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Workshop Technical Session 2 Pilot cases on Standardized Baselines Waste Mangement Standardized Baseline Opportunity for

Composting & PoA Projects

Hemant Nandanpawar TSF-Carbon Market Program Asian Development Bank

Composting CDM Project

Composting is one of the main low cost / low technology based effective measure of Solid waste Management Composting project activity avoids continuous decaying process of solid waste and helps in GHG emission reduction It is one of the low investment measure but yet not very popular due to poor operating economics There is a great opportunity for composting projects in developing countries The carbon revenue can help to promote composting activity in the developing countries

Major Issues of Composting projects

Annual Emission reductions potential of the small scale composting projects (small towns) is quite low as compared to the CDM process transaction cost Data collection for preparation of CDM- Project Design Document (PDD) is cumbersome and difficult for PP of local municipalities Its a complex CDM project as compared to normal renewable energy CDM projects Monitoring and record keeping requirements of CDM are also expensive.

Opportunities for promotion of CDM for composting projects

Use of Programmatic Approach for small scale composting projects - PoA approach will help to reduce the transaction cost drastically and makes the whole CDM process easy and fast. Use of Standardized Baseline Approach It will help to reduce initial data collection efforts and expenses, required during PDD preparation. Also, it will help to reduce monitoring efforts and expenses.

Composting projects for SB development

Following composting projects of ADB project pipe line have been considered for development of Standardized Baseline Approach Rajasthan Composting PoA project, India (under advanced stage of validation) Kerala Composting Project, India (Under advanced stage of validation) Bangladesh Composting PoA project, Bangladesh (Under document development stage) Methodology Used AMS. III.F. Avoidance of methane through composting

Step 1: Aggregation Level

Country and Region India including different states/regions with different climatic condition Bangladesh Can include other countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Srilanka where the required level of methane destruction is the same Sector, Technology Waste Management, Composting process (avoidance of anaerobic conditions) Defined output level, Same level of service Other level of aggregation Size of the town, waste composition

Step 2: Additionality Demonstration

Project should be treated additional if composting activity is Not a Mandatory requirement in the country or Not Enforced by the country law AND it is Financially non attractive or Faces Barriers
Financial Local habits

Step 3: Baseline Identification

The baseline is the most commonly used disposal and treatment method No scientific treatment to solid waste. Waste is just dumped on the allocated land which will remain there permanantly and gets decayed and leads to methane emission and ground water pollution Danger of explosion

Step 4: Baseline Emission Factor

Estimation of Baseline Emission Factor (BEF) BEy = BE CH4, SWDS,y + BEww,y+ BECH4,manure,y (MD
y,reg * GWP_CH4 ) BE CH4, SWDS,y - to be determined from the Tool to determine methane emissions avoided from disposal of waste at a solid waste disposal site with standardized parameter values It will be different for different representative Parties regions/climatic zones. Respective party DNA needs to establish and standardize

Conservative EF should be applied

Conservative values of parameters are to be selected


Step 4: BEF Standardization of Parameters

Major Parameters to be standardized for default values Methane produced in the year y is calculated as follows: BE CH4,SWDS,y = (1 f)GWPCH4 (1 OX).16/12.F.DOCj.MCF. Wjx.DoC. e -kj(y-x). (1.e-kj) Composition of Solid Waste material Standardized percentage (%) of food, paper, wood garden, textile and inert waste material of the region/party selected Kj (Decay Rate) values for all waste materials based on region specific selected MAT (mean annual temp) and MAP (mean annual precipitation) for dry/wet climatic condition. Range of Kj variation is 0.020 (slow degrading, MAT<20C, temperate dry zone, MAP<1) to 0.400 (rapidly degrading, MAT>20C, tropical wet zone, MAP>1000mm) DoC (fraction of degradable organic carbon) values that can be decomposed Conservative default values should be selected for standardization Different set of values to be finalized for different climatic regions/zones

Step 4: BEF Standardization of values

Boreal and temperare (MAT 20 C) Tropical (MAT > 20 C) Dry (MAP<1000m m) Wet (MAP>1000mm )

DOCj Values
Waste type j DOCj (% wet waste) DOCj (% dry waste)

Dry (MAP/PET<1)

Wet (MAP/PET>1)

Kj Values
Slowly degrading Pulp, paper and cardboard Wood & Straw (excl. lignin) 0.040 0.060 0.045 0.070

Wood and wood products Pulp paper and cardboard








0.035 Food, Food waste, beverages and tobecco (Other than sludge) Textiles Garden, Yard amd Park waste

Moderately degrading

Garden/Park Waste (organic putrescibles)





15 24

38 30

Food, food waste, beverages and tobacco

Rapidly degrading






0.400 Glass, plastic metal and other inert material


Step 4: BEF Sample Standardization Values

Rajasthan Composting PoA Project CPA of 75 TPD
Composition of Solid Waste - high inert waste of 41%, food-43%, paper/pulp-15% Kj values Waste material specific, for temperate dry zone Sample Emission values
Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


1110 732

2144 1765

3107 2728

4004 3626

4840 4462

5621 5242

6349 5970

7028 6649

7662 7284

8255 7876

Kerala Composting Project - 85 TPD plant

Composition of Solid Waste high food waste of 79%, inert 15%, paper /pulp-6% Kj values Waste material specific, for temperate dry zone Sample Emission values
PE BE ER 2451 6372 3921 2451 10706 8255 2451 13670 11219 2451 15713 13262 2451 17133 14682 2451 18133 15681 2451 18848 16396 2451 19368 16917 2451 19756 17305 2451 20052 17601

Bangladesh Composting PoA Project CDM Study is going on


Summary of SB and Way Forward

Region/Country specific annual Baseline Emissions and accordingly BEF needs to be established using standard parameter values in the methane tool. Continuous monitoring of waste material composition is avoided with the suggested standardization For PoA projects, first CPA data and selected parameter values should be considered as standard data/values for BE and ER estimations of later CPAs. Standardization of tool can help partial standardization of AM0025, AM057, AM0039, AM0083, AM0093, ACM001, AMS II-G, II H, III L, III H, III A.F, III A.J, AMS III A.O DNAs needs to take initiatives for collection of relevant data for standardization and needs to develop positive lists as per region/country specific situations Private parties/organizations should be encouraged to submit region/location specific SB data to DNAs for assessment and onward submission

Thank you very much for your kind attention

Hemant Nandanpawar