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BOOK OF PROCEEDINGS

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON

ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS


03-07 FEBRUARY 2010, FAMAGUSTA, CYPRUS ISLAND

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS


03-07 FEBRUARY 2010, FAMAGUSTA, CYPRUS ISLAND

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Prof. Dr. Uygun Aksoy Prof. Dr. Ahmet Altndili Prof. Dr. Dilek Ana Prof. Dr. Ela At Prof. Dr. Ylmaz ayan Prof. Dr. Raffaele Zanoli Dr. Lina Al Bitar Dr. Urs Niggli Dr. Darko Znaor Claude Aubert

HONORARy CHAIRPERSON
Prof.Dr. Umit Erdem

KEyNOTE SPEAKERS

Aubert, Claude LaSalle, Timothy J.Christopher Stopes BSc, MSc

BOOK OF PROCEEDINGS
ISBN 978-9944-0599-1-6

EMCC Publications Issue # 2010-0203 2nd Edition Printed in stanbul / Turkey 2010

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 03-07 FEBRUARY 2010, FAMAGUSTA, CYPRUS ISLAND

English Presentations
List of Authors
Alice Palmantier, Michael Kirk .........................................................................................................................6 A. Kr, N. Mordogan ........................................................................................................................................9 Alev Turan, Ergin ztrk................................................................................................................................11 Ali slam, Hseyin elik, Ahmet Aygn, zgn Kalkm ...................................................................................15 Ali Reza Karbasi ...........................................................................................................................................17 Amit Kesarwani, Sharanappa, Shih Shiung Chen ............................................................................................22 Aslhan Esring, Adem Gunes, Nizamettin Ataoglu, Metin Turan .......................................................................27 Ayen Ulun, Halim Perin ..............................................................................................................................34 Centeri C., Balazs K., Dennis P., Jeanneret P., Podmaniczky L., Herzog F. .........................................................37 Centeri C., Malatinszky A., Szentes Sz., Penksza K. ........................................................................................46 Ertan Sait Kurtar, Cneyt Civelek ...................................................................................................................51 Eve Veromann, Merje Toome, Kersti Kahu ......................................................................................................54 E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi, M. Yarnia, M.B.Khorshidi Benam .......................................................................56 Fidanka Trajkova, Ljupco Mihajlov, Vasko Zlatkovski, Liljana Koleva-Gudeva .....................................................59 Fidanka Trajkova, Ljupco Mihajlov, Vasko Zlatkovski ........................................................................................61 Floarea Nicolae, Mariana Daniela Marica, Nicole Livia Atudosiei, Razvan Daniel Cotianu....................................62 Gamze Saner, Sait Engindeniz, Murat Yercan, Figen Cukur ..............................................................................67 Glden Bayiit Kl, Hakan Kuleaan, Birol Kl ............................................................................................70 Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani, Khaled Eidizadeh ..........................................................................................72 Levent Doankaya, Akasya Topu ..................................................................................................................75 Mariana Daniela Marica, Marian Nicolae, Nicole Livia Atudosiei, Adrian Dulugeag Bioterra ................................76 Martina Sturm, Nina Kacjan-Marsic, Sonja Lojen ............................................................................................78

Mehmet Musa zcan, Fatma nver, Ahmet nver ..........................................................................................80 Ahmet nver, Derya Arslan, Mehmet Musa zcan, Mehmet Uur Yldz ............................................................86 Mine Uzbilek Krkaa ..................................................................................................................................89 Nihal Ycekutlu, Yavuz Ycekutlu ...................................................................................................................92 Nima Nobari, Mehrdad Yarnia, Farrokh Rahimzadeh Khoyi, Mohammad Bagher, Khorshidi Benam .....................94 T. Nurbel, J. P. Deguine .................................................................................................................................99 Razvan Daniel Cotianu, Floarea Nicolae, Mariana Daniela Marica, Geanina Doina Florescu ..............................100 Keshavarzafshar R., Chaichi M. R., Moghaddam H., S. M. R. Ehteshami .........................................................102 Savas Atasever, Huseyin Erdem...................................................................................................................104 Songl akmak, Elif Dademir..................................................................................................................107 Sebnem Kurt, Saadet Buyukalaca................................................................................................................109 kran Kuleaan ........................................................................................................................................111 Toulassi Nurbel, Jean-Philippe Deguine .......................................................................................................113 Vasko Zlatkovski, Ljupco Mihajlov, Fidanka Trajkova, Olivera Bicikliski ............................................................115 A.G. Nelson, S. Quideau, P.Hucl And D. Spaner.............................................................................................118 Birol Kl, Azim imek ..............................................................................................................................120 Ela At, Zerrin Kenanolu Bekta, Ece Salal* ..............................................................................................124 Fsun Seer Karipta, enay Bodurolu, Esin Sarman .................................................................................129 Gerold Rahmann ........................................................................................................................................133 Glay Beirli, brahim Snmez, Hlya lbi, Hasan Pullu ..................................................................................140 Jamal Javanmardi, Ali Alizadeh ...................................................................................................................143 Jean-Philippe Deguine, Toulassi Nurbel .......................................................................................................145 Ljupco Mihajlov, Fidanka Trajkova, Vasko Zlatkovski ......................................................................................155 Matja Turinek, Maja Turinek, Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, Franc Bavec, Martina Bavec ..........................................161 Matja Turinek, Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, Franc Bavec, Martina Bavec ..............................................................164 M. Yarnia, M.B.Khorshidi Benam, E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi .....................................................................167 Mm. B. Khorshidi Benam, M. S. Abedi, M. Yarnia, A. Faramarzi, E. Ismaeili .....................................................172 Musa Sarca, Umut Sami Yamak..................................................................................................................174 Nicole Livia Atudosiei, Ion Nicolae, Floarea Nicolae, Paul Stefanescu..............................................................176 Nihal Ycekutlu, Cemal Saydam ..................................................................................................................180 zel ekerden ...........................................................................................................................................183 zge Yalner Ercokun, Ali Gkmen, nci Gkmen ........................................................................................187 Philippe Fleury ...........................................................................................................................................196 Ramazan akmak, Murat Erman, Recep Kotan, Fatih , Kenan Karagz, Mehmet Sezen............................204 Anna Lenzi, Ada Baldi, Romano Tesi ............................................................................................................208 Rully Rahadiana, Luis Rey I. Velascob, Yayuk R Soehardjonoc ........................................................................212 Saadet Ayts, Il Polatkan ...........................................................................................................................224 Saadet Ayts, Esin Sarman .........................................................................................................................230 Saifullah Aamir Younas, Muhammad Aamir Younas .......................................................................................235 Sedat Citak, Sahriye Sonmez ......................................................................................................................240 enay Bodurolu, Fsun Secer Karipta, Esin Sarman .................................................................................249 ule Orman, Mustafa Kaplan ......................................................................................................................259 Viktria Szente, goston Temesi, Zoltn Szakly ...........................................................................................264 Y. Bozkurt, M. Saatc, N. Uzun, C. Dogan ......................................................................................................268 Y. Bozkurt, Z. Ulutas, N. Uzun, C. Dogan .......................................................................................................272 Y. Bozkurt, M. Saat, N. Uzun, C. Dogan ......................................................................................................276 Youn-Sup Cho, Phillipa Nicholas, Susanne Padel, Nicolas Lampkin ................................................................280

International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

ORGANIC COTTON PRODUCTION IN NORTH BENIN AN OPTION FOR SMALL SCALE FARMERS?
Alice Palmantier, palmantier@wiwi.uni-marburg.de Michael Kirk, kirk@wiwi.uni-marburg.de Institute for Co-operation in Developing Countries, Department of Economy University of Marburg, Germany INTRODUCTION In Benin the export of conventional cotton represents the main source of export earnings and plays a crucial role for rural poverty reduction. Most of cotton farmers are small scale farmers with subsistence constraints. Cotton production is one activity of a production system involving the production of cereals, vegetables and other activities. For many farmers, cotton production as a cash crop gives them access to cash insurance against food crop failure and to input market. For them producing cotton is often the only way to have access to input, also fertilizer for maize (one of the main staple crops) production. Conventional cotton farmers buy fertilizers and pesticides on credit, deducted from their earnings after harvest. In the last years, problems of economic efficiency of cotton production, management difficulties due to policy reforms of the sector, low yield and productivity performance, and land degradation affect households welfare and food security among smallholders. Increase in cotton production is principally achieved by extension of cultivated area. Climatic hazard and land degradation (poor soil, soil depletion) compromise yields. These problems linked to policy reforms of the cotton sector, together with increasing input price and decreasing price of cotton on world market have exacerbate the liquidity problems and the indebtedness situation of many farmers and sometime lead many of them to leave cotton production without any other better production alternative. Since 1996, organic cotton production is becoming more important despite its labour intensity and lower yields (around 0.5 ton compared to 1 ton in the conventional sector). This study aims at clear understanding of the overall system environment of conventional and organic cotton farmers in two regions in North Benin, the communes of Tanguita/Matri and Kandi. The conventional and organic farms are compared under current policy in the scope of the relative importance of cotton production and sustainability of production. Potentials and challenges of adopting organic cotton production for farmers to the protected area of Pendjari National Park are discussed. STUDy AREA AND DATA The analyses presented in this study relate to data collected in two cotton growing zones of North Benin. The main reason for selecting the first region (region1), Tanguita / Materi was its location close to the Pendjari National Parc and the presence of a new initiative starting with the introduction of organic cotton farming. Because of short term experience with organic farming, only conventional cotton farmers are studied in region 1. The second region, Kandi, was purposively selected because organic cotton farming was introduced there in 1996, meaning that many farmers converted to organic production rely on middle to long term experience. Growers in both research areas are small scale farmers and depend mostly on income from this cash crop. The sampling process yielded a sample of 161 households (87 conventional and 74 organic farming households). METHOD: AN APPLICATION OF COMBINED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALySIS AND CLUSTER ANALySIS Measures of household wealth can be reflected by socioeconomic indices. For this purpose, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to construct relative household socio economic indices. This method allows incorporation of a greater range of variables. Upon construction, the computed factor scores were used as the input for a cluster analysis (CA) in order to identify representative household types for each group. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Principal Component Analysis Various variables were used as inputs for numerous PCA. The most common rule for selecting significant principal components is to retain those with eigenvalue greater than 1. Because of their correlation structure and their relevance 3 variables (components) for the group of conventional farmers and 4 variables (components) for the group of organic farmers were selected for the final PCA. Table 1 illustrates the rotated component matrix with the factor loadings and shows the correlation coefficients with the original variables.

International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

Table 1: Variable scores (correlation coefficients) on derived variables (principal components) Principal Components on variables for conventional cotton farming households in Region 1 Coefficients Component 1: Level of Specialisation in Conventional Cotton Farming Share of maize in cultivated land -0,775 Share of conventional cotton in cultivated land 0,473 Component 2: Wealth and Household Resources Cotton income Savings Cultivated land size Value of residence, and other structures of the household Number of livestock Household size Component 3: Household Head Status Age of household head years of schooling of household head 0,793 0,755 0,726 0,692 0,664 0,553 0,828 -0,754 Principal Components on variables for organic cotton farming households in Region 2 Coefficients Component 1: Level of Specialisation in Organic Cotton farming Share of maize in cultivated land -0,786 Share of organic cotton in cultivated land 0,782 Component 2: Wealth and Household Resources Value of residence, and other structures of the 0,856 household Value of agricultural equipment 0,751 Cultivated land size 0,647 Component 3: Land use Management Land use intensity Years of schooling of household head -0,800 0,668

Index for soil improving practices 0,665 Component 4: Experience in Organic Cotton Farming Age of household head 0,806 Years of organic cotton farming practice 0,801

The principal component for level of specialisation reveals, with the negative sign for the share of maize in cultivated area, the situation of competition in term of cultivated area between maize and cotton in both cases, conventional and organic farming households. Under household resources and wealth, the factor identified in the case of conventional farmers is seen to be strongly correlated with cotton income, savings, total cultivated land, and value of residence and other structures of the household and household size (number of household members). For organic farmers, the factor titled as wealth and household resources is observed as strongly correlated with value of residence and other structures, value of agricultural equipment (incl. animals for animal traction). The third component for the conventional farmers is the household head status which shows that younger head are by trend more educated than older head. For the group of organic farming household two factors remain: land use management and experience in organic farming. The land use management factor is highly correlated with the education level of head and the index for soil improving practices. This index (0 to 10) covers 10 soil conservation and fertility improving measures. The last component for organic farming households, the correlation with initial variables indicates that experience in organic cotton farming increase with the age of head. This reveals that relative older household head have shown very early a special interest in organic farming and did not break up with organic farming. Cluster analysis In a second step, computed factor scores of the PCA were used as an input for the cluster analysis. Descriptive statistics (table 2) illustrate the main differences between the different farm household groups. Compared to region 2, households of region 1 are more subject to land constraints. This is mainly due to their location close to the national park. For both groups, conventional and organic farming households, the cultivated cotton area increases with total cultivated area and with their general wealth and resources level. But the importance of cotton production in terms of area differs between clusters and groups. Resource-poor and resource poorest subsistence households represent 56 % of the group of conventional cotton farmers (region 1), and are characterised with low share of cotton in their total cultivated area and high consummation rate of their own production. Farms with more land resources are more able to increase their cotton cultivated area and reach higher resources and wealth level. Subsistence households more specialised in cotton farming (50 % of their cultivated area is cotton) are relative young headed farms. Traditional big family farms with older head and more land resources reach the highest area of cotton but staple crops represent 66 % of total cultivated area and they can commercialise 33 % of own produced maize. This shows that this group is more able to diversify their revues from commercialisation of own production. Compared to region 1, food security is more guarantied for farmers in region 2. Semi-subsistence households in region 2 diversify their revenue with commercialisation of higher share of their own staple crop production. Households where organic cotton share in total cultivated area reach 40 % are relatively more engaged in organic cotton farming. They can be describe as resource rich traditional big family farms with middle age head, and are characterised with relatively better agricultural equipment and the highest

International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

rate of organic cotton producers in the household (especially women). Table 2: Characterisation of clusters for Conventional Cotton Farming Households in region 1 and Organic Farming Households in Region 2 CC_1 CC_2 CC_3 CC_4 OC_1 OC_2 OC_3 OC_4 Nr. of households 35 12 27 10 22 14 20 10 % of households 42 14 32 12 33,3 21,2 30,3 15,2 Household size 7 8 7 12 6 7 8 9 Age of head 39 24 32 55 33 58 39 41 Years of schooling head 0 6 1 0 0 0 1 3 Value of residence, and other structures 297823 476708 481907 771950 496705 629321 865868 1814950 Number of cattle of head 1 1 3 7 6 8 14 21 Total cultivated area (ha) 4,4 4,6 6,1 10,4 7 7 8 11 Cotton area (ha) 1,7 1,3 3 3,6 2,3 1,8 1,5 4,9 Maize area (ha) 1,3 1,6 1,9 3,4 2,1 2,1 4,1 3 Share of cotton (%) in cultivated land 40 30 50 34 34 28 20 42 Maize quantity sold on total production 14 12 25 33 46 47 40 44 Cotton income (FCFA) 123809 127927 287310 225312 258568 155325 228646 628368 Number of cattle for animal traction 0 0 1 0 2 2 4 4 Value of agricultural equipment 28393 0 77801 90000 67727 77857 117500 149000 Soil conservation and fertility management index 2,8 2,9 2,9 4,1 6 6 7 6 Formal credit (FCFA) 8571 13333 12778 18500 23545 32857 69500 46000 Savings (FCFA) 21857 20000 72037 77500 909 0 60000 36000 Experience in organic farming of head (years) 4 8 3 6 Nr. of OC producers in the household 1,7 1,8 1,6 2 4 Clusters of conventional cotton farming households: 4 Clusters of organic cotton farming households: CC_1: CC_2: CC_3: CC_4: Resource-poorest subsistence households Resource-poor subsistence households Subsistence households specialised in CC farming Subsistence households with more resources OC_1: OC_2: OC_3: OC_4: Semi-subsistence households with young head Semi-subsistence households with old head Resource rich diversified household farms Resource richest households more specialised in OC farming

In the case of organic cotton farmers, the share of organic cotton to total cultivated land is proportional to the absolute number of organic cotton cultivated but this share in region 2 remains inferior to the share of conventional cotton to cultivated area on region 1. Socio-economic conditions are less favourable in region 1 compared to region 2. With lower resource level, average farm size reach 6 ha compared to 8 ha in region 2. The average conventional cotton area is 2 ha in region 1 and average organic cotton area is 3 ha in region 2. Because of input credit system, conventional cotton farmers, especially those who use this fertilizer for maize production get less money for their produced cotton. Most of producers in region 1 have bad access to land and are more vulnerable to food shortage. With a lower share of cotton in total cultivated area and higher level of commercialisation of their own staple crop, organic cotton farming households in region 2 can be seen as more diversified as conventional cotton farmers in region 1. Furthermore more cattle and better knowledge give organic farmers more opportunity to reach higher index of soil fertilisation and conservation. In the last years, conventional farming has shown some weaknesses. Especially small scale farmers have experienced a decrease of their revenues because of less favourable market conjuncture and organisation, low level of production, little diversification possibilities, and lower soil fertility. They became used to pay input on credit thanks to cotton production, facing every year repayment and indebtedness problems. Far from this, organic cotton farming is becoming an interesting alternative for these farmers, offering also higher producer price. In the case of households in region 1 close to a protected area, they could be able, with good farming management quality to better cope with food security, cotton income and soil fertility by introducing organic cotton. From the data analysis, it becomes also clear that land constraint is an obstacle to intensification of cotton production, diversification of production and realisation of income from other crops. Small scale farmers need a certain level of diversification, not just for own consumption but also to diversify their revenues from commercialisation of own production to better face production risks. A next difficulty in region 1 for the introduction of organic cotton is also the low cattle availability in farms which does not allowed a high level of manure production for organic fertilisation of soils.

International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COMPOST APPLICATIONS ON SOME FRUIT QUALITy PARAMETERS OF ORGANICALLy PRODUCED RED PEPPER
KIR, A.1, MORDOGAN, N.2
1

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, P.O.B. 9 35661, Menemen/Izmir/TURKEY, alevpinar@yahoo.com Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Soil Science Department, 35100 Bornova/Izmir/TURKEY, nilgun.mordogan@ege.edu.tr

ABSTRACT This research was established to study the effects of composted plant residues, farmyard manure, turkey manure, certificated commercial organic manure, and their combinations with green manure crop on red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield and fruit quality. Combination of farmyard manure (20 tonnes.ha-1) + green manure crop plot is determined as the highest for fruit length/width/pulp thickness/fructose content, and yield. In conclusion, the more qualifier peppers were obtained from organic plot when compared the conventional one. Keywords: Pepper, Capsicum annuum L., manure, compost, green manure crop, yield, fruit quality. INTRODUCTION Turkish organic pepper production plays a significant role in the Turkeys vegetable organic trade due to its volume and quality. The production is generally realized from Mediterranean Climate conditions and organic pepper production has gained importance since 1990s in Turkey. Pepper fruits are generally used in the diets and eaten raw or processed. But, production is limited by the nitrogen fertilization. Matured organic sources are alternative additives for farmers traditionally usage to maintain the soil fertility and plant production. Numerous research results indicated that organic peppers fruit diameters, chemical compounds and yield significantly affected by the organic fertilization. This investigation was conducted to determine the different composted materials effects on fruit quality and yield of organically field grown red pepper. MATERIAL AND METHOD Experiment was conducted at the Aegean Agricultural Research Institutes experimental area located in the Mediterranean Region during the years of 2002-2003. Some physical and chemical properties of the experimental soil, the applied manures and compost were analyzed according to standard methods (1, 2) (Table 1, 2). The compost material was obtained by composting vegetable residues from the agricultural production of the Institute. Farmyard and turkey manures were composted for 8 months. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in 72 parcels, as 4 replications, 68 plants making up each parcel. Distances between the parcels were approximately 2.1 m. Treatments were presented in Table 3. The nitrogen values were based for fertilization calculations and equalized in both organic and conventional parcels at the rate of 170 kg/ ha/ year. Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) - barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mixture was tested as 80 % + 20 % respectively and incorporated back to the soil as a green manure at the time of spring. Pepper seedlings were further transplanted to the field in May. The experiment was carried out under organic conditions and the research plot was converted to organic production system two years prior to sowing green manure crop seeds. Plant materials selected for the trial were all standard varieties. The standard varieties have been used highly by farmers locally. Table 1: Properties of soil samples (0-30 cm).
Properties pH Tot. Salts (%) CaCO3 (%) OM (%) Texture N (%) P (mg/kg) K (mg/kg) Ca (mg/kg) Mg (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg) Fe (mg/kg) Cu (mg/kg) Mn (mg/kg) Zn (mg/kg) NO3- (mg/kg) 7.4 0.1 4.8 0.6 Sandy Clay 0.1 1.4 225 5880 540 155 6.0 0.9 4.3 0.5 3
1 2

Table 2: Chemical analysis results of composts.


Properties pH Tot. Salts (%) CaCO3 (%) OM (%) C/N CEC (meq/100 g) N (%) P (%) K (%) Ca (%) Mg (%) Na (%) Fe (mg/kg) Cu (mg/kg) Zn (mg/kg) Mn (mg/kg)
composted plant residues farmyard manure

C1 7.7 0.9 4.5 40.6 26.6 42.3 1.2 1.8 2.9 2.3 1.3 0.2 3075 25 176 269

F2 8.7 3.7 4.9 52 21.1 55.2 1.7 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.6 0.4 3850 45 265 348
3 4

T3 7.7 3.9 8.7 45.7 15.7 53.0 1.3 1.8 2.5 4.2 3.3 0.4 5430 62 478 580

CO4 9.2 4.3 3.8 64.0 15.0 58.0 2 1.9 1.7 4.0 1.2 0.3 5880 65 385 440

turkey manure certified commercial organic manure

International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

Table 3: Treatments.
1) 0 (control) (non treated) 2) NPK50 (control) (85/50/100 kg/ha,-half of recommended chemical fertilization) 3) NPK100 (control) (170/100/200 kg/ha, recommended chemical fertilization) 4) G (green manure crop) (common vetch-barley mixture) 5) 6) CO (certified commercial organic manure) CO+G 7) F1 (farmyard manure) (10 ton/ha) 8) F1+G 9) F2 (farmyard manure) (20 ton/ha) 10) F2+G 11) T1 (turkey manure) (5 ton/ha) 12) T1+G 13) T2 (turkey manure) (10 ton/ha) 14) T2+G 15) C1 (compost) (20 ton/ha) (composted various vegetable residues) 16) C1+G 17) C2 (compost) (40 ton/ha) (composted various vegetable residues) 18) C2+G

After transplanting the seedlings to the field, only aphid species were observed at economic threshold level and a plant extract (pyrethrum, 1%) permitted by the Turkish 01.12.2004/5262 regulation (24.12.1994/22145, 11.07.2002/24812 regulations) and the EU 2092/91 regulation was used to treat the peppers. A synthetic pesticide was applied in the conventional management parcel. Because of moderate labours costs in Turkey, weed-control was manual. Furrow irrigation system was practiced and totally 600 mm of water was applied only in summer during the pepper production period. The results of characteristics of fruit were statistically calculated using JMP program. RESULTS The results of fructose analysis and measurements of fruit length/width/pulp thickness for the highest organic and conventional treatments and also minimum and maximum rates are presented in Table 4. It is obtained that organic F2+G plot and conventional NPK100 plot were displayed the highest rates for fructose analysis and measurements of fruit length/width/pulp thickness. Results showed that the content of fructose in organic red pepper fruits was found statistically significantly different from that in conventional fruit. Industrial peppers pulp thickness is one of the major desirable qualities and a strong correlation between yield and fruit pulp thickness as 0.531 (p<0.01) is found. The highest yields were 29.7 tonnes.ha-1 at first year and 26.5 tonnes.ha-1 at second year with F2+G plot. Table 4: The highest content of fructose and fruit length/width/pulp thickness in red pepper from organic and conventional cultivation
Unit Organic (F2+G) Conventional (NPK100) Fructose* g/100 g f. w. 2.17a (1.year) 3.9ad (2.year) 1.45b (1.year) 3.6ad (2.year) 9.5a (combined of 1.and 2. years) 8.1ab (combined of 1.and 2. years) Fruit length** cm 4.8a (combined of 1.and 2. years) 4.3ab (combined of 1.and 2. years) Fruit width** Fruit pulp thickness** mm 4.4a (1.year) 3.5ad (1.year)

Minimum 0.9 5.7 2.8 1.2 Maximum 3.9 11.3 5.1 5.1 170/100/200 kg/ha Recommended Chemical Fertilization; TUKEY (0.05); * : significant for p<0.05, ** :significant for p<0.01

DISCUSSION There is clearly long-term researches need for a comparison between organic and conventional red pepper cultivation in terms of the peppers fructose content and fruit diameters. Even though there are few results from which short-term researches to evaluate, it is supported that organic cultivation is inclined to better fruit quality (3; 4; 5). CONCLUSION Organically produced bell peppers contained significantly more fructose than conventionally grown fruits. Green manure applications in combination with farmyard manure which is applied as 20 tonnes.ha-1 is showed the highest measurements for fruit length, width, pulp thickness, and determined also the highest yield, significantly.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

REFERENCES
[1] Kacar, B., 1972, Bitki ve Topran Kimyasal Analizleri. A. . Ziraat Fakltesi Yaynlar: 453, Ankara. [2] Kacar, B., 1997, Gbre Bilgisi. 5. Bask. Ankara niversitesi Ziraat Fakltesi Yaynlar. No: 1490, Ankara. [3] Hsieh, C. F. and Hsu, K. N., 1994, Effect of organic manures on the growth and yield of sweet pepper, Bulletin of Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station, No:42, 1-10, 1994. [4] McCance, R. A. and Widdowson, E. M., 2002, The Composition of Foods, Sixth Summary Edition, Food Standards Agency, Cambridge: Royal Sciety of Chemistry. [5] Sonci, S. W., Farsmann, W., Krans, H., 2000, Food composition and nutrition tables, Medphasm Verlag, Sttuttgart, 2000, 769-771.

FORAGE IN ORGANIC POULTRy DIETS


Alev TURAN*, Ergin ZTRK Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Ondokuz Mays University 55139 Kurupelit/ Samsun/TURKYE *Corresponding author: (e-mail:alevt@omu.edu.tr) ABSTRACT The topic of forage intake and its significance in relation to nutrient need is of practical importance. Another consideration is that one of the most important egg quality parameters for the consumer is the yolk color, which can be affected by forage intake and quality. As is known feed constitutes a substantial cost in organic production so organic poultry may have access to pasture, a nutrient source that has the potential to curtail feed costs. Besides in the organic poultry production, the free range keeping of hens can present problems with higher incidences of feather pecking that in severe cases may lead to cannibalism. One way to minimize that could be supplementation of foraging material in diets. The present paper describes that feed costs can be reduced by increasing forage consumption in organic poultry diets and checks on these feed materials can effect sensory evaluation of poultry production and quality. Key words: forage, organic, poultry, diet, quality INTRODUCTION Organic farming is increasing interest from farmers, politicians and consumers worldwide. Generally, organic farming aims at creating a sustainable agroecological system based on local resources. Good animal health and welfare are important parts such a system [1]. The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) recognized basic standards of organic farming. These standards provide to animals that show their natural behavior is limited to two livestock units per hectare. For a transition period, the use of a limited proportion of conventional feed is authorized. The maximum percentage per year is 10% in the case of herbivores and 20% for other species. The use of synthetic aminoacids and growth promoters is forbidden. The indoor area is supplemented by an outdoor area that must be at least 75% of the indoor area [2]. In organic poultry production, the free-range keeping of bird can, in some flocks, present problems with higher incidences of feather pecking than in severe cases may lead to cannibalism. One way to minimize feather pecking and cannibalism in free-range flocks could be supplementation of foraging material [3], in which time spent feeding increases compared with normal pelleted. Also the use of the outdoor run by the birds, which is reflected in the spatial pattern of herbage intake [4]. Most studies, however, have been conducted with free-range laying hens instead of broilers, so there is not much information on the foraging pattern of this type of birds. Considering the differences in the production system (age of the animals, length of the production period, genetic background) it is expected that the foraging pattern of broilers would differ too [5]. OPTIMAL FORAGING THEORy A bird should adopt a strategy that best balances the energetic demands of foraging relative to the energetic rewards of consuming various foods. Optimal solutions to this cost-benefit relationship form the basis of optimal foraging theory. According to this concept, a birds morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits have been shaped by evolutionary pressures in a way that maximizes net energy acquisition. Critics point out that only a small part of a birds foraging characteristics can currently be explained by such theories. Also, other nutrients, such as aminoacids or calcium, are frequently the limiting nutrients during the most nutritionally demanding periods of reproduction and growth of many species [6], [7].

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

FORAGES IN POULTRy DIET In poultry production, feed can account for up to 70% of the total variable costs [8]. So it is of major importance to adjust feed intake and match it with the requirements of the birds. It has been estimated that a laying hen can consume up to 30-40 g of dry matter per day from herbage, worms and insects, in addition to more than 100 g of concentrates [9]. Also Walker and Gordon [8] and Hermansen et al. [10] pointed out the necessity to know the actual intake of herbage by outdoor poultry with the purpose of adjusting the amounts of concentrates to the real requirements of free-range broilers. Such data, despite being an approximation and depending on many factors, could help animal nutritionists to make adjustments in the feed formulation that are likely to reduce costs. The nutritional value of roughage depends largely on the relative proportions of cell contents and cell-wall constituents and on the degree of lignifications of cell walls. The protein content of green plant tissue is variable ranging from 5 to 35 % of dry matter. Some plants store high amounts of starch and sugar within their vacuoles. These nonstructural carbohydrates are much more digestible than structural carbohydrates, such as cellulose. The moisture content of plants decreases with maturity and highly correlated with digestibility [11]. Alfalfa (Lucerne) is the most common roughage fed to avian. Forage intake provides a practical advantages and it is another consideration is about egg-quality parameters for the consumer is the yolk color. Fuller [12] reported that access to pasture resulted in a 6% saving of total feed consumed when pullets were fed a conventional mash-grain diet. Although laying hens are able to consume considerable amounts of roughages [13], information on herbage intake from range areas by high-performance layers is scarce. Also, restriction in nutrient supply has shown to increase forage intake in pullets, which could result in a drastic reduction in intake of protein and some aminoacids and a negative effect on plumage condition due to feather pecking [14], [15]. Some researchers found a linear relationship between intake of grass and the grass content in the crop at the end of the day for confined hens, indicating that daily forage intake could be estimated from the content of plant material in the crop of hens slaughtered in the evening [16]. The type of supplementary feed affected the intake of several feed items suggesting that a reduced nutrient content in the supplementary feed can be used as a method of increasing foraging in the outdoor area. Thus, hens fed whole wheat and oyster shells as the only supplementary feed had more plant material, oyster shells, insoluble grit and soil in the crops than hens fed a complete feed mixture [17]. The results suggested that hens found a considerable part of their nutrient requirements by foraging, even though some lost weight. The hens with access to chicory showed a relatively high egg production and did not lose weight to the same extent as those with access to grass/clover or mixed forbs [18]. Other plant material can provide valuable nutrients to poultry. Some researchers conducted an experiment using maize silage, barleypea silage and carrots as foraging materials for laying hens. Hens receiving silage had greater gizzard weights and showed decreased pecking damage [19]. CONCLUSION Modern broiler breeds have very little desire to consume plant vegetation. However when provided with high quality forage, we have observed as much as 20% of the diet intake from forage. These observations are mostly noted on forage such as clover and alfalfa. Forage consumption based on a mixed sward varies from 5-20% of the total diet. Feed efficiency depends on feed concentrate intake, water intake, live weight, and average ambient temperatures. The findings indicate that good-quality forage has the potential to supply a significant proportion of nutrient needs of poultry. REFERENCES
[1]. Lund, V., Rcklinsberg, H. Outlining a conception of animal welfare for organic farming systems. Journal Agriculture Environment Ethics, 2001, 14(4), 391-424. [2]. Sundrum, A. Organic livestock farming. Livestock Production Sci., 2001, 67(3), 207-215. [3]. Wechsler B, Huber-Eicher B 1998. The effect of foraging material and perch height on feather pecking and feather damage in laying hens. Applied Animal Behavior Science 58, 131-141 [4]. Kratz, S., Rogasik, J., Schnug, E. Changes in soil nitrogen and phosphorus under different broiler production systems. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2004, 33, 1662-1674. [5].Dawkins, M.S., Cook, P.A, Whittingham, M.J., Mansell, K.A, Harper, A.E. What makes free-range broiler chickens range? In situ measurement of habitat preference. Animal behavior, 2003, 66,160. [6]. Ozturk, E., Turan, A. Organik kanatl retiminde yem ve yem katk maddeleri temini. 1. GAP Organik Tarm Kongresi, 2009, anlurfa. [7]. Maurer, V., Hertzberg, H., Hrdegen, P. Status and control of parasitic diseases of livestock on organic farms in Switzerland. Proceedings of the 14th IFOAM organic world congress, 2002, EKO/ Partalan kirjasto, 636 [8]. Walker, A., Gordon, S. Intake of nutrients from pasture by poultry. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2003, 62, 253-256. [9]. Hughes, B.A., Dun, P. A Comparison of Laying Stock: Housed Intensively and in Cages and Outside on Range. Research and Development Publication, 2003, 18, 17, Scotland. [10]. Hermansen, J.E., Strudsholm, K., Horsted, K. Integration of organic animal production into land use with special reference to swine and poultry. Livestock Prod. Sci., 2004, 90, 26. [11].Jakubas, W.J., Gulgielmo, C.G., Karasov, W.H. Dilution and detoxication costs: Relevance to avian herbivore food selection. USDA National Wildlife Research Center Repellents Conference, 1995, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. [12].Fuller, H.L. Restricted feeding of pullets. 1. The value of pasture and self-selection of dietary components. Poultry Science, 1962, 41, 1729-1736.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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[13]. Steenfeldt, S., Engberg, R.M., Kjaer, J.B. Feeding roughage to laying hens affects egg production, gastrointestinal parameters and mortality. Proceedings of 13th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 2001, 238-239, Blankeberge, Belgium [14]. Ambrosen, T., Petersen, V.E. The influence of protein level in the diet on cannibalism and quality of plumage of layers. Poultry Science, 1997, 76, 559-563. [15]. Elwinger, K., Tauson, R., Tufvesson, M., Hartmann, C. Feeding of layers kept in an organic feed environment. In: 11th European Poultry Conference, 2002, Bremen, Germany. [16].Antell, S., Ciszuk, P. Forage consumption of laying hens- crop as an indicator of feed intake and AME content of ingested feed. Archiv fr Gerflgelkunde, 2006, 70, 154-160. [17]. Horsted, K., Hermansen, J.E., Ranvig, H. Crop content in nutrient-restricted versus non-restricted organic laying hens with access to different forage vegetations. British Poultry Science, 2007, 48, 177-184. [18]. Blair, R. Nutrition and feeding of organic poultry. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2008. [19]. Steenfeldt, S., Kjaer, J.B., Engberg, R.M. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behavior. British Poultry Science, 2007, 48, 454-468.

