. iii. Oculomotor III controls muscles that turn the eyeball up, down, and medially, as well as controlling the iris, lens, and upper eyelid. iv. Trochlear IV controls a muscle that rotates the eyeball medially and slightly depresses the eyeball when the head turns. v. Trigeminal V largest cranial nerve and most important sensory nerve of the face that senses touch, temperature, and pain. 3 divisions: ophthalmic (V1 / upper face), maxillary (V2 / middle face), & mandibular (V3 / lower face). vi. Abducens VI lateral eye movement vii. Facial VII motor nerve of facial muscles. 5 prominent branches: temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, & cervical. viii. Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) VIII hearing and equilibrium. ix. Glossopharyngeal IX sensation from the tongue, throat, and outer ear; control of food ingestion; and some aspects of cardiovascular and respiratory function. x. Vagus X plays major roles in the control of cardiac, pulmonary, digestive, and urinary functions. xi. Accessory XI controls mainly swallowing and neck & shoulder muscles. xii. Hypoglossal XII controls tongue movement. b. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical (C1-C8), 12 thoracic (T1-T12), 5 lumbar (L1L5), 5 sacral (S1-S5), and 1 coccygeal (Co). c. Plexus web-like networks of spinal nerves adjacent to the vertebral column. i. Cervical plexus located in the neck. ii. Brachial plexus located near the shoulder. iii. Lumbar plexus located near lower back. iv. Sacral plexus located inferior to lumbar plexus. v. Coccygeal plexus adjacent to the lower sacrum (triangular bone at base of spine) and coccyx (tailbone attached at base of sacrum). 5. Understand how dermatomes work. a. Each spinal nerve except C1 receives sensory input from a specific area of the skin called a dermatome. b. Dermatomes overlap at their edges by as much as 50%. Therefore, it is necessary to anesthetize 3 successive spinal nerves to produce a total loss of sensation from one dermatome. c. A dermatome map is a diagram of the cutaneous regions innervated by each spinal nerve. 6. Know your definitions: ganglia, nucleus, tract, and nerve.

A&P Exam 4 Review a. Ganglion (plural, ganglia) a knot-like swelling in a nerve where the cell bodies of neurons are concentrated. A cluster of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system, often resembling a knot in a string. b. Nucleus a mass of neurons (gray matter) surrounded by white matter of the brain, including the basal nuclei and brainstem nuclei. i. The cell bodies of the cerebral neurons are located in the gray matter. c. Tract consists of ascending tracts that carry sensory information up the spinal cord and descending tracts that conduct motor impulses down. Tracts constitute the bundles of axons in the white matter that course up and down the cord and provide avenues of communication between different levels of the CNS. i. 3 bundles or columns (funiculi): posterior (dorsal), lateral, and anterior (ventral). d. Nerve a cord-like organ of the peripheral nervous system composed of multiple nerve fibers ensheathed in connective tissue. Know the reflex arc and its components. a. Reflex arc a simple neural pathway that mediates a reflex; involves a receptor, an afferent (sensory) nerve fiber, sometimes one or more interneurons, an efferent (motor) nerve fiber, and an effector. i. Reflex a stereotyped, automatic, involuntary response to a stimulus; includes somatic reflexes, in which the effectors are skeletal muscles, and visceral (automatic) reflexes, in which the effectors are usually visceral muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands. ii. Effector a molecule, cell, or organ that carries out a response to a stimulus. iii. Visceral muscle single-unit smooth muscle found in the walls of blood vessels and the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Know the 2 divisions of the ANS and their functions. a. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) a motor division of the nervous system that innervates glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. b. Consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions and functions largely without voluntary control. i. Sympathetic nervous system issues efferent fibers through the thoracic and lumbar nerves and usually exerts adrenergic effects on its target organs. Includes a chain of paravertebral ganglia adjacent to the vertebral column, and the adrenal medulla. Accelerates heartbeat. ii. Parasympathetic nervous system issues efferent fibers through the cranial and sacral nerves and exerts cholinergic effects on its target organs. Decelerates heartbeat. Know the ANS receptors and the organs they impact. Know where the specific neurotransmitters and/or receptors are located a. ACh is secreted by the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division. Any nerve fiber that secretes ACh is a cholinergic fiber. Any receptor that binds ACh is a cholinergic receptor.



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A&P Exam 4 Review i. Muscarinic receptors are found in all cardiac muscle (inhibitory), smooth muscle, and gland cells that receive cholinergic innervations. ii. Nicotinic receptors are found in all synapses in the autonomic ganglia, where the preganglionic neurons stimulate the postganglionic cells; on the cells of the adrenal medulla; and at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle fibers. ACh binding is always excitatory in nicotinic receptors. b. Norepinephrine is secreted by nearly all sympathetic postganglionic neurons. Any nerve that secretes it is an adrenergic fiber. Any receptor that binds norepinephrine is an adrenergic receptor. i. -adrenergic receptors promote labor contractions, stimulate piloerection, constrict dermal blood vessels, and inhibit intestinal motility. ii. -adrenergic receptors relax and dilate bronchioles and excite cardiac muscle 1. exercise 11. Know the 6 steps where drugs impact the nervous system. a. Synthesis of catecholamines (for sympathetic/adrenergic system) or acetylcholine (for parasympathetic/cholinergic system), storage, release, binding to receptor, re-uptake, and hydrolysis. 12. Know the functions of the pituitary and the hypothalamus. a. The nervous system and endocrine system are linked via the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. b. Hypothalamus the inferior portion of the diencephalon of the brain, forming the walls and floor of the third ventricle and giving rise to the posterior pituitary gland. i. Controls many fundamental physiological functions such as appetite, thirst, and body temperature and exerts many of its effects through the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems. c. Pituitary a regulating gland 13. Know the pituitary cell types and their hormones. a. Anterior pituitary i. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by gonadotropes. For growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen in women and sperm production in men. ii. Luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted by gonadotropes. For ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum in women and testosterone secretion in men. iii. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by thyrotropes. For growth of thyroid and secretion of thyroid hormone. iv. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by corticotropes. For growth of adrenal cortex and secretion of glucocorticoids. v. Prolactin (PRL) secreted by lactotropes. For milk synthesis in women and increased LH sensitivity and testosterone secretion in men. vi. Growth hormone (GH) secreted by somatotropes. For widespread tissue growth, especially in the stated tissues. b. Posterior pituitary

A&P Exam 4 Review i. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) water retention ii. Oxytocin (OT) labor contractions, milk release; possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual affection, and mother-infant bonding. 14. Know the 3 levels of hormones i.e. the axes a. The pituitary distributes to the gonads, thyroid, and adrenal 15. Know how the pituitary and hypothalamus are linked and which hormones travel in those links. a. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract connects the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. The nerve fibers arise from certain cell bodies in the hypothalamus, pass down the stalk as a bundle, and end in the posterior lobe. The hypothalamic neurons synthesize hormones and transport them down the axons to the posterior pituitary where they are stored. b. The anterior pituitary has no nervous connection to the hypothalamus but it is linked to it by a complex of blood vessels called the hypophyseal portal system. i. Hypothalamus-primary capillaries-portal venules-second capillaries-anterior pituitary.