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MATH 220 SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES 31 GREEN'S THEOREM IN THE PLANE

This theorem can be used to describe the relationship between the way an incompressible fluid flows along or across the boundary of a plane and the way it moves inside the region. The connection between these two behaviors is made possible by the notions of divergence and curl. The divergenceof a fluid's velocity field measures the rate at which fluid is being piped into or out of the region at any given point. The curl measures the fluid's rate of rotation at each point.

FLUX DENSITY AT A POINT: DIVERGENCE


This is the first of two new ideas that we need for Green's theorem, and it is the flux density of a vector field at a point, called the divergence. Suppose that F (x, y) = M(x,y)i + N (x, y) j is the velocity field of a fluid flow in the plane, and that the first partial derivatives of M and N are continuous at each point of a region R. Let (x, y) be a point

figure 1

in R and let A be a small rectangle with one corner at (x, y), that, lies entirely in R. (Seefigure 1) The sides of this rectangle are parallel to the coordinate axes and have lengths x and y. The rate at with the fluid leaves the rectangle across the bottom edge is F (x, y) (-j) x = - N (x, y) x. (This is the scalar component of the velocity at (x, y) in the direction of the outward normal times the length of the segment.)

Now combining opposite pairs gives the following results.

Now adding equations (1) and (2) gives us the following.

Now divide by x y to estimate the total flux per unit area or flux density for the rectangle.

Now let x and y 0. Doing this will give us the flux density of F at the point (x, y). DEFINITION: The flux density or divergence of a vector F = M i + N j at the point (x,y) is

EXAMPLE 1:

Find the divergence of F = (x 2 + y 2) i + (3xy - y 2) j.

SOLUTION: Let M = x 2 + y 2 and N = 3xy - y 2.

CIRCULATION DENSITY AT A POINT: THE CURL


This is the second of the two ideas that we need for Green's theorem, and it is the idea of circulation density of a vector field F at a point. We will start like we did for divergence -F(x, y) = M (x, y) i + N (x, y) jand the rectangle A. (Seefigure 2) figure 2 The counterclockwise

circulation of F around the boundary of A is the sum of the flow rates along the sides.

Now add opposite pairs.

Now add (3) and (4) together and then divide by x y. This gives an estimate of the circulation density for the rectangle.

Now let x and y 0. Doing this will give us the circulation density of F at the point (x,y). DEFINITION: The circulation density or curl of a vector F = M i + N j at the point (x,y) is

EXAMPLE 2:

Find the curl of F = (x 2 + y 2) i + (3xy - y 2) j.

SOLUTION: Let M = x 2 + y 2 and N = 3xy - y 2.

GREEN'S THEOREM IN THE PLANE


THEOREM: GREEN'S THEOREM (FLUX - DIVERGENCE OR NORMAL FORM) The outward flux of a field F = M i + N j across a simple closed curve C equals the double integral of div F over the region R enclosed by C.

THEOREM:

GREEN'S THEOREM (CIRCULATION - CURL OR TANGENTIAL FORM) The counterclockwise circulation of a field F = M i + N j around a simple closed curve C in the plane equals the double integral of the curl F over the region R enclosed by C.

What is meant by a simple closed curve? First of all, a closed curve is any curve that's starting and ending point is the same. (Seefigure 3) Second, a simple curve is a curve that does not cross itself. (See figure 4) The following are not simple curves. (Seefigure 5)

figure 3

figure 4

figure 5 EXAMPLE 3: Use Green's theorem to find the counterclockwise circulation and outward flux for the field F = (y 2 - x 2) i + (x 2 + y 2) j and the curve C: the triangle bounded by y = 0, x = 3, and y = x. Let M = y 2 - x 2 and N = x 2 + y 2. The bounds of integration for this region will be y x 3, 0 y 3.

SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE 4:

Find the counterclockwise circulation and outward flux of the field F = xyi+ y 2 j around and over the boundary of the region enclosed by the curves y = x 2 and y = x in the first quadrant. Let M = xy and N = y 2, and the bounds of integration will be x 2 y x and 0 x 1.

SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE 5:

Verify Green's Theorem by evaluating both sides of the equations

for the field F = -x 2 y i + xy 2 j. Take the domains of integration in this case to be the disk R: x 2 + y 2 a 2 and its bounding circle C: r = (acos t)i+ (a sin t) j, 0 t 2 . SOLUTION:

FLUX:

Both sides of the Flux - Divergence integrals are the same, therefore the integrals are equal. CIRCULATION:

Both sides of the circulation-curl integrals are the same, therefore the integrals are equal. Sometimes the single integral form will be easier to use, and others, the double integral form. We can use can use the Green's theorem to evaluate line integrals, especially ones whose closed curve is made up of a finite number of smaller curves. If the curve C bounds the region R to which Green's theorem applies, then we can use Green's theorem to change the line integral around C into a double integral over R.

EXAMPLE 6:

Apply Green's theorem to evaluate

over the triangle bounded by x = 0, x + y = 1, and y = 0. SOLUTION: This line integral is of the form M dx + N dy, so use the circulation - curl form. Let M = y 2, and N = x 2.

EXAMPLE 7:

Use Green's Theorem Area formula,

to find the area of the region enclosed by the curve r = (cos 3t)i + (sin 3t)j, 0 t 2 . SOLUTION:

As you can see, Green's theorem is used primarily to simplify the integrals of circulation and flux. It is sometimes easier to find flux and circulation by integrating over a region in the xy-plane, than to integrate over a curve. The only problem you would have using this theorem is setting up the bounds of integration. We will soon discuss the theorems that act like Green's theorem for threedimensional surfaces. Work through these examples, and if you have any questions, please feel free to contact me.

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