SAFETy AND QUALITy OF ORGANIC MEAT


Alev TURAN*, Ergin ZTRK Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Ondokuz Mays University 55139 Kurupelit/ Samsun/TURKYE *Corresponding author: (e-mail:alevt@omu.edu.tr) ABSTRACT Organic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and indivisible. Health is the wholeness and integrity of living systems. In view of this the use of fertilizers, pesticides, animal drugs and food additives may have adverse human health. From this viewpoint, consumers usually perceive organic meat a safer and healthier compared to conventional product and this is the main reason for purchasing organic food. Organic processing and banning animal flour, GMO food and chemicals in animal feeding, gives consumers the assurance to avoid many diseases affecting modern livestock. The present paper briefly describes safety organic meat and the effects of organic farming on meat quality (e.g. pH, color, texture, sensory tenderness and flavor) and on differentiation from conventional meat. Key words: meat, organic meat, meat quality, meat safety INTRODUCTION A clear comparison between organic and conventional products is difficult to establish due to the huge variation within the production methods, concerning among other things, intensification, feeding method or breed used. Honikel [1] concluded that the characteristics of product quality, the nutritional, hygienic, sensorial and technological factors are not very different between the production methods. In some factors organic food gets better marks, in others conventionally produced food scores higher. The organic production could lead to a lower quality of carcass and meat due to a reduced energy supply and growth rate as the consequence of the positive implications on carcass parameters [2]. On the other hand, implications of reduced nutrient supply on carcass qualities can be compensated for by choosing breeds more adapted to the basic fodder on the farm [3]. Some research suspected that there might be a higher risk for the contamination of products with parasites due to a higher rate of outdoor-systems in organic compared to conventional farming [1]. There is a little evidence for a system-related effect on product quality due to the production method. Product quality is primarily a function of farm management, showing a high variability in both organic and conventional livestock production. MEAT QUALITy Meat quality is a very brood term describing various kinds of meat parameters interesting to users of meat. For the modern meat consumer, taste and nutritional value are to important quality attributes of meat. The tendency is to focus on the production of edible lean with a minimum of excess visible fat [4], but the fact remains that fat in meat contributes to the eating quality of meat [5], [6]. Recent studies confirm that there is a chemical perception of dietary fat in the oral cavity [7]. It is also widely accepted that the amount and type of fat in meat influence two major components of meat quality notably tenderness and flavor [8]. Technological quality concerns the suitability of the meat for further processing into various meat products, and nutritional quality regards fat content, mineral, bioactive compounds etc. ORGANIC PRODUCTION EFFECT MEAT QUALITy

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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Meat quality can be affected by all process in the production line from farm to fork. Treatment of animals during breeding, transport, stunning method, slaughter process, chilling and storage are all factors affecting the final meat quality. The difference between conventional and organic production of meat occurs of farm level and especially organic feeding has a major impact on meat quality. In organic feed artificial aminoacids are not allowed and it is difficult to obtain raw materials with high protein quality. This results in slow growth rate of the animals, which normally has a negative impact on meat tenderness [9]. Consumers usually rank tenderness as one of the most important eating quality attributes, thus organic feeding is expected to have a negative impact on eating quality [10]. A typical way to adding proteins to organic diet is to use whole seed and seed meal, which are produced vegetable oils. Both meals and whole seeds have a high content of unsaturated fat and this is reflected in the fat tissue of the animals. A high degree unsaturated fat is a technological problem in the meat production [9]. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC MEAT The former studies show that organic animal feeding affects meat texture parameters. There was a highly significant effect on both tenderness and hardness of the meat. The conventionally fed animals produced tenderer and less hard meat compared to the organic fed animals. The 100% organic fed animals produced the least tender and the hardest meat [9], [11]. The professional sensory panelist indicated that organic animal meats lest more than 50% fluid during retail storage than conventional animal meat. Organic meat had less meat flavor, more than flavor and was crispier. The high fat flavor was probably caused by a high fat content in the organic meat [12]. Also the meat differentiated only in the surface color, the organic being lighter. A chemical analysis of the chops meat founded that organic meat had a low content of intramuscular fat and a high content of unsaturated fatty acid in the back fat [9], [13]. The fatty acid composition of the back fat was also tested, and fraction of saturated fatty acids was higher in the conventional fed animals and the fraction of unsaturated fatty acids was highest in organic fed animals [9], [12]. CONCLUSION Organic livestock farming is not a production method to solve all problems in animal production. Also organic livestock farming is challenge not only for the former but also agricultural research and interdisciplinary work. The main conclusion can be summarized in the following statements: The slow growth rate up the time of slaughter for organic fed animals has a negative fed animals has a negative impact on meat tenderness There seems to be a smaller effect on meat flavor The fatty acid composition of fat tissue is more unsaturated in organic fed animals, which can result in technological problems. REFERENCES
[1]. Honikel, K.O. Reference methods fort the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science, 1998, 105, 327-329. [2].Branscheid, W., Dobrowolski, A. Accuracy of video image analysis, determination of part value and meat brightness of pork carcasses. Fleischwirtschoft, 1996, 76, 1228-1238. [3]. Sundrum, A. Organic livestock farming. Livestock Production Science, 2001, 67, 207-215. [4]. Forrest, J. C., Aberle, E.D., Hedrick, H.B., Judge, M.D., Merkel, R.A. Principle of meat Science, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman, 1975. [5].Webb, E.C. Manipulating beef quality through feeding. South African Animal Science, 2006, 7, 5-15. [6]. Wood, J.D. Consequences for meat quality of reducing carcass fatness. In J.D. Wood & A. V. Fisher (Eds), Reducing fat in meat animals. London: Elsevier Applied Science, 1990, 344-397. [7]. Hiraoka, T., Fukuwatari, T., Imaizumia, M., Fushikia, T. Effects of oral stimulation with fats on the cephalic phase of pancreatic enzyme secretion in esophagostomized rats. Physiology and Behavior, 2003, 79, 713-717. [8]. Wood, J.D., Enser, M., Fisher, A.V., Nute, G.R., Richardson, R.I., Sheard, P.R. Manipulating meat quality and composition. Proceedings of Nutrition Society, 1999, 58, 363-370. [9]. Kristensen, L. Analyses of conventional and organic meat quality. 1st Nordic Organic Conference, 2009, Sweden. [10]. Wal, P.G., Mateman, G., Vries, A.W., Vonder, G.M.A., Smulders, F.J.M., Geesink, G.H., Engel, B. Scharel (free-range) pigs: carcass composition, meat quality and taste panel studies. Meat Science, 1993, 34, 27-36. [11].Angood, K.M., Word, J.D., Nute, G.R., Whittington, F.M., Hughes, S.I., Sheard, P.R. A comparison of organic and conventionally produced lamb purchased from three major UK supermarkets: Price, eating quality and fatty acid composition. Meat Science, 2007, 78, 176-184. [12]. Revilla, I., Vivor-Quintana, A.M., Luruena-Martinez, M.A., Palacios, C., Severiona-Perez, P. Organic and conventional suckling lamb production: product quality and consumer acceptance. Cultivating the Future Based on Science, 2008, 2, 514-517. [13]. Elmore, J.S., Mottrom, D.S., Enser, M., Wood, J.D. Effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 1999, 47, 1619-1625.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

SELECTION OF NATIVE CHERRy LAURELS (PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS L.) IN THE BLACKSEA REGION
Ali slam1, Hseyin elik2, Ahmet Aygn1, zgn Kalkm3
1 2 3

Ordu University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 52200 Ordu/TURKEY Ondokuzmays University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dep. of Hort., 55000 Samsun/TURKEY Trabzon Governmental Office of Agriculture, 61000 Trabzon/TURKEY

Corresponding author: islamali@odu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT This study was carried our pomological traits of native cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) types which are grown in Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Rize and Artvin provinces in 2007-2009. The aim of this study was to select the distinguished cherry laurel types from natural flora. Weighted Ranging Method was used to evaluate the types. Observations on the types were done. Obtained data results was evaluated by Weighted Scaling Method. Weighted Ranging Method was done according to criteria regarding, fruit number per cluster, fruit bigness, fruit weigh, fruit flesh/seed rate, total soluble solids (TSS), fruit taste, acridity and fruit uniformity. As a result of these evaluations, it was determined that 32 types were distinguished than the others. Fruit number per cluster was between 2.0-30.6, fruit bigness were 10.12 22.46 mm; fruit weight was 0.69-7.82 g; fruit flesh/seed rates were 10,79 16,08; total soluble solids were 2.4-32.0 Brix, and titratable acid content was between 0.11-1.023 % for the all types. Key words: Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer, pomology, taflan, karayemi, Turkey INTRODUCTION Turkey is a very important area for plant diversity. Many fruit species are grown and many different local or native fruit species and varieties are known. One of these is cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Cherry laurel originated in central and west Asia, southeastern Europe and Anatolia [12], [13]. Cherry laurel is grown as a native fruit crop in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, which is one of the origins of cherry laurel [3]. The main crops in this region are hazelnut and tea. Annual precipitation is 831 mm, distributed throughout the year. Annual mean temperature is 14.5 C and relative humidity is 75%. Cherrry laurel is consumed in fresh or dried, in jam and marmalade, canned or pickled. Cherrry laurel is used for food additives as flavoring [11]. The leaves and seed of this species are used in pharmacetically. The glossy, dark green leaves are very attractive large and leathery. In early spring, single upright flower clusters are produced. The flower is small white and born in erect panicles. The tree is also valuable for ornamentation as an evergreen broadleaf plant [8]. It is easily propagated by cutting [3]. Cherry laurel is an important fruit for Black Sea region of Turkey. There are many local cultivars like kiraz, su, vavul, bal etc. In this study, it was evaluated on native cherry laurels. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tree and fruit characteristics were measured for cherry laurel cultivars, grown in eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, in 2007-2009 years.This area included 6 provinces, 52 town. Leaf width and length, petiole length and thickness, cluster length and weight were estimated from 10 clusters. Number of fruit per cluster was counted. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length, fruit stem length, fruit stem thickness, stone weight, stone width and stone length were also estimated from 20 samples. Soluble solids (Brix), pH value and titratable acid content (as % malic acid) were determined based on three samples. Fruit color was mesured with minolta CR 400. Types or clones was selected according to Weighted Ranging Method. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Cherry laurel is a vigorous growing species, evergreen tree of 5 to 6 m. Leaves are 13.8 cm long and 5.5 cm wide. Fruit which is conical drupe resembles black cherries. But it grows in clusters similar to grapes. At eating maturity, fruit colour is red to purplish-black. Shape of fruit is roundish to slightly oblate. Fruit with was between 9.72-20.52 mmfruit lengh was between 10.55-24.41 mmfruit weight was 0.69-7.82 g and average fruit weights of 4.85 g. Cluster weight 4.74-126.54 g were recorded. Clusters contain between 2.0-

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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30.6 fruit (Table 1). Prior to mature fruits are astringent, but become aromatic and suitable for fresh consumption with advancing maturity. Skin is smooth, thin and glossy. Flesh is juicy. Total soluble solids content was between 2.4-32.0 Brix, and titratable acid content was between 0.11-1.023 % (Table 1). Fruirt color was changed between reddish orange to black, taste was changed poor to excellent, and harvest time was between 28 June and 5 September (Table 2). Similar studies on cherry laurel types grown inTrabzon, Vakfkebir and Akaabat districts of Trabzon recorded number of fruit per cluster, fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length, were determined as 19, 3.28 g, 12 mm and 16 mm [9]; 18, 4.4 g, 17 mm and 19 mm, respectively [10]. In other studies, fruit weight, soluble solids and pH values in cherry laurel types were determined as 5.9 g, 17.6 % and 4.3, respectively [1] and fruit weight was 1,40-5,39 g, TSS was 8,6-21,3 % [2] and fruit weight was 2.06-6.79 g [5]. slam [7] and Bostan [4] reported that Kiraz and Su cultivars was very juicy and the flesh colour atractive. This cultivar tended to have smaller cluster weight, similar fruit number per cluster and soluble solids. In coclusion, the cherry laurel is highly promising because of its high number of fruit per cluster and fruit weight and alternative crops sorts . Meanwile the fruit taste or skin and flesh color are desirable. I think that cherry laurel will be an important fruit for future. Acknowledgement: The article was taken from the results of the project number 107O252. The author thanks the TBTAK for providing support for this research. Table 1. Important pomological characteristics of selested native cherry laurel types
Types S-15 S-37 S-47 O-20 O-37 O-38 O-44 G-7 G-40 T-22 T-87 T-98 T-159 T-163 T-193 T-203 T-214 R-20 R-22 R-24 R-25 R-27 R-28 R-107 R-126 R-135 R-136 R-149 A-4 A-14 A-19 A-23 Fruit number Fruit size Fruit per cluster (mm) weight (g) 15.1 19.60 5.20 8.8 20.93 6.35 8.6 17.76 4.62 3.3 20.55 5.56 6.5 20.50 6.24 8.6 19.24 5.17 3.3 19.48 5.06 3.8 19.58 5.27 12.8 19.06 4.85 7.1 19.14 5.40 10.7 22.83 6.68 5.7 20.04 5.18 7.4 19.18 4.38 9.3 21.74 5.83 8.2 19.12 5.53 7.5 19.14 5.32 4.3 18.77 4.88 7.8 21.59 7.02 13.6 18.75 4.27 6.7 20.77 5.48 10.6 20.34 5.72 17.1 19.53 4.67 15.6 19.27 4.69 6.4 22.54 6.50 5.1 19.53 5.62 10.0 19.69 6.02 11.7 19.64 6.23 12.5 20.09 6.46 5.2 24.48 9.24 12.8 20.84 6.05 12.6 19.50 5.67 7.3 19.42 5.64 Fruit/ Seed 9.78 14.26 12.50 11.70 16.08 12.34 12.33 14.26 13.80 15.84 12.16 11.95 13.78 12.00 14.88 13.90 16.16 14.58 9.01 11.10 11.75 9.52 10.51 11.10 13.33 14.82 14.91 16.17 16.27 12.53 12.83 16.06 Total soluble solid 16.0 24.6 23.8 20.8 16.2 19.4 25.0 22.5 21.0 23.2 15.2 24.0 21.3 20.0 18.2 19.2 20.5 18.2 18.5 20.5 20.0 19.8 18.0 17.2 22.7 21.8 18.8 20.0 18.0 18.4 21.1 17.9

Table 2. Color and organoleptic characteristics, harvest time period in cherry laurel
Taste 5 4.5 5 5 4 4 4.5 4.5 5 4 3 5 5 3 5 5 5 4.5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 Types S-15 S-37 S-47 O-20 O-37 O-38 O-44 G-7 G-40 T-22 T-87 T-98 T-159 T-163 T-193 T-203 T-214 R-20 R-22 R-24 R-25 R-27 R-28 R-107 R-126 R-135 R-136 R-149 A-4 A-14 A-19 A-23 Fruit Color Reddish black Reddish black Black Black Black Reddish black Black Black Reddish black Black Reddish black Black Black Black Black Black Black Red Reddish black Black Black Reddish black Reddish black Reddish black Black Black Black Reddish black Reddish black Reddish black Reddish black Black Taste Perfect Perfect Perfect Perfect Good Good Perfect Perfect Perfect Good Fair Perfect Perfect Fair Perfect Perfect Perfect Good Perfect Perfect Perfect Perfect Perfect Good Perfect Good Good Fair Good Good Perfect Perfect Harvest Time 10-30 July 21 August-10 Sep. 21 August-10 Sep. 10-30 July 01-20 August 01-20 August 10-30 July 10-30 July 01-20 August 01-20 August 10-30 July 01-20 August 01-20 August 10-30 July 10-30 July 10-30 July 10-30 July 01-20 August 01-20 August 01-20 August 01-20 August 01-20 August 01-20 August 01-20 August 01-20 August 21 August-10 Sep. 21 August-10 Sep. 01-20 August 01-20 August 01-20 August 21 August-10 Sep. 01-20 August

REFERENCES
[1] Anonymous, 1995. Report of Research Institute of Food Technology. Ministry of Agriculture. P.O. Box 3-16036 Bursa/Turkey. (in Turkish) [2] Akbulut, M., Macit, ., Ercili, S., Ko, A., 2007. Evaluation of 28 cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis) genotypes in the Black Sea region, Turkey. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 35: 363-365 [3] Anin, Z., zkan, Z.C., 1993. Prunus laurocerasus L. in:Spermatophyta. Karadeniz Technical University., Faculty of Forestry. Yayn No:167, 512 p. Trabzon/Turkey. (in Turkish) [4] Bostan, S.Z., 2001. Pomological Traits of Su Cherry Laurel. Journal of American Pomological Society, 55(4):215-217. [5] Bostan, S.Z., ve slam, A., 2003. Trabzonda Yetitirilen Mahalli Karayemi (Prunus Laurocerasus L.) Tiplerinin Pomolojik ve Fenolojik zellikleri. OM Ziraat Fakltesi Dergisi 18(1): 27-31 (in Turkish) [6] slam, A., 2005. Karayemi yetitiricilii ve nemi. Ege Karadeniz Dergisi, 4:53-57

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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[7] slam, A., 2002. Kiraz Cherry Laurel. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 30(4):301-302 [8] slam, A., Bostan, S.Z., 1996. A promising fruit species: Cherry laurel. Journal of Agriculture Engineering. 291: 21, Ankara-Turkey. (in Turkish) [9] slam, A., Odaba, F., 1996. Improvement by selection of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) grown in Vakfkebir and its surroundings-1. YYU, Journal of Agricultural Faculty, 6(4): 147-158. VanTurkey. ISSN 1018-9424. (in Turkish) [10] Karadeniz, T., Kalkm, ., 1996. Investigations on selection of cherry laurel laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) grown in Akaabat. YYU, Journal of Agricultural Faculty 6(1): 147-153. Van-Turkey. ISSN 1018-9424. (in Turkish) [11] Leung A.Y. and Foster, S., 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 649 pp [12] zbek, S., 1988. Genel meycevilik. . . Ziraat Fak yay. No: 31, Adana [13] Schquenbeg, P., Paris, F., 1975. Heilpflanzen. BLV Werlagsgesellschaft, Munchen wien Zurih.

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WHEAT PRODUCTIVITy IN IRAN


Ali Reza Karbasi

ABSTRACT Agricultural is most important of economics activity. Climate change continues to have major impact on crop productivity all over the world That it depended to climate change, in this research, was been studied abut effect of time climate change on wheat productivity, at base of time series and cross-section data for 14 province from 1992 to 2005 Iran. Wheat input and output data are from state statistics organization agricultural Yearbook and hydrology organization .in study used Cobb-Douglas function with two methods of OLS, GMM. The results show that positive effect rainfall and effect temperature negative variables were been two methods in each province, also change productivity dependent to rainfall. Rainfall and temperature growth on productivity was 0/9,-0/95 percentage. Keyword: wheat productivity, climate change, panel data INTRODUCTION Impact of climate change on Iranian wheat productivity in Iran The adoption of modern varieties and the increased use of irrigation and fertilizers during Green Revolution dramatically increased crop yields all over the world (Evenson and Gollins 2003b; Rosegrant and Cline 2003). The Green Revolution enabled food production in developing countries to keep pace with population growth (Conway and Toenniessen 1999). Crop yield growth has slowed since 1990s (Evenson and Gollins 2003b; Rosegrant and Cline 2000). But continued crop yield increases are required to feed the world in the 21st century (Rosegrant and Cline 2003; Cassman 1999) given the continuing decline of area suitable for grain production due to urbanization and industrialization. Food security, in particular in developing countries, remains a challenge. This challenge is made worse by the adverse effect of predicted climate change in most food insecure developing countries (Rosenzweig and Parry 1994). Given the large body of research that has been done to quantify the contributions of crop productivity (Evenson and Gollins 2003a; Evenson and Gollin 2003b), we know factors such as modern varieties, increasing input use, and better farm management contribute greatly to crop yield growth. However, our knowledge on the impact of climate on crop productivity remains quite uncertain. While many researchers have evaluated the possible impact of global warming on crop yields using mainly indirect crop simulation models (e.g., Rosenzweig and Parry 1994; Brown and Rosenberg 1997; Reilly et al. 2003; Liangzhi et al 2005), there are relatively few direct assessments on the impact of observed climate change on past crop yield and growth except for a few studies (Nichalls 1997; Carter and Zhang 1998; Naylor et al. 2002; Lobell and Asner 2003; Peng et al. 2004). In a recent study, Peng et al (2004) reported that rice yields decline with higher night temperatures. Lobell and Asner (2003) showed that corn and soybean yields in the US could drop by as much as 17 percent for each degree increase in the growing season temperature. Though climate is the major uncontrollable factor that influences crop development, it is difficult to separate this influence from other factors such as the increased use of modern inputs and intensified crop management that were introduced during the Green Revolution. In fact, one major concern for the above-mentioned studies is the simplification of approximating such no climate contributions as a linear trend (Gu 2003; Godden, Gatterham and Drynan 1998). In this paper, we use crop-specific panel data to investigate the climate contribution to Irans wheat yield growth. We find that global warming has a significantly negative impact on wheat yield in Iran, but the magnitude of impact is less than those reported by previous studies in other regions. DATA AND METHOD We use time series and cross-section data from 1992 to 2005 for fifteen major wheat producing provinces in Iran and the corresponding climate data such as temperature and rainfall during this period. Wheat input and output data are from State Statistics

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

Yearbook (1992-2005) and Irans Rural Statistical Yearbook (1992-2005) published by Irans National Statistical Bureau, and Iran Agricultural Cost and Return Yearbook (1992- 2005) published by Irans Price Bureau. Climate data are from Climate Research Unit at Hydrology Iran. The provincial climate parameters are calculated by averaging all the values of those pixels within the provinces. Iran grows both winter wheat and spring wheat. The majority of wheat production in Iran, about 80-90 percent, is winter wheat. Winter wheat is grown throughout most of eastern and southern Iran while spring wheat in northeast and western Iran. Both winter and spring wheat are grown in Northern Iran. The growing season for wheat varies from province to province. The annual climate data are monthly averages during the wheat growing seasons, taking account of the changing growing seasons by province. The analytical challenge is to separate the non-climate effect on crop yields from the climate change effect. We hypothesize the crop yield as a function of crop inputs, technology, management, land quality, and climate factors. The initial explanatory variables for the yield equation include inputs such as chemical fertilizer, seeds, pesticide, machinery and other physical inputs; regional production specialization; climate variables such as temperature and precipitation; a set of regional dummy variables. Our own estimation confirms this finding: labor and draft animals have a negative sign for wheat yield equation, indicating the impact of these two variables on yield were negligible. Therefore the inputs of labor and draft animal are not included in the model. The physical inputs are measured in expenses per unit harvested area, and are selected based upon the sign and level of statistical significance. We included chemical fertilizer, seeds, pesticide, machinery, individually and combined the rest of inputs into an aggregated category of other inputs. The regional production specialization variable is represented by the share of wheat area in total crop area in that province. This variable is created to reflect the other factors such as soil quality and other regional government supports to wheat production. It is expected that the regions with a higher share of the crop production have better suitable land and better environment for wheat production and therefore higher wheat yield. Admittedly, this variable may be a potentially endogenous variable, as the trade-off between how much area to grow in a grain crop and how much to grow in a cash crop depends on trade-offs that involve yields and relative productivity and profitability. The Hausman-Wu procedure (Wu 1973; Hausman 1978) was used to test the exogeneity of the share of area under wheat. Predicted wheat areas are not significant in the test equation, indicating that it is exogenous for the yield equation. A set of regional dummy variables are used to represent time-persistent, regional differences in social, economic, and natural endowments not accounted for by the other variables. During our study period (1992 2005) Finally, a Cobb-Douglas form of wheat yield function is specified as follows:
2

ln Yieldit = (a 0 + a 1t ) +

b j ln X jit + w ln C lim ateit +

r D + e
i i I =1

it

The seven regions in Iran are: Northeast (Tabriz, ardabil), North (Golestsn, Oromih), Northwest (Khorasan), Central (Tehran,Qazvin,Asfehan), Southeast (Lorestan,kermanshah,Hamedan), South (Khozwstan, Fars).

Where ln is natural log, t = 1, 2, , 22 denotes observations from the years from 1992 to 2005. Yieldit refers to wheat yield for Irans province i at time t (the time trend from 1992 to 2005); X represents the conventional inputs per hectare of sown wheat area including seeds, fertilizer, pesticide, machinery, and other inputs such as irrigation, manure, and animal power; Climate is the climate variables including temperature and rainfall during wheat growing season. We include a set of regional dummy variables, Dr, to represent time-persistent, regional difference in social, economic and natural endowments not accounted for by other variables. , , w, r are parameters to be estimated and is the error term. ESTIMATION AND RESULTS We first perform Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root Test to test the stationary of both dependent and independent variables. Result is showed in tabel1, No problems are found. Table 1- Estimation Dickey-Fuller Unit Root Test
Explanatory variables Ln Fertilizer Ln Seeds Ln Pesticide Ln Machinery Ln Temperature Ln Precipitation Ln yield Levin, lin and chu -4.184** 7.362***4.376**-7.56*** -2.769* -3.42** -9.445*** probablity 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.003 0.003 0.003

*, ** and *** represent 0.10, 0.05 and 0.01 levels of statistical significance, respectively. The model is estimated by Eviews 5 package. Since the OLS (ordinary linear square) and GMM (Generalized method of Moments) estimation have autocorrelation problems, we also estimated Equation (1) using and autoregressive error model with one year lag

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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(AR1). The constant variance error (no heteroscedasticity) assumptions are examined by plots between the predicted values and residuals using AR1 estimation. The plot (not reported here) shows that the assumptions for Equation (1) is reasonably held. We also examine another plot between predicted value and time trend and found no autocorrelation problem. Another potential problem may be omitted variable bias where some temperature-related variables (such as disease or pests) that affect wheat yield but have been left out of Equation (1). We perform the Ramsey (1969) regression specification error test (RESET) for omitted variables. The test is passed (P> 28percent). The assumptions of normal distribution for errors, outliers, and linearity are also diagnosed and these assumptions are found to still hold. In addition, we estimate the equation with both fixed-effects and random-effects but found little difference. The estimated results are reported in Table 1. The OLS (ordinary linear square) estimates for all parameters for physical inputs are significant at the 10 percent level or below with the expected signs. Table 2-Estimated wheat yield function in Iran 1992-2005. Dependent variable =Ln(wheat yield). Numbers in parentheses are t-values.
Explanatory variables Constant Ln Fertilizer Ln Seeds Ln Pesticide Ln Machinery Ln Temperature Ln Precipitation Time Regional Dummy (North) Regional Dummy (South) Regional Dummy (Northwest) Regional Dummy(Southwest) Regional Dummy(Central) Degree of freedom Adjusted R2 OLS 1.758(3.69)** 0.066(2.16)* 0.4(2.64)** -0.017(1.54)* 0.049(1.84)* -0.084(-3.18)* 0.067(1.81) 0.042(1.36)* -0.008(-1.03) 0.02(2.19)* -0.054(2.26)** -0.05(-2.12) 215 0.84
*

GMM 5.43(3.33)** 0.3(2.17)* 0.62(1.29)* -0.22(1.69)* 0.25(1.58)* -0.09(-1.9)* 0.36(4.22)*** 0.01(0.25) 0.5(1.54)*

0.13(1.02) -0.26(-2.1)* 216 0.68

*, ** and *** represent 0.10, 0.05 and 0.01 levels of statistical significance, respectively The AR1 estimates differ slightly from OLS, GMM with some improvements, and all parameters are still significant at the 10 percent level or below. So we will only refer to the AR1 results in the rest of the paper. As expected, the regional specialization is positively correlated with wheat productivity. The regional dummies in North, Northwest, Central, and Southwest Iran are statistically significant. We find no significant relationships between wheat yield and rainfall and Temperature However, the temperature has a significantly negative effect on wheat yield. Because we use double-log functional form, the estimated coefficients are elasticities in the above equation. The coefficient for temperature, 0.084, means a one percent increase of growing season temperature could reduce wheat yield by 0.084 percent. On the other hand, coefficient for precipitation has positive 0.067 on wheat yied, means a one percent increase of growing precipitation might increase wheat yield by 0.067 percent. Since our major focus is to measure the contribution of growing season temperature on wheat yield, it is convenient to treat other terms in Equation (1) as residual effect. By subtracting the non-climate terms from the wheat yield, we single out the wheat yield as: change due to climate change. We define Yield
C lim ate

ln Yield C lim ate = ln Yield it (a 0 + a 1t ) b j ln X jit r1 D1


j =1 I =1

This estimated effect of temperature on wheat yield is smaller than the previous four studies: rice in Philippines (Peng et al. 2004), wheat in Australia (Nichalls 1997), corn and soybean in USA (Lobell and Asner 2003), wheat in china (Liangzhi et al 2005) Table 3 shows the comparison among these studies. The reason for this is two-fold: this might reflect the nonlinear effect of physical inputs and crop management on crop yields (Gu 2003; Godden, Batterham and Drynan 1998), or imply that the temperature effect on crop yields varies from one region to another, or from crop to crop. Table 3 - Comparison: Impact of 1oC increase of growing season temperature

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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Study Nichalls (1997) Lobell & Asner (2003) Peng et al (2004) Liangzhi et al (2005)

Crop Wheat Corn, Soybean Rice Wheat

Location Australia USA Philippines China

Impact +30~+50% -17% -10% -2%~-5%

To assess the relative contribution of rising growing season temperature on the wheat yield, we take the first derivative of Equation (1) with respect to t (Lin 1992; Fan and Pardey 1997; Liangzhi et al 2005).

ln Yieldit = (a 0 + a 1t ) +

b j ln X jit + w ln C lim ateit +

r D + e
i i I =1

it

Table 4 reports the growth accounting based on the estimate of the wheat yield function in column 1 of Table 2. The total wheat yield growth from 1992 to 2005 was 78.88 percent. From the accounting in Table 4, it appears that 77.55 percent of this yield growth comes from increased use of physical inputs. Rising temperature attributed to 0.76 percent of decline in wheat yield. This negative contribution is relatively small compared to that of physical inputs, which underlines the necessity of including physical inputs in the regression analysis of crop yield-climate interactions. Table 4 -Accounting for wheat yield growth. The estimated coefficients are taken from Table 2, and the change in explanatory variable refers to percentage growth of that variable from 1979-81 to 1998-2000 (three year averages are taken to avoid atypical year). The numbers in parentheses are the percentage shares of contribution to total wheat yield growth, with total yield growth set at 100.
1992-2005 Contribution to growth (3)=(1)X(2) 77.55 10.2(12.9) 2.7(3.3) 26.8(1.2) 37.6(47.7) -0.76(0.95) 0.95(0.9) 78.88(100) Change in explanatory variable(2) 154 154 547 94 11.3 11.2 Estimated Coefficient (1) 0.066 0.017 0.049 0.4 -0.084 0.067 Chemical fertilizer Pesticide Machinery Seeds Temperature Precipitation TOTAL GROWTH Explanatory variable INPUTS

Finaly Uses of Sensitivity Analysis how the optimal solution changes in different circumstances .SA can be used to assess the riskiness of a strategy or scenario. By observing the range of objective function values for the two strategies in different circumstances, the extent of the difference in riskiness can be estimated and subjectively factored into the decision. Table 5 reports the different scenario on the estimate of the wheat yield provinces in Iran. Effect the different scenario show rainfall affecter than Temperature. In this scenario 1-4 temperature is fix and precipitation increasing or decreasing; golestan, lorestan and tabriz most reflect to change precipitation .on the other hand in scenario 5-7 precipitation is fix and temperature increasing or decreasing; most change is in khozestan. Also scenario 8-10 precipitation and temperature increasing or decreasing; Table 5- Accounting different scenario for wheat yield provinces
Provinces/senario Temperature Precipitation Ardabil Oromih Asfehan Tabriz Tehran Khorasan Khozestan Fars Qazvin Golestan Hamedan Kermanshah Lorestan 1 0 15 0.22 0.48 0.19 0.62 0.35 0.41 0.4 0.41 0.5 0.76 0.44 0.38 0.74 2 0 -10 -0.15 -0.32 -0.13 -0.42 -0.23 -0.27 -0.27 -0.27 -0.33 -0.53 -0.29 -0.25 -0.49 3 0 7 0.11 0.22 0.09 0.29 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.23 0.37 0.21 0.18 0.35 4 0 -5 -0.07 -0.16 -0.06 -0.21 -0.12 -0.14 -0.14 -0.14 -0.17 -0.26 -0.15 -0.13 -0.25 5 15 0 -0.01 -0.02 -0.03 -0.02 -0.03 -0.02 -0.05 -0.03 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02 6 7 0 -0.006 -0.007 -0.01 -0.009 -0.01 -0.01 -0.03 -0.013 -0.009 -0.01 -0.009 -0.01 -0.01 7 -5 0 0.004 0.005 0.008 0.006 0.006 0.007 0.02 0.009 0.007 0.008 0.006 0.007 0.005 8 15 5 0.09 0.18 0.09 0.23 0.14 0.19 0.18 0.16 0.19 0.29 0.23 0.15 0.26 9 7 -5 -0.07 -0.15 -0.05 -0.2 -0.11 -0.13 -0.11 -0.12 -0.16 -0.25 -0.2 -0.23 -0.24 10 -15 -10 -0.016 -0.34 -0.15 -0.43 -0.26 -0.29 -0.32 -0.03 -0.35 -0.55 -0.43 -0.28 -0.51

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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CONCLUSION While the majority of wheat productivity increase is due to increase use of physical inputs and the institutional change, the gradual increase in growing season temperature and precipitation in the last few decades has had a measurable effect on wheat productivity. In this paper, we have evaluated the impacts of climate and non-climate factors on wheat yield growth in Iran, and find that a one percent increase in wheat growing season temperature reduces the yield by about 0.084 percent. The rising temperature from 1992- 2005 cut wheat yield growth by 0.76 percent. There is a deficiency in the current literature about how to measure the influence of climate on productivity. Authors frequently fail to distinguish between climate factors and the influence of modern inputs and management practice on productivity. We emphasize the necessity of including such major influencing factors as physical inputs into crop yieldclimate functions in order to have an accurate estimation of climate impact on crop yields. With so much uncertainty on the potential impacts of climate change, it is essential to first evaluate what past climate changes have had on agricultural productivity. Our study demonstrates a clear need to synthesize climate and crop-specific management and inputs data in order to investigate the impact of climate change. In Iran, providing enough food to feed over 72 million people is always a challenge. There is an increasing concern about the impacts of climate change on Chinese food security. Our study shows that climate change does have a measurable negative impact on wheat Productivity. This negative impact would probably become worse with accelerating change of future climate. Our study demonstrates the need to consider climate change and its effects on crop productivity in order to meet the food security goals in Iran as well as in other developing countries. There is also a need to extend such studies to other regions, in particular to food insecure countries where climate change would have the most severe adverse impact on crop productivity. REFERENCES
Brown, R. A. and N. J. Rosenberg. 1997. Sensitivity of crop yield and water use to Change in a range of climatic factors and CO2 concentrations: a simulation study USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 83: 171-203 Carter, C. and B. Zhang. 1998. Weather factor and variability in Chinas grain supply Comparative Econ 26: 529-543 Cassman, K.G. 1999. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture. Proc. National Academies of Science USA 96: 5952-5955 Conway, G. and G. Toenniessen. 1999. Feeding the world in the twenty-first century Nature 402: C55-C58 Evenson, R.E. and D. Gollin. 2003. Assessing the impact of the Green Revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science 300: 758-762. Fan, S. and P. Pardey. 1997. Research, productivity, and output growth in Chinese agriculture. J. of Development Economics 53: 115-137. Godden, D., R. Batterham, and R. Drynan. 1998. Comment on Climate change and Australian wheat yield Nature 391: 447. Gu, L. 2003. Comment on Climate and management contributions to recent trends in U.S. agricultural yields Science 300: 1505b. Hausman, J. 1978. Specification tests in econometrics. Econmetrica 46: 1251-1271. Lin, J.y. 1992. Rural reforms and agricultural growth in China. American Economic Review 82: 34-51. Liangzhi, y. Mark, w. Cheng, F.and Stanly, W. 2005.Impact of Global Warm ing on Chinese Wheat productivity. International Food Policy Research Institute .Ept Discussion paper 143. Lobell, D. and G. Asner. 2003. Climate and management contributions to recent trends in U.S. agricultural yields. Science 299: 1032. itchell, T.D., T.R. Carter, P.D. Jones, M. Hulme, and M. New. 2005. A comprehensive set of climate scenarios for Europe and the global. Journal of Climate (submitted) Naylor, R., W. Falcon, N. Wada, and D. Rochberg. 2002. Using El Nio-southern oscillation climate data to improve food policy planning in Indonesia. Bulletin Indonesian Economic Studies 38: 75-88. Nichalls, N. 1997. Increased Australian wheat yield due to recent climate trends. Nature 387, 484-485, 1997 Peng, S., J. Huang, J.E. Sheehy, R.C. Laza, R.M. Visperas, X. Zhong, G.S. Centeno, G.S. Khush, and K.G. Cassman. 2004. Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proc. National Academies of Science USA 101, 9971-9975, 2004 Ramsey, J. B. 1969. Tests for specification error in classical linear least squares regression analysis. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. B31: 250-271. Reilly, J., F. Tubiello, B. McCarl, D. Abler, R. Darwin, K. Fuglie, S. Hollinger, C. Izaurralde, S. Jagtap, J. Jones, L. Mearns, D. Ojima, E. Paul, K. Paustian, S. Riha, N. Rosenberg, and C. Rosenzweig. U.S. agriculture and climate change: new results. Climatic Change 57: 43-69, 2003. Rosegrant, M.W., Cline, S. A.2003. Global food security: challenge and policies. Science 302, 1917-1920, 2003 Rosenzweig, C., Parry, M.1994. Potential impact of climate change on world food supply. Nature 367, 133-138, 1994 Stavis, B.1997. Market reforms and changes in crop productivity: insight from China. Pacific Affairs, Vol.64:371-383, 1997 Wu, D. 1973. Alternative Tests of Independence Between Stochastic Regressors and Disturbances. Econmetrica, 41: 733-750, 1973 . Evenson, R.E. and D. Gollin. 2003. Crop variety improvement and its effect on productivity: the impact of international agricultural research. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. applying EPIC to the central

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: MODERN TOOL TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE


Amit Kesarwani1, Sharanappa2, Shih Shiung Chen1
1

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Sciences, Bangalore-65, Karnataka, India

Chung Hsing University-40227, Taichung, Taiwan Email: gekesar@gmail.com (first author)


2

ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted to know the effect of organic nutrient sources on sweet sorghum for juice and ethanol production at Bangalore (India) during kharif 2006 under rainfed conditions. In ten different treatments recommended dose of fertilizer produce higher millable stalk, juice and ethanol yield (51.85 tonnes/ha, 21.93 kilolitre/ha and 745.62 litres/ha, respectively), followed by integration of organic and inorganic sources which was attributed to the increase in growth and yield parameters. Similarly, juice yield and ethanol yield was also significantly superior due to juice quality parameters and juice yield; on contrary, pure organic sources not superior but challenged to provide promising millable stalk and ethanol production in a hectare (44.44 tonnes/ha and 619.75 litres/ha respectively). This shows bright future for biofuel through organic sources without threatening environmental pollution and climate change. Keywords: organic agriculture, panchgavya, biofuel, sweet sorghum, ethanol, compost INTRODUCTION Organic agriculture is a systematic and encompassing approach to sustainable livelihoods as a farming system. But, to mitigate the anticipated danger of global changes in the environment and energy sustainability, organic agriculture found robust and giant leap in the modern era of farming. Intensive input based Green Revolution jeopardizes the current generation with unprecedented situation due to petroleum based chemical fertilizers and herbicides which cause loss of ecosystem, health and food. Sweet sorghum is special purpose sorghum with a sugar-rich stalk, similar to sugarcane. Besides having rapid growth, high sugar accumulation, and biomass production potential, sweet sorghum has wider adaptability given that water availability is poised to become a major constraint to agricultural production, in coming years cultivation of sugarcane constrained by water scarcity. Sweet sorghum uses less N and water compared to maize [8], and can yield more ethanol production per acre with fewer inputs [10]. Burning petroleum for power contributes to a major portion of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, raising concerns about global climate change.According to the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), India could save nearly 80 million L of petrol annually if petrol is blended with alcohol by 10 per cent [3]. The requirement of ethanol in India to blend with petrol (10 %) is about 1000 million L and for blending with diesel (5 %) another 3000 million L per annum. Total ethanol requirement including other purposes is 5000 million L per annum. The possible ethanol production from available sugarcane molasses (8.2 million t) and other sources is 2000 million L per annum. This leaves a deficit of 3000 million L of ethanol per annum. The existing distilleries operate at 50 % efficiency and needs alternate raw material(s) to operate at their full efficiency [2]. In the United States, fuel ethanol production grew from virtually nothing in 1980 to about 8100million litres (2100 million gallons) by 2002. Although Brazil is the leading producer of fuel ethanol in the world today, ethanol use is growing faster in the United States due to environmental concerns, and a federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) appears likely that could triple ethanol use at the end of ten years, propelling the United States ahead of Brazil. However, other countries including Canada (around 100million litres or 26million gallons in 2002), France (116 million litres or 31million gallons in 2002, mostly from beet sugar), and Spain (100 million litres or 26million gallons in 2002 from grain, and an expected output of 325million litres or 86million gallons by 2006 which would place the country as the first producer of fuelethanol in Europe) also produce ethanol, and the European Commission has the goal of substituting 8% of conventional vehicle fuels with ethanol and biodiesel by 2020 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions [24].The underutilization of the existing molasses-based ethanol distilleries and the deficit in ethanol requirement can be made good if sweet sorghum cultivation is promoted for ethanol production. A wealth of information is available on the beneficial effects of the individual organic manures or inorganic fertilizers. However, information on effect of organic source of N on growth, juice quality and yield with particular reference to sweet sorghum is meagre. With this background in view, a field experiment was carried out at the Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra (GKVK), Bangalore (India) during kharif 2006 under rainfed conditions, to find out the effect of organic nutrient management practices on the stalk yield and juice quality of sweet sorghum for ethanol production.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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MATERIAL AND METHODS Site characteristics A field experiment was carried out at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore located at 120 580N latitude and 770 350E at 930 MASL (mean above sea level) during kharif 2006 under rainfed conditions on the red sandy loam soils with pH 6.97, organic carbon 0.62 per cent, low in available N, medium in available phosphorus and potassium of 246.50, 29.20 and 221.30 kg ha-1, respectively. Cultural methods In an advance, for conducting an experiment some traditional locally practiced organic nutrient sources were prepared. Panchagavya is prepared from the five products of indigenous cow i.e., cow dung, cow urine, cow milk, curd, cow ghee and additives like sugarcane juice/jaggery, coconut water and ripe banana which were used in preparation. Panchagavya proved to be an organic growth promoter and boost the plant hormones to resitance against the infectious disease and some harmful insects. It found promising in flowering of crops and resulted in higher yield production [18]. Beejamrutha was prepared by using cow dung and lime water for better vigourness and growth of plant seed as seed treatment and Jeevamrutha was prepared by using cowurine, cowdung, jaggery, Bengal gram flour and one handful of soil from the field for the soil application to enhance the microbial fauna. The organic manures viz., compost, vermicompost and neem cake was analyzed for available N content [9] which was approx. 1.12, 1.65 and 1.9 percent, respectively and manures applied equivalent to N requirement through recommended dose in amount of 8.93, 6.05 and 5.26 t ha-1, respectively as soil application. There were ten treatments laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The details are as below. T1: 100 % recommended N through compost T2: 75 % recommended N through compost + 25 % recommended N through neemcake (top dressing) T3: 75 % recommended N through compost + 25 % recommended N through vermicompost (top dressing) T4: 100 % recommended N through compost + panchagavya @ 1% (spraying at 30 DAS and flowering stage) T5: 100 % recommended N through compost +Subhash Palekars method [beejamrutha (seed treatment) + jeevamrutha (soil application) + straw mulch] T6: 100 % recommended N through compost + biofertilizers (Azospirillum + Azotobacter +PSB) T7: Subhash Palekars method [beejamrutha (seed treatment) + jeevamrutha (soil application) + straw mulch] T8: 75 % recommended N through compost + 25 % recommended N through fertilizers T9: Recommended dose of fertilizers @ 100:75:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 T10: Control The sweet sorghum cultivar SSV-74 was sown in rows 45 cm spaced at 15 cm intrarow spacing on July, 2006. Irrigations were provided to maintain optimum soil moisture throughout the crop growth. Four to five days before sowing, well decomposed compost was incorporated and mixed into the soil for each plot as per the treatments. A day before sowing Jeevamrutha was sprayed at the rate of 500 litre ha-1. Panchagavya was sprayed at 1% solution at 30th day after sowing and at flowering stage. On the day of sowing, Beejamrutha and biofertilizers (Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Phosporus Solubilising bacteria PSB) were applied as seed treatment. Vermicompost and neem cake were top dressed after eight days of sowing by opening shallow furrows at the required row spacing. Recommended dose of fertilizer at the rate of 100:75:40 kg NPK ha-1 were placed as per treatments and thoroughly mixed into the soil (fig. 1). Urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash were used as nutrient sources. Nitrogen was applied in three equal splits, first application at the time of sowing and remaining at 20th and 40th day after sowing. The entire quantity of P2O5 and K2O was applied at the time of sowing as basal dose.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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Fig.1. Growth of sweet sorghum at 75 DAS: (T9) application of recommended dose of fertilizer (100:75:40 kg NPK ha-1); (T8) application of 75 % rec. N through compost + 25 % rec. N through fertilizer; (T5) application of 100 % rec. N through compost + Subhash Palekars method; (T10) control Plant measurements The biometrical (crop growth, yield parameters, millable stalk) observations were recorded at various growth stages (viz., seedling emergence, 30, 45, 60, 75 days after sowing and at harvest) of the crop. Calculations The yield components, millable stalk yield and total biological yield (t ha-1) juice yield (kl ha-1) and quality parameters with ethanol (l ha-1) were recorded and calculated at 90 days after sowing. The juice pH was determined by using pH meter following the standard procedure [13]. Juice brix values were recorded by using hand refractometer and the specific gravity of juice is calculated as the ratio of juice weight to juice volume and expressed in g cc-1. Reducing and non-reducing sugars in juice sample were estimated following the standard procedure [15] [11] and expressed in terms of g per 100 ml of juice; similarly the ethanol was estimated by colorimetric method [6]. Statistical analysis Data recorded on various characters were subjected to Fishers method of analysis of variance and interpretation of data was done according to standard method [21]. The level of significance used in f andt tests were P = 0.05, critical difference values were calculated wherever the f test was significant. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect on Growth and yield Different nutrient sources showed varied nature of effect on sweet sorghum millable stalk and ethanol yield. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) i.e., T9 showed significant improvement and increased millable stalk, juice and ethanol yield

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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(51.85 t ha-1, 21.93 kl ha-1 and 745.62 l ha-1, respectively), however, it was on par with the application of 75 % recommended N through compost + 25 % recommended N through fertilizers (46.80 t ha-1, 18.82 kl ha-1 and 649.29 l ha-1, respectively) shown in figure 2 & 3. Inorganic fertilizer sole and in integration performed significantly well in higher millable stalk yield which was attributed to higher dry matter production per plant, taller plants, more number of internodes, length of internode and stem girth (table 1). Similar results were corroborated with the findings of previous work also [20] in silage sorghum where integration of inorganic and organic nutrient source work as ultimate source to provide immediate and subsequent nutrition requirement overall plant growth. Early seedling emergence, significantly higher leaf area index (LAI) and number of leaves in these treatments were responsible for high solar radiation interception, carbon dioxide assimilation coupled with better nutrients availability (Table 1). These results are in conformity with other relevant works [7] [22] [19] of different sorghum cultivars.

Our experiments have shown that organic composts have considerable potential for improving plant growth significantly and ultimately yield when used as amendment to soil (table 1) compared to control. Millable stalk, juice and ethanol yield of sweet sorghum recorded with the application of 100 % recommended N through compost + Subhash Palekars method (44.44 t ha-1, 16..6 kl ha-1 and 619.75 l ha-1, respectively) were intermediate as compared to RDF and integration of organics and inorganics. Further studies reported higher millable stalk yield of sweet sorghum with urban compost at 16 t ha-1 (40.48 t ha-1) also [23]. This may be attributed to the values of growth (data not shown) and yield parameters may be due to release of nutrients slowly overall growth of plants, rest of the nutrient sources shown not satisfactory growth improvement but the effect of compost or vermicompost on plant growth depends on the source of material used for compost or vermicompost preparation, role of microorganisms and nutrient content. Table 1. Growth and yield parameters of sweet sorghum as influenced by different organic sources of nutrients.
Days to seedling emergence 7.3 7.3 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.7 6.3 5.7 7.3 0.4 NS Total dry No. of Plant Leaf area matter acNumber of leaves at 75 height (cm) index (LAI) cumulation internode 1 DAS at harvest at 75 DAS (g plant ) at harvest 10.5 236.3 3.86 78.17 9.9 10.8 11.1 10.9 11.7 11.0 10.7 11.9 12.5 8.8 0.6 1.6 240.1 247.4 240.7 258.1 240.7 237.1 266.2 274.3 209.1 10.7 31.8 4.09 4.83 4.35 5.02 4.53 3.88 5.78 5.94 3.00 0.24 0.70 86.83 100.83 88.0 102.67 91.83 85.5 123.33 126.5 72.83 3.66 10.89 10.7 11.1 10.7 11.3 10.9 10.3 11.4 11.5 10.1 0.4 NS Length of internode (cm) 21.1 22.9 23.7 23.1 24.6 23.5 22.1 25.9 26.0 21.9 0.9 2.5 Girth of stem (cm) 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.1 1.8 2.4 2.4 1.5 0.1 0.2

Treatment T1: 100% Rec. N through C T2: 75% Rec. N through C + 25% Rec. N through NC T3 : 75% Rec. N through C + 25% Rec. N through VC T4 : 100% Rec. N through C + PG T5 : 100% Rec. N through C + SP method T6 : 100% Rec. N through C + BF T7: SP method T8: 75% Rec. N through C + 25% Rec. N through Fertilizers T9: RDF (100:75:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1) T10: Control S.E.m CD at 5%

NS: Non significant; DAS: Days after sowing C: Compost @ 8.9 t ha-1; NC: Neem Cake @ 5.26 t ha-1; PG: Panchagavya @ 1%

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(spraying at 30 DAS and flowering stage); VC: vermicompost @ 6 t ha-1; SP method: Subhash Palekars method [Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application) + Straw mulch]; BF: Biofertilizers (Azospirillum + Azotobacter + phosphate solubilising bacteria) Possible reason might be the short term only a season application of these compost had slow release of nutrients from these organic sources which doesnt match the nutrient demand of intensive nutrient consuming sweet sorghum even under favourable environment and soil moisture conditions but had great chance for more improvement as soil health increased under this experiment through organic sources (data not shown). Similar results are in conformity with earlier researches [16] [17] which recorded improvement in stalk yield of sweet sorghum under composts. Effect on juice quality and ethanol In the present study it was also observed that due to higher millable stalk, juicy and succulent stalks of stem with thicker diameter, resulted significantly higher juice extractability and juice extraction per cent (423.71 ml kg-1 and 42.3 %, respectively) with RDF (T9) which was followed by integration of fertilizer with compost (T8) (409.39 ml kg-1 and 40.2 %, respectively) (Table 2). Other previous observation also reported similar findings of higher juice yield in sweet sorghum [14] [12], whereas, few works found similar findings with 120 kg N ha-1 application [5]. The availability of N throughout the active growth period may be the cause for higher juice yield. Considering the organic nutrient sources, the observation follow the same trend of previous yield parameters and application of 100 % recommended N through compost + Subhash Palekars method (T5) recorded intermediate juice yield which was 30.28 per cent lower than RDF application. Table 2. Juice quality parameters of sweet sorghum as influenced by organic sources of nutrients
Treatment T1: 100% Rec. N through C T2: 75% Rec. N through C + 25% Rec. N through NC T3 : 75% Rec. N through C + 25% Rec. N through VC T4 : 100% Rec. N through C + PG T5 : 100% Rec. N through C + SP method T6 : 100% Rec. N through C + BF T7: SP method T8: 75% Rec. N through C + 25% Rec. N through Fertilizers T9: RDF (100:75:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1) T10: Control S.E.m CD at 5% Juice extraction % 31.2 32.7 36.1 33.0 37.5 34.3 32.0 40.2 42.3 28.4 1.3 3.8 Juice extractability (ml kg-1) 311.24 329.87 366.95 330.91 375.96 344.40 317.72 409.39 423.71 250.98 25.21 74.89 Brix (%) 12.0 12.5 14.4 14.2 13.0 13.8 12.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 0.2 0.6 Reducing sugar Non-reducing (g 100 ml-1 of sugar (g 100 juice) ml-1 of juice) 3.88 8.05 3.60 3.80 4.92 3.68 1.36 3.72 1.43 3.50 1.22 0.05 0.14 8.85 10.54 9.18 9.25 12.36 8.23 13.43 10.38 11.71 0.19 0.55

C: Compost @ 8.9 t ha-1; NC: Neem Cake @ 5.26 t ha-1; PG: Panchagavya @ 1% (spraying at 30 DAS and flowering stage); VC: Vermicompost @ 6 t ha-1; SP method: Subhash Palekars method [Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application) + Straw mulch]; BF: Biofertilizers (Azospirillum + Azotobacter + phosphate solubilising bacteria) Table 2 shown higher brix (%) with RDF (14.0%) and fertilizers with compost (15.0%), which was responsible for higher ethanol production. Results are in conformity with earlier work [1], however, application of 100 % recommended N through compost alone recorded 54.77 per cent lower ethanol yield in respect of RDF. Thus, application of composts used in the studies at higher concentrations was antagonistic, rather than synergistic to plant growth. Reducing and non-reducing sugar found lower with RDF and integration with compost as compared to other treatments. Certain findings also revealed decrease in juice quality with increase in nitrogen application [4]. CONCLUSIONS Therefore, despite better performance recorded with inorganic sources, there is still room in the concern of environmental safety for the use of organic by-products which in turn not only improve the soil health but also have great potential to increase the productivity of stalk and juice yield. In order to provide application of organic sources in the field, which could be the satisfactorily alternate solution for inorganic fertilizers in the future need further assessment of nutrient analysis in these sources and their consumption rate with any antagonistic effect. REFERENCES
[1] Agnal, M.B. Studies on the response of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes to levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in black soils under rainfed conditions. M. Sc. (Agriculture) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 1990. [2] Anonymous. Study report on technological aspects in manufacturing ethyl alcohol from cereal grains in Maharashtra. Part-II, Mitcon consultancy services limited, Pune, 2004, pg. 157.

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[4] Balaguravaiah, D., Vijaykumar, T. and Ramalingaswamy, K. Effect of soil fertility gradients and nitrogen levels of NPK uptake and quality of sugarcane. Andhra Agricultural Journal, 1986, 33 (1), 67-77. [3] Arbatti, S.V. Brief review of alcohol industry. Bharatiya Sugar, 2001, March, 119121. [5] Balasubramanian, A. and Ramamoorthy, K. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on juice yield and quality of sweet sorghum. Madras Agricultural Journal, 1996, 83(7), 464. [6] Caputi, A., Ueda, J.M. and Brown, T. Spectrophotometric determination of chromic complex formed during oxidation of alcohol. American Journal of Ethanol Viticulture, 1968, 19, 160-165. [7] Gawai, P.P. and Pawar, V.S. Integrated nutrient management in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)-chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cropping sequence under irrigated conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 2006, 51(1), 17-20. [8] Geng, S., Hills, F.J., Johnson, S.S. and Sah, R.N. Potential yields and on-farm ethanol production cost of corn, sweet sorghum, fodderbeet, and sugarbeet. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 1989, 162, 21-29. [9] Jackson, M.L., 1973, Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. [10] Keeney, D.R., and DeLuca, T.H. Biomass as an energy source for the Midwestern U.S. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 1992, 7, 137-144. [11] Lal Singh. Practical Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Emerald Printers, Dehradun, India, 1987, 156-158. [12] Mallikarjun, H. Response of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] genotypes to population levels during summer in vertisols. M.Sc. (Agriculture) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 1993. [13] Mathur, R.L. Hand book of cane sugar Technology. IBH Publishing Company, Bombay, 1978, pg.483. [14] Meli, S.S. Studies on fertilizer and plant population requirements of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes for increased growth and sugar recovery. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 1989. [15] Miller, G.L. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 1959, 31, 426-428. [16] Naganagouda, M. Response of kharif pop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes to integrated nutrient management in black soils under rainfed conditions, M. Sc. (Agriculture) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2001. [17] Navindu Gupta, Ramesh Kumar, P., Naveen Chand, Sushil Kumar and Joshi, H.C. Potential use of MSW compost and sewage sludge in wheat. Extended summaries Vol. 1-2nd International Agronomy Congress, Nov. 26-30, 2002, New Delhi, India, 2002, 1168-1169. [18] Nayagam, G. Indigenous paddy cultivation-Experiences of a farmer Sri. Gomathy Nayagam. Pesticide Post, 2001, 9 (3), 1. [19] Negalur, R.B. Response of kharif pop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes to farm yard manure and mineral fertilizer in black soil under rainfed conditions. M. Sc. (Agriculture) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2000. [20] Nemeth, T. and Izsaki, Z. Effect of N-supply on the dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake of silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench). Cereal Research Communications, 2005, 33(1), 81-84. [21] Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers, 4th Ed. Published by ICAR, New Delhi, 1985, pg.539. [22] Parasuraman, P., Duraisamy, P. and Mani, A.K. Effect of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers on soil fertility under double cropping system in rainfed red soils. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 2000, 45(2), 242-247. [23] Rukmangada Reddy, S. Effect of FYM, sewage sludge and urban compost on grain yield and juice quality of sweet sorghum [(Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)]. M. Sc. (Agriculture) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 2004. [24] Wyman, C.E. Ethanol Fuel. In: Cutler J. Cleveland (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Energy. Elsevier Inc., New York, 2004, 541555.

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BORON APPLICATION METHOD AND DOSES ON yIELD AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
Aslhan Esring, Adem Gunes, Nizamettin Ataoglu, Metin Turan* Atatrk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 25240 Erzurum, TURKEY. esringua@hotmail.com, ademgunes@atauni.edu.tr, nataoglu25@hotmail.com, *corresponding author: mturan@atauni.edu.tr

ABSTRACT Boron (B) deficiency is widespread in the Anatolia region of Turkey. This could impact production and quality of wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Greenhouse experiment was conducted to study dry weight and element contents response of Bezostiya cultivars to B addition (0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 kg B ha-1) with 4 different B applications (SDC, SA, SSS, and FA) methods. We conclude that both B application doses and application method affected the RDW, SDW and TDW of wheat. The highest root (5.7 g pot-1), straw (68.5 g pot-1), and total dry weight (74.2 g pot-1) were obtained from SDC application method. Boron application decreased leaf tissue Ca, and Mg, and increased N, P, K, S Zn, and Fe content of plant. B concentrations in plant leaves tissue were correlated to yield but, beyond the OBR for TDW of plant, tissue B continued to increase without significant increases in yield. Key Words Boron deficiency, critical tissue B content, dry matter, macro and micro nutrient, optimum boron ratio. INTRODUCTION Plant species differ in their capacity to take up B, even when they are grown in the same soil. B deficiency causes grain set failure

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in bread wheat and barley [1]. It lowers the number of grains per spike, grain yield and grain set index in wheat via suppression of the growth of flowering organs without any apparent effect on number of spikes per m2, number of spikelets per spike, average size of the spike, or component florets per spikelet [1, 2]. B deficiency was considered to be the main reason for sterility in susceptible wheat genotypes since B application reduced sterility from 42.6% to 4.5% [3]. Since B has important effects on reproductive organs that directly affect grain yield, the main effects of B deficiency are usually expressed during generative development rather than in vegetative plant parts [1, 4]. The Eastern Anatolian region has a total cereal production of around 9.4 million ton, constituting 7% of the total Turkish cereal production [5]. The soils in Eastern Anatolia are typical of those in arid and semi-arid regions. They have low organic matter, high free-lime content, high pH, and usually a fine texture. These properties are all well-known factors affecting the availability of micronutrients [6]. One of the challenges in wheat production in Turkey is its sensitivity to B deficiency [7, 8] and B toxicity [9, 10]. Limited studies on B deficiency of various crops including wheat suggest a critical soil solution content ranging from 0.5 mg of B kg-1 [11] to 1.0 mg of B kg-1 [12] and 2.4 mg B kg-1 [13], and a critical leaf B concentration of 15 mg kg-1. However, additional studies are needed as soil chemical and physical properties and species selection will influence B availability to and uptake by plants possibly resulting in large variability in optimum economic B rates (OEBRs) for various crops and soils. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the OEBR for wheat grown on B-deficient calcareous Aridisols in Eastern Turkey, (2) determine best fertilizer application method and obtain critical soil test and tissue B values for total yield production, and (3) to evaluate the impact of B addition on tissue mineral content. MATERIALS AND METHODS Initial soil sampling and characterization Soil was sampled from the Ap horizon (0-20 cm) of an Aridisol [14]with parent materials mostly consisting of volcanic, marn and lacustrin residual and transported material in Erzurum province (39 55 N, 41 61 E), Turkey. Soil was air-dried indoors until it could be crumbled to pass through 4 mm for the pot experiment and crushed to 2 mm for chemical and physical analyses. Particle size analysis was performed by the pipette method after pre-treatment with 35% H2O2 and 1.0 M HCl to remove organic matter and carbonates according to Gee and Bauder [15]. Bulk density was determined with the graduated cylinder method [16] and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was determined using sodium acetate (buffered at pH 8.2) and ammonium acetate (buffered at pH 7.0) according to Sumner and Miller [17]. The Kjeldahl method [18] was used to determine organic N while plant-available P was determined by using the sodium bicarbonate method of Olsen et al. [19]. Electrical conductivity (EC) was measured in saturation extracts according to Rhoades [20]. Soil pH was determined in 1:2 extracts, and calcium carbonate concentrations were determined according to McLean [21]. Soil organic matter was determined using the Smith-Weldon method according to Nelson and Sommers [22]. Ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7 [23] was used to determine exchangeable cations. Micro elements in the soils were determined by Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) extraction methods [24]. Samples were analyzed for extractable B using the azomethine-H extraction of Wolf [25]and a UV/VIS (Aqumat) spectrophotometer (Thermo Electron Spectroscopy LTD, Cambridge, UK). These soil characterization data are presented in Table 1. Plant Analysis Plant samples were oven-dried at 68oC for 48 h and ground to pass 1mm sieve. Flag leaf of each treatment were analyzed for N, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B content to assess the relationship between plant mineral content and soil B content and application rate. The Kjeldahl method and a Vapodest 10 Rapid Kjeldahl Distillation Unit (Gerhardt, Konigswinter, Germany) were used to determine total N [18]. Macro- (P, S, K, Ca and Mg ) and micro-elements (Fe, Mn, Zn Cu, and B) were determined after wet digestion of dried and ground sub-samples using a HNO3-H2O2 acid mixture (2:3 v/v) with three step (first step; 145C, 75%RF, 5 min; second step; 180C, 90%RF, 10 min and third step; 100C, 40%RF, 10 min) in microwave (Bergof Speedwave Microwave Digestion Equipment MWS-2) [26]. Tissue P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B were determined Inductively Couple Plasma spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer, Optima 2100 DV, ICP/OES, Shelton, CT 06484-4794, USA) [27]. Pot experiment The experiments were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four B application rates (0, 1, 3, and 9 kg ha-1 as Na2B4O7. 10 H2O) four application method ; seed contacted with dry B fertilizer (SDC), seed soaked in the B solution waited 2h (SSS), soil application (SA), and foliar fertilizer application (FA) and three replications. Initial soil B levels amounted to 0.10-0.11 mg kg-1, reflecting a B deficiency at bezostiya cv. sites [11, 12, 13]. NH4NO3 (33 %N) and1 K2SO4 (50% K2O) were used as fertilizers in the study. Soil tests did not indicate a need for additional K so no K fertilizer was applied. Soil was mixed with the equivalent of 120 kg N ha-1 and 80 kg K ha-and placed in 45 polyethylene pots (25 cm diameter and 18 cm depth) sterilized with 20% sodium hypochlorite solution (3 kg soil pot-1). Bezostiya genotype, described as a winter-habit wheat genotype, released for irrigated conditions, red and 45 g 1000-seed weight, tall (102 cm), resistant to lodging, cold, and stripe rust resistant was used in this study. Bezostiya cv. was sown at a rate of 475 seeds/ m2. Plants were grown into a greenhouse under a natural day-night cycle, 25-16C and 55% relative humidity during the experimental period. The water content of the soil was maintained at 70% of field capacity (375 g kg-1) throughout the 90 d experiments by daily additions of dionized water, and plants were harvested 90 d after planting and washed with dionized water to remove soil particles.

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Statistical analysis Data gathered at each location were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant means were compared using the Duncan multiple range test, performed using SPSS 13.0 [28]. Mean differences were considered significant when P 0.05. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION yield and yield parameters Different boron fertilizer application method and doses affected the root dry weight (RDW), straw dry weight (SDW) and total dry weight (TDW) of wheat (Figure 1 and Figure 2). The highest root (5.7 g pot-1), straw (68.5 g pot-1), and total dry weight (74.2 g pot-1) were obtained from SDC application method with optimum B ranges (OBRs) that ranged from 4.2 kg B ha-1 to 5.2 kg B ha-1for SDW, and from 3.9 kg B ha-1 to 4.6 kg B ha-1 for TDW (Figure 1.). Without B addition, the average RDW, SDW and TDW were determined 3.15 g pot-1, 45.3 g pot-1, and 48.5 g pot-1, respectively. Compared to without B fertilizer, these increases ratio were 80% and 51%, and 53% at applied at the 3 kg ha-1 with SDC respectively, (Figure 1). The optimum B rates (OBRs) for TDW in our study were higher than 1.20 kg B ha-1 rates obtained Ross [29], 1.3 kg B ha-1 Oplinger et al. [30], 0.5 kg B ha-1 , Santos et al. [31], 1.5 kg B ha-1 Moniruzzaman [32] for soybean (Glycine max Merr. L), cotton (Gossipium hirsutum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Crioula) and bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), but lower than the 8.0 kg B ha-1 obtained by Oyinlola [33]. This result can be attributed initial soil B level (0.09 mg kg-1) soil type (Alfisol) and sunflower particularly sensitive to B deficiency and is used as an indicator crop for assessing available B in soils [34, 35]. Relationship between yield and Tissue B Contents Boron concentrations in plant leaves tissue were increased with increase B application doses all of the application method. The average tissue B content in the control treatments was 3.4 mg kg-1 DW for bezostiya cv., and this value was reached the 49.8 mg B kg-1 at 9 kg ha-1 for SDC application method. This increased to 36.6 and 30.6 and 40.1 mg B kg-1 for SSS, SA and FA methods, respectively. B concentrations in plant leaves tissue were correlated to yield but, beyond the OBR for TDW of plant, tissue B continued to increase without significant increases in yield (Figure 3). Gubta [36]considers wheat (Triticum aestivum) B deficient when B tissue concentration of plant is below 10-20 mg kg-1 dry wt. Compiling results from the greenhouse and field experiments published during 10 years, Guertal [37], Santos et al. [31], Ross et al. [29]suggested that 10 mg kg-1, 66 mg kg-1, 44.1 mg kg-1 in plant tissue as critical level for boron in bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Crioula) and soybean (Glycine max (Merr.) L), whereas Goldberg et al. [38] reported a range of 142 to 3000 mg kg-1 in different plant parts of melons (Cucumis sativus L.). Mineral Contents in Plant Boron application decreased leaf tissue Ca, and Mg, and increased N, P, K, S Zn, and Fe content of plant (Table 2). The concentrations of plant nutrients measured were generally within accepted critical levels except for Zn and Cu. Jones et al. [39] and Mills and Jones [40] suggested critical values for optimum bezostiya cv. growing as 1. 7-3.0% for N, 0.2-0.5% for P, 1.5-3.0% for K, 0.2- 10.0% for Ca, 0.2-1.0 for Mg, 10-300 mg kg-1 for Fe, 20-70 mg kg-1 for Zn, 16-200 mg kg-1 for Mn, and 5-50 mg kg-1 for Cu . An increase in tissue P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu upon B application was also reported for chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) P content [41], lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) K content [42], sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Zn content [43], rice (Oryza sativa L.) Fe content [44] cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Mn content [45], cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) Cu content [46], Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. Gemnifera) N, P, K content [47], and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) N, P, K, and Fe [48]. Conclusion Both B application doses and application method affected the RDW, SDW and TDW of wheat. The highest root , straw, and total dry weight were obtained from SDC application method. Independent of application methods, B application decreased leaf tissue Ca, and Mg, and increased N, P, K, S Zn, and Fe content of plant. We conclude beyond the OBR for TDW of plant, tissue B continued to increase without significant increases in yield. This study was conducted on calcareous soils. Similar studies with different soils and initial soil test B levels are needed to conclude if these critical soil and tissue values can be applied across the region under field condition. REFERENCES
[1] Rerkasem, B., and S. Jamjod. 1997.Genotypic variation in plant response to low boron and implications for plant breeding. Plant and Soil 193: 169180. [2] Rerkasem, B. R. Netsangotop, S. Lordkaew, and C. Cheng. 1993. Grain set failure in boron deficient wheat. Plant and Soil 155/156: 309312. [3] Subedi, K. D. C. B. Budhathoki, and M. Subedi. 1997. Variation in sterility among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes in response to boron deficiency in Nepal. Euphytica 95: 2126. [4] Huang, L.B., J. Pant, B. Dell, and R.W. Bell. 2000. Effects of B deficiency on anther development and floret fertility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L-Wilgoyne). Annual Botany 85:493500. [5] Anonymous, (2007) www.tarim.gov.tr [6] Kalayc, M., A. Alkan, ..akmak, O. Bayramolu, A. Ylmaz, M. Aydn, V. zbek, H. Ekiz and F. zberisoy. 1998. Studies on differential response of wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Euphytica 100:123-129. [7] Gezgin, S., N. Dursun, M. Hamurcu, M. Harmankaya, M. nder, B. Sade, A. Topal, N. Soylu, S. Akgn, M. Yorgancilar, E. Ceyhan, N. ifti, B. Acar, I. Gltekin, Y. Iik, C. eker, and M. Babaolu. 2002. Determination of boron contents of soils in central Anatolian cultivated lands and its relations between soil and water characteristics. In: Boron in Plant and Animal Nutrition; Goldbach HE, Rerkasem B, Wimmer MA, Brown PH, Thellier M, and Bell RW (eds.); Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, ISBN O-306-47243-0. pp 391-400.

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[8] Soylu, S., A. Topal, B, Sade, A, Akgun, S. Gezgin, and M. Babaoglu. 2004. Yield and yield attributes as affected by boron application in boron deficient calcareous soils. An evaluation of major Turkish genotypes for boron efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 27:1077-1106. [9] Gupta, U.C. 1993. Factors affecting boron uptake by plants. In, Gupta UC, ed. Boron and its role in crop production. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc 87-104. [10] Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press: San Diego, Calif. [11] Keren, R., and F. T. Bingham. 1985. Boron in Water, Soils and Plants. In: Adv. In Soil Sci., (Ed. B.A. Stewart) Springer-Verlag, Vol. 1: 229-276. [12] Reisenauer, H.M., L.M. Walsh, and R.G. Hoeft. 1973. Testing soils for sulphur, boron, molybdenum, and chlorine. In: Soil Testing and Plant Analysis (Eds. Walsh L.M., and Beaton J.D), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 173-200. [13] FAO, 1990. Micronutrient, assessment at the country level: an international study. Sillanp, M., 207 p. FAO Soils Bulletin No. 63. [14] Soil Survey Staff. 1992. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 5th Edition. SMSS Technical monograph No: 19 Blacksburg Pocahontas Press Inc. [15] Gee, G. W., and J. W. Bauder. 1986. Particle-size analysis. In: Klute, A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd Edition. Agronomy No: 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 383-441. [16] Blake, G.R., and K. H. Hartge. 1986. Bulk Density. In: Klute, A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd Edition. Agronomy No: 9. Madison, Wisconsin USA. pp. 363-375. [17] Sumner, M.E., and W. P. Miller. 1996. Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchange Coefficients. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part III. Chemical Methods. 2nd Edition. Agronomy. No:5 Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Pp 1201-1230. [18] Bremner, J.M. 1996. Nitrogen-total. In: Bartels JM, and Bigham JM editors. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America and the American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. USA. pp 10851121. [19] Olsen, S.R., C.V. Cole, F.S. Watanabe, and L.A. Dean. 1954. Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. USDA, Circ 939, Washington, DC. [20] Rhoades, J. D. 1996. Salinity: Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part III. Chemical Methods. 2nd Edition. Agronomy. No: 5 Madison Wisconsin, USA. pp 417-436. [21] McLean, E.O. 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd Edition. Agronomy. No: 9 Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp 199-224. [22] Nelson, D.W., and L.E. Sommers. 1982. Organic Matter. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties Second Edition. Agronomy. No: 9 Part 2.Edition. pp 574-579. [23] Thomas, G.W., 1982. Exchangeable cations, pp, 159164. Methods of soil analysis. Part II. Chemical and microbiological properties In: (Page, A.L., R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney eds). 2nd Ed., ASA SSSA Publisher, Agronomy. No: 9 Madison, Wisconsin, USA. [24] Lindsay, W. L., and W. A. Norvell. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42: 421-428. [25] Wolf, B. 1974. Improvements in the azomethine-H method for the determining of boron. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 5: 39-44. [26] Mertens, D. 2005a. AOAC Official Method 922.02. Plants Preparation of Laboratuary Sample. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edn. Horwitz, W., and G.W. Latimer, (Eds). Chapter 3, pp1-2, AOAC-International Suite 500, 481. North Frederick Avenue, Gaitherburg, Maryland 20877-2417, USA. [27] Mertens, D. 2005b. AOAC Official Method 975.03. Metal in Plants and Pet Foods. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edn. Horwitz, W., and G.W. Latimer, (Eds). Chapter 3, pp 3-4, AOACInternational Suite 500, 481. North Frederick Avenue, Gaitherburg, Maryland 20877-2417, USA. [28] SPSS Inc 2004. SPSS Inc. SPSS 13.0 Base Users Guide, Prentice Hall. [29] Ross, J. R., Slaton, N. A., Brye, K. R., & Delong, R. E. (2006). Boron fertilization influence on soybean yield and leaf and seed boron concentrations. Agronomy Journal 98: 198-205. [30] Oplinger, E.S., R.G. Hoeft, J.W. Jonnson, and P.W. Tracy. 1993. Boron fertilization of soybean and cotton: A regional summary. P.7-16. PPI/FAR Tech. Bull. 1993-1. Potash and Phosphate Institute and the Foundation for Agronomic Research., Norcross, GA. [31] Santos, A. R., W. T. Matttos, A. S. Almeida, F. A. Monteiro, B. D. Correa, and U.C. Gupta. 2004. Boron Nutrition and Yield of Alfalfa Cultivar Crioula in Relation to Boron Supply. Scientia Agricola 61: 496-500. [32] Moniruzzaman, M., M. Z. Uddin, and A. K. Choudhury. 2007. Response of Okra seed crop to sowing time and plant spacing in south eastern hilly region of Bangladesh ISSN 0258 7122, Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 32: 393-402. [33] Oyinlola, E.Y. 2007. Effect of boron fertilizer on yield and oil content of three sunflower cultivars in the Nigerian Savanna. Journal of Agronomy 6:421-426. [34] Miljkovic, N. S., B. C. Matthews, and M. H. Miller. 1966. The available B content of the genetic horizons of some Ontario soils. I. The relationship between water-soluble boron and other soil properties. Canadian Journal of Soil Scence 46: 133-138. [35] Tisdale, S.L., W. L. Nelson, and J. J. Beaton. 1985. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. 4th Edn. Mac-Millan Publ Co New York, pp 754. [36] Gubta, U.C. 1993. Deficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity levels of boron in crops. In Boron and its Role in Crop Production. Ed. U C Gupta. Pp 137-145. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. [37] Guertal, E.A. 2004. Boron fertilization of bentgrass. Crop Science, 44: 204-208. [38] Goldberg, S., P. J. Shouse, S. M. Lesch, C. M. Grieve, J.A. Poss, H. S. Forster, and D. L. Suarez. 2003. Effect of high boron application on boron content and growth of melons. Plant and Soil 256: 403-411. [39] Jones, T. A., D. C. Nielson, and J. R. Carlson. 1991. Development of a grazing-tolerant native grass for revegetating bluebunch wheatgrass sites. Rangelands 13:147150. [40] Mills, H. A., and J. B. Jones. 1996. Plant Analysis Handbook II. Micromacro Publishing. 183 Paradise Blvd Ste 104, Athens, Georgia. [41] Singh, B. P., and B. Singh. 1990. Response of French bean to phosphorus and boron in acid Alfisols in Meghalaya. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 38:769-771. [42] Singh, V., and S. P. Singh. 1983. Effect of applied boron on the chemical composition of lentil plants. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 31: 169-170. [43] Hamurcu, M., and S. Gezgin. 2001. eker pancarinin (Beta vulgaris L.) verim ve kalitesi zerine inko ve bor uygulamasinin etkisi. Seluk Universitesi, Ziraat Fakltesi, Dergisi. pp 116-128. [44] Santra, G. H. 1989. Relationship of boron with iron, manganese, copper and zinc with respect to their availability in rice soil. Environmental Ecosystem 7: 874-877. [45] Singh, D. P. 1988. Effect of gypsum on boron tolerance in cowpea. New Botanist 15: 145-148. [46] El-Gharabbly, G. A., and W. Bussler. 1986. Critical levels of boron in cotton plants. Egyption Journal of Botany 26: 81-90. [47] Turan, M., N. Ataolu, A. Gne, T. Ozta, A. Dursun, M. Ekinci, Q.M. Ketterings, Y.M. Huang. 2009a. Yield and chemical composition of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. Gemnifera) as affected by boron management. Hortscience 44: 176-182. [48] Turan, M., Q.M. Ketterings, A. Gne, N. Ataolu, A. Esring, A.V. Bilgili, Y.M. Huang. 2009b. Boron fertilization of mediternean aridisols improves lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) yields and quality. Acta Agriculturea Scandinavica Section-B. Plant Soil Science (In press)

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Table 1. Chemical and physical properties of the soil sample used in the study, prior to experiment for boron response trials at bezostiya cv. (mean SD, n = 5).
Soil Properties Sand Silt Clay CECa Organic C pH CaCO3 Total N Olsen-Pb ECc Exc. Kd Exc. Ca Exc. Mg Exc. Na Extr. Fee Extr. Mn Extr.Zn. Extr.Cue Extr. Bf Units % % % cmol(+) kg-1 g kg-1 1:2.5 w/v g kg-1 g kg-1 mg kg-1 dS m-1 cmol(+) kg-1 cmol(+) kg-1 cmol(+) kg-1 cmol(+) kg-1 mg kg-1 mg kg-1 mg kg-1 mg kg-1 mg kg-1 Value 30.72.40 35.92.30 33.42.70 23.62.10 1.40.30 7.50.20 0.82.20 0.90.10 5.21.70 1.90.20 2.40.40 12.52.80 2.10.50 0.350.20 1.830.20 2.20.20 1.440.10 1.250.10 0.110.04

Table 2 Macro and micro element contents of Bezostiya cv. leaves grown in Aridisol with different B application method at various rates in greenhouse condition (mean SD, n=3), mg kg-1.
B doses, kg ha-1 0 1 3 6 9 0 1 3 6 9 0 1 3 6 9 0 1 3 6 9

N 3.570.03 4.000.22 4.150.34 4.080.22 3.980.31 3.000.02 3.360.18 3.490.28 3.440.19 3.360.26 3.270.03 3.670.20 3.800.31 3.750.20 3.660.29 2.480.02 2.780.15 2.890.23 2.840.15 2.770.22

P 0.320.04 0.540.12 0.600.07 0.750.04 0.810.04 0.320.03 0.450.10 0.510.06 0.630.03 0.680.03 0.300.03 0.490.11 0.550.07 0.690.03 0.750.03 0.230.02 0.370.08 0.420.05 0.520.02 0.570.02

K 3.020.25 3.020.25 4.860.15 4.860.15 4.610.07 2.540.21 2.540.21 4.090.12 4.090.12 3.880.06 2.770.23 2.770.23 4.460.13 4.460.13 4.230.07 2.100.18 2.100.18 3.380.10 3.380.10 3.210.05

Ca 0.390.03 0.400.02 0.380.02 0.350.02 0.260.02 0.330.03 0.330.02 0.320.01 0.290.02 0.220.02 0.360.03 0.360.02 0.350.01 0.320.02 0.240.02 0.270.02 0.280.02 0.270.01 0.240.02 0.180.02

Mg SDC 0.380.02 0.440.02 0.410.07 0.320.01 0.240.03 SSS 0.320.01 0.370.02 0.340.06 0.270.01 0.210.03 SA 0.350.02 0.400.02 0.370.07 0.300.01 0.220.03 FA 0.270.01 0.300.02 0.280.05 0.230.01 0.170.02

S 0.280.02 0.350.02 0.370.01 0.380.00 0.39.002 0.230.02 0.290.02 0.310.01 0.320.00 0.330.02 0.250.02 0.320.02 0.340.01 0.340.00 0.350.02 0.190.02 0.240.02 0.260.01 0.260.00 0.270.02

Fe 19.912.60 29.011.70 46.640.98 48.211.70 54.460.98 16.772.19 24.431.43 39.290.82 40.601.43 45.870.82 18.272.39 26.621.56 42.810.90 44.241.56 49.990.90 13.861.81 20.201.18 32.480.68 33.571.18 37.930.68

Zn 12.901.17 17.600.00 22.090.34 22.091.89 20.921.79 10.870.99 14.820.00 18.610.29 18.611.59 17.621.51 11.841.08 16.150.00 20.280.31 20.281.73 19.201.64 8.990.82 12.260.00 15.390.24 15.391.31 14.571.25

Mn 12.942.61 22.130.72 20.461.91 24.210.72 25.460.72 10.822.18 18.500.60 17.111.60 20.250.60 21.300.60 11.792.38 20.170.66 18.641.74 22.070.66 23.210.66 8.951.80 15.300.50 14.151.32 16.750.50 17.610.50

Cu 3.160.22 4.680.58 4.680.44 4.420.79 4.930.38 2.660.18 3.940.49 3.940.37 3.730.66 4.150.32 2.900.20 4.290.53 4.290.40 4.060.72 4.530.35 2.200.15 3.260.40 3.230.31 3.080.55 3.430.26

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7 6 5 4

A: SDC

2 y = -0,116x + 1,0306x + 3,633

2 y = -0,8359x + 7,5628x + 48,454

R = 0,8525

80 70
-1

A: SDC

R 2 = 0,7479

90 80 70 60

A: SDC

2 y = -0,952x + 8,5934x + 52,087 R 2 = 0,7722

-1

-1

60 50 40 30 20

Root weight g pot 3 2 0 3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha 6


-1

Shoot weight g pot

Total weight g pot 50 40

3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha

6
-1

3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha

6
-1

2 y = -0,0387x + 0,3317x + 3,3397

B: SSS

R 2 = 0,9303

80 70

2 y = -0,7192x + 6,6625x + 45,67

B: SSS

R 2 = 0,8594

80 70 60 50

B: SSS

2 y = -0,7579x + 6,9941x + 49,009

R 2 = 0,8684

-1

-1

-1

60 50

Root weight g pot

40 Root weight g pot 30

Total weight g pot 40 30

2 0 3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha 6
-1

20

3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha

6
-1

3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha

6
-1

Figure 1 Bezostiya cv. wheat root, straw and total weight as affected by boron (B) applications methods; A: seed contacted with dry B fertilizer (SDC) and B: seed were soaked in the B solution waited 2h (SSS) at different ratio to a B-deficient calcareous Aridisol.

5 C:SA
-1

2 y = -0,0316x + 0,2203x + 2,9453

R 2 = 0,6997

80 70
-1

C: SA

2 y = -0,5978x + 4,9646x + 43,319

R 2 = 0,9092

80 70 60 50

C: SA

2 y = -0,6294x + 5,1848x + 46,264

R 2 = 0,8978

-1

60 50

3 Root weight g pot

40 Root weight g pot 30

Total weight g pot 40 30

2 0 3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha 6
-1

20 0 3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha 6
-1

3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha

6
-1

2 y = -0,0516x + 0,5104x + 3,3632

D:FA

R 2 = 0,65

80 70

D: FA

2 y = -0,6238x + 4,9947x + 45,611 R 2 = 0,9191

80 70 60 50

D: FA

2 y = -0,6754x + 5,5051x + 48,974

R 2 = 0,8987

-1

-1

-1

60 50

3 Root weight g pot

40 Root weight g pot 30

Total weight g pot 40 30

2 0 3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha 6
-1

20

3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha

6
-1

3 B fetilizer doses, kg ha

6
-1

Figure 2 Bezostiya cv. wheat root, straw and total weight as affected by boron (B) applications methods; C: soil application (SA), and D: foliar fertilizer application (FA) at different ratio to a B-deficient calcareous Aridisol.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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90
-1

Plant B content

TDW
-1

90 B: SSS

Plant B content

TDW

75 60
-1

A: SDC

75 60
-1

and TDW, g pot 45 30 15


y = -0,952x
2

and TDW, g pot 45 30


y = -0,7579x
2 2

+ 8,5934x + 52,087
2

R = 0,7722

+ 6,9941x + 49,009

R = 0,8684
2

y = -0,4531x

+ 9,5267x + 1,7083
2

R = 0,991

Plant B content mg kg 0 0 3 B application doses kg ha 6


-1

Plant B content mg kg 0

15

y = -0,189x

2 2

+ 5,649x + 2,2973

R = 0,9664

6
-1

B application doses kg ha

75
-1

Plant B content C: SA

TDW
-1

75 D: FA

Plant B content

TDW

60

60

-1

45 and TDW, g pot


y = -0,6294x
2

-1
+ 5,1848x + 46,264

45 and TDW, g pot-0,6754x y=

+ 5,5051x + 48,974

R 2 = 0,8987

30

R 2 = 0,8978

30

15 Plant B content mg kg 0 0 3

y = -0,1608x

2 2

+ 4,6843x + 2,5347

15 Plant B content mg kg
9

y = -0,4091x

+ 8,0619x + 1,6459

R = 0,9616

R 2 = 0,9845

6
-1

6
-1

B application doses kg ha

B application doses kg ha

Figure 3. Relationship between boron application methods (A:SDC, B: SSS, C:SA, and D:FA) and plant B concentration for bezostiya cv. grown on a calcareous Aridisol.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

DECISIONS OF LAND USE IN AGRICULTURAL AREA TO DETERMINE IN ALATA FIRST GRADE NATURAL AREA
Ayen ULUN1 and Halim PERN2
1 2

Alata Horticultural Research Institute Erdemli/Mersin University of Ankara, Faculty of Agricultural, Department of Landscape Architecture/ Ankara

ABSTRACT Because of its natural and cultural characteristics, Alata Horticultural Research Institute is taken under protection as a first grade natural area and is being under dense pressure of surrounding inhabiting housing. In the first step of the study, problem analysis of the area is done, and protection and improving strategies of agricultural areas were determined. According to the investigation results, risks resulted from different uses of agricultural areas were been revealed and solution proposals were improved. Consequently, it is exposed that agricultural areas with gene resources must be protected and inspected in terms of working activities. With the accordance of ecological planning principles, decissions of protection uses is formed and sustainable land management plan is developed. Key Words: SWOT analysis, sustainable land management, ecological risk analysis, sustainnable agriculture in coastline, INTRODUCTION Alata Research Institute, the size of about 4000da has habitat diversity. Land keeps Dune-scrub-forest -agricultural ecosystems with two creeks and wetlands that occur in many water channels together and because of being controlled area it protects its structure. Since the 1940s under different names from time to time it has been countinued training, research and production activities. Approximately half of the 4000 decares part of the land has been preserved with its natural state. Agricultural diversity, such as the natural biological diversity has great importance. It is presenting the endemic, endangered and sensitive species according to IUCN (International Union Conservation Nature) criterias. The coastal dunes are used as breeding areas by the endangered sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas) [1]. In spite of all these ecological values of Alata First Grade Natural Area, antropojen effects are continuing. While rapidly developing the measures to increase production and mechanization in agriculture, on the other hand, residential area in the two sides of Alata is under pressure from the secondary residential construction. The area under such intense pressure on the natural ecosystem elements (earth, geology, hydrology, climate, flora, fauna) is expected to increase adverse effects. METHODOLOGy The most important aim and basis of the qualitative SWOT analysis is related to issues the strengths and weaknesses, then supportting the definition of opportunities and threats. This method usually is used to determine strategies of European Regional Policy [2] [3]. *aysenulun@yahoo.com At the same time the SWOT method was also used in coastal management projects such as the Meco (Mediterranean, Coast And Cosystem) Project [4] [5]. The result of the Preliminary studies in research area, natural and cultural datas were collected and after the evaluation of First Grade Natural Site decisions, strategies have been developed for the field. The priority method of determining the agricultural strategies ; to determine the advantages and disadvantages by applying SWOT analysis , to demonstrate opportunities, with the evaluation of available data regarding the is to provide the healthiest decision about the strategies. Then, SWOT analysis results are assessed for each strategy, and the creator of the cause of the problems,that has the negative effects on agricultural land , to identify risk on all areas. SWOT ANALySIS Agricultural areas close to level land and the soil is loamy. Land slope is being 0-2% , this eliminates the water erosion problem. The Institute has served many years in agricultural regions and it is considerable in agricultural research in the country. To present research have been made in many different subjects and more than 150 projects has been finalized. These studies are among the doctoral studies. Controlled agriculture in the research area is made possible to protect the existing water resources. But the field is located in the vici-

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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nity of the intensive agricultural areas and areas have a negative impact on existing water resources. Another negative impact on water resources is Erdemli Industrial Estate wastes that is established on the high ground water in the region. The area has been declared as tourism area, this is the another threatment. The requests of the local management to pass the infrastructure work from agricultural land. Inputs in agriculture is higher, the farmers can not capture the desired economic comfort, to pursue other business requests, supports the use of the area for tourism. Opportunities: many kinds and types of farming in the area have been spread through region by the instute and in this way it has adequate infrastructure and material (genetic resources). The institute is directing to region agriculture with its developed varieties and researches. Outsourced in recent years, big-budget and national projects has developed infrastructure of agricultural. This is a great opportunity for future research will be constituted. SWOT analysis about of agricultural R & D purposes in the field had given in Table1. Assessment of Strategy in the Study Area The relationship between ecology and economy affects significantly land use decisions. the Because of economic interests, ecology is getting deterioration and it makes impossible to return. Research area in the coastal zone where the fertile agricultural lands, converted summer houses to get more profit and fertile farmland has been lost in national and regional scale. The result deterioration of natural structure in these regions, loss area and no longer exist the species in the natural structure [6]. Table 1. Strategy for the purpose agricultural R & D results of SWOT analysis
STRENGTHS Institute has a suitable location that is due to productive agricultural land and climate advantageous and serve for many years in agricultural of region and country Advanced infrastructure has (laboratories, greenhouses, buildings, irrigation facilities, expert staff, advanced connectivity in communications technology, tools, instruments and equipment, agricultural biodiversity, and so have the plant material.) It is only agricultural research organizations in the region It is foundation major agricultural region of the country is one of the It is such area of adaptation that for many subtropical and temperate climate fruits entrance fist time to the country National Gen Resources and Storage Project, and many tasks to take place for a temperate climate fruit species protection parcel creation of Vegetable and fruit of new varieties have been improve that to meet market needs 5 Apricot varieties has been improved which are the first registered in country New varieties Vegetables has been improved by at the institute and to be registered WEAKNESSES Carried out and the resulting presentation of research done enough and in the region can be perceived as a closed box of the institute R & D investment is low that the private sector support for R & D activities to enforce the law not Specializing in retirement, or the appointment of investigators working with some of the unclaimed remains Because of state policies can not be taken new workers that to existing staff retire that insufficient qualified staff Became widespread in the world and entered our country enough new methods can not be introduced to the region, for example, (soilless culture, organic farming, compost making techniques, etc.), Agricultural areas and the natural structure of degradation of plant species loss, the dominant species emergence and of ground water pollution and quality degradation In some parts of the research area of ground water and soil depth height limitation of the farming THREATS Around of institute is sieged the holidays area People of region prefer to tourism fo economically profitable Agricultural land loss and degradation of the natural structure as a result Rapid migration and rapid urbanization in the region Because of chemicals used in agricultural areas groundwater pollution in the region Bisection of the main agricultural areas of transportation Land and water pollution and impairment soil structure results in of Agricultural OPPORTUNITIES Development of new types of projects can be done easily be that using genetic resources Organizations in the region is only that European Union harmonization laws in accordance with good agricultural practices to the region to spread and consulting Promotion of ecological agriculture and the current work of this study to increase The fulfillment of tasks loaded in agriculture conducted in Mersin with RIS (regional innovation strategy) project Country and regional economy to the development and multipartner projects for the big-budget production and the EU offer Towards becoming an international institute in the field of agriculture in the preparation of necessary infrastructure and ensuring support from political National and international congresses, the existence of the necessary infrastructure for organization

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

LOSS OF PRODUCTIVE AGRICULTURAL

PLANT GENE OF SOURCE LOST

SOIL POLLUTION

AREAS

PURPOSE INDUSTRIAL USE

AGRICULTURAL AREAS USE IN ACTIVITIES OF FOREIGN

PURPOSE TOURSM USE

PURPOSE INFRASTRUCTURE USE

PURPOSE RECREATON USE

Underground and surface water resources, soil and environmental pollution

Degradation of natural vegetation

Degradation of soil structure and quality with plant genetic resources to be destroyed

Degradation of the natural structure of sand dune areas and that are extinct sea turtles of the destruction of the spawning area

Especially in the summer months of intense population increase

Landscaping and sports complexes, infrastructure facilities etc. work

Construction machinery and construction work arising from the adverse effects

Intensive human circulation

Decisions of First Degree Natural Site isnt applied

Figure 1. Tree of risk is developed for agricultural in region The destruction of fertile agricultural land is not only problem in the region. Intensive agriculture in the region, especially greenhouses that are using drugs and hormones unconsciouly, because of insufficient infrastructure, wastes discharge without treatment to soil and streams, as a result of this soil, streams and ground water is heavily polluted. The main risk of agricultural area has been identified use as for purposes other than agricultural area (Figure 1). Agricultural area be used for non-agricultural purposes, tourism, infrastructure, industrial and social facilities (camping, beach, etc.) as a result of using the main risks, loss of fertile agricultural area, loss of plant genetic resources in area, pollution of soil and water resources, is emerging as a result placement and the industry Industry, tourism (secondary residences, hotels, etc.) use, environmental pollution, degradation of the natural structure and plant species will lead to destruction. In addition to natural plant, different types of garden plants is located within subjects of study the Institute collection parcels are created, has wealthy agricultural genetic resources due to a combination of many different varieties . Infrastructure work to be done for different uses in some of these species will disappear, the residual will suffer. CONCLUSIONS Work to be done in the field of agriculture have been developed and proposals for agricultural R & D activities for the target tree was created (Figure 2). Agricultural plans, first effective criteria of use the determination soil and water is created. It is built very the comprehensive such as control of the quality water supply and the stream with the use of agricultural chemicals. For this purpose, study in the field that the protection of agricultural area use policies for the sustainable use within the following suggestions are generated. Created many years ago for gene sources gardens aging collection of genetic resources is not lost for the creation of new conservation garden and under the protection of these areas must be kept Minimize the use of agricultural fertilizers and chemicals Sand dunes and wetlands must be bloked degradation of the natural structure in located study area Plant nutrition dissemination use of organic fertilizers and of the biological methods in the pest Agricultural inputs ensuring used in accordance with the principles of sustainability Agricultural fields and above the underground and water quality impacts and minimize the efforts made to investigate the Irrigation systems will be reviewed, from the long-term economic and ecological point of creation of irrigation systems

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

RESEARCH OF TEMPERATE CLIMATE FRUIT IN THE COUNTRY AND THE WORLD

TO CONTRBUTE TO THE AREA AND COUNTRY ECONOMY

OUTSIDE OF ADDICTION PREVENTION AT NEW VARETES AND SEED

IMPROVE QUALITY OF WORK R & D

Developing of new varieties and technology to catch up to world standards

Making of research to aim market the world

Ecological agriculture studies

Making big budget projects and the most comprehensive

Giving direction to the study about food safety

According to the principles of protection and use of natural resources management

Creation of new resources for R & D Of issues that need to be addressed for the sector and support from private organizations to provide National interests taken into consideration to follow new trends in the world

Figure 2. R & D work carried out in field target tree REFERENCES


[1].Ylmaz, T., Alphan. H. ve zcankurtaran, Y. 2001. Tarm ve Ky Ekosistemlerinin Ynetimi. Trkiye II. Ekolojik Tarm Sempozyumu. 14-16 Kasm 2001, 175-188s, Antalya. [2].Scapini,F.et al., 2002, Baseline Research for the Integrated Suistainable Management of Mediterranean Sensitive Coastal Ecosystems, Ed. Istituto Agronomico per IOltremare [3Uar, D. ve Doru, A.. 2005. CBS Projelerinin Stratejik Planlamas ve SWOT Analizinin Yeri. TMMOB Harita ve Kadastro Mhendisleri Odas 10. Trkiye Harita Bilimsel ve Teknik Kurultay 28 Mart- 1 Nisan 2005, Ankara [4].Scialabba, N. 1998. Integrated Coastral Area Management and Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Fao Guidelines. Environment and Natural Resources Service, FAO, 256p, Rome. [5].Sano, M. and Fierro, G. 2002.Integration of the SWOT Analysis as a Coastal Management Tool with a Geographical Onformation System: Two Approaches to the Problem and First Results, Dipartimento per lo studio del Territorio e dele sue Risorse (Dip.Te.Ris.)Universita di Genova (IT), Italy. [6].Karadeniz, N. 1995a. Corafi Bilgi Sistemleri ve Uzaktan Alglama Yardmyla Sutansazl Ekosisteminde Koruma ve Kullanm Snrlarnn Saptanmas. Sulak Alanlarn Korunmas Uluslar aras Toplants, evre Bakanl, evre Genel Mdrl, 27 Eyll 1 Ekim 1995, Kapadokya, Nevehir.

INDICATORS FOR BIODIVERSITy IN ORGANIC AND LOW-INPUT FARMING SySTEMS


Centeri, C.1, Balzs, K.1, Dennis P.2, Jeanneret P3., Podmaniczky, L.1, Herzog, F.3 Szent Istvn University, Fact. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Landscape Management, e-mail: Centeri.Csaba@kti.szie.hu
1 2 3

Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK, e-mail: pdd@aber.ac.uk Agroscope Reckenholz-Tnikon Research Station, Zurich, Switzerland ART, e-mail: felix.herzog@art.admin.ch

ABSTRACT Arable and pastoral farmland constitutes a dominant land use in Europe, covering over 45 % (180 million hectares) of the EU-25. An estimated 50 % of all Europ ean species depend on agricultural habitats [1]. Scientifically based indicators are required to reliably measure and interpret biodiversity on different farms across different countries. Organic and low-input farming systems present particular challenges to indicator application. Many of these systems are in marginal farming areas and many involve extensive land areas [2], where semi-natural habitats created by f arming exist in a mosaic with more natural habitat types. The indicators must take into account the demands of stakeholders in both organic/low-input farming systems and nature conservation. The presented Bio-Bio project has the following objectives:

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1. 2.

Conceptualization of criteria for a scientifically-based selection of biodiversity indicators for organic/low-input farming systems and their associated agricultural practices; The assessment and validation of a set of can didate biodiversity indicators in case studies representative for organic/low-input farming system sacross Europe (and in selected ICPC countries) taking into account regional specificities, cost effectiveness and practicality; The preparation of guidelines for the implementation of appropriate biodiversity indicators for organic/low-input farming systems, and their standardized measurement, calculation and interpretation across Europe and beyond. The BioBio project will draw upon existing knowledge in the fields of biodiversity, agrienvironmental and farm economic indicators as well as environmental indicators in general.

3.

Keywords: biodiversity, organic farming, low-input farming, indicators CONCEPT AND PROJECT OBJECTIVES Arable and pastoral farmland constitutes a dominant land use in Europe, covering over 45 % (180 million hectares) of the EU-25. An estimated 50 % of all European species depend on agricultural habitats [1]. Consequently, some of the most critical conservation issues today relate to changes in farming practices, which directly affect the wildlife on farms and adjacent habitats. To quantify the magnitude and direction of changes in biodiversity, policy makers and land managers are increasingly using indicators. Knowledge about types and rates of change in different areas is needed to identify the driving forces to measure the success of agri-environmental measures and to compare the sustainability of different farming systems. Scientifically based indicators are required to reliably measure and interpret biodiversity on different farms across different countries. Organic and low-input farming systems present particular challenges to indicator application. Many of these systems are in marginal farming areas and many involve extensive land areas, where semi-natural habitats created by farming exist in a mosaic with more natural habitat types. The key challenge to be addressed in the present call is the development and assessment of a scientifically-based set of indicators capable of detecting qualitative and quantitative linkages between different organic/low-input farming systems and biological diversity for Europe. The indicators must take into account the demands of stakeholders in both organic/low-input farming systems and nature conservation. This project therefore has the following major objectives: 1. The conceptualization of criteria for a scientifically-based selection of biodiversity indicators for organic/low-input farming systems and their associated agricultural practices, taking into account demands of stakeholders; 2. The assessment and validation of a set of candidate biodiversity indicators in case studies representative for organic/low-input farming systems across Europe (and in selected ICPC countries) taking into account regional specificities, cost effectiveness and practicality; 3. The preparation of guidelines for the implementation of appropriate biodiversity indicators for organic/low-input farming systems, and their standardized measurement, calculation and interpretation across Europe and beyond. The BIOBIO project will draw upon existing knowledge in the fields of biodiversity, agrienvironmental and farm economic indicators as well as environmental indicators in general (e.g. Irena, SEBI 2010, UN, OECD and national monitoring programmes). The potential of European wide (e.g. CORINE, HNV, LUCAS, FSS, FADN) and national data to yield information concerning the relationship between organic/low-input farming and biodiversity will also be assessed. The three major components of biodiversity genetic, species and habitat diversity will be systematically addressed. Both indirect indicators (derived from management practices, inputs and outputs, spatial metrics from remote sensing) and direct indicators (derived from genetic properties, indicator species and landscape/habitat properties) will be identified and considered for their potential to assess (i) the genetic diversity of crop and fruit tree varieties, of grassland species and of breeds of farm animals; (ii) the species diversity of farmland wildlife (major indicator species for flora and fauna, including indicator species for ecosystem services like, e.g. soil organisms maintaining soil fertility, beneficial organisms providing biological control of pests, pollinators); (iii) the diversity of habitats in agricultural landscapes related to organic/low-input farming. The indicators that are identified will be categorised using the DPSIR framework and evaluated with respect to their relevance for organic/low input farming and for nature conservation; their scientific soundness; their practicality (ease of interpretation, cost-efficiency); their suitability for biodiversity monitoring (repeatability of measurements); their geographical range (including regionspecific farming systems); and their ability to address stakeholder requirements. Indicators which comply with these requirements will be used to form a candidate set that relates organic/low-input farming to biodiversity and has the potential for broad application in major agro-ecological zones and organic/low-input farming systems in Europe. A framework for indicator interpretation will also be developed that considers the relevance of the indicator to functional biodiversity and conservation. A standardised experimental design will be used to test the candidate indicators in case studies across Europe and later in ICPC countries. The investigation will include organic farming, traditional low input farming systems as well as new agricultural practices, i.e. soil conservation, crop rotation management, seed mixtures, mixed cropping and agroforestry. The proposed case study regions will include pannonian, alpine, boreal, Atlantic and Mediterranean grassland systems (both organic and/or low-input), rainfed organic farms under temperate and Mediterranean conditions, mixed organic farming, organic special crops (vines, vegetables) and low-input agroforestry systems (dehesa/montado, organic olive groves). Plot, farm and regional/landscape scale (where applicable) will be addressed in the case studies and candidate indicators will be measured according to a standardised protocol. Each case study will be accompanied by a set of control farms which are conventionally managed in order to investigate the ease of interpretation of indicators and to cover the range of possible values. Requirements of stakeholders representing agriculture, nature protection and the public in administration, local governments, farming community (farmers representatives) and NGOs will be assessed in the case

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studies and in the process of analysis and interpretation of the results. The costs of indicator measurement will be evaluated. Local residents, villagers and farmers perceive the non-importable and non-marketable functions resulting from agricultural activities that enhance biodiversity and landscape in the most direct manner. The private and public economic benefits, and non-monetary value of biodiversity promoted by organic and lowinput farming will be assessed through qualitative methods including semi-structured or indepth interviewing and focus groups among farmers and local residents (Figure 1.)

FIGURE 1. Conceptual scheme of the BIOBIO project Following the case studies, indicators will be prioritised according to their practicality, ease of interpretation and suitability for standardised recording to enable both comparative studies (between farming systems and regions) and monitoring (repeated measurements over time) and to identify a core set of indicators for Europe. The applicability of the approach and indicator set beyond Europe will be tested in the ICPC countries Ukraine (organic arable farming), Tunisia (low input olive plantation and cork oak agroforests) and Uganda (organic and low-input subsistence farming). The objective will be to identify potential limitations of the indicator set and to propose adaptations. This can support the development of indicators which reach beyond the EU FP7 countries and can be a step towards a globally applicable indicator set for biodiversity indicators for a wide range of farming systems. The BIOBIO project will produce an indicator toolkit that will be disseminated as a handbook that contains precise guidelines for the choice of generic indicators for European organic/low-input farming systems. Fact sheets will be written providing a standardised description of the method for indicator measurement, calculation and interpretation of values. Guidelines will be given regarding the use and downscaling of existing EU-wide datasets. We will propose a sampling design that considers both spatial and temporal resolution and includes an estimation of costeffectiveness and propositions for stakeholder involvement. LINKAGE BETWEEN ORGANIC/LOW-INPUT FARMING SySTEMS AND BIODIVERSITy The importance of agricultural land use for biodiversity is generally recognized (e.g. EEA; EC-Biodiversity Strategy; the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy; European Commissions Communications Directions towards sustainable agriculture COM(1999)22, Biodiversity Action Plan for Agriculture COM(2001)162, Halting the loss of biodiversity COM(2006)216). Organic and low-input farming systems are expected to have less environmental impact than intensive agriculture, which is dependent on the standard use of pesticides and inorganic nutrient applications in the production of crops and animals. Organic farming has been defined by the European Union as an overall system of farm management and food production that combines best environmental practices, a high level of biodiversity, the preservation of natural resources, the application of high animal welfare standards and a production method in line with the preference of certain consumers for products produced using natural substances and processes. (EC Regulation 834/2007). Organic farming positively contributes to landscape and biological diversity, for example through provision of a higher diversity of wildlife habitats [3]. Organic agriculture performs better than conventional agriculture both with regard to the species-richness of plants and bird abundance [4]. The study shows, however, that for some invertebrates such as earthworms, butterflies, spiders and beetles the trend is not always as clear. Furthermore, the variety of studies, sampling designs, methodologies and indicators make any general interpretation difficult, if not impossible. This is the reason why generic indicators have to be developed and tested with common methodologies in typical organic/low-input farming systems across Europe. The more critical farmland habitats often require a specific management that goes beyond the standards of organic farming. Nevertheless, it is a very useful contribution to raising general environmental conditions from which many farmland species can benefit. The conversion to organic farming can also provide considerable economic advantages to lowinput farming systems in marginal areas of Europe that are associated with high nature value farmland. These benefits are largely connected to policies providing payments for organic farming, which reinforces the need for an evaluation through suitable indicators. Beside organic farming systems, low-input farming systems (LIFS) are found all across Europe. LIFS could be defined as a way to optimise the management and use of internal

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production inputs (i.e., onfarm resources) ... and to minimise the use of production inputs (i.e., off-farm resources), such as purchased fertilisers and pesticides, wherever and whenever feasible and practicable, to lower production costs, to avoid pollution of surface and groundwater, to reduce pesticide residues in food, to reduce a farmers overall risk, and to increase both short- and long- term farm profitability [5]. Relevant LIFS regarding biodiversity are mostly concentrated in regions of high nature value (HNV) farmland [6]. A definition of HNV farmland has been developed under the IRENA operation [7]: High Nature Value farmland comprises those areas in Europe where agriculture is a major (usually the dominant) land use and where that agriculture supports or is associated with either a high species and habitat diversity, or the presence of species of European, and/or national, and/or regional conservation concern, or both. HNV farmland is distinguished by the biodiversity value of its farmed and unfarmed habitats [8]. From this point of view, HNV farming systems in HNV farmland regions are characterized per definition by a high biodiversity. According to preliminary estimates, 15-25 % of the European countryside qualifies as HNV farmland [9] [10]. LIFS are often located in marginal areas or in areas which are at risk of marginalisation due to unfavourable natural conditions for agriculture. In those regions, the major part of farm holdings qualifies as low-input farming and this will also affect the occurrence and ecological quality of unfarmed habitats (e.g. hedgerows). Measuring the contribution of LIFS/HNV to the maintenance of farmland biodiversity therefore requires a landscape approach and indicators need to relate to both individual farms and to the landscape. Increasingly, organic farming is practised in those regions where farm management often does not have to be significantly altered to comply with the regulations. Organic farms, however, also often occur in regions which are favourable for agricultural production. In most countries and regions, conventionally managed farmland is interspersed with individual organic farms. In assessing the biodiversity of those farms, a farm-scale approach needs to be implemented where indicators relate to the farm or to individual fields. In developing indicators for both organic and low-input farming systems, the farm scale therefore needs to be addressed as the central spatial unit of investigation. Regarding biodiversity, its composition and its three major compartments, i.e., genetic, species and habitat diversity [11] [12], results of research considering organic and low-input farming systems may be summarized as follows. Genetic diversity Farm specialisation and the general abandonment of mixed farming have led to the decline of genetic resources by the introduction of high-yielding and uniform crop varieties and livestock breeds at the expense of their diversity (holsteineisation effect [13]). However, genetic diversity is indispensable for the response of species and populations to selection, either natural through environmental changes or human mediated through processes such as targeted selection [14]. This has long been recognized by plant breeders who routinely screen large germplasm collections for variation in specific traits or use ecotype populations to broaden their breeding germplasm [15]. For the organic system to be economically viable, farmers are led to use (local) species, varieties and breeds that are more resistant to pests and diseases and better adapted to local environmental conditions in order to compensate for the restriction on synthetic input use ([16] and the preservation of native varieties and breeds is an important initiative of the organic movement. In France, 40% of the organically farmed soft wheat comprises varieties that are not planted on conventional farms [17]. Examples of breeds related to organic/low-input farming systems are amongst others the rescue of the Maremmana cattle in Italy [18] and the Herdwick sheep breed in the Cumbrian Fells (hills) in NW England ([19]. In temporary and permanent grasslands, genetic diversity may substantially influence agro-ecosystem stability and thus may contribute to yield security [20]. Besides the choice of germplasm used for establishing grassland, management practices such as fertilisation or cutting frequency may also influence genetic diversity within species and populations ([21]. Given the importance of grassland in organic and low-input agriculture, a detailed evaluation and application of appropriate indicators for genetic diversity is particularly important in these farming systems. According to IEEP [22] domestic diversity [23] is out of the scope of HNV farmland criteria. Still, breeds/varieties are a key factor at the farming system level and domestic biodiversity forms a field of conservation in itself. Several indicators of the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (CMEF, preparation of national strategy plans and rural development programmes of EU Member States) refer explicitly to HNV and to plant varieties and animal breeds (i.e., Successful land management defined as the successful completion of land management actions contributing to improvement of biodiversity which is defined as the protection of wildlife species or groups of species, maintain or reintroduce crop combinations and safeguarding endangered animal breeds and plant varieties, etc.). Consequently, the livestock genetic diversity belongs to the indicator list of the OECD and the SEBI 2010 process (indicator no. 6, [24]). BIOBIO proposes to investigate the diversity of animal breeds and cultivated plant species as well as permanent grassland species of organic/low-input farming systems and to develop operational indicators for their diversity. Species diversity Organic farming is reported to increase biodiversity in the agricultural landscape [25] [26] [27], including, for example, carabid beetles [28] definition of HNV farming systems is closely related to the conservation of species of European and/or national and/ or regional conservation concern and of high species diversity [22]. Hence low-input farming systems composing HNV farmland are per definition supposed to provide high species diversity. HNV farming systems are a particular type of farming that can be low input, but also depend on unfarmed features (e.g. bocage landscapes, small scale farmland with a high density of field margins, etc.) [29]. BIOBIO proposes to discuss species indicators that characterise organic and low-input farming systems and to evaluate possible indicators for the diversity of soil microbiota.

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Habitat diversity Reduction of diversity and complexity of habitats at different scales is a critical process underpinning loss of biodiversity on agricultural land [30]. Organic farms may have higher levels of habitat heterogeneity than non-organic farms because basic standards for organic agriculture include principles and recommendations where provisions are made to maintain a significant portion of farms to facilitate biodiversity and nature conservation, including (among others) wildlife refuge habitats and wildlife corridors that provide linkages and connectivity to native habitats [31]. Mansvelt and van der Lubbe [32] showed that the diversity of landscape and farming systems was greater in organic farms, regarding land use types, crops, livestock, plantings (hedges, shrubs, trees). Organic crop rotations are more diverse [17] and arthropod diversity has been shown to be related to crop diversity [33]. In terms of landscape diversity, the organic types of agriculture may potentially offer one route to restoring farmland biodiversity [34]. However, data are missing that confirm this statement. At the landscape scale, low-input farming systems concentrated in HNV regions are supposed to provide a wider mosaic of different arable, grass and semi-natural habitats and landscape elements, such as field margins, hedges and grass strips, patches of uncultivated land, used at different levels of intensity (the presence of seminatural habitats is a defining feature of HNV farmland). BIOBIO will propose indicators that characterize organic and low-input farming systems at the farm and landscape scale, including unfarmed features which are related to the farming systems. BIODIVERSITy INDICATORS AND FARMING SySTEMS There has been rapid development of environmental indicators to fulfil demands for international environmental monitoring programmes since the UNEP Environmental data report [35]. The increasing need to assess the ecological effects of pollution and climate change (WCED 1987, [36], ALTER-Net 2008) drove a demand for biological indicators. Indicator development at a European level has focused on regional and national scale monitoring [37], [38], [39] to assess national progress towards national biodiversity targets since the Convention on Biodiversity, Rio 1992 [40] and renewed commitments to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2010 [41] [42], EP 2004, [43] [24]. Current efforts are directed towards developing harmonised and integrated monitoring programmes across Europe using common biological indicators. Examples include the European land cover map (CORINE), common bird survey [44] and butterfly survey [45]. Indicators have been designed for Pan-European use across all ecosystems either in dedicated Long- Term Ecological Research sites [46] or in the wider countryside [47]. Much of the wider countryside in the European context is under agricultural land use. Indicators of environmental effects of agricultural policy have been developed at the regional and national scale [48], [49], [7], [43], [50], [51], [52]. These have been increasingly adapted to assess the effects of particular farming systems or agrienvironment schemes on biodiversity [53]. Although some major studies of biodiversity have been carried out at the farm scale, notably the evaluation of genetically modified crops in the UK, biological indicators have not been developed for specific farming systems. Methods have been developed to evaluate environmental impacts of farming systems based on standard agricultural statistics as indirect measures of biodiversity [54] but either for single case study farms [55] or low resolution across broad geographic areas [56]. Such methods are based on indirect indicators derived from management practices. Indirect indicators for biodiversity have been implemented in the evaluation of environmental impacts of agriculture, e.g. in life cycle assessment (LCA) method (e.g. Swiss Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment, SALCA), and in agro-environmental diagnosis of farms (INDIGO and SOLAGRO in France, KUL/USL and REPRO in Germany). In SALCA, impacts of agricultural practices on biodiversity are estimated at field and farm level by fuzzy-coding of published experimental or observational investigations and of expert knowledge by means of 11 species groups (e.g., birds, small mammals, spiders) [57]. In the farm based system REPRO [58] the complex relationships between farm management and biodiversity are divided in 1) structural parameters describing the area, the land use and the cropping structure, 2) fertilizer and pesticide inputs, and 3) specific indicators of process design and management features. These indicators are finally aggregated to the Biodiversity Development Potential. Whilst those methods have been developed primarily for national applications, large datasets like FADN and FSS may be helpful in providing indirect indicators relating to input use and land-use diversity (number of crop and livestock enterprises per holding) for organic/low-input holdings at the European level. Low-input holdings can be determined in relation to the value of crop fertiliser and pesticides used and livestock feed inputs and stocking rates (the latter also applies to FSS). Some of these approaches have been applied in the IRENA framework, though not separating out organic/lowinput farms specifically. For both datasets, it would be possible to differentiate the analysis by farm type and region as part of an EU wide assessment, though the spatial resolution will be limited by the number of FADN samples per sub-region. It is envisaged that a greater level of detail will be collected with respect to organic farms for the pan EU agricultural census in 2010, but the results of the census are not expected to be available in the life time of the project and reliance will need to be placed on data collected in earlier years (FADN is collected annually, the last FSS survey was conducted in 2007). However, it will be important that selected indicators take account of European Commission (in particular DG Agri, DG Enviro and Eurostat) plans for agricultural, rural and agri-environmental development from 2010, to increase the chance of the biodiversity indicators being developed in this project being adopted. Nevertheless, indirect indicators have to be discussed and chosen with caution. As argued by [59], because of the huge number of species and the complexity of ecological processes within agricultural habitats, many potentially influencing factors may be unrecognised and not monitored. The intensity of agricultural management varies considerably across Europe [60] and the environmental heterogeneity of the European continent reduces the certainty with which predictions about the link between

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agricultural management on biodiversity can be made [61]. Moreover, impacts of agricultural practices are often poorly understood so that the most relevant parameters that can be practically monitored are unclear. Therefore, indicators of the actual state of biodiversity are essential. We will use the DPSIR framework ([62]; EEA, IRENA operation) to structure the indicators according to the different components of the system (Figure 2.) Coarse processes of land use/land cover, farming practice categories etc. drive the actual pressures and benefits, i.e. the concrete farm operations, which in turn act on farmland biodiversity (state/impact indicators, further mentioned as direct indicators). If indicators show negative (or positive) trends, they will stimulate a response from policy makers, from society at large and also for technical progress (new farm practices) to improve the situation of farmland biodiversity.

FIGURE 2. DPSIR framework for developing farming and biodiversity indicators (indicators are examples of relevant issues for agriculture). From an econom ic perspective, biodiversity provides benefits for present and future generations by way of e cosystem services. Thes e services include production of food, fuel, fibre and medicines, regulation of water, air and climate, maintenance of soil fertility, cycling of nutrients. It is difficult to put precise m onetary values on these services worldw ide, but estimates suggest they are in the ord er of hundr eds of billion s of Euro s per year [63]. These services underpin EU growth, jobs and wellbeing. Because public benefits which derive from different landscape patterns and characterist ics including biodivers ity are im possible or irrelevant to m onetarise (e.g. sp iritual and cultural values), it is preferable to explore how farmers and local residents relate to biodiversity, wh at kind of attitudes they have, w hat kind of benefits they realize. To enhance the scientific understanding on how people perceive the benefits of biodiversity may provide input for policy recommendations. Non-monetary values attached to biodiversity can be best unfold by qualitative res earch methods, especially semi-structured or in-depth interviewing and focus groups, since these methods help exploring and understanding causal relationships by paying attention to knowledge, attitudes and feelings of the partic ipants. Sem i-structured o r in-dep th interv iews with f armers and/or th eir f amily members and em ployees provide infor mation about how they assess the biodiversity on the farm and in the surrounding environm ent. Personal and f arm/family-level benefits can be addressed in this way. Focus groups, on the ot her hand, are able to explore how a group of farmers farming in the same village or landscape assess biodiversity in a higher spatial level. Focus group participants often broaden their pers pective from individual to social well-being, which may result in a new and wider range of benefits derived from biodiversity. Extending the approach to ru ral villagers brings up yet ad ditional benefits of landscape biodiversity as perceived by the local non-farm er population. Ecosystem services, that are natural processes acting within and am ong ecosystems (including na tural and agro-ecosystems) in agriculture, are of par ticular im portance. The se inc lude b iological co ntrol of pests, po llination and decomposition processes beside the crop production itself. It is recognized that simplification of agro-eco systems caused by inte nsification of agricu ltural p ractices m ay aff ect im portant ecosystem services via the loss of biodiversity. In organic/low-input farming, services may be preserved by particular management practices and this has to be investigated with appropriate indicators including beneficial organisms for pest control such as predatory and parasitoid arthropods, pollinators such as wild bees and decomposers such as oribatid mites in soil. Due to the com plexity of all aspect s of biodiversity, there is no doubt that biodiversity in the broadest sense of the Rio Convention cannot be measured as such and it is accep ted that a single indicator for biodiversity cannot be devised [64]. Ideally indicators should be selected that express or represent both the biodivers ity as a whole AND because they are se nsitive to environmental conditions resulting from , for in stance, land use and agricultural m anagement practices. R egarding the divers ity of species, whilst som e au thors have shown that some species groups may serve as surrogates for the whole biodiversity (Coleoptera, Heteroptera, plants) in certain circum stances, m any studies revealed poor correlations between species richness in one taxonomic group and species richness in other groups ( [65] Gaston 1996, [66]

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Lawton et al. 1998). In addition, many new approaches and term s have been developed to refine the in dicator species concept. These incl ude focal sp ecies, umbrella species, flagship species, or guilds as indicator s [67] [12]. Exa mples of co mmonly use d species groups in biodiversity m onitoring schem es a re vascular plants, birds and butterflies. Noss [12] ha s shown that it is possible to deve lop a hierarchy of indicators from gene to landscape level based on the distinction between structure, composition, and func tion. Examples of structural indicators in the context of a cultivated field are cultivated plant architecture and openness of the culture. The second group com prises compositional indicators. These can be functionally important species (i.e. keystone species or engineering specie s) and species that are sensitive to and thus indicate m anagement practices, is olation of the habitat, etc. The third group comprises functional in dicators. Th ese are indi cators of the abiotic and biotic disturbance factors and m anagement regim es that are pr esent, e.g. grazing im pact, cutting regim es. Another classification of indicat ors, which has to be consid ered, catego rises indicato rs according to three im portant m otivations to preserve and enhance biodiversity in the agricultural context [68], i.e. (i) in dicators reflecting nature protection purposes (species conservation with focus on rare and endangere d species) , (ii) in dicators ref lecting the ecological resilience (focus on genetic and spec ies diver sity) and (iii) indicato rs re flecting plant protection purposes (b iological con trol of potential pest organism s with focus on predatory and parasitoid arthropods). This last category may be extended to additional issues with respect to im portant ecosystem services in agriculture, e.g. indicators of soil health and fertility (markers for soil microbial and fungal diversity and macro-invertebrates), indicators including beneficial organisms (in addition to predatory and parasitoid arthropods) providing biological control of pests, and pollinators. Th is approach seem s to be prom ising for the purpose of developing appropriate indicators for the linkage between organic/lowinput farming system s and biodivers ity b ecause it c onsiders nature conserv ation goals (species conservation), genetic resources and other com ponents of biodiversity (ecological resilience) and economic aspects (plant protection). Accordi ng to Clergue et al. [69], the three parts m ay be extended to three main functions, respectively, i.e. patrimonial, ecological and agronomical functions. Based on the BioBio indicator s et develop ed for Europe, we will study the adaptability of those in dicators in agro-e cological s ituations of three interna tional partne r cooperation (ICPC) co untries. The involvem ent of ICPC will allow testing bio diversity indicators and protocols beyond E urope as we ll as to dissem inate knowledge and offer an opportunity to further collaboration in the fi eld of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture and biodivers ity preservation is of key im portance to developing countries where agriculture is still a m ajor sourc e of incom e and em ployment. At the sam e ti me, however, pressure on resources is increasing and so monitoring schemes to assess the sustainable use of agro-ecosystems are much needed and preser ving biodiversity (both in the wild and on domesticated plants and animals) is a prio rity. Globalisation is strengthening m ore and m ore the linkage am ong countries. It is therefore im portant for EU to care a bout the sustainability of farming practices which lead to the producti on of agricultural comm odities imported into the EU. This m eets als o the in creasing con cern of the E uropean citizens for su stainable development in develo ping countries. BioBio will rev iew the above m entioned concepts, theories an d resu lts of em pirical studies re garding biodiversity indi cators in the general context of agriculture and the specific case of organic/low-input farming in order to propose biodiversity indicators which are (i) scientifically sound, (ii) applicable at the European level and which (iii) respond to stakeholders needs. INNOVATION Although B IOBIO is not intended to develop new and previously untested biodiversity indicators, the novelty in the project will consis t of: a concise and stringen t evaluation of existing ind icator system s according to clear cr iteria relevant for organic and low-input farming systems at the European level; the maximisation of synergies with already existing European indicator systems, be they landscap e, biodiversity or farm economics oriented, for application in the context of organic and low-input farming systems; the developm ent of indicators that com bine m easurements at a fine spatial resolution (farm /landscape) with requirements for reporting for large geographical areas; a practical test of bio diversity indicators across all major organic and low-input farming systems in Europe; a practical test of biodiversity indicators in selected ICPC countries to assess the adaptability of the indicators and their wider relevance for orga nic/low-input far ming system s globally; the assessment of private and public econom ic benefits, and non-monetary value of biodiversity promoted by organic and low-input f arming; a systematic integration of European and local stakeholders throughout the res earch project, furthering m utual understanding between researchers and stakeho lders; production of standardised protocols and recomm endations that will enable establishment of biodiversity monitoring across different farming systems and countries, thus laying the foundations for in creasing understanding of the links between farming practices and biodiversity at the European scale and beyond. STRATEGIC IMPACT BIOBIO will contribute to strengthen several European policies, namely the European Action Plan for Organic Food and Farm ing, the EU R ural Development Programme including agrienvironmental organic farm ing support, the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable use of Plant Gene tic Resources for Food and A griculture, the first and second pillar of the CAP and t he EC Biodiversity St rategy. The conservation value of High Nature Value farmland is acknowledged in several EU policy documents, such as the EU Regulation on rural developm ent (EC 1257/1999). HNV farm land areas will be one of the indicators (IRENA 26) to assess the Rural D evelopment Comm unity Strategy (programm ing period 20072013) and particularly one of the three priorities of axis 2 biodiversity and preservation of high nature value farm ing and forestry sy stems. The European Action Plan for Organic Food

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and Farm ing states that Organic land management is known to deliver public goods, primarily environmental, but also rural development benefits and in certain respects may also result in improved animal welfare. () Consumers need better information on the principles and objectives of organic farming as well as the positive impact on, for example, the environment. Therefore, Action 1 aim s at givi ng the E uropean Commission organising greater possibilities for dir ect action in order to organise inform ation and prom otion campaigns on organic farm ing. A m ulti-annual EU-wide inform ation and p romotion campaign is to be launched to inform consumers, public institutions canteens, schools and other key actors in the food chain about the merits of organic farming, especially its environmental benefits, and to increase consumer awareness and recognition of organic products, including recognition of the EU logo. This inform ation campaign has to rely on scientific information. Previous research on or ganic farming policy in Europe, including the EU-CEE-OFP project and m ore recently the ORGAP project (www.orgap.org), which is focused on methods for evaluation the EU and national organic action plans, has identified the need for the inclusion of a wide range of soci al and environmental impact indicators, but to date precise specificatio n of these has not been possible because suitab le data sou rces and indicator definitions did not ex ist. While the E U action plan for organic food and farm ing makes reference to the dual role of orga nic far ming in providi ng public goods (e.g. biodiversity and environmental protection) and meeting market demands, in practice the focus of policy development and evaluation has been on busines s issues as these are th e easiest to monitor and evaluate. Better means to measure the impacts of organic farming would mean that its con tribution to EU policy goals could be m ore pr ecisely established, and better targeted app roaches to achiev ing th is could b e developed. The indica tor set developed in BIOBIO will make it possible to actually assess the biodiversity benefits of organic (and low-input) farming at the continental scale. This will constitute an important progress compared to the status quo, where only national and regional indi cators are available to this end. The first pillar of the CAP represents its m ain component and one of the m ain expenditure chapters of the EU. Since the 2003 reform came into force in 2005, it provides direct paym ents under the single payment scheme (SPS) to support farm income. These payments are conditioned upon the com pliance with environm ental cross -compliance requirem ents by far mers. Cross compliance requirem ents include a num ber of m easures directly aim ed or connected with biodiversity conservation (input reduction, species protection, habitat co nservation) (annexes III and IV o f reg. CE 17 82/2003). BIOBIO will indirectly co ntribute to the evaluatio n of the effects of such commitments by providing a toolbox (indicator set) for evaluating the benefits of farming systems for biodiversity. On the long run, this will support the enhancement of the general contribution of the CAP to biodiversity conservation. One of th e goals of the second pillar of the CAP is to prom ote rural development. The adoption of environm entally friendly farming systems and agri-environmental schemes accounted for about 37% of the expenditure of this pillar in the peri od 2000-2006. They provide a num ber of m easures related to biodiversity, including payments for organic and low-input farming. The available evaluation of agri-environm ental schem es generally reports weak ev idence for the effects of such measures on biodiversity due to lim ited ti me scale for th e evaluation , lack of appropriate baselines and indicators (Agra CEAS Consulting, 2005). Once the effects of organic and low-input farming systems on biodiversity can actually be assessed by indicators at the continental scale, the implem entations and the m onitoring of the effectiveness of those po licies will be facilitated. An ef fective evaluation of the ef fectiveness of agri-environmental policies is th e prerequirement to their improvement and to the better and more efficient targeting of public funds. Although the new regulation on organic farming 834/2007 gives increased emphasis on biodiversity issues, the re is s till a n eed for these to be b etter reflected in the im plementing rules, currently under discussion, and in further developm ent of organic far ming regulations and standards in the future. A clear understand ing of the biodiversity im pacts of organic farming, and how these can be m easured, w ould facilitate also increased emphasis on biodiversity issues in the inspection proce ss, and therefore the better integration of biodiversity into organic farm ing standards. The Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture has been translated into several European regulations which ai m at conserving plant (and anim al) genetic resources and to promote farm ing system s whic h m ake use of a high diversity of genetic resources. BIOBIO, by developi ng operation indicators on geneti c diversity in organic and low-input farming systems, will enable the assessment of the status of in situ genetic diversity in different farming systems at the continental scale. The EC Biodiversity Strategy (ECBS) is the EUs response to the Convention on Biological Diversity and aim s to anticipate, prevent and attack the causes of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity at the source. This will help both to reverse present trends in biodiversity reduction or losses and to place species and ecosystems, including agroecosystems, under a satisfactory conservation status, both within and beyond the territory of the European Union. BIOBIO will strongly support the reporting for the CBD, the European Biodiversity S trategy and the Habitat Directive by making providing an operational indicator set which is applicable to organic and low-input farming systems and are able to dem onstrate their contribution to the conservation of farmland biodiversity at the European level. The current concentration on protected areas constitutes a m ajor gap in the ex isting Comm unity con servation p olicies. BI OBIO will develop the tools to f ill this gap. It is nece ssary not o nly to have consisten t data on biodiversity but also be able to link it to drivers of change so that European policies can be evaluated and new policy instruments developed. On this point the Commission states, that it is necessary to strengthen efforts to identify and monitor the most important components of biodiversity as well as pressures and threats on them. Tasks and targets identified in the action plan and other measures in this area should be incorporated in the activities within the framework Community Programme on Research and Development.. The integration of three partners from ICPC countries will allow for the transfer of know how beyond Europe and into farming and policy system s other than those in EU FP7 countries. At the sam e tim e, we expect that new knowledge will arise from the meeting of different cultures and discussions of different farm ing system s, providing an a dditional expansion of our thinking beyond the boundaries of European farm ing systems. This part of the project will be of great im portance in assessing possible lim itations of our indicat ors and thoroughly testing their flexibility for use in different ecological, social and cultura l conditions. In conclusi on, BIOBIO has been designed to utilise the com bined experien ce o f the participants agron omic, ecolo gical and

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environmental exper tise and present it in a way that is relevant to the policy are na. The answers pro vided will be imm ediately applica ble to all c entral EU polic ies relating to farmland biodivers ity. The particip ation of st akeholders th roughout th e project will ensure that re levant inf ormation is also d elivered to national governm ents as well as the EU Commission. REFERENCES
[1] Kristensen, S.P. Multivariate analysis of landscape changes and farm characteristics in a study area in central Jutland, Denmark. Ecol. Model. 2003, 168(3): 303318. [2] Malatinszky ., Schiller I., Penk sza K. Abandoned loessy grape yards as refuges of rare steppe plant species. Cereal Research Communications. 2008, 36: 1139-1142. Part 2. Suppl. [3] Stolze, M., Piorr, A., Hring, A., Dabbert, S. Environmental impacts of organic farming in Europe. Organic Farming in Europe: Economics and Policy. Stuttgart-Hohenheim 2000. Department of Farm Economics, University of Hohenheim, Germany, 2000 [4] Hole, D. G., Perkins, A. J., Wilson, J. D., Alexander, I. H., Grice, P. V., Evans, A. D. Does organic farming benefit biodiversity? Biological Conservation, 2005, 122(1), 113-130. [5] Parr, J.F., Papendick, R.I., Youngberg, I.G. & Meyer, R.E. Sustainable agriculture in the United States. In: Edwards, C.A., Lal, R., Madden, P., Miller, R.H. & House, G. Sustainable agricultural systems. Soil and Water Conservation Society, USA, 1990 [6] IEEP. Reforming environmentally harmful subsidies. Final report to the European Comissions DG Environment. Institute for European Environmental Policy. Available online: www.ieep.eu, 2007 [7] EEA Agriculture and environment in EU-15 - the IRENA indicator report. EEA Report No. 6/2005., p. 128 [8] Baldock, D. Nature conservation and new directions in the common agricultural policy. Institute for European Environmental Policy. London, 1993 [9] EEA High nature value farmland characteristics, trends and policy challenges. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004 [10] Pointereau P., Paracchini M.L., Terres J.-M., Jiguet F., Bas Y., Biala K. Identification of High Nature Value farmland in France through statistical information and farm practice surveys. European Commission, Joint Research Center - JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability. 65 pp., 2007 [11] Heywood, V.H. & Baste I. Introduction. - In: Heywood,V.H., Watson, R.T.: Global Biodiversity Assessment Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge: 519., 1995 [12] Noss, R.F. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology, 1990, 4(4): 355-364.
th [13] El-Hage Scialabba, N., Grandi C. & Henatsch, C. Organic Agriculture and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. In: Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Proceedings of the satellite event held on the occasion of the 9 Regular Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, FAO, Rome 12-13 October 2002., 2003

[14] Reed D.H. & Frankham R. Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity. Conservation Biology, 2003, 17:230-237. [15] Allard R.W. Principles of plant breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York., 1999 [16] Murphy, K., Lammer, D., Lyon, S., Carter, B. & Jones, S.S. Breeding for organic and low-input farming systems: An evolutionary-participatory breeding method for inbred cereal grains. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 2005, 20(1), 48-55. [17] Agreste, La statistique agricole. Ministre de lagriculture et de la pche, 2007 [18] Slow Food, La vacca Maremmana. In: LArca, Quaderni dei Presidi; Giannone Mario, 2002. La ferrea dieta della Maremmana. In: A-Z Bio., 2001 [19] Beaufoy, G. The LFA Scheme: how important is it for the future of High Nature Value farming and how should it be reformed? La Canada, Newsletter of the European Forum for Nature Conservation and Pastoralism, 2005, 19: 12-14. [20] Tilman D., Reich P.B. & Knops J.M.H. Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decadelong grassland experiment. Nature, 2006, 441, 629-632. [21] Peter-Schmid, M., Boller, B. & Klliker, R. Habitat and management affect genetic structure of Festuca pratensis but not Lolium multiflorum ecotype populations. Plant Breed:in press, 2008 [22] IEEP Final report for the study on HNV indicators for evaluation. Report. Institute for European Environmental Policy. London. October 2007. http://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture/analysis/ external/evaluation/report.pdf, 2007 [23] Maljean, J.F. & Peeters, A. Integrated farming and biodiversity: impacts and political measures. Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy High-level Pan-European Conference on Agriculture and Biodiversity: towards integrating biological and landscape diversity for sustainable agriculture in Europe, Maison de lUnesco, Paris (France), 5-6 June 2002. Council of Europe, UNEP,, STRA-CO/AGRI (2001) ., 2002, 27: 28p [24] EEA Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010: proposal for a first set of indicators to monitor progress in Europe. European Environment Agency, Technical report No 11, 182 pp., 2007 [25] Ahnstrm , J. Ekologiskt Lantbruk Och Biologisk M ngfald: En Litte raturgenomgng [Organic f arming and biodivers ity: a liter ature r eview]. Centre f or Sustainable Agricultu re, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden., 2002 [26] Paoletti, M.G., Pi mentel, D., Stinner, B.R. & Stinner, D. Agroecosystem biodiversity: matching production and conserva tion biology. Agriculture, Ecosystem s and Environm ent, 1992, 40, 323. [27] Paoletti, M.G. (ed.) Inve rtebrate Biodiversity Bioindicator s of Sustainable Lan dscapes. Practical use of Invertebrates to assess sustainable Land use. Elsevier, 1999 [28] Pfinner, L. & Niggli, U. Effects of bi o-dynamic, organic and c onventional farming on ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) and other epig aeic arthropods in winter wheat. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 1996, 12, 353 364. [29] Elbersen, B. & Van Eupen, M. High Nature Value farm land areas in The Netherland s. Report. 33 pp., 2007 [30] Benton T.G., Vickery J.A. & Wilson J.D. Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2003, 18: 182-188. [31] IFOAM, 2002 IFOAM Basic Standards for Organic Agriculture Production and Processing. http://www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/standards/norms.html, 2002 [32] Mansvelt, J.D. van & Lubbe, M.J. van der Checklist for sustainable landscape management. Final report of the EU concerted action AIR3-CT93-1210. Elsevier science, The Netherlands. 202 pp., 1999 [33] Schweiger, O., Maelfait, J.P., van Wingerden, W., Hendrickx, F., Billeter, R., Speelmans, M., Augenstein, I., Aukema, B., Aviron, S., Bailey, D., Bukacek, R., Burel, F., Diektter, T., Dirkens, J., Frenzel, M., Herzog, F., Liira, J., Roubalova, M. & Bugter, R. Quantifying the impact of environmental factors on arthropod communities in agricultural landscapes across organisational levels and spatial scales. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2005, 42: 1129-1139. [34] Krebs, J.R., Wilson, J.D., Bradbury, R.B. & Siriwardena, G.M. (1999) The second silent spring? Nature, 1999, 400, 611-612. [35] UNEP United Nations Environment Programme, Environmental Data Report. WCED 1987 [36] EEA An inventory of biodiversity indicators in Europe. Technical report No 92. Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://reports.eea.eu.int/technical_ report_2004_92/en/Technical92_for_web.pdf.ALTER-Net 2008)2004b [37] EEA Environmental indicators: Typology and overview. Technical report No 25. Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 1999 [38] Delbaere, B. Biodiversity Indicators and Monitoring: Moving towards implementation. Tilburg, ECNC, European Centre for Nature Conservation. http://www.ecnc.org/jump/page/150/biodindi. html.2002 [39] EEA EU Headline Biodiversity Indicators. Biodiversity and the EU Sustaining Life, Sustaining Livelihoods, Malahide, Ireland, European Environment Agency, 2004a [40] CBD Decision VII/30 of the Seventh Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD/COP7) Strategic Plan: future evaluation of progress. http://www.biodiv. org/ decisions/default.aspx?dec=VII/30., 2004 [41] CEC Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010 and beyond, sustaining ecosystem services for human wellbeing. COM(2006)216 final. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities, 2006 [42] EU Council conclusions of 28 June 2004 on Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010 (10997/04) which endorsed the list of EU headline biodiversity indicators. http://register.consilium.eu.int/pdf/en/04/ st10/st10997.en04.pdf, 2004 [43] EEA Progress towards halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010. EEA Report No 5/2006. Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006 [44] Gregory, R.D., van Strien, A., Vorisek, P., Gmelig Meyling, A.W., Noble, D.G., Foppen, R.P.B. & Gibbons, D.W. Developing indicators for European birds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., 2005, 360:269288.

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[45] Roy, D.B., Rothery, P. & Brereton, T. Reduced-effort schemes for monitoring butterfly populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2007, 44, 9931000. [46] ETC/NPB An inventory of European site-based biodiversity monitoring networks. Final draft report, prepared by ECNC European Centre for Nature Conservation. Copenhagen, European Environment Agency. http://biodiversity.eionet. eu.int/activities/products/report_folder/monitoring. pdf., 2003 [47] Bredemeier, M., Dennis, P., Sauberer, N., Petriccione, B., Trk, K., Cocciufa, C., Morabito, G. & Pugnetti, A. Biodiversity assessment and change the challenge of appropriate methods. In: Hester, R.E. & Harrison, R.M. (Editors) Biodiversity under Threat. Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 25. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2007, pp. 217-251. [48] Dramstad, W.E., Fjellstad, W.J., Strand, G.-H., Mathiesen, H.F., Engan, G. & Stokland, J.N. Development and implementation of the Norwegian monitoring programme for agricultural landscapes. Journal of Environmental Management, 2002, 64: 49-63. [63] Constanza, R., DArge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limbirg, K., Naem, S., ONeill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, Pl. & van den Belt, M. The value of the worlds ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 1997, 387, 253260. [64] Bchs, W. (ed.) (Biotic Indicators for Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2003, 98 - Special Issue [65] Gaston, K.J. ed. Biodiversity, A biology of Numbers and Difference. Blackwell Science. 396 pp., 1996 1. Lawton, J.H., Bignell, D.E., Bolton, B., Bloemers, G.F., Eggleton, P., Hammond, P.M,, Hodda, M., Holt, R.D., Larsen, T.B., Mawdsley, N.A., Stork, N.E, Srivastava, D.S. & Watt, 2. D. Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature, 1998, 391: 72-76. [67] Simberloff, D. Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: Is single-species management pass in the landscape era? Biological Conservation, 1998, 83: 247-257. [68] Duelli, P. & M. K. Obrist Regional biodiversity in an agricultural landscape: the contribution of seminatural habitat islands. Basic and applied Ecology, 2003, 4: 129-138.

COMPARISON THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ORGANIC/ LOW INPUT VERSUS INTENSIVE FARMING SySTEMS ON SOIL AND NUTRIENT LOSS
Centeri, C.1, Malatinszky, .1, Szentes, Sz.2, Penksza, K.1 Szent Istvn University, Fact. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Landscape Management, e-mail: Centeri.Csaba@kti.szie.hu
1

ABSTRACT Rural areas underwent serious changes in the last 2-3 centuries. Recent changes in Eastern Europe included the change of the former socialist era to something new. This caused segregation of large fields into small farming units at the first time. Later on big enterprises started to buy and unify agricultural areas again. Some remaining spots stayed in a less intensive status with low or no nutrient use at all, farmed by small families. This and other abandonment of former fields or land use change from arable to meadow provided a possibility to make comparison of such forms of land uses (intensive and extensive farms side by side, or arable and grazing lands side by side). The comparison needs a complex research of an area (soil management with great emphasis on nutrient supply, analyses of geological background, crop rotation, botanical surveys, land use change survey and examination of grass management and planted grass species). Extensive farming can serve as a good basis for the production of healthy food [1] [2]. Potential hazards of soil loss [3] [4] do not only belong to extreme events but soil, soil nutrient and soil organic matter loss are causing yield loss in agricultural production, effect climate change [5] [6]. In the present study numerous areas were examined where low input/organic farming could have been compared with other areas under intensive farms: extensive pastures versus arable land, organic farm versus abandoned arable land; grassland versus intensive arable land etc. The results of coenological and pedological examination proved that low input and organic farms are causing less soil and nutrient loss compared to intensive farming systems. The rate of soil and nutrient loss is less intensive on organic farms; the lower third of the slopes on low input/organic farms have less lost nutrients from the upper slope thirds than those of intensive farms. Intensive farms produced 2-3 times more nutrient loss than low input/organic farms. Keywords: low input farming, organic farming, intensive farming, nutrient loss, soil loss INTRODUCTION Soil eroded by water and wind erosion is a well examined area of the natural environment. However soil water erosion has not been examined in details concerning its effects on nature protected areas. In the present case we examine the rate of nutrient loss in a buffer zone of a national park to show the dimension of the problem. Differences among the erosion effects of some of the locally wide spread crops. Farming systems might play an important role in the preservation of biodiversity, especially close to natural or semi-natural areas. Choosing proper land management methods [1] [7] [8] plays an important role in preserving soil fertility [9] and avoiding erosion [3] [4] [5] [6]. Measuring the value of the landscape and in general the natural areas it is an increasing need to prepare a monetary portray [10] [11]. Monitoring the change of landscape patterns is another important issue [12]. Erosion is investigated in details on the Balaton Watershed because it plays a central role in the life of the country, mainly because it is the most visited area just as well as Budapest. Water quality is important to maintain attractive water for tourists and good quality for wild species in natural environment. There have been erosion researches [6], land use change researches in connection with

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calculation of sediment fluxes [5], soil erodibility researches [13], soil-plant-erosion research [14] and examination of connection between soil formation and degradation [15] etc. Potential hazards of soil loss [4], [3] do not only belong to extreme events but soil, soil nutrient and soil organic matter loss are causing yield loss in agricultural production [16], effect climate change and sediments are filling up ditches, lakes and smaller waterways but extremely high nutrient content is non desirable either [13]. MATERIALS AND METHODS Introduction of the examined areas Outskirts of Pilismart The parent rock of the area is dominated by Tertier sandstone and andesit tuff or agglomerate. 20 % of the sediments of the surface or near surface is loess or slope loess, appr. 40 % is Pleistocene river sand or pebbles and another appr. 40 % is Holocene, mostly river sediment. The climate is heterogeneous because it is a transition zone between moderately warm and moderately cold types. Cooler areas are to the north and south, warmer areas are to the east and west. Yearly average temperature is 9.510 C. Number of sunny hours are 1950. The number of days with snow cover is 35, the average maximum snow depth is 2025 cm. Yearly amount of the precipitation is 600650 mm. Winds are dominantly arriving from the North-West, the average wind speed is 3 m/s. The dominant soils are Arenosols (2728 %) formed on the calcium rich alluvium of the Danube with low soil organic matter content, raw Fluvisols (2828 %) and with smaller proportion the Luvisols (15 %). 90% of the Luvisols are forested, their erosion is maximum medium level and erosion is not wide spread on Luvisol under forest. The examined area lies approx. 46 km north of the center of Budapest. Kli Basin Area, Nemesgulcs and Kveskl The second sample area is situated in the Kli and Tapolca Basins, they are part of the Balaton Upland National Park. Kli Basin has very diverse geological heritage, there is basalt, sandstone, red sandstone, dolomite and limestone. The Kli Basin Landscape Protection District was formed in 1984 on 9111 ha. The area can be freely visited except some strictly protected peaty meadow areas. Examined areas can be found north of Lake Balaton, in the Tapolca and Kli Basins of the Balaton Upland National Park Directorate, near the settlements of Nemesgulcs and Kveskl. Near Nemesgulcs there are 4 horses grazing on 6 ha area in free grazing (0.7 horse/ha) on a Cynodonti-Potum angustifoliae grassland that is situated on a slope. Soil and plant samples were taken on the upper (UTS) and lower (LTS) third of the slope. This area formerly was used as vineyard. Near Kveskl there are 2 horses grazing on a 1 ha grassland (0.5 horse/ha) on a degraded association of Cynodonti-Potum angustifoliae. Control area was found close to the grazed grassland where Salvinio Festucetum rupicolae association was found. The grassland was grazed formerly by sheep. 55 pieces of 2 by 2 m coenological quadrates were examined on each sample area. Quadrates were prepared by Braun-Blanquet method [17] [18] in July, 2007. Cover values were given in %. Total cover values were given as absolute cover, calculated for 100% were given as relative cover. Compositions of the characteristic groups of the grassland were evaluated according to [19]. For evaluation during the data processing we chose nature conservation value categories (TVK) [20] from synthetic parameters. Putnok Hills, Alszuha and Gmrszls The studied areas are in the Putnok Hills, Northern Hungarian Mountains, in the eastern part. Traditional land use methods were observed on the basis of close-to-natural state habitats. These areas are extremely important for nature conservation because valuable plant taxa may only be preserved for the future generations with sustaining the management patterns, used through hundreds of years. The plant communities and species of the studied area were fully described by Malatinszky [21]. Ancient agricultural activities on diverse habitats resulted in specially structured landscape mosaics. Besides biological and landscape diversity, adequate cultivation structure is important also in favour of preserving soil fertility and avoiding erosion. Soil is one of the most important components of the landscape. Its preservation must be our priority because it is -1 non-renewable resource at the scale of human lifetime. Eroded soil a -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 material may carry humus and important fertilizers (9 kg*ha *y N, 5,5 kg*ha *y P and 6,6 kg*ha *y K can be lost due to erosion) from the arable lands. Detailed soil data of the Alsszuha research area is described in Centeri and Csszr [15]. Pedological examinations Soil core samples were examined and described at all sites in the 1-100 cm layer. Upper 20 cm layers were sampled for laboratory analyses. The following soil parameters -1 were examined in the laboratory: pH(H2O), pH(KCl), CaCO3 in %, soil organic matter in %, -1 ALP2O5 in mg*kg , AL-K2O in mg*kg . For examination of different slope thirds, methodology of the Hungarian Soil Protection Information and Monitoring System was used [22]. RESULTS Pedologgical evaluation of the Pilismart site (adjacent to the Danube-Ipoly National Park) Examination of the Pilismart area shows the differences in basic pedological parameters among the various crops (Table 1.). Alfalfa is supposed to provide the best protection against nutrient runoff and maize should be the worst but in this case maize resulted better solution. This can not be explained by the effect of the plant rather with bad nutrient managements.

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Sample site Site 1. Site 1. Site 2. Site 2. Site 3. Site 3. Site 4. Site 4. Site 5. Site 5.

Crop Winter wheat Meadow Winter wheat Winter wheat Alfalfa Alfalfa Alfalfa Alfalfa Maize Maize

Slope section Upper third Lower third Upper third Lower third Upper third Lower third Upper third Lower third Upper third Lower third

CaCO3 (%) 5.81 10.78 3.21 0.26 0.63 0 0.59 0 0.70 0

SOM (%) 1.43 1.25 1.32 1.59 1.56 1.64 1.36 1.46 1.72 1.45

AL-K2O (mg kg-1) 190.7 177.9 195.0 195.0 189.3 182.9 177.9 190.7 190.7 176.5

AL-P2O5 (mg kg-1) 46.4 93.9 86.9 100.8 72.1 59.3 63.2 34.6 95.8 22.7

TABLE 1. Results of the basic soil laboratory analyses, Pilismart, Hungary Results of the pedological examination of the Kli Basin area, Nemesgulcs and Kveskl The results of the pedological laboratory experiments can be found in Table 2. In case of Nemesgulcs samples were collected from the lower and upper third of the slopes, resulted differences in nutrient content.
Sample site Description Horse pasture UTS3 Horse pasture LTS4 Control Horse pasture Control
1

pH (H2O) 7.81 7.65 7.76 7.79 7.86

pH (KCl) 7.39 7.23 7.32 7.20 7.29


2

CaCO3 (%) 14.51 1.32 14.93 11.58 24.99


3

SOM1 (%) 4.25 4.74 3.42 10.31 12.01

AL2-P2O5 (mg*kg-1) 164.5 374.5 222.9 171.8 270.5

AL-K2O 214.9 441.8 259.2 668.6 675.8


4

Nemesgulcs

Kveskl

Sampling depth was 0-20 cm, SOM=Soil Organic Matter, AL=Ammonium Lactate, UTS=Upper Third of the Slope, Lower Third of the Slope TABLE 2. Results of laboratory examination of soil samples There are differences in pedological background of the lower (LTS) and upper (UTS) third of the slopes. At LTS there were species with big coverage indicating nutrient rich environment and nitrogen, e.g. Artemisia vulgaris (Table 3). At UTS their proportion is significantly smaller. The change is obviously caused by the nutrients moving from the UTS to LTS together with other soil elements, such as soil organic matter, potassium and smaller particle size soil materials. These elements are not only moving from the upper part of the slope but accumulating at the bottom of it. Plant species follow changes in soil properties. Vegetation at LTS is better both for species composition and for production from the foraging point of view.
ites and slope sections TVK values E5 GY6 GY K7 TP8 TZ9 TZ(K)10 Total
1 5

Nemesgulcs area LTS1 absol. 4.0 0.0 13.0 0.6 0.4 35.6 2.2 55.8
2

Kveskl area UTS2 Pasture relat. (%) 6.9 0.6 10.9 1.1 2.3 71.3 6.9 100.0
3 4

relat. 7.2 0.0 23.3 1.1 0.7 63.8 3.9 100.0

absol. 2.4 0.2 3.8 0.4 0.8 24.8 2.4 34.8

absol. 4.2 0.0 7.0 5.8 0.0 10.4 1.0 28.4

relat. 14.8 0.0 24.6 20.4 0.0 36.6 3.5 100.0

Control area absol. relat. 20.0 0.8 13.4 13.4 0.2 24.0 0.0 71.8 27.9 1.1 18.7 18.7 0.3 33.4 0.0 100.0

LTS = Lower Third of the Slope, UTS = Upper Third of the Slope, absolute, relative,
6 7 8 9 10

E=edaphic, GY=weed, K=accompanying species, TP=natural pioneer, TZ=natural with disturbance tolerance, TZ(K)= natural species with disturbance tolerance (accompany) TABLE 3. Distribution of the species with different nature conservation value categories (TVK) on the Nemesgulcs and Kveskl area (Kli Basin), Hungary

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Festuca rubra was the only represented edaphic species (in one quadrate). Coverage of natural species with disturbance tolerance was moderately decreasing. Low forage value was caused by the lack of valuable Poaceae and pulses species. There was a low total cover with 51.8%. Horses ate up the valuable plant species. Negative effects, such as trampling was also observed on the pasture. Horses have selective foraging. Based on the species composition this area is not suitable for horse pasture but it could be more effectively used for sheep pasture. The species composition and laboratory analyses proved the negative effects of the lack of nutrients. Nutrient supply could be improved by spreading mature manure. Solidago has a very high proportion, needs handling. Evaluation of grazed land of the Kveskl site (Kli Basin) There were differences between the plant species of the pasture and the control area. One of the main differences between the pasture and the control area is the strong dominance of drought tolerant species on the control area. Both areas had the representatives of species with nitrogen demand from sterile to hipertroph production sites. Pasture has a very high proportion of the species indicating nutrient rich environment that can be probably explained by overgrazing. Both control and pasture areas has the highest cover of natural species with disturbance tolerance. The biggest difference in nature conservation value categories was the decrease of association composing species on the pasture because Poa angustifolia (the most valuable for foraging in the association) was eaten up by the horses. The lack of the cover cause increase in weed species. On the pasture there is the biggest coverage of the natural species with disturbance tolerance. Natural competitors were missing from the association. Overgrazing and improper grazing method caused very low plant cover on the pasture. Prunus spinosa, Rosa canina and Rubus caesius indicate strong increase of shrub coverage on the control area. Their cover reaches 10% on the control while on the pasture they are not represented. Coverage of Poacea species is double on the control area compared to the pasture. Species composition of the pasture has changed significantly, grazing caused decrease in its production. Pedological evaluation of the Gmrszls site (Putnok Hills) In the Gmrszls area we compared the basic laboratory parameters (Table 4.) of an arable land (corn) with a dry meadow (situated on the same slope). The differences in the laboratory data suggest that there were intensive farming under the area where there was meadow in the last few years. The differences in the AL-P2O5-content of the upper and lower third of the slopes are great both on the arable land and on the meadow as well.
Surface cover Arable land Meadow
1

Slope LFH1 LAH2 LFH LAH


2

pHKCl 6,68 6,81 6,71 6,63

pHH2O 7,78 7,77 7,33 7,16

CaCO3 % 21,3 7,8 19,3 9,7


***

AL-P2O5 (mg*kg-1) 140,84 166,36 110,14 181,6

AL-K2O (mg*kg-1) 463,99 558,55 483 532,2

SOM (%) 2,33 3,16 3,91 4,45

LFH = upper third of the slope, LAH = lower third of the slope, SOM = soil organic matter TABLE 4. Laboratory data of topsoil in Gmrszls Pedological evaluation of the Alsszuha site (Putnok Hills) In the Alsszuha area we compared the basic laboratory parameters of an arable land (corn) with abandoned lands (12 and 30 years ago, respectively). Abandoned lands are mostly covered by grass and functioning as meadows now. As it can be seen in Table 5., there are differences in the distribution of the examined soil parameters.
Surface cover Arable land Abandoned (for 12 years) Abandoned (for 30 years)
1

Slope LFH1 LAH2 LFH LAH LFH LAH


2

pHKCl 5,41 5,96 5,32 5,25 6,47 5,70

pHH2O 6,50 6,70 6,30 6,16 6,85 6,37


3

AL-P2O5 (mg*kg-1) 32,41 90,07 28,67 20,85 66,59 19,58

AL-K2O (mg*kg-1) 162,68 184,35 141,86 118,72 166,23 188,04

SOM3 (%) 2,55 3,28 3,01 2,37 2,5 2,86

LFH = upper third of the slope, LAH = lower third of the slope, SOM = soil organic matter TABLE 5. Laboratory data of topsoil in Alsszuha

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On the arable land, there are two-three times differences in the nutrient content and soil organic matter content of the lower and upper slope thirds. Differences smooth when we go to the abandoned arable land, used as pasture for 12 years. In this case we found higher soil organic matter and phosphorous content of the upper third of the slope that can not be explained only by the soil forming effects of the grassland but there must have been manuring of the grazing animals as well. There are similar, extreme results in case of the 30-years-old pasture where phosphorous content is more than triple on the upper third compared to the lower third. In case of intensive farming or simply arable land use, thanks to the higher slope angle, the normal way of nutrient distribution is that there are nutrient concentration at the bottom of the slope (lower slope third) caused by the combined effects of intensive soil water erosion and soil tillage erosion. In case of the abandoned farm, it is vice versa. CONCLUSIONS Basic pedological and botanical field studies and basic soil laboratory analysis can prove the difference in the nutrient status and the soil erosion state of the lands used with different intensities. Further biodiversity analysis and plant content analysis could prove the positive effects of low input farming. REFERENCES
[1] ngyn, J., Tardy, J. & Vajnn Madarassy, A. (eds.) Agricultural basics for protected and sensitive natural areas (in Hungarian). Mezgazda Kiad, Budapest, 2003, 68 p. [2] Barczi, A. Agri-environmental management and rural development in the European Union and in Hungary (in Hungarian). ROP Course Booklet, Szent Istvn University, 2006, Gdll [3] Evelpidou, N. Using Fuzzy logic to map soil erosion. A case study from the Island of Paros. Tjkolgiai Lapok (Hungarian Journal of Landscape Ecology), 2006, 4(1): 103-113. [4] Gournellos, Th., Evelpidou, N. & Vassilopoulos, A. Developing an Erosion risk map using soft computing methods (case study at Sifnos island), Natural Hazards, 2004, 31(1): 39 - 61. [5] Jordan, Gy., van Rompaey, A, Szilassi, P, Csillag, G., Mannaerts, C. & Woldai, T. Historical land use changes and their impact on sediment fluxes in the Balaton basin (Hungary). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2005, 108: 119-130. [6] Szilassi, P., Jordan, G., van Rompaey, A. van & Csillag, G. Impacts of historical land use changes on erosion and agricultural soil properties in the Kali Basin at Lake Balaton, Hungary. CATENA, 2006, 68(3): 96-108., 2006 [7] ngyn J. & Menyhrt Z. Alkalmazkod nvnytermeszts, krnyezet s tjgazdlkods. Szaktuds Kiad Hz, Budapest, 2004, 559 p. [8] ngyn J. (2008): Mezgazdlkodsi stratgik. Egyetemi jegyzet. Szent Istvn Egyetem, MKK, KTI, Gdll, 2008, 128 p. [9] Centeri, Cs. & Csszr, A. The effects of surface cover on phosphorous distribution over the slope (in Hungarian with English abstract). Tjkolgiai Lapok (Hungarian Journal of Landscape Ecology), 2005, 3(1): 119-131. [10] Csorba P. Possibilities to express the monetary value of the landscape value (in Hungarian with English abstract). Tjkolgiai Lapok (Hungarian Journal of Landscape Ecology), 2003, 1(1): 7-17. [11] Balzs, K. & Centeri, C. Success of biodiversity conservation through the rural development regulation in selected EU member states. Lucrri tiinifice, Seria, 2007, I. IX(1): 89-100. [12] Barczi A., Penksza K. & Grns V. Change of the landscape of Tihany from the turn of the century (in Hungarian). Agrrtrtneti Szemle, 1996,. 38 (1-4): 298-316. [13] Centeri, Cs. & Pataki, R. Soil erodibility measurements on the slopes of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary. In. A. Faz Cano, R. Ortiz Silla & A. R. Mermut (eds). Advances in GeoEcology, 2005, 36, p. 149-154. [14] Centeri, Cs. The role of vegetation cover in soil erosion on the Tihany Peninsula. Acta Botanica Hungarica, 2002, 44(3-4): 285-295. [15] Centeri, Cs. & Csszr, A. The connection of soil formation and erosion induced soil loss on the Tihany Peninsula (in Hungarian with English abstract). Tjkolgiai Lapok, 2003, 1(1): 81-85. [16] Centeri Cs. & Vona M. Soil loss calculation and sediment analyses in Galgahvz, Hungary. European Geologist, 2006, 22: 36-39. p. [17] Braun-Blanquet, J. Pflanzensoziologie II. Wien., 1951 [18] Braun-Blanquet, J. Pflanzensoziologie. Wien- New-York, 1964 [19] Tasi J., Szl Zs. (1996): Is there a reason for existence of flowering meadows and pastures in Hungarian grass management? (in Hungarian) Gdlli Gyepgazdlkodsi Tancskozs, Gdll. 3439.p. [20] Simon T. (2000): Determination book of the Hungarian vascular flora (in Hungarian). Tanknyvkiad, Budapest. [21] Malatinszky . Connections between botanical heritage and landscape management forms in the Putnok Hills (in Hungarian with English abstract). Tjkolgiai Lapok (Hungarian Journal of Landscape Ecology), 2004, 2(1): 65-76. [22] Marth P. & Karkalik, A. Methodology, work and information system of the Soil Protection Information and Monitoring System (TIM) (in Hungarian). Budapest, 2004, Kzirat, p. 28.

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INFLUENCES OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FERTILIZING AND MULCHING ON yIELD AND QUALITy OF MELON AND WATERMELON UNDER PROTECTED CULTIVATION.
Ertan Sait KURTAR1 and Cneyt CVELEK2
1 2

Vocational High School of Bafra, Ondokuz Mayis University, Bafra, Samsun, Turkey. ertankur@omu.edu.tr. Horticulture Department, Agriculture Faculty, Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey. c.civelek@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of commercial organic and mineral fertilizers and different mulches (transparent, black and gray) on the yield (early and total yield) and quality (TSSC% and pH) of melon and watermelon under lowtunnel for two-year period. There was not statistically difference between organic and mineral fertilizing on yield. But, TSSC% was found higher in organic fertilizing, and mulches increased yield and TSSC% compared to control, significantly. The highest early and total yield were obtained from mineral fertilizing and TSSC% value was higher in organic fertilizing combination of black mulch in melon and watermelon. Key words : Organic farming, protected cultivation, watermelon, melon. INTRODUCTION Mineral fertilizing has not been effective on soil sustainability on a long-term basis. Because of it causes to soil degeneration (decline in organic matter content, higher pH, physical degradation) and environment deterioration (erosion) [1]. Healthy soil is a main component of sustainability; that is, a healthy soil will produce healthy crop plants that have optimum vigour and are less susceptible to pests. Soil health depends on using cover crops, traditional or commercial fertilizer, reducing tillage, avoiding traffic on wet soils, and maintaining soil cover with plants and/or mulches. Organic fertilizers are more profitable in environment protection and soil sustainability, and it is used in traditional agricultural production for a long time. But, they have some negative and detrimental influences based on concerns about production quality (quality of raw vegetables), contamination (hormones, antibiotics, pesticides, disease organisms etc.), soil fertility imbalances (usage of excessive levels, large amounts of nitrogen and salts), weed problems (containing weed seed) and pollution hazards (manure eroding or leaching into ground or surface waters) [2]. Therefore, commercial organic fertilizers (concentrate liquid or solid) should be more beneficial and practical on soil sustainability in both of current and future sustainable agriculture. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was carried out in the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008 at the Bafra plain, Samsun, Turkey. Four melon cultivars and two watermelon cultivars were used with different coloured mulch treatments under transparent plastic low-tunnel. Crop rotation system was applied in experimental area (melon, tomato, head cabbage, watermelon). Organic and conventional areas were isolated by distance of 30 m to prevent any probable pesticide or fertilizer contamination from conventional areas. Organic and mineral fertilizing (Table 1) were programmed accordance with the analysis of the soil. The N-P-K ratio was considered 13- 4-16 kgda-1 and 17-14-20 kgda-1 for melon and watermelon [3], respectively. Plants were protected with certified commercial organic insecticide (Azadirachtin- NeemAzal) and fungicide (Copper sulphate - Labicuper) in organic plots, regularly. Decis (Deltamethrin) and Aliette (Fosetyl-Al) were used as insecticide and fungicide in conventional plots, respectively. Weeds were controlled through manual hoeing and hand pulling as the melon and watermelon vines spread and covered the plots to thus suppress weed growth. Table 1. Chemical composition of the commercial organic and mineral fertilizer
Ormin-K Vegetal 6.6 30.0 5.0 Organic Fertilizers MOG Biofarm Vegetal Vegetal+Cattle 6.3 6.6 3.91 3.5 3.0 5.4 3.0 35.0 65.0 AS (NH4) 2SO4 4.8 21.0 24.0 Mineral Fertilizers PS MAP KsSO4 NH4H2PO4 6.0 4.6 11.0 52.0 50.0 18.0 -

Source pH N (%) P2O5 (%) K2O (%) S (%) OS (%)

OS: Organic Substance; AS: Ammonium Sulphate ; PS: Potassium Sulphate; MAP: Mono Ammonium Phosphate

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RESULTS Early and Total yield (kg/m2) Early and total yield were not influenced from organic and mineral fertilizing, statistically. Mulch applications gave the higher early and total yield than control in melon and watermelon. In melon, early an total yield was increased with mulch applications about 53-90% and 37-63% in organic and 59100% and 35-59% in conventional areas. Early and total yield was found higher in mineral fertilizing and black mulch combinations by 2.63 and 5.39 kg/m2 in Anzer F1, respectively (Figure 1 and 2).

Figure 1. Early yield of melons (kg/m2).

Figure 2. Total yield of melons (kg/m2). Early an total yield was increased with mulch applications about 16-38% and 14-30% in organic and 18-39% and 20-32% in conventional areas, in watermelon. Farao F1 gave the higher early and total yield in mineral fertilizing and black mulch combinations by 7.48 and 11.03 kg/m2, respectively (Figure 3 and 4).

Figure 3. Early yield of watermelon (kg/m2).

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Figure 4. Total yield of watermelons (kg/m2). Total Soluble Solid Contents (TSSC%) and pH TSSC% values were influenced from organic and mineral fertilizing, and mulch applications, significantly. Organic and mineral fertilizing, and mulch applications were not effective on pH. Organic fertilizing and mulch applications gave the high TSSC% than control and mineral fertilizing both in melon and watermelon. In general, TSSC% was determined 8.5% and 10.1% in organic and 8.2% and 9.3% in conventional areas for melon and watermelon, respectively. TSSC% was increased with mulch applications about 15-23% in organic and 8-20% in conventional areas. The highest TSSC% was found in organic fertilizing + black mulch by 9.2 for melon (Sega F1) and 10.8 for watermelon (Farao F1). pH values were changed 6.2-6.4 in melon and 6.4-6.7 in watermelon (Figure 5 and 6).

Figure 5. TSSC of melons (%).

Figure 6. TSSC of watermelons (%).

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DISCUSSION The effect of commercial organic and mineral fertilizers on the early and total yield was found to be non-significant, statistically, and both organic and mineral fertilizers had similar effects. But conventional areas were found a little bit productive than organic areas. Similar result was found in melon [4]. On the other hand, fruit yields (kg/plant) were significantly higher in inorganic substrates compared with in the organic substrates in melon [5]. Watermelon and melon grown under protected organic conditions produce greater total and marketable yields than those grown under protected conventional systems, also [6]. Mulch applications (transparent, black and gray) enhanced early and total yield (early and total yield) in melon and watermelon, also. Protected cultivation (greenhouses, tunnels and mulches) is one of the effective method of intensive production of melon and watermelon [7] [8]. TSSC% contents were found significantly higher in organic fertilizing areas and pH was not influenced from applications. Faria et al. [9] obtained high soluble solid content values with the application of organic matter in melon. Many researcher were proposed different results because of organic production is the mostly depending culture conditions (climate and region, open or protected cultivation, origin and amount of organic fertilizer, soil type) and cultivars (resistance and/or tolerance to disease, insect and weed pressure, adaptation ability of local conditions). Therefore, determination of cultivars performances under various culture conditions is necessary to comparable high yield and quality in organically grown melon and watermelon. Finally, commercial organic fertilizer were found profitable and convenient as mineral fertilizer in melon and watermelon growing combined with mulch and plastic tunnel applications. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ondokuz Mayis University (Project No: BAP-BM-007). REFERENCES
[1] Rodale, R. Your Farm is Worth More Than Ever: Put your farms internal resources to work. New Farm Magazine, Regenerative Agriculture, 1991, pp: 8. [2] Chang, C., Sommerfeldt T.G. & Entz T. Soil Chemistry After Eleven Applications of Cattle Manure. J. Environ. Qual., 1991, 20, 475480. [3] Hochmuth, G. J. & Hanlon E.A. IFAS Standardized Fertilization Recommendations for Vegetable Crops. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. Circ., 1995, 1152. [4] Shiwei, S., Philipp L., Jiangang L., Tida G. & Danfeng H.. Yield, Fruit Quality and Nitrogen Uptake of Organically and Conventionally Grown Muskmelon With Different Inputs of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium.Jour. of Plant Nutr., 2009, 33(1), 130-141. [5] Raja Harun, R.M., Hall D.A., Szmidt R.A.K. & Hitchon G.M. Melon cultivation in organic and inorganic substrates. Acta Hort. (ISHS), 1991, 294, 105-108. [6] Crk, S., Sermenli T., Mavi K. & Evrendilek F. Yield and Fruit Quality of Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb,) Matsum, and Nakai,] and Melon (Cucumis melo L,) Under

THE BIOCONTROL AGENT OF MADEX DECREASES CODLING MOTH DAMAGES IN ESTONIAN ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARDS
Eve Veromann, Merje Toome, Kersti Kahu eve.veromann@emu.ee; merje.toome@emu.ee; kersti.kahu@emu.ee Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia ABSTRACT The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a common fruit pest of pome and stone fruits worldwide [1]. Nowadays, mostly chemical pesticides are used to control its population and therefore in organic orchards this pest is a serious problem. Recently, a biocontrol product MADEX has been developed. It contains a naturally occurring granulovirus that infects the digestive organs of the larvae [2]. The suitability of most biological control agents depends greatly on local environmental conditions and pest populations. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to test the effect of MADEX on an Estonian codling moth population. The experiment was conducted in an organic orchard established in 2002 with a mix of apple tree varieties. Half of the trees were treated twice with 0.1% MADEX solution and other half was untreated. The damage of codling moth was estimated as percentage of attacked fruits on dropped fruits twice in July and on all apples at the harvest. At the first estimation of dropped apples, there was no difference between treatments and almost 35% of apples were attacked. One week later the damage of treated apples decreased to 14% whereas still 32% of apples from control trees were damaged. At the harvest there were more than two times more damages on untreated apple trees (19.7% attacked) compared to the treated ones (8.8% of apples attacked). These results show that MADEX could be a promising biocontrol product to diminish the codling moth damages in Estonia. However, more studies are needed to test its effectiveness.

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Keywords. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, organic apple orchard, granulovirus, biocontrol. INTRODUCTION Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a common fruit pest of pome and stone fruits in temperate fruit-growing regions [1]; decreasing considerably the apple fruit yield [3]. In conventional orchards mostly synthetic pesticides are used to control the population of this pest. In organic orchards, however, there are very few possibilities to control this insect pest and therefore its damages are problematic. The extensive use of broad-spectrum pesticides leads to the development of insecticide resistance and has negative environmental effects. Moreover, they are harmful to non-target insects and beneficial organisms, including the natural enemies of codling moth. Effective alternatives to non-selective synthetic insecticides are biocontrol products. One effective biocontrol product against codling moth is MADEX, which contains a naturally occurring granulovirus that infects the digestive organs of the larvae. This virus is shown to be a very efficient biocontrol agent since it kills the pest within 3-7 days, depending on the dose [2]. Since the suitability of most biological control agents depends greatly on local environmental conditions and pest populations, it is very important to test its suitability in every region. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to test the effect of MADEX on Estonian codling moth population. MATERIAL AND METHODS The experiment was conducted in an organic apple orchard in Southern-Estonia. The orchard was established in 2002 with a mix of local apple tree varieties. On June 22 and July 6, 2009, half of the trees were treated with 0.1% MADEX solution and other half was untreated. The damage of codling moth was estimated as a percentage of attacked fruits on dropped apples on July 6 and 14 and on all apples at the harvest on September 16. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION At the first estimation there was no difference between treated and untreated trees and almost 35% of dropped apples were damaged. The lack of positive effect of MADEX at this assessment time could be due to short time after treatment. Although the studies show that the larvae are killed within a week, the time the pest enters the apple fruit must have been before the treatment. Indeed, the positive effect of granolovirus appeared on the assessment one week later, when the treated trees had approximately two times less damaged apples whereas the damage rate of apples from control trees remained the same as before. At the harvest, there were again over two times more damages on untreated apples compared to the treated ones but this time the percentage of the damaged fruits was much lower (Figure 1). These results show that MADEX could be a promising biocontrol product to diminish the codling moth damages in Estonia and it could be recommended to use in the organic apple orchards. However, more studies are needed to test if its effectiveness is constant over years.
REFERENCES
[1] Barnes, M.M. Tortricids in pome and stone fruits, codling moth occurrence, host race formation and damage. In: L.P.S. van der Geest and H.H. Evenhuis eds.Tortricid pests, their biology, natural enemies and control, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1991, 313-327. [2] Lacey L.A., Thomson D., Vincent C., Arthurs S.P. Codling moth granulovirus: a comprehensive review. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 2008, 18 (7), 639-663. [3] Wilett M.J., Neven L., Miller C.E.The occurrence of codling moth in low latitude countries: Validation of pest distribution reports. HortTechnology, 2009, 19 (3), 633-637.

Figure 1. The percentage of apples with codling moth damage in organic apple orchard at three assessment times in 2009.

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EFFECT OF MICRO NUTRIENT FOLIAR APPLICATION ON THEIR CONCENTRATION IN CORN KERNEL


E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi*1 M. yarnia2, M.B.Khorshidi Benam3 Islamic Azad University, Malekan branch - farajzadeh_e@malekaniau.ac.ir Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch 3 Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh branch
1 2

ABSTRACT Zea mays is one of the most important food sources for human and cultivated in most countries. One subject that ignored is micronutrient elements efficiency in different soil conditions. For decreasing usage of chemical fertilizers in organic crop production and increasing micro nutrient elements rate and compensate element deficient in human life and for studying micro elements different application methods on corn a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted during growing season of 2008 at Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, agricultural research station. Treatments were six levels of micronutrients (control, ZnSO4, MnSO4, H3BO3 and complete micronutrients) as the first factor and three forms of application (soil, foliar application and spraying the kernels) as the second one. Results showed that foliar application was useful more than other application in growth and yield of corn. Complete and mix fertilizers by foliar application increased Boron concentration in corn kernel. Foliar application increased ZnSO4 concentration in kernels. Micro fertilizers application increased quality and quantity in corn. By foliar application of mix microelements Boron rate in kernel increased to 13.91 ppm that was approximately 74.96 more than the control treatment. FeSo4 and mixed fertilizers foliar application caused increasing equal 5.5% Fe and 24.52% MnSo4 in corn kernel more than control treatment. Micro fertilizers and foliar application was best method for increasing micro nutrient elements concentration in kernel and decreased human body microelements deficient. Key words: Corn, Micro fertilizers, different Methods, nutrient concentrations in kernel. INTRODUCTION Corn, the most important sources of human food comes in a wide range of agricultural land is being cultivated in the world. This plant, however, production performance, nutrient needs are high to. But sometimes even with the use of nutrients to the conventional methods resulting potential function because despite the micro-nutrients to less macro nutrients plants need. Is due to their role in plant physiology at least according to the severity of the macro nutrients could affect growth and function may affect crops. But despite the importance of its role around the world often has been ignored. One of the issues that most often been exposed, nutrient efficiency of a variety of micro earth. Corn after germination to nutrient needs is high and any deficiency, plant growth and yield will reduce. Due to a small root system in the early stages of growth nutrients should be placed in the vicinity of seed (5). Macro and micro nutrients for plant nutrition are essential (2). But why did the farms, along with low fertilizer use, the macro and micro nutrients are discharged from the soil (1). Methods now the most important micro-nutrients in the world are soil application methods. But this method has disadvantages (6). For example, because the amount used is very low micro-elements uniform application of fertilizer to the soil micro consumption is very hard (7). Nutrients absorbed by the root and shoot part. (9). But the amount of food absorbed by plants from the soil may not be enough (8). Therefore Modified Micro nutrient deficiency due to low performance of these elements in soil requires large amounts of fertilizers used in soil (3,8). Therefore, depending on the vironment of farmers in different ways other use. Application methods for food, are foliar application, Seed coat with micro nutrients are better way (8). Because of lower amounts of fertilizers are required, easy to apply and nutrients in the seedling and the production is stronger seedling growth and that cause offer better seedling (8) MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate the effect of different methods on some traits of Zea mays L.cv. Jeta an experiment was in Tabriz 2008 and based on a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted. Treatments were six type of micronutrients (control, ZnSO4, MnSO4, H3BO3, FeSO4 and complete micronutrients) and three methods of application (soil application, seed coating and foliar application). The results showed that the effect of different fertilizers and methods of various micro applications, yield in connection with the 1% level was significant. Soil samples from two 4 point field profile produced according to the Soil science laboratories were sent, in May of 2008 provided land and complementary operations took the stack. Each experiment included 4 row plots were planting distance between rows 60 cm distance on seed rows and 20 cm planting depth was equal to 4 cm. Percent of micro elements in fertilizers in Table 2 is shown, also equal mixture of the other fertilizer supply and fertilizer mixture as the assembly was used. Rate used in this study used earth and to 30 kg ha and foliar application in concentrations of 5 thousand was considered (4, 10).

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Harvesting operations in September separate plots for each was done. Elements concentration in seed research institute laboratory analysis of plant was measured. Analyze variance based on the basic factorial experiment design was a randomized complete block and Comparative Study of factors Duncan Test 5 percent level was used. Statistical Analysis of variance calculations include mean and Comparative Study using statistical program MSTATC and drawing diagrams by using Excel software was done. RESULTS Boron amount of the seed Foliar application of fertilizers most compact Micro contains all the significant increase in the amount of food this element has been seed. But among other methods application control were not significantly difference with the exception of fertilizer to the seed coat that ear due to the amount of food zero element, respectively (Figure 1).

Figure1: effect of different fertilizers on Boron concentration in Seed Amount of iron in seeds Foliar application of iron fertilizer and complete micro fertilizer increases the amount Micro element iron in the tissues. Other treatments except the method complete micro fertilizer s oil application increased tissue iron element have been seed (Figure 2).

Figure2: effect of different fertilizers on FeSO4 concentration in Seed Amount of seed Mn Foliar application of mixture fertilizer in the most influence on the increased manganese in the tissues which unlike the results in tissue concentrations of this element has. Due to the increased attendance next effective manganese foliar and soil application

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complete fertilizer and Mn foliar application of seeds, respectively, But unlike other results to other treatments treatment by seed coat with a mixture of seeds and fertilizer had not significant difference by control and decrease in manganese in seeds (Figure 3).

Figure3: effect of different fertilizers on MnSO4 concentration in Seed

RATE ZINC ON THE SEED Such amount on the leaves, foliar application had most effect on the increase in the tissue .Between other treatments only complete and mixture fertilizer by foliar application and seed coating with a complete fertilizer caused significant increase in the seed. Among other treatments with no significant difference was observed in control (Figure 4).

Figure4: effect of different fertilizers on ZnSO4 concentration in Seed REFERENCES


1-Abou El- Nour, E. A. A. 2002. Growth and nutrient content response of maize to foliar nutrition with micronutrients under irrigation with saline water. Journal of Biological Science. 2(2): 92-97. 2-Arif, M., M. A. Chohan, S. Ali, R. G. and S. Khan, 2006. Response of wheat to foliar application of nutrients. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 1:30-34. 3-Bityutskii, V., S. Magnitski, I. Lapshina, E. Lukina, A. Soloviova and V. Patsevitch. 2006. Distribution of micronutrients in maize grain and their mobilization during germination. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences. 92: 218-219. 4-Farajzadeh.M.T, E., M.Yarnia, M.B.Khorshidi and V.Ahmadzadeh,2009. Effects of micronutrients and their application method on yield, CGR and NAR of corn cv. JETA. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment Science.vol7(2):611-615. 5-Floyd, N., W. J. Horst., P. Puigdomenech., N. Riveill. 2002. Maize. www.illusionmasks.com/images3/maize.jpg. 6-Li, B. Y., D. M. Zhou, L. Cang, H. L. Zhang, X. H. Fan, S. W. Qin. 2007. Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications. Soil & Tillage Research. 96: 166&#8211;173 7-Malone, L. 1999. Maximizing micronutrients. Meister Publishing Company. 8-Singh, M. V. 2007. Efficiency of seed treatment for ameliorating zinc deficiency in crops. Proceeding of Zinc Crop Conference, Istanbul, Turkey. 9-Veberic, R., D. Vodnik., F. tampar. 2005. Influence of foliar-applied phosphorus and potassium on photosynthesis and transpiration of Golden Delicious apple leaves (Malus domestica Borkh.). Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 85: 143-155. 10-Yarnia, M., M.B.Khorshidi, H.Kazemiarbat, E. Farajzadeh.M.T and D.Hassanpanah.2008. Effects of complete micronutrients and their application method on root yield and sugar content of sugar beet cv.Rassoul. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment Science.vol6 (3&4):341-345.

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CASE STUDy OF ECO/RURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MONOSPITOVSKO BLATO


Fidanka Trajkova1, Ljupco Mihajlov1, Vasko Zlatkovski2, Liljana Koleva-Gudeva3 fidanka.trajkova@ugd.edu.mk; ljupco.mihajlov@ugd.edu.mk; vasko.zlatkovski@ugd.edu.mk; liljana.gudeva@ugd.edu.mk Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Production Department, Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. box 201, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia 2 Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Office of Rural Development, Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. box 201, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia 3 Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biotechnology, Genetics and Selection, Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. box 201, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia
1

ABSTRACT The case study is presenting a successful story of development of eco and rural tourism in the area of Monospitovsko Blato. The Monospitovsko Blato is a swamp ecosystem in the Municipality of Bosilovo, Republic of Macedonia. The ecosystem is used for centuries from the local population for fishing, hunting and collecting medical plants. The current situation in the area of Monospitovsko Blato had shown that the usual income of the local population coming from the cultivation of horticultural crops is not satisfactory, so there is need for new and alternative sources of income. Their interest was the area to be developed in sustainable way which will attract visitor with different interests to the site. Since the site is placed in geographical position that has great potential for eco/rural tourism development, different activities were undertaken to develop and promote eco and rural tourism in the area of Monospitovsko Blato. Key words: Monospitovsko Blato, swamp, Nature Monument, biodiversity, tourist site INTRODUCTION Despite the fact that Republic of Macedonia has three national parks, it is rich in mountains, springs and rivers, flora and fauna, the rural and ecotourism are undeveloped and the potential of natural beauties and rural areas is underestimated. This case study is presenting a successful story of development of eco and rural tourism in the area of Monospitovsko Blato as part of the project Development of eco/rural tourism in Municipality of Bosilovo, financed from the Neighbourhood Programme between Bulgaria and Macedonia, Grant scheme for Nature Protection, Valorisation of Cultural Heritage and Cooperation among Public Institutions at Regional/Local Level. The project activities were carried out from March 2007 to March 2008, where the Municipality of Bosilovo was the implementation body and Municipality of Garmen was project partner. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Monospitovsko Blato covers area of 400 ha and it is situated in the South-East Planning Region of Republic of Macedonia in the vicinity of village Monospitovo and it is under administration of Municipality of Bosilovo (Figure 1). The swamp is in the nearest vicinity of Koleshinski and Smolarski Waterfalls, the thermal springs Banja Bansko, 10 km from Strumica as the biggest town in the region and about 20 km from the Bulgarian border. The location of the swamp is giving good geographical predisposition to be developed in eco/rural tourist site.

Figure 1. Location of Monospitovsko Blato. Source: [5]

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In 1987 it was proclaimed as Nature Monument because it is the only location in the country where the royal fern Osmunda regalis is growing. In the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of Republic of Macedonia form 2004, revitalization, traditional utilization of biodiversity and development of ecotourism for Monospitovsko Blato were recommended and foreseen [1] [4]. Approximately 9000 citizens are living and working in the nearest environment of the swamp. There is long tradition of collection of reed from the swamp, used for weaving ragcarpets locally called rogozini. The Monospitovsko Blato is very known hunting site. The hunting is very traditional; the hunters are making reed cottages (cheki) where they are waiting for the birds. Although reduced, the fishing is still performed in traditional way with kind of a handmade canoe (shayka) and handmade harpoons (sapkani) [4]. Taking into account all above-mentioned facts, Municipality of Bosilovo undertook first steps for sustainable development of Municipality of Bosilovo through development of eco and rural tourism in the area of Monospitovsko Blato. The objective of the action was reached with several activities: training in folklore and traditions; training in handcrafts; training for capacity building of local institutions involved in cultural and environmental management; youth camp for environmental and cultural issues; theatre show with traditional and folklore motifs; research of biodiversity, publication of monograph, multimedia CD and brochure about the Monospitovsko Blato; public forum Sustainable development of eco/rural tourism in Municipality of Bosilovo and micro region of Strumica; construction of 3 km access road from village Monospitovo to Monospitovsko Blato; construction of 1 km wooden pathway, 7 wooden cottages and 2 birdwatcher towers inside the swamp which are used for walks, hunting and they contribute to the specific landscape beauty (Figure 2) [2].

Figure 2. Monospitovsko Blato landscape with wooden cottage, pathways and watchtower. The biodiversity of the swamp is moderately reported in [2], but the monograph Monospitovsko Blato. Last marsh in Macedonia [4] is first detailed ecological and biodiversity report of the Monospitovsko Blato. Six different types of biotopes are described: marsh, swamp, wet meadows, forests, fragments of bogs and agricultural fields. CONCLUSIONS The described activities that were undertaken within the grant were the first and initial steps towards development of eco and rural tourism in Monospitovsko Blato. This initiative shall be further developed with establishment of action and management plan for eco/ rural tourism in the area of Monospitovsko Blato and strong connection between local population and entrepreneurship.
REFERENCES
[1] Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of Republic of Macedonia (2004), Ministry of environment and physical planning, Skopje 2004, p. 134. [2] Brochure Project Development of eco/rural tourism in Municipality of Bosilovo, 2008, pp.11 (in Macedonian language). [3] Country Study for Biodiversity of the Republic of Macedonia (First National Report). (2003), Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Skopje 2004, p.217. [4] Melovski Lj., Ivanov G., Angelova N., Velevski M., Hristovski S., (Eds.) (2008): Monospitovsko Blato. The last mash in Macedonia. Municipality of Bosilovo, pp. 56 (in Macedonian language). [5] http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/sites-factsheet.jsp?tab=0&idsite=P00000006&mapType=Biogeographic_B#map

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ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF OySTER MUSHROOM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA


ILIEVA Fidanka, MIHAJLOV. LJ, ZLATKOVSKI V. fidanka.ilieva@ugd.edu.mk ljupco.mihajlov@ugd.edu.mk vasko.zlatkovski@ugd.edu.mk Goce Delchev University,Faculty of Agriculture, Krste Misirkov str.bb, p.o.box 201,Stip 2000, Republic of Macedonia ABSTRACT Production of Oyster mushroom in the Republic of Macedonia in controlled conditions records significant improvement, mainly due to the new approach in growing technology. In this sense, organic production of oyster mushroom strongly depends on bio control. According to the basic principles of organic production there is absolute absence of any synthesized pesticide in the production process. This requires use of certified inputs used prior and after the mycelium inoculation. Neither of the inputs should be under influence of synthetic pesticide. STUDy AREA After the substrate preparation phase is over, it is time to insert the mycelium onto the soaked and properly cooled substrate. Average water content should be around 75-85% of water, and the temperature around 22 C. The bags containing straw and the mycelium are stored in a room with temperature between 22-25 C, and they stay there for a period of 3 weeks. In this period the mycelium spreads through the straw, and by the end of this period the bag, which in the beginning was yellow in color, almost turns into white. At the 21st day small colonies of mushrooms begin to emerge around the holes, previously punched on the bags. at this phase, proper ventilation and room temperature of 18-22 C is imminent. On the other hand, the ventilation system should keep the room ventilated good enough trying to avoid high-wind flow, as it will dry the mushrooms. In opposite, due to higher CO2 concentration instead of having nice, round and big fruits, fruits will be deteriorated in form, and small in size. Light has own part too. Too little and the form of the fruit would look like cauliflower. Too much, the specific grey color would will turn to cream. In Macedonia growers usually keep the bags for harvesting up to 3 times (around 40 days). The first pick contributes to 60% of full yield weight, and the rest remains to the latter two picks respectively. Vast majority of the mushrooms are sold as fresh. CONCLUSION Organic production of Oyster mushroom in Macedonia is in its first steps. Using government subsidies for organic agriculture it could become a production crop to be practiced and used by both rural and urban population. Baring in mind its nutritional values and full absence of synthesized pesticide residues it presents a niche product for hotels & restaurants in Macedonian resorts.

Tanks, cages and cranes used in the soaking and pasteurization process

Bags in chamber after mycelium innoculation

Manipulation table (on the right) and compressing unit (left)

Bags in growing areas

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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THE SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT By USING INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL METHODS


Floarea Nicolae, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicolaebio@yahoo.com Mariana Daniela Marica, Bioterra University of Bucharest, maridaniela_2006@yahoo.com Nicole Livia Atudosiei, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicole.atudosiei@rdslink.ro Razvan Daniel Cotianu, Bioterra University of Bucharest, cotianu_razvan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT The integrated pest control is a concept which provides environment protection and it is represented by the fact that it does not envisage to maintain at level 0 the pest and disease infestation; it rather accepts their presence in crops up to a certain accepted level, named economic injury threshold, which represents the limit from which the losses due to the infestation become important from the economic point of view. Another element is to use compatible control measures, with a synergic effect, i.e. with an enhanced effect when they are associated compared to their single use. The methods applied in the integrated control are the following: physical-mechanical, genetic, phytosanitary hygiene, crop management, biological and chemical therapy. In the present paper we present a statistical study on the integration of integrated pest control principles and actions with the environmental principles in the case of twenty small and medium-sized farms from the county Ilfov in Romania . Keywords: integrated pest control, sustainable soil management, phyto-pathogens infestation level (IL), numerical density (ND. INTRODUCTION Our studies were performed under the national research project CEEX no. 56/2008 on the theme: Modeling the response of agricultural holdings to the integration of economic and environmental principles through the sustainable management of soil resources, regarding the integration of economic and environmental principles and actions and the development of certain scenarios on the sustainable soil management. The integrated control concept was introduced in 1956 by B. Bartlett and in 1959 by Stern, considering it a new crop protection concept, which should take into consideration environment protection. The rational organization of the integrated crop control strategy needs to reveal the infestation level (IL) and the numerical density (ND) of the populations of harmful and useful organisms, in order to establish the treatments to be applied. The methods applied in the integrated control are the following: physical-mechanical, genetic, phyto-sanitary hygiene, crop management, biological and chemical therapy. The crop management measures, by their correct application, can maintain the infestation with phytopathogenic agents below the economic injury threshold (EIT), also contributing to chemical pollution prevention. The main crop management measures are the following: selection and preparation of soil for crops; soil structure improvement works; destruction of second growth plants; crop rotation; rational fertilization; selection of planting stock; plantation period and depth; plant density; maintenance works; irrigation scheme and harvesting period. The effect of this set of measures is the modification of the ecologic conditions that favors the plants and is less favourable for phytopathogens development. The decision on the application of a certain chemical treatment should be well considered, under all its aspects, while always having in view Hippocrates statement: primum non nocere (first of all, not to do any harm). MATERIAL AND METHOD In the present paper we present a few results of the study on the integration of integrated pest control principles and actions with the environmental principles and actions in the case of small and medium-sized farms from the county Ilfov. The analysis of the implementation possibilities of the integrated pest control methods in the soil management was based upon the information resulted from the processing of the validated questionnaires applied to 20 agricultural units from the county Ilfov.

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The necessary data for the characterization of the agricultural holding system, of the production technologies and soil management quality were centralized and investigated on the basis of several criteria: cultivated land area, production structure, land area under organic re-conversion, organically certified land area, cropping system (extensive, intensive), conventional agricultural practices, crop rotation, crop protection systems and methods, minimum soil conservation methods, use of chemical and organic fertilizers, waste storage facilities and treatment application techniques. On the basis of these data, the management system will be characterized and a series of scenarios will be developed with regard to the farm response to the integration of economic and environmental principles in the sustainable soil management. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS According to the production structure, the investigated agricultural holdings were divided into three great categories: 11 crop farms, one animal farm and 8 mixed farms (Figure1). Out of total investigated farms, 12 farms belong to physical entities and 8 farms are legal entities.

Figure1. Activity profile of the investigated farms The arable area operated under these farms totals 5739.23 ha. Out of this area, about. 96.73%, i.e. 5552 ha, belong to the 8 legal entity farms, being represented by mixed (crop and animal) farms (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Distribution of arable area by the legal status of farms With regard to the agricultural production methods that are used, out of the total number of investigated farms, only 4 farms were under organic reconversion (1 physical entity +3 legal entities), the remaining 16 farms using conventional practices. The analysis of data referring to the agricultural practices used on these farms reveals that 94.62% of the total area was tilled with plough or disk, while disk harrowing was applied on 81.73% of total land. For weed and pest control, mainly chemical and mechanical methods were used (Figure 3).

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Figure 3. Different shares of weed and pest control methods The high percentage of chemical control methods can be explained by the economic efficiency induced by the fast and maximum effect of the chemical substances applied. With regard to the fertilization methods applied, on about 73% of total arable area chemical fertilizers were applied, 13% were fertilized with chemical and organic fertilizers, while only organic fertilizers were applied on only 1.8 ha, which represent 0.035 of total arable land under study (Figure 4). Half of the investigated farmers apply nitrogen fertilizers twice a year, the remaining farms only once a year. Only two agricultural holdings buy manure, about 50 tons each year. This is spread directly in the field under solid form.

Figure 4. Situation on land where chemical and organic fertilizers are applied It is worth noticing that when questioned on the decision on which the application of chemical or organic fertilizers was based, only 2 farms decide on the basis of soil analyses, 7 farms respect the farm fertilization plans, in 2 cases the information from the consultancy services is taken into consideration, one farm takes into consideration the information from the chemical plants, while in 17 cases the decision is made according to farmers own experience. In relation to the integrated pest control methods, the centralization of the data collected in the field reveal that out of the total arable land area, i.e. 5739.23 ha, the chemical control methods were applied on 2383.98 ha, which accounts for 41.54%. The pest resistant varieties were cultivated on 2331.8 ha, i.e. on about 40.63% of total arable land. The biotech methods were applied on 13.33% of the total arable area of farms. No data were reported for the biological and cultural control methods (Figure 5).

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Figure 5. Share of integrated pest control methods With regard to crop rotation, it can be noticed that on 19 farms from total investigated farms, this beneficial practice is used. The land areas under crop rotation totaled 5097.53 ha, which represents about 88.82% of total arable land. The average number of crops under crop rotation was 5-6 crops on the large-sized farms and 2-3 crops in the case of small-sized farms, with an average period of crop rotation ranging from 2 to 5 years. With regard to the crop protection measures, out of the total arable land of 5739.23 ha / total farms, on 82.98 ha weed control was performed manually (weeding), while the mechanical method was applied on 1923.73 ha. In order to reduce the number of predators or parasites, no biological methods were used, only chemical methods. The preventive chemical methods against insects and weed development were used on 2849.5 ha, while the curative chemical methods were used on 2394 ha out of total arable land (Figure 6).

Figure 6. Situation of crop protection methods applied The pesticides were applied by a sprayer on an area of 4046.88 ha and the treatments by air were applied on 1410 ha of the total arable land. To the questions referring to the decision basis for the application of treatments, the answers were the following: 3 for the treatment schemes; 3 for consultancy services; 2 for mass-media forecasts; 7 for consultancy from the part of pesticide suppliers; 2 for decisionmaking only when the economic injury threshold was reached; 17 for farmers own experience.

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OUTLOOK - The overall analysis of the agricultural practices used on the investigated farms in the county Ilfov proves that in most cases, the management of soil resources on organic principles basis is rather deficient. The organic fertilization and the mechanical weed control are applied on quite small areas compared to the chemical treatments, even in the case of the 4 farms that are under organic conversion. - The excessive application of the chemical fertilizers (2-3 times per year), in the absence of an evidence on soil treatments and analysis, may result in a series of future problems related to soil pollution, water pollution and even the pollution of agricultural products. - The use of large amounts of pesticides each year are harmful for the fauna and flora on the respective areas, generating great health risks both for people and for animals. They may even induce cancer risk when their toxic, remanent and non-biodegradable effect is not taken into consideration. - In order to reduce the hazardous effects of the chemical treatments the following recommendations should be followed: use of low toxicity fungicides; application in the right doses; diminution of the number of treatments; application of treatments only on warning; use of selected products and of those with low remanence; use of complex products; handling of chemicals and application of treatments only by authorized staff. - Consequently, the integrated control strategy should take into consideration its intrinsic objectives, the main elements of the integrated control and the right choice of the most efficient and non-polluting methods. - The implementation measures of the integrated pest control methods in the sustainable soil management are the following: 1. 2. permanent knowledge of the phyto-sanitary condition of crops and the establishment of the key-diseases specific for each crop; establishment of the economic injury threshold (EIT critical limit of infestation), i.e. of the level from which the value of losses exceeds the control treatment costs. EIT has different values according to: biology of pathogen agent (virulence, spread speed); biological value of crop; commercial value of crop; protection and stimulation of useful flora and fauna; use of non-chemical means for disease control (crop management techniques, biological means); use of chemical control only when the case, i.e. only at warning in this case it is recommended to use selected products that destroy specific pathogens and are not harmful to the useful flora and fauna; avoiding the chemical substances with high remanence and use of minimum recommended doses; implementation of modern techniques of chemicals application (eg. electrostatic application); development and use of new pest and disease resistant hybrids.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

REFERENCES
1. Atudosiei Nicole Livia - Nonpolluting technologies within plants protection, Publisher Cermaprint, Bucharest, Romania, 2008; 2. Ionescu Alexandru- Environment protection, ecology and society, Publisher Universitas Bucharest, Romania, 2000; 3. Research project CEEX no. 56/2008 Modeling the response of agricultural holdings to the integration of economic and environmental principles through the sustainable management of soil resources.

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PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL HONEy IN TURKEy


Gamze Saner1, Sait Engindeniz1, Murat yercan1, Figen Cukur2
1

Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, Dep. of Agricultural Economics, Bornova / ZMR

2Mugla University .Milas Stk Koman Vocational School, Milas / MUGLA gamze.saner@ege.edu.tr - sait.engindeniz@ege.edu.tr - murat.yercan@ege.edu.tr - figenc@mu.edu.tr ABSTRACT Organic beekeeping has become very important and developing sector in Turkeys beekeeping recently. Enforcements of organic honey (flower honey and honeydewhoney) production has started to increase in 1985 for producing high quality, healthy and nonresidiual bee products. Besides that conventional beekeepers in Turkey aim to produce highly qualified honey. Organic honey production has certificated and controlled practices without artificial nutrition and pest applications in natural flora. In Turkey there are 93 organic beekeepers who have 11207 organic beehives and they produce organic honey. App. 70% of organic honey production is supplied from Mugla, also 16% of this production from Izmir. In 2008, conventional and organic honey production of Turkey were 81364 and 181 tonnes, respectively. The aim of this study is to discuss production and marketing of organic and conventional honey in Turkey with the other countries as comparative. The marketing channels for honey and the other bee products have been discussed and marketing margins have been examined. The original sample that the data collected from organic and conventional beekeepers in Kemalpasa Cambel village of Izmir province have been discussed. Further, the production and marketing problems and solutions for organic and conventional beekeeping have been given at the level of province and national. Key words: Organic and conventional honey production, economic analysis, profitability, honey marketing, distributions channels. INTRODUCTION Honey and other bee products are included in the fast growing products group in the world. Many problems from production to marketing may be faced in the beekeeping activity whose importance increases in rural development and among animal husbandry enterprises. According to the data of 2008; honey production is 83,164 tons and beeswax production is 4,539 tons [11]. The organic beekeeping which aims the production of more healthy and qualified honey in Turkey has begun recently. The organic honey production is still very limited being 181 tons in 2008. Desired level has not been attained both in conventional and organic honey export. However Turkey will take a counted place among countries on condition that beekeepers are trained about both certificated organic honey production and inresidual, reliable and qualified conventional honey production, the importance of clean honey production in the sense of social health is put forward, the price difference paid for organic honey is made more desirable, those who deal with conventional beekeeping produce more qualified and reliable honey consciously [3]. From this point of view marketing margins are observed in the study by putting forward the developments in organic and conventional honey production and marketing structure in Turkey. In the national basis and in the scope of research carried out in Izmir production and marketing problems are considered and some kind of solutions is offered. DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL HONEy PRODUCTION OF TURKEy The total 1.3 million tons honey production in the world, 6.12% is produced by Turkey in the average of 2005-2007 period [15]. Turkey takes the third rank in honey production coming after China and Argentina. Although the number of beehives is one-half of Turkey, apart from high honey production, beeswax, propolis and royal jelly production is produced in Argentine as well [10]. When beekeeping statistics of 2008 are observed in Turkey; the number of beehives have increased to 4.89 million with 1.31% increase and honey production has risen to 81,364 tons with 10.05% increase. Beeswax production has increased 4,539 tons with 18.30% increase [11]. These data do not include the statistics of organic beekeeping. Organic honey production is 181 tons in the same year. The conversion period from conventional beekeeping to organic beekeeping is one year and the number of producers in the conversion period of 2008 is 188 and the quantity of honey production is 200.46 tons. When the data of 2008 is regarded, it draws attraction that in the current situation including the transition period, 281 beekeeping operations carry out organic beekeeping in 27,380 beehives in total, and averagely 97 beehives are given to per beekeeping farm.

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Organic honey produces is produced generally in Izmir and Mugla provinces. These two provinces cover almost 25% of Turkeys total honey production. When the average of 2006-2008 is considered; 35.71% of the beekeepers producing organic honey in Turkey settle in the Aegean Region and these beekeepers produce 74.52% of the organic honey production in Turkey [1]. The organic beekeeping in Turkey is carried out according to the principles of Organic Agriculture Laws [13]. 3.3 millions of beehives have been registered in Turkey up to now [6]. For the further periods it is decided that those who have beehives below 50 shall be registered as well. In this way; bar-coding processes will be accomplished by registering all the beehives in a short time. Turkey has a great potential for beekeeping being rich in natural structure and nectar sources. However; the production of organic honey is limited since the colonies feed on sugar and sugar syrup traditionally, the yield per beehive is low so the cost is high due to some problems in colony management, bee diseases and pests are widespread and the chemicals used for prevention leave residual on colonies and bee products, the price difference between conventional honey and organic honey change between 10% and 20% yet this difference is still inadequate for the beekeeper [8]. ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL HONEy MARKETING CHANNELS IN TURKEy 2/3 of the honey production in Turkey is marketed as extracted honey and 1/3 is marketed as honeycomb. Various marketing channels from producer to consumer are there in honey market. These marketing channels are producer-consumer, producer-wholesalerretailer-consumer, producer-exporter or producer-cooperative-exporter. Organic honey production is very low and exportation of organic honey is very limited in Turkey. Marketing structure of organic honey is similar to the marketing structure of conventional honey. While 1% of the worlds honey market is composed of organic honey, the share of honey among organic products in Turkey is 0.67% [2]. The organic honey is sold by beekeepers directly to consumer in glass jars as well as it is packaged in cans by wholesalers and sold to big firms. Cooperatives are not efficient in the marketing of conventional and organic honey in Turkey. Countries which import conventional honey from Turkey are Germany; taking the lead, Saudi Arabia, France, Holland, N.C.T.R., Kuwait and Italy and Spain in recent years. Beginning with 2007 Turkey has exported extracted honey to France, Holland and N.C.T.R. [12]. When the honey exportation is regarded in the sense of extracted honey and in honeycombs; it is determined that more than 80% of the honey exportation has been on extracted honey. The highest rate of extracted honey exportation was recorded in 2002. According to the latest information; 283 tons of honey was directed to exportation at price of 1.6 million $ in 2008. Countries which import organic honey from Turkey are Germany, England, Norway, Singapore, Japan and Italy. 14.09% of the organic honey production in 2007 has been exported. The rest of it is bought by various firms and sold throughout the country after being packaged with the trademarks of them. Organic honey is produced as table and industrial honey just like conventional honey. There is a fast growing market for organic honey in the world. Generally the exportation of both types of honey is done in metal barrels of 300 kg (in bulk). High transportation costs, expensive material, labelling costs and the origin of honey are effective such trade being widespread especially in world honey market. The prices of organic honey are higher than conventional honey in Turkey that limits national consumption. The retailer price of organic honey is around 35.40- 36.70 TL/kg (TL= Turkish Lira) in 2005 whereas the retailer price of conventional honey is 15 TL/ kg. In the same study it is found that the price of organic honey is 2.44 times more than the price of conventional honey [14]. It is determined that consumers pay 30-35% more money for organic honey compared to conventional honey in Canada [9]. When the producer price of organic honey is taken into regard; only a little amount of the price paid by consumer is left to producer. Organic honey is sold in glass jars in the organic product shelves of hypermarkets (Tesco Kipa, Carrefour, Tansas, Migros etc.) and natural products stores or speciality product shops. Moreover as a new trend; there are organic product shelves in some saloons/gardens which serve breakfasts. According to a case study carried out in Izmir, the marketing margin changes between 25-40%, when the organic honey is directly sold to consumer by the producer [5]. Similar result was found in an another study carried out before [7]. ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL HONEy PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN IZMIR PROVINCE In a study carried out in Izmir shows that the average organic honey yield per beehive is 25 kg and conventional honey yield is 11 kg in 2004. According to the results of 2006, average organic honey yield per beehive is 11.38 kg and average conventional honey yield per beehive is 11.77 kg. It is determined that in condition of beehive management and weather conditions are convenient, the yield in organic beekeeping increases. Beekeepers have emphasized that there are many advantages of organic honey production such as producing clean and safety products with the rate of 32% followed by high price with the rate of 28%. In addition, it is specified that marketing opportunities of organic honey production are convenient. Beekeepers have also emphasized that there are disadvantages of organic honey production. Precisely, the most important one is the problem of accommodation with the rate of 25%. It is followed by low yield (20.83%), disease control, drug inadequacy and price (12.50%). Other disadvantages of organic honey production are beehive replacement, certification price, inadequate bee evolution, high cost, and environmental pollution [5]. According to this research results; beekeepers use more than one marketing channel. 53.13% of these beekeepers sell the honey as a retail in the market; this is followed by 25.00% with wholesalers and 9.38% exporters. The packaging of the honey shows difference according to being organic or conventional. While all beekeepers, selling organic honey, use cans or jars as a package, 80% of the

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conventional beekeepers use only cans and 20% use cans and jars. Producers specified that the criteria consumers seek for while purchasing honey is quality with the rate of 26.69%. This is followed by the appropriate price (25.00%) and purity of the honey (23.44%). The producer price of extracted honey is calculated as 15.00 TL/kg and the producer price of conventional honey is calculated as 7.80 TL/kg. While 60.00% of the beekeepers expressed that the price is excepted, 40.00% decided that it is below the desired price. It is calculated that the net income of producers, which deal with conventional beekeeping, is 30.77 TL per beehive, this amount is higher for organic beekeepers (446.06 TL) in 2006. The reason of that is high organic honey price and the production of other bee products. But since the organic certification price is financed by the research project , it is not included in the calculations of this research. However, when it is regarded that 5-6 TL certification cost is paid per beehive [4], it is resulted that the net income is still higher for organic beekeeping and it can be feasible if appropriate market is found. CONCLUSION Although Turkey is an important honey producer, it doesnt play an efficient role in the world market. For the beekeepers converting from conventional to organic honey production, they should be fully-equipped from production to marketing. In this sense, it is necessary to carry out technical training both on organic and conventional beekeeping for producers and planning cooperation extention facilities. One of the most important solutions is contract beekeeping into practice as soon as possible. Supportive forces must be ameliorated to the conditions of today for this sector, which has not seen any support up to the year 2003. Carrying out beekeeping in the frame of some specific rules causes increase in the cost items. An effective marketing organization is necessary for the organic beekeepers to sell their products in the proper price in Turkey. Moreover it is a necessity to create a trademark for conventional and organic honey in Turkey and exportation opportunities should be developed. REFERENCES
[1] Atis, E., Bektas, Z., Economic Sustainability of Organic Farming in Aegean Region, Proceeding of 1th Congress of Organic Agriculture in GAP (Southeastern Anatolia Project), 17-20 November, Urfa, 2009. [2] Gul, A., Sahinler, N., Akyol, E., Sahin, A., Organic Beekeeping, Mustafa Kemal University, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, 10(1-2):63-70, 2005. [3] Kosoglu, M.,Ycel, B., Possibility of Organic Beekeeping in GAP Region, Proceeding of Congress of Organic Agriculture in GAP (Southeastern Anatolia Project), 17-20 November, Urfa, 2009. [4] Saner, G., Yercan, M., Engindeniz, S., Karaturhan, B., Cukur, F., Comparative Economic Analysis of Organic and Conventional Honey Production: A Case of zmir, Proceeding of 3rd Turkish Organic Agriculture Symposium, 1-3 November, Yalova, 2006. [5] Saner, G., Yucel, B., Yercan, M., Karaturhan, B., Engindeniz, S., ukur F., Ksoglu, M., A Research on Improving Technical and Economic Aspects of Organic Honey Production and Determining of Alternative Marketing Strategies: The Case Study of zmir-Kemalpaa District, SPOProject No:04-DPT-004, Bornova-zmir, 2010. [6] Turkey Beekeepers Union, Statistics of Turkey Beekeepers Union, Ankara, 2009. [7] Vural, H., Production and Marketing of Honey in Turkey, Proceeding of 1th International Congress of Beekeeping and Pine Honey in Mugla, 25-27 November, Mugla, pp.223-232, 2008. [8]Yucel, B., The Vision of Organic Beekeeping in Turkey, Hasad, 241:56-61, 2005. [9] www.honeycouncil.ca/users/folder.asp?FolderID=5183 [10] www.alimentosargentinos.gov.ar [11] www.tuik.gov.tr [12]www.eib.org.tr [13]www. tugem.gov.tr/ContentViewer.aspx?ContentId=7 [14]www.abgs.gov.tr [15]www.fao.org.

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MICROBIAL PERSPECTIVE OF ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: A COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS
Glden Bayiit Kl1, Hakan Kuleaan2, Birol Kl 2
1

Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Higher School of Vocational Education, Department of Food Processing, Dairy Products Technology Programme, 15100 Burdur, Turkey 2 Sleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dept. of Food Engineering, 32260, Isparta, Turkey gkilic@mehmetakif.edu.tr

ABSTRACT Because of the growing demand for organic food products, food processors have begun to manufacture organic processed foods. Compared to conventionally processed food, consumers often perceive these alternatively processed products safer and of higher quality. However, little is known about the microbiological status of organic food products, therefore it is important to examine the food safety aspects of organic products and to look for potential differences with conventional products. Vegetables, fruits, bakery, dairy and meat products will be discussed. Therefore, this study will focus on information related to the presence of microbial load in organic and conventional food products. Keywords: Organic, safety, microbiology, pathogens INTRODUCTION The organic food market has grown substantially over recent years across the globe [1]. Good manufacturing practice is as important in organic food manufacture as in non-organic food manufacture. Current food safety regulations equally apply to organic food production [2]. The microbiological aspects of food have been studied intensively for many decades. Microbial food safety differs fundamentally from chemical food safety. While chemical residues and additives typically enter the food chain at more or less predictable steps, microbes can enter at any step. They grow and die and interact with the food in ways that are at best empirically described, but less understood in detail [3]. A number of studies have focused on chemical safety of organic products, but the number of studies about microbiological safety of organic products are still limited [4] [5]. The aim of the present study was first to examine the food safety aspects of organic products and secondly to look for potential differences with conventional products, focusing on microorganisms. Vegetables A continuous rise in the number of outbreaks of human diseases associated with the consumption of vegetables has been observed during the last few decades [6]. There are a number of reports indicating that raw vegetables may harbour potential foodborne pathogens [7]. Vegetables can become contaminated with such pathogenic organisms while growing, during harvest, from post-harvest handling, or during distribution [8]. McMahon and Wilson [8] declared that there were no Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, E. coli O 157, Listeria in any of the organic vegetables examined. Aeromonas species were isolated from 34% of the total number of organic vegetables examined. Sagoo et al. [9] couldnt isolate L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli O157 in organic vegetables and the low incidence (1,5%) of E. coli and Listeria spp. Soriano et al. [10] reported the isolation of E. coli from restaurant prepared lettuce. Outbreaks of food poisoning associated with E. coli O157 has been related to the consumption of vegetables and salads [11]. Salmonella species have been isolated from a range of vegetables [12] and Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of plant foods such as tomatoes [13]. A previous survey in Northern Ireland showed that 2% of conventionally farmed ready-to-eat vegetable products contained Listeria spp. [14]. Moreira et al. [15] found no significant differences in the initial populations of yeast, molds and psychrotrophic, mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria. Mukherjee et al. [16] performed the most comprehensive study comparing microbiological safety of organic and conventional produce. They reported that no samples contained the pathogen E. coli 0157:H7 and only 2 organic samples contained Salmonella. Generic E. coli was detected in 9.7% of the organic samples and in 1.6% of the conventional samples. Lettuce was the produce item containing the highest rates of generic E. coli contamination. Certified organic lettuce did not show any generic E. coli in the 10 samples collected while no certified organic lettuce had 12 positive results out of 39 samples (30.8%), and 1 of 6 conventional lettuce samples (16.7%) was positive. In 2006, E. coli O157:H7 was identified as the source of a severe spinach-linked epidemic in the U.S., and in 2007 outbreaks involving lettuce infested with the same pathogen were reported in the Netherlands and in Iceland [6]. Arthurson et al. [6] evaluated whether organic production poses a risk on food safety, taking into consideration sources of pathogen transmission (e.g. animal manure). They determined that while detection of E. coli in almost all manure samples was not unexpected, a considerable amount of samples proved positive also for Campylobacter and Staphylococcus.

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The use of animal manure as fertilizer presents potential microbiological risks if the manures have not been properly composted, they can contaminate foodstuffs. While both conventional and organic agriculture frequently use animal manure for fertilization, manure use is more widespread in organic production since organic producers cannot use synthetic fertilizers. Kpke et al. [17] also mentioned that the increased use of raw manure for fertilization in organic production may constitute an elevated risk of transferring human pathogens from livestock onto vegetables. In a repeated field trial with lettuce, numbers of coliform bacteria were not higher in treatments with manure relative to those using mineral fertilizer [17]. Reducing risk factors during production and handling of fresh plant produce has been suggested as the most efficient way to improve the safety of vegetables regarding microbe-mediated contamination [6]. Dairy Products Organic milk production has increased rapidly in many European countries during the last decade [18]. The hygienic quality of organic milk has been shown to differ from that of conventional milk. The total bacterial count in organic milk has been found to be similar to, or lower than, that in conventionally produced milk [19]. Hamilton (2001) reported that organic milk had lower somatic cell counts than conventional milk. Luukkonen et al. [20] reported that Finnish organic milk contained significantly a lower total bacterial count than conventional milk. Organic milk had a similar, or higher, somatic cell count than conventional milk. Differences between the hygienic quality of organic and conventional milks could result from differences in milk production and housing systems. For example, Regula et al. [21] found that the total bacterial count in milk from cows kept in loose housing was significantly lower than that from cows which were stalled while housed Meat Products The safety of meat has been a concern for both consumers and researchers. There are some studies comparing safety status of organic and conventional meats. Ludewig, Palinsky and Fehlhaber [22] did not find any sign for safety problem and significant differences between organic and conventional meat products. Van Overbeke at al [23] also found no significant differences in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. On the other hands, Heuer et al. [24] reported that Campylobacter spp. were isolated more (100 %) from organic than conventionally reared flocks (37 %). Another study showed that there was a significantly higher prevalence of E. coli but not of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes in organic poultry meat as compared with conventional poultry meat [25]. Miranda et al [26] determined that Enterococcus mean counts from organic chicken meat were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional chicken meat or conventional turkey meat. Nou et al [27] reported that Salmonella was most frequently isolated pathogen from organic poultry samples, as were Campylobacter from conventional poultry. Jackson et al [28] indicated that commercial brands of organic frankfurters showed greater growth by inoculated Clostridium perfringens. Several other studies showed that meat and meat products from organic and conventional production do not indicate any difference with respect to their microbiological condition [29]. CONCLUSION Consumers demand for high quality and safe food products that are produced with minimal environmental pollution. The number of studies about safety of organic foods is limited, more research is needed to identify safety status of organic foods to justify the consumers ideological motivation to choose organic over conventional products. REFERENCES
[1] Gifford, K. & Bernard, J.C. Influencing consumer purchase likelihood of organic food. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 2006, 30, 155165. [2] Anonymous. IUFoST Scientific Information Bulletin September 2009, Canada, 2009. [3] Havelaar, A.H., Brul, S., de Jong, A., de Jonge, R., Zwietering, M.H., ter Kuile, B.H. Future challenges to microbial food safety, International Journal of Food Microbiology (2009), doi:10.1016/j. ijfoodmicro.2009.10.015. [4] Clarke, N., Cloke, P., Barnett, C., Malpass, A. The spaces and ethics of organic food. Journal of Rural Studies, 2008, 24, 219230. [5] Michaelidou, N., Hassan, L.M. The role of health consciousness, food safety concern and ethical identity on attitudes and intentions towards organic food. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 2008, 32, 163170. [6] Arthurson, V., Baggesen, D., Brankatschk, K., Dalsgaard, A., Duffy, B., Fenzl, C., Friedel, J.K., Hackl, E., Hartmann, A., Hedin, F., Hofmann, A., Jderlund L., Jansson, J., Jensen, A.N., Koller, M., Rinnofner, T., Schmid, M., Storm, C., van Bruggen, A.H.C., Widmer, F., Wyss, G.S., Zijlstra, C.A. and Sessitsch, A., 2009. PathOrganic_ Risks and Recommendations Regarding Human Pathogens in Organic Vegetable Production Chains. Lebensmittelqualitt und -verarbeitung: Poster. http://orgprints.org/view/projects/int_conf_2009_wita.html [7] Beuchat, L.R. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 1996, 59, 204216. [8] McMahon, M.A.S., Wilson, I.G. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2001,70, 155162. [9] Sagoo, S.K., Little, C.L., Mitchell, R.T. The microbiological examination of ready-to-eat organic vegetables from retail establishments in the United Kingdom. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2001, 33, 434-439. [10] Soriano, J.M., Rico, H., Molto, J.C., Maned, J. Assessment of the microbiological quality and wash treatments of lettuce served in university restaurants. Int. J. Food Microbiology, 2000, 58 1., 123128. [11] Doyle, M.P., Zhao, T., Meng, J., Zhao, S. E. coli O157:H7. In: Doyle, M.P., Beuchat, L.R., Montville, T.J.Eds.., Food MicrobiologyFundamentals and Frontiers, American Society of Microbiology Press, 1997, pp. 171191, Washington, DC. [12] Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, B., Galvez Vargas, R., Garcia-Villanova, R. Contamination of fresh vegetables during cultivation and marketing. Int. J. Microbiol. 1987, 4, 285291. [13] Wood, R.C., Hedberg, C., White, K. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella jaana infections associated with raw tomatoes. CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service 40th Annual Conference. Abstracts.

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Centers for Disease Control, Alanta, 1991, p. 69. [14] Wilson, I.G. Occurrence of Listeria species in ready to eat foods. Epidemiol. Infect. 1995, 115, 519526. [15] Moreira, M. Del R., Roura, S.I., del Vale, C. E. Quality ofSwiss chard produced by conventional and organic methods. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol., 2003, 36, 135141. [16] Mukherjee, A., Speh, D., Dyck, E., Diez-Gonzalez, F. Preharvest evaluation of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in organic and conventional produce grown byMinnesota farmers. J Food Prot, 2004, 67, 894900. [17] Kpke, U, Krmer, J, Leifert, C. Pre-harvest strategies to ensure the microbiological safety of fruit and vegetables from manure-based production systems. In: Cooper, J, Niggli, U and Leifert, C (Eds.) Handbook of organic food safety and quality, 2007, pp 413-429, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge. [18] Toledo, P., Andrn, A., Bjrck, L. Composition of raw milk from sustainable production systems. International Dairy Journal, 2002, 12, 7580. [19] Lund, P. Characterization of alternatively produced milk. Milchwissenschaft, 1991, 46, 166169. [20] Luukkonen, J., Kemppinen, A., Krki, M., Laitinen, H., Mki, M., Sivel, S., Taimisto, A.M., Ryhnen, E.L., 2005. The effect of a protective culture and exclusion of nitrate on the survival of enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Listeria in Edam cheese made from Finnish organic milk, International Dairy Journal, 15, 449457. [21] Regula, G., Badertscher, R., Schaeren, W., Torre, D. M., & Danuser, J. The effect of animal friendly housing systems on milk quality. Milchwissenschaft, 2002, 57, 428431. [22] Ludewig, M., Palinsky, N. & Fehlhaber, K. Quality of organic and directly marketed conventionally produced meat products. Fleischwirtschaft, 2004, 84(12): 105-108. [23] Van Overbeke, I., Duchateau, L., De Zutter, L., Albers, G. & Ducatelle, R. A Comparison Survey of Organic and Conventional Broiler Chickens for Infectious Agents Affecting Health and Food Safety. Avian Diseases, 2006, 50: 196200. [24] Heuer, O.E., Pedersen, K., Andersen, J.S. & Madsen, M. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2001, 33:269274. [25] Miranda, J.N., Vazquez, B.I., Fente, C.A., Calo-Mata, P., Cepeda, A. & Franco, C.M. Comparison of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Organic and Conventional Poultry Meat. Journal of Food Protection, 2008, 71(12): 2537-2542. [26] Miranda, J.M., Guarddon, M., Mondragon, A., Vazquez, B.I., Fente, C.A., Cepeda, A., & Franco, C.M. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: A comparative survey. Journal of Food Protection, 2007, 70 (4):1021-1024. [27] Nou, X., Delgado, J., Patel, J.R., Sharma, M. & Solomon, M.B. Prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria on retail organic and kosher poultry products International Association for Food Protection Program and Abstract Book. 2007, 157. [28] Jackson, A., Sullivan, G., Sebranek, J. & Dickson, J. Growth of Clostridium perfringens on Natural and Organic Frankfurters. Iowa State University Animal Industry Report 2009. [29] Engvall, A. May organically farmed animals pose a risk for Campylobacter infections in humans? Acta Vet. Scand. Suppl. 2001, 95: 8587.

ENERGy CONSUMPTION IN ORGANIC, CONSERVATION AND CONVENTIONAL SySTEMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani*, Khaled Eidizadeh Department of Agroecology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran *Email: mmd323@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT A review has conducted to compare energy use in organic vs. conventional agroecosystems. Results showed that in conventional systems, highest energy was consumed for production and application of agrochemicals, while in organic systems, mechanical practices for cultivation is the highest fraction of energy input. In organic farms, 53% of total energy input is spent on cultural practices. Furthermore, studies indicated that energy input in organic production is up to 38% lower then conventional production. Comparison of organic and conservation systems revealed a similar trend; in studying three strategic crop production systems energy use value in organic system has been lower then conservation system. Keywords: Energy use, labour, sustainable agriculture INTRODUCTION The conservation of natural resource is the most important key for a sustainable agriculture. The lower economic supports oblige farms to increase efficiency to reduced production costs [8]. A conventional agriculture system relies heavily on the consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels. Consumption of fossil energy results in direct negative environmental effects through release of CO2 and other combustion gases. However, use this of resources energy has been positive effects like: increased yields and reduced risk of crop production. Yet, large amounts of cheap fossil energy have direct and indirect negative impacts on the environment that can suggested to soil and water degradation, less diversified nature and reduced land global warming. Thus reconsideration in methods and practices agriculture crop production considering of energy use high efficiency is necessary. For implementation in agriculture of the general concept of sustainability, agronomists have proposed several solutions such as integrated arable farming systems and low input or organic farming [6] [10]. Effective energy use in agriculture is one of the conditions for sustainable agriculture production. And farm economic condition, fossil fuels preservation and air pollution reduction are included next stages. Energy analysis can be divided into two parts as direct

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and indirect energy. Direct energy is directly used at the farm and on field for crop; but indirect energy is not directly consumed at the farm can be suggested to fertilizers and pesticides production in factory [5]. Thus, both direct and indirect are required for optimum production. Analysis of energy consumption in agricultural systems Many studies have been conducted about agricultural energy use [4] [7]. In some of them, energy analysis is only one part and more investigated the assessment of environmental impact. But, also extensive reviews is accomplished about energy consumption efficiency in different agriculture systems. In This part will be discussion about energy use comparison in crop production in organic and conventional systems. One of these studies is suggested to analyze energy consumption in two organic and conventional apricot production systems in Turkey [2]. This study was conducted in the Malatya Province. The production of organic apricot, on average, is 12,800 tones in Turkey. About 91% of this production is obtained in the Malatya Province. Ten farmer pairs, each of which consists of one organic and one conventional farm for average 10 ha of apricot plantation, were selected in five different regions the Malatya Province with varying agro-ecological conditions. In order to be eligible for selection for section, organic farms had to: (a) have a history of at least three years under organic management (b) dont have more distance with conventional farm; and (c) organic and conventional farm have similarity of altitude and crop production. Data were collected for a three years period (2002-2004) via repeated semi-structured interview with producer and corroborated with farm visit and official statistics some organization such as Agricultural Directorate, importers and exporters and Union of Apricot Sales Cooperative were also utilized. The energy equivalents of the inputs used in the apricot production are illustrated in Table1. The data of energy use have been taken from a number of sources, as indicated in the table. The sources of mechanical energy used on the selected farms included tractor power and Diesel. The total energy was computed on the basis of total consumption (ha-1) in the different operations. Table 1. Energy equivalents of different input and output values used in organic and conventional Apricot production
Equipment/input Human labor (h) Machinery (h) Chemical fertilizers (kg) Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Farm manure (kg) Pesticides (kg) Insecticides Fungicides Herbicides Diesel-oil (l) Electricity (k W h) Irrigation water (m3) Output (kg) Apricot fruit Apricot pits Energy coefficients (MJ/unit) 1.96 62.70 60.60 11.10 6.70 0.30 199 92 238 56.31 11.93 0.63 1.90 9.00 References [9] [9] [9] [9] [9] [9] [3] [3] [3] [9] [9] [11] [9] [1]

The results showed that organic systems 645.9 h of human labor and 14.7 h of machinery power per hectare were applied to produce apricot in the experimented area. Nearly 53% of the total human labor was spent on cultural practice such as soil cultivation, irrigation, pest control, pruning etc.), and the remainder was spend on harvesting. Cultural practice have biggest production share (66%) Of total machinery energy used on organic apricot production and soil cultivation (26.5%) and transpiration (7.4%) is next steps respectively. The total energy consumed in the organic apricot production was about 13800 MJ/ha. From this amount, diesel consumed the most energy (45%), followed by fungicide (25.5%), human labor (9.2%) and electricity (7%). The diesel energy was mainly utilized for operation tractors to perfume the various farm operations. In this study, average three yields of apricot fruit and apricot pits were 12,404 kg/ha and 776 kg/ha, respectively. Thus, the total energy out put per hectare for organic production was 30,555 MJ. Therefore, the energy ratio for organic apricot production was 2.22. Whereas, the total energy input for conventional apricot was more than 22800 MJ/ha. Most energy consumption in conventional system was fertilizers (8900 MJ/ha), diesel (7445 MJ/ha) and pesticides (3261 MJ/ha), respectively [1]. Total energy output on conventional apricot production was found as 33,166 MJ/ha. Thus, the energy ratio of organic apricot production was calculated as 1.45. Satory et al [8] were studied to energy use efficiency of organic and conservation agriculture systems in a 3-years period soybean, maize and wheat rotation. Conservation operations system including crop residue

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management, reducing the tillage intensity and integrated crop protection were considered, while for the organic system the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides was not allowed. For both systems, the residue management was performed by using a straw chopper after harvesting and adopted tillage practices had reduced depth and intensity: in the conservation system, chisel ploughing was performed during autumn and disk harrow was carried out for maize and wheat during winter. After organic fertilizer distribution, in organic farm system the mould board ploughing was performed in maize and wheat in order to incorporate them, while in conservation farm in wheat the organic fertilizer was incorporated whit disk harrowing. In organic farm fertilizer was applied during the autumn-winter period. In the conservation farm system, the inorganic phosphorous was applied in autumn in soybean, and inorganic fertilizers were distributed in the autumn (phosphorous and potassium) and in spring (nitrogen) in maize, whiles, in wheat organic manure was applied after sowing. The weed control was done in conservation farm by integration the row crop cultivation with herbicides applications in maize and soybean, and only by herbicide distribution in wheat, while in organic farm this objective was attained both during seedbed preparation with rotary harrowing and after sowing with row crop cultivations in maize and soybean and mechanical crop protection in wheat. In this 3-years rotation, total input per unit surface area in the conservation farm system for the 3-yr rotation was 50% greater then in organic farm system and for individual crops was 30%, 68.7% and 58.8% higher for soybean, maize and wheat, respectively, than the organic farm system. The large energy requirement of conservation farm resulted from chemical input, especially fertilizers, whilst most energy in organic farm came from mechanization, with small difference depending on the crop considered. The conservation farm, 70% energy requirement depending was from fertilizers. It was from soybean which had the lowest energy requirement. Mechanical operation was 10% of the total energy requirements in the conservation farm system and 42% in the organic farm system with a maximum of 70% in organic farm soybean. The use of the mould board plough after manure application caused a higher requirement for energy in organic farm compared to conservation farm that used chisel ploughing. Figure 1 depicts the energy inputs in different field operations in the two farming systems.

Fig. 1. Main energy input grouped by field agronomic operations for conservation farming , and organic farming : the energy amount required for crop protection includes herbicides applications and mechanical weeds control Energy output and energy use efficiency in both systems The energy output was higher in the conservation farm than the organic farm system, because of the higher yields. In the conservation farm system, the energy output was 41%, 85% and 60% greater for soybean, maize and wheat, respectively, than those obtained in the organic farm system. The net energy per hectare was 58% greater in conservation farm then organic farm. However, energy use efficiency was higher in organic than conservation farm. The higher energy use efficiency shown in organic farm may be due to the reduction chemical input although more frequent mechanical operations were required. The two farming systems compared in this study showed similar production cost. The fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides had a significant effect in the conservation farm with a cost of +10% of the total economic balance. In organic farm, the highest cost was related to labour with a cost greater than 60% compared to the conservation farm system, other important cost were tillage (40%) and seed cost (18%). The results of this study showed that wheat production costs in both systems was nearly, that showed input chemical costs in conservation farm and tillage operation in organic farm have neutralized each other. However, in soybean, the cost was higher in conservation farm (24%) than organic farm. maize production cost was higher in organic farm (10%) due to the numerous tillage events before and after sowing for weed control. Overall, the main costs in conservation farm are related to the purchasing of synthetic material (fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides) whilst in organic farm are related to mechanical operations.

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CONCLUSION In general, the results of this study shows energy consumption in organic systems to less than 50% of systems are conventional and even conservation system. More energy consumption in conventional agriculture, mainly due to excessive application of chemical fertilizers that is required more energy for production and transport them. Therefore, if can applied other alternative, such as biological fertilizers, animal manure and green manure. Will occur significant Changes to reduce energy consumption in the agriculture. Moreover, prevent of nonrenewable resources depletion and reduced environmental pollutions due to application of this chemical input which have abundant effects on natural environment and agro-ecosystem decline, is significantly reduced. Should be pointed out that organic agriculture, due to ban the use chemical fertilizers and syntactic pesticide, major part of energy consumption through mechanical and machinery application. But should be noted that correct management actions, such as optimum crop rotation, choice best time cultivation, fertilization management, irrigation management and prevention operation of new weeds enter, can be reduced energy consumption in accordingly system. Perhaps not expected that yield in organic production equivalent or more than conventional system, also dont forget that due to reduction of total cost and high price of organic products, overall, obtained of net profit in this production systems usually is more then conventional agriculture systems. REFERENCES
[1] Gezer I, Acaroglu M & Haciseferogullari H. Use of energy and labour in apricot agriculture in Turkey. Biomass Bioenerg. 24: 215219. 2003. [2] Gundogmus E. Energy use on organic farming: A comparative analysis on organic versus conventional apricot production on small holdings in Turkey. Energy Conversion and Management, 47: 3351-3359. 2006. [3] Hessel Z.R. Energy and alternatives for fertilizer and pesticide use. In: Flick RC, editor. Energy in world agriculture, 6. Elsevier science publishing. p. 177-210. 1992. [4] Jolliet O. Ecological assessment of thermal, mechanical and chemical producers for drying potato slice. Revue Suisse Agricole. 2: 83-90. 1994. [5] Ozkan B, Akcaoz H, Karadeniz F. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey. Energ Convers Manage. 45(11-12):1821-30. 2004. [6] Pervanchon F, Bockstaller C, Girardin P. Assessment of energy use in arable farming systems by means of an agro-ecological indicator: the energy indicator. Agric. Syst., 72: 14972. 2002. [7] Ram RA, Raghuvanshi NK, Arya, SV. Study on energy cost requirements for wheat cultivation. Paper No: 80-105, Present at ISAE. XVII Annual Conventional. New Delhi, February 6-8. 1980. [8] Sartori L, Basso B, Bertocco M, Oliviero G. Energy use and economic evaluation of a three year crop rotation for conservation and organic farming in Italy. Biosystems Engineering, 91: 245-256. 2005. [9] Sing H, Mishra D, Nahar NM. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone India-Part1. Energ Convers Manage. 2002. [10] Vereijken P.A. Methodical way of prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms. Eur. J. Agronomy, 7: 23550. 1997. [11] Yaldiz O, Ozturk HH, Zeren Y, Bascentincelik A. Energy use in field crops of Turkey fifth international congress of agriculture machinery and energy, Kusadasi, Turkey. 1993.

NATURAL ASTAXANTHIN SOURCES FOR ORGANIC AQUACULTURE


Levent DOANKAyA1, Akasya TOPU1
1 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Engineering, 06110 Diskapi, Ankara, Turkey. dogank@agri.ankara.edu.tr

The pink/reddish color of the flesh of salmonids, lobsters, shrimps and crayfish is a consumer demand both for farmed and wild species. This colorization is gained through the carotenoid astaxanthin because these animals are unable to biochemically synthesize astaxanthin and they rely on dietary supplements. Astaxanthin is the principal carotenoid for salmonids and gives attractive pigmentation in the eggs, flesh, and skin. In addition to its effect on color it has a potential as an antioxidant and protector of fish eggs against the effects of UV light. It also acts as a precursor of Vitamin A in some fish species [1]. Currently, chemically synthesized astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are widely used but only natural astaxanthin obtained from natural sources is permitted in the diets for organic aquaculture. According to OFF Organic Aquaculture Standards; To describe a fish or shellfish as organic it must have been reared and farmed in accordance with an approved Organic Aquaculture Standard and the hatchery, farm and feed suppliers involved must be registered and certified by an organic certification body on an annual basis and The use of synthetic pigments in the diet of organic salmonids is not permitted. Natural astaxanthins from shrimps and krill are part of the normal diet of wild salmon, which gives them their typical pink color. Natural astaxanthin obtained from shrimp meal and natural yeasts are permitted in the feed for farmed salmon because they are essential antioxidants and necessary for the health of the fish [2]. Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis- Chlorella sp., Chlorococcum sp.; the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma; crustacean byproducts and extracted oils of crayfish and krill; the other microorganisms like the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum- Halobacterium salinarium, halophilic archaea [3] [4]. Each natural pigment source has its own

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limitations and they cannot yet compete strongly with the synthetic carotenoids. While crustacean meals and wild strains of Phaffia rhodozyma have relatively low content of astaxanthin, Haematococcus pluvialis has high astaxanthin (0.2 to 2%) content but there are some difficulties in commercial production with large amount. The astaxanthin in Haematococcus is approximately 70% monoesters, 25% diesters and 5% free pigment. This esterified composition is similar to that of crustaceans, the natural dietary source of salmonids, and is readily metabolized [4]. The primary limitations to utilizing Phaffia rhodozyma as a commercial astaxanthin source is the low astaxanthin levels found in wild-type isolates but several companies have developed astaxanthin-hyperproducing strains that produce >10,000 g per g yeast in industrial fermentors. In this review, natural astaxanthin sources and their use in aquaculture are presented. Key words: astaxanthin, organic aquaculture, Haematococcus pluvialis, Phaffia rhodozyma, Agrobacterium aurantiacum,Halobacterium salinarium REFERENCES
[1] European Commission Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Report of the ad-hoc expert group on Use of certain fish feed additives and cleaning substances in organic aquaculture Brussels, 19 and 20 November 2008 [2] OFF Organic Aquaculture Standards Explanatory Note 330. [3] Higuera-Ciapara, L. Fe Lix-Valenzuela, And F. M. Goycoolea. Astaxanthin: A Review of its Chemistry and Applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:185196 (2006). [4] John E. Dore and Gerald R. Cysewski. Haematococcus algae meal as a source of natural astaxanthin for aquaculture feeds. http://www.ruscom.com/cyan/web02/pdfs/naturose/nrtl09.pdf 03/10/2009

STRATEGIES REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION IN ROMANIA


Mariana Daniela Marica, Bioterra University of Bucharest, maridaniela_2006@yahoo.com Marian Nicolae, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicolae_marian@yahoo.com Nicole Livia Atudosiei, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicole.atudosiei@rdslink.ro Adrian Dulugeag Bioterra, University of Bucharest, nicolae_marian@yahoo.com ABSTRACT In Romania, the concept of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was accepted, especially during the market economy transition period. This was possible because Romania adopted the international development concepts, by elaborating the sustainable strategies for managing its natural resources, with an emphasis on the need to stop the natural capital degradation in the transition period and to preserve it in the perspective of economic development. Natural resources, as forms of raw and energy materials, both conventional and unconventional ones, both renewable and non-renewable, are the natural capital, an essential part of Romanias wealth. The use of these resources can be made better or worse, according to the technologies that can be used in the process and to their availability. An example is Recycling or reusing materials and products, whose technological value was exhausted (metals, plastic, glass, old machines and equipment, etc.) and which normally cannot be absorbed and degraded in the natural ecosystems. Keywords: sustainable development, rational use of natural resources, recycling or reusing actions, natural ecosystems. INTRODUCTION The sustainable development can only be achieved by means of improving the interactions between four systems, namely: - The economic system, producing material goods. - The human society; the human factor must be at the centre of all actions and interactions. - The environment. - The technological system, which supports the other three through human intelligence. The synergy of the interactions between these systems is achieved starting from the improvement in the use of the existing resources and from finding other ones, especially unconventional ones, more easily assimilated to ecosystems, but carrying more human intelligence. In order to do this, the whole strategies for the rational use of resources are based on a correct management of the environment, and all the world peoples are involved in achieving them.

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COMMENTS The concept of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was accepted especially during the market economy transition period. This was possible also because Romania, who wanted the European integration, was in a way forced to adopt the new international development concepts, along three directions: 1. Assessing Romanias resources of all kinds. 2. Elaborating the strategies for managing these resources, with an emphasis on the need to stop the natural capital degradation in the transition period and to preserve it in the perspective of economic development. 3. Recycling or reusing materials and products, whose technological value was exhausted (metals, plastic, glass, old machines and equipment, etc.) and which normally cannot be absorbed and degraded in the natural ecosystems. From the point of view of their creation and use, raw materials resources fall into two categories: Non-renewable raw materials resources. Renewable raw materials resources. Nowadays it becomes very important the implementation of programmes and projects regarding the rational use of resources and the protection of the environment led to the highly abusive and polluting use of important non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and coal, and renewable resources, among which the soil, forests, waters underwent significant degradations that are difficult to recover and that will influence the long-term life of the country. The objectives of the rational use of resources and environment protection programmes in Romania are located in three stages, namely: 1. Long-term programmes. 2. Medium-term programmes. 3. Short-term programmes. Each of the action programmes includes two stages, namely: A first stage: - identifying and inventorying the problems, the objectives mentioned above; - designing and assessing these objectives. A second stage: - achieving the proposed objectives, or, in other words, implementing the projects in the territory. Drafting the strategies regarding the environment management and protection in Romania in our view should include 3 project categories, namely: 1. Projects regarding the rational use of non-renewable resources necessary in industry. The following objectives should be proposed: a. to eliminate all energy intensive, polluting and uneconomical industries, which operate at high consumption levels. b. to refurbish the industries. c. to establish new technologies that use only a minimum of non-renewable resources and that target renewable resources. 2. Projects regarding the rational use of renewable resources aimed at developing agro-ecosystems and at their rational use, in the sense of creating a sustainable development starting from the development of agriculture and the rural space. The main projects that should be implemented urgently are the following: a. projects regarding the preservation of the soil and its superior use; b. projects regarding the superior use of water resources and the elimination of all pollution sources; c. projects regarding the optimisation of land improvement activities, repairing the irrigation, draining and desiccation, soil stabilising, forestation systems in order to optimise the factors in the natural environment; d. projects regarding the correct sizing of agricultural businesses and of the necessary inputs in the operation of technological processes in agriculture. 3. Projects regarding the rational use of the workforce. The following projects seem to be necessary here, such as: a. training the workforce by means pf creating solid consulting centres; b. adapting secondary education, higher education and post-graduate education to the market demand; c. creating distance learning facilities for various specialisations, on only one condition, effectiveness in triggering the private initiative process, marketing and management in various forms of the development in agriculture and other ecosystems in general; d. creating a well-organised information system, with international implications; e. adapting the Romanian legislation to the European Community and to the international one.

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OUTLOOK Briefly, the strategies regarding the environment management and protection in Romania should include 3 project categories, namely: 1. Projects regarding the rational use of non-renewable resources necessary in industry. 2. Projects regarding the rational use of renewable resources aimed at developing agro-ecosystems and at their rational use, in the sense of creating a sustainable development starting from the development of agriculture and the rural space. 3. Projects regarding the rational use of the trained workforce. REFERENCES
1.Dejeu L, Petrecu C., Chira A. Horticulture and environment protection, Publisher EDP, Bucharest, 1997. 2.Ionescu Alexandru- Environment protection, ecology and society, Publisher Universitas Bucharest, Romania, 2000; 3. Marica Mariana Daniela Ecology and Environment Protection, Publisher Cermaprint, Bucharest, Romania, 2009

THE SUITABILITy OF NITROGEN ISOTOPIC FINGERPRINT IN LETTUCE AS AN INDICATOR OF FERTILIZATION REGIME


Martina Sturm1, Nina Kacjan-Marsic2, Sonja Lojen1
1

Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Slovenia Martina.Sturm@ijs.si, Sonja.Lojen@ijs.si University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy Department, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Nina.Kacjan.Marsic@bf.uni-lj.si

ABSTRACT The use of nitrogen isotopic fingerprint (15N) in lettuce as a potential marker for identifying organic produce was tested on pot grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), fertilized with synthetic and/or organic nitrogen fertilizer (single or split application). The study was based on the hypothesis that conventionally grown crops have significantly lower 15N values compared to those grown organically, since synthetic fertilizers have lower 15N values compared to organic fertilizers due to different fertilizer production processes. The 15N values of plants treated with different fertilizer differed significantly when fertilizer was applied in a single application. However, additional fertilization did not cause significant alteration of plant 15N. Obtained results indicate that 15N of lettuce tissues could be used as a marker to reveal the history of nitrogen fertilization, but only in the case of a single fertilizer application. Keywords: nitrogen, stable isotopes, fertilization, organic produce, Lactuca sativa L. INTRODUCTION Organic products attain high prices on the market hence there are concerns among users about mislabelling conventionally grown crops as organic. The possible use of nitrogen isotopes to differentiate between crops grown with or without inputs of synthetic nitrogen is based on the hypothesis that the application of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers with 15N values close to 0 will result in the 15N of plants grown in conventional regimes being lower than those in organic regimes (+10 to +20) due to different fertilizer production processes [1]. The aim of presented study was to test weather N fertilizer type and timing of fertilizer application leave specific 15N fingerprint in lettuce tissues (Lactuca sativa L.) which could be used as a potential marker to reveal the use of prohibited use of synthetic N fertilizers in organic farming. The effect of split N fertilization with combined usage of synthetic and organic fertilization, which might enable farmers to cover up the use of synthetic fertilizers, on plant 15N was also studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS A greenhouse pot experiment with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was performed at the Biotechnical Faculty of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Natural commercial organic fertilizer with 15N of +14.8 was used as organic input and Ca(NO3)2 with 15N of +5.7 was used as synthetic fertilizer. Lettuce was sown into plug trays, containing Klasman tray substrate, individually transplanted into pots (7.5 kg of sandy loam soil) 35 days later and grown for 50 days. Seven treatments were applied in a completely randomized factorial design: a single basal organic fertilization of 40 mg N kg-1 soil (Organic), a single basal synthetic fertilization of 40 mg N kg-1 soil (Synthetic), a basal synthetic fertilization of 20 mg N kg-1 soil followed by an additional organic fertilization of 20mgNkg-1 soil (Synth.+Org.), a

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basal organic fertilization of 20 mg N kg-1 soil followed by an additional synthetic fertilization of 20mgNkg-1 soil (Org.+Synth.), a basal synthetic fertilization of 20mgNkg-1 soil followed by an additional synthetic fertilization of 20mgNkg-1 soil (Synth.+Synth.), a basal organic fertilization of 20mgNkg-1 soil followed by an additional organic fertilization of 20mgNkg-1 soil (Org.+Org.), and unfertilized control. Additional application of N fertilizers was performed after sampling at 30 days after transplanting (DAT). Aboveground lettuce was destructively sampled at 20, 30 and 50 DAT. Samples were dried at 60C, ground to fine powder, homogenized and weighed into tin cups for 15N determination using a PDZ Europa ANCA-SL elemental analyzer linked to a 20:20 continuous flow IRMS. The accuracy was checked with certified reference materials: USGS 34, IAEA-N-22 and in-house plant reference material. All samples were analysed in duplicate and 15N values were accepted when sample standard deviation was 0.2. Results are reported in -notation in units of permil () with respect to atmospheric nitrogen (air) according to the Equation 1:

ln Yieldit = (a 0 + a 1t ) +

b j ln X jit + w ln C lim ateit +


(1)

r D + e
i i I =1

it

where R denotes 15N/14N and the standard denotes atmospheric nitrogen with a 15N value of 0. Data were verified statistically with the Factorial ANOVA using the Statistica 6.0 package. Significant differences are given at the 95% level. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The 15N of plants receiving organic fertilizer (single or split application) were significantly higher compared to the treatments with different N sources (i.e. synthetic fertilizer and soil), reflecting the higher 15N values of organic fertilizer-N (14.8) compared to that of synthetic fertilizer-N (5.7) and total soil-N (6.4) (Fig. 1). At final harvest, 15N of plants receiving single application of organic fertilizer was 9.6, and 15N of plants receiving split applications were 8.0 and 7.2 for Org.+Org. and Org.+Synth. Treatments, respectively. 15N of plants receiving single application of synthetic fertilizer was 5.3, whereas 15N of those receiving split applications were 5.2 and 6.0 for Synth.+Synth. and Synth.+Org. treatments, respectively. However, lettuce fertilized with synthetic fertilizer (single or split application) were significantly depleted with 15N compared to unfertilized control plants (with 15N=7.2), indicating that nitrogen derived from the synthetic fertilizer was so abundant in the soil that plants predominantly assimilated N from synthetic fertilizer over soil-N [2]. Significantly higher 15N values were found in lettuce receiving one time application of organic fertilizer compared to those receiving split application, reflecting the proportionally greater contribution of organic fertilizerN to total plant-N in the single application [2]. In contrast, no significant difference in 15N was found between lettuces receiving synthetic fertilizer as a single or split application. Additional fertilization did not cause significant alteration of plant 15N, neither when isotopically similar (Org.+Org., Synth.+Synth.) nor when isotopically different (Org.+Synth., Synth.+Org.) additional N sources were applied. Decreasing of plant 15N with time was found in organically fertilized plants (single and split application with basal organic fertilization), which indicates increased contribution of soil-N to plant-N with time [2] [3] [4]. Decreasing of 15N with time in the treatment with basal organic and additional synthetic fertilization additionally indicates also the contribution of synthetic fertilizer-N. The 15N of plants treated with synthetic fertilizer on the other hand was relatively constant and indicated the 15N of synthetic fertilizer-N during the whole plant growth. The addition of organic fertilizer to basal synthetic fertilization did elevate the mean 15N value of lettuce tissues for about 0.7 as compared to synthetic fertilization but the difference between the treatments is not significant

Figure 1: Lettuce 15N under different treatments at 20, 30 and 50 days after transplanting (DAT). Data are means SD for n = 3 plants per treatment.

CONCLUSION Obtained results indicate that 15N of aboveground plant lettuce tissues could be used as a marker to reveal the use of synthetic N fertilizer when it is applied in a single application, however in the split fertilizer application, the addition of synthetic fertilizer to the basal organic fertilization and vice versa could not be confirmed by this method. REFERENCES
[1] Bateman, A.S., Kelly, S.D., Jickells, T.D. Nitrogen Isotope Relationships between Crops and Fertilizer: Implications for Using Nitrogen Isotope Analysis as an Indicator of Agricultural Regime. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2005, 53, 5760-5765. [2] Yun, S.-I., Ro, H.-M., Choi, W.-J., Chang, S.X. Interactive effects of N fertilizer source and timing leave a specific N isotopic signatures in Chinese cabbage and soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 2006, 38, 1682-1689. [3] Choi, W.J., Ro, H.M., Hobbie, E.A. Patterns of natural 15N in soils and plants from chemically and organically fertilized uplands. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 2003, 35, 1493-1500. [4] Yoneyama, T., Omata, T., Nakata, S., Yazaki, J. Fractionation of nitrogen isotopes during the uptake and assimilation of ammonia by plants. Plant Cell Physiol., 1991, 32, 1211-1217.

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PROCESSING TO THE FRUIT-JUICE OF ORGANIC CAPERBERRy (CAPPARIS SPP.) FRUITS


Mehmet Musa zcan1, Fatma nver 2, Ahmet nver 1
1

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Seluk University, 42031, Konya, Turkey. mozcan@selcuk.edu.tr Food Engineer, Spice Company, Konya, Turkey.

ABSTRACT Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood fruits were collected from Konya and Mersin (Mut) provinces in August 2002, respectively. Physico-chemical properties (dimensions, % weight of peel and seed, % pulp yield, pH, titration acidity, protein, oil, total invert sugar, saccharose, total sugar, ash content) and mineral content of organic fruits were determined. The mineral contents of caperberries pulps were established by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Most favourable rate of selected concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 % pulp(w/v)) of pasteurized and unpasteurized samples for both species were defined. The physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the pasteurized and unpasteurized products were determined in every 3 month for 12 months period. 5 %, 10 % and 15 % concentrations of the products were preferable. Maximum shelf life of unpasteurized juices was 6 months and acceptibility of pasteurized ones was best until 9 mounts. Pulps contain many of important minerals for human nutrition. K, Ca, P, Mg and Na were established as major elements of both species. Sensory evaluations showed that pasteurization was a better process, and 5 %, 10 % and 15 % concentrated pasteurized samples had acceptable sensory values until 9 th month. It can be concluded that Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa is more fruitful than Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood for unit amount. Keywords: Organic caperberry, Capparis spinosa L., Capparis ovata L. Capparis spp., Capparidaceae, fruit juice, storage INTRODUCTION Caperberries, belonging to Capparaceae family, are the fruits of perennial shrubs of the genus Capparis. Caper flower buds, root, fruits and young shoots are used as foodstuffs. It is a plant of tropical/subtropical and arid areas. Capers has several uses for its especially medicinal and aromatic properties (Baytop 1984, Akgl 1993, Akgl 1996, zcan et al. 1998). The world production of capers has changed with time, approximately 10.000 tons are produced annually and the main producers and/or manufacturer/exporter countries are Spain, Morocco and Italy. Turkey has become a major exporter of capers in last decade, and exports 3000-5000 tons of fermented caper (zcan 1999a, zcan 2002). In 2000, Turkey exported caperberries; raw, cooled raw (13.200 kg) and conserved (4.352.266 kg) (Anonymous 2000). Various parts of the plant such as buds and young shouts are used in food, drug and cosmetic industry. There is no information about production of caperberry juice. But zcan (1999b) and zcan (2002) were described the production process of the caperberry marmelade and also determined chemical properties, microbiological properties and mineral contents. Processing of caperberries as juice, means new raw material and a product to introduce to food industry. The aims of this study were to produce fruit juice from caperberry fruits, to determine the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the product and to present a new product to consumer. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1.Material Both fruits belonging to Capparis ovata and Capparis spinosa were harvested in August 2002, from Konya (Seluklu) and Mersin (Mut), respectively. Plants were identified in Biology Department of Selcuk University as Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coos) Heywood. Samples were carried to laboratory in cool bags and processed to fruit juice according to process schema in Figure 1. 2.Methods Dry material and protein content was determined according to zkaya and Kahveci (1990). Titration acidity and ash content were

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done according to Anonymous (1972) and Anonymous (1975), respectively. Oil contents were determined according to Doan and Baolu (1985) by using soxhelet aparatus. pH, invert sugar, saccharose, total sugar and refractive index were also determined according to Cemerolu (1992). Mineral contents of pulps were established by ICP-AES (Varian-Vista) according to Skujins (1998). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) content was determined by GC (Perkin-Elmer 8600, HS-6B), headspace method according to AOAC (1984) and zcan et al. (1998). pH, acidity and refractive index were determined per 3 month time periods for one year (Fleming et al. 1984, zelik 1992, zcan 2001). Microbiological and sensory evoluations were done according to Fleming, et al. (1984) and zcan (2001), also for the same time period. The statistical package programmes as Minitab 1991 and Mstat C 1980 were used for multivariative variance analysis test at (p<0,05) and Duncan test. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Physical properties of C.ovata and C. spinosa fruits were determined as length (37,6 mm-55,4 mm), width (20,6 mm-22,7 mm), weight of fruit (8,9 g 16,0 g) , % pulp yield (44,94 % - 44,38 %) and % dry material (20,0 % - 19,9 %) and shown in Table 1. Also, some chemical properties of the pulps were given in Table 2. All physical properties of C. spinosa was higher than C. ovata but % pulp yield and % dry material was lower. 1000 gr of both caperbery species yield approximately 450 gr pulp with 15 % dry material. pH values, acidity and % dry material was nearly similar for pulps of both fruits but protein content, % oil content, invert sugar, saccharose, total sugar and ash content were higher for C. spinosa and DMS was not detected in C. ovata while C. spinosa was 130 g/ kg (Table 2). zcan (1999 b) was reported % dry material, protein content, ash content and pH values of C. spinosa and C. ovata fruits as 17,3 %-17,59 %, 18,33 %-23,67 %, 6,31 %-6,25 % and 4,32-4,28, respectively. zcan (2002) reported 270 mg/kg ascorbic acid, 9754,2 mg/ kg K, 2817,6 mg/kg P and 563 mg/kg Zn in caperberries marmelade and also, water content, protein content, oil content, ash content, acidity, pH value, total sugar, invert sugar and saccharose content as 16 %, 4,06 %, 0,12 %, 0,5027 %, 0,19 %, 5,97, 73,6 %, 8,8 % and 64,8 %, respectively. Caperberry pulps contain many of minerals important for nutrition (Table 3). According to table, major minerals of both fruit pulps were K, Ca, P, Mg and Na. Difference of mineral contents with other literatures must be due to the differences of harvesting year, climatic conditions, soil properties and concentration differences between the fruit content and pulp as a derivative. Results of Duncan test of caperberry fruit juices chemical analysis were given in table 4-7 according to spice difference, type of thermal process, rate of concentration and storage period, respectively. C. spinosa shows more acidic character while refractive index values were similar (Table 4). pH, acidity values of pasteurized samples showed more acidic character than unpasteurized samples (Table 5). Increase of concentration trough 20 %, pH and titration acidity increased but refractive index was stable (p<0,05) (Table 6). Acidity showed an increase trough the storage period, but titration acidity became stable by the 9 th mounth. By the incrase of the acidity trough storage period refractive index showed an important decreasing, this may be a result of microbiological activity (Table 7). pH values of the caperberries are higher than some of fruits. Acar and Gkmen (2000) reported that generally pH values of fruit juices changed between 3,0 - 4,0, but our results were changed between 4,23 - 6,01. This is one of the main difference from other fruits. According to the microbiological growth of samples trough twenty months, pasteurized juices has no sprout until 12 th month. Total bacteria and mould-yeast count was increased very much until 6th month for unpasteurized samples, so no microbiological and sensory evoluation were applied after than because of the lost of consumption properties. No coliform bacteria was detected for all samples. Generally, no unexpected microbial effect was detected for pasteurized samples by the storage period. Acar and Cemerolu (1998) reported that antimicrobial effect of sorbic acid firstly appears on mould-yeast growth. It was thought that by the growth of mould-yeast, pectin was decomposed, as a result turbidity and viscosity was decreased. Sensory evoluation results were shown in Table 8-11. Colour, taste, odour and turbidity values were best for pasteurized samples (Table 8). By the storage these properties were decreased trough 12 th month. Degree of this decreasing which may be thought as unacceptability of samples were higher after 9 th month (Table 9). One of the most important properties was sulphur-like off-flavour which pasteurization prevented and increased the acceptibility. By the storage period, this property was changed in opposite way. Glucoides hydrolises by fermentation so this may be a result of increase of off-flavours. Rate of concentrations were affected taste (p<0,05). Taste was worst for 20 % concentration but 15 % concentration was acceptable (Table 10). Statistically turbidity was impotrant (p<0,05) for spice variance according to sensory evoluation but these results were not too much differing (Table 11). According to sensory evaluation pasteurization was a good process. Sample with 5 %, 10 % and 15 % concentrations were accepable sensory values until 9 th mounth. By the storage, acidity of unpasteurized samples was higher, so this may be a result of some microbiological activity. Unpasteurized samples were not acceptable after 6 months. 5 %, 10 % and 15 % concentrating was preferable for both termal processing. According to note of panelists C. spinosa was more fruitful than C. ovata. In addition, fruit juice of 15 % concentrated, pasteurized C. spinosa may be tought as the best product and has suitable properties until 9 months self life.

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Acknowledgements This work has supported by Selcuk University, Research Fund (Project No: ZF-2001/151) REFERENCES
Acar, J. and Gkmen, V. 2000. Fruit and Vegetable Technology (Meyve ve Sebze Teknolojisi). Hacettepe niversitesi Mh. Fak. Yay., Ankara. (in Turkish). Acar, J. and Cemerolu, B. 1998. Fruit and Vegetable Technology (Meyve ve Sebze Teknolojisi). Hacettepe niversitesi Mh. Fak. Yay., Ankara. (in Turkish). Akgl, A. 1993. Spice Science and Technology (Baharat Bilimi ve Teknolojisi). Gda Teknol. Dern. Yay., Ankara. (in Turkish). Akgl, A. 1996. A new discovered flavor (Capparis spp.) (Yeniden kefedilen lezzet: Kapari (Capparis spp.)). Gda 21, 119-128. (in Turkish). Anonymous,1972. Fruit and vegetable products: Determination of titration acidity (Meyve ve sebze mamulleri: Titre edilebilir asitlik tayini), TS 1125. Trk Standartlar Enstits (Turkish Standarts Institution), Ankara. (in Turkish). Anonymous,1975. Spice: Determination of total ash content (Baharat: Toplam kl miktarnn tayini) TS 2131. Trk Standartlar Enstits, (Turkish Standarts Institution) Ankara. (in Turkish). Anonymous,2000. Foreing trade Statistics of 2000. (D Ticaret statistikleri 2000), Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry State Institute of Statistics (Devlet statistik Enstits), Ankara. (in Turkish). AOAC. 1984. Official Medhods of Analysis. Association of Official Chemistry. 14 th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. Baytop, T. 1984. Medical Treatment with plants in Turkey (Trkiyede bitkiler ile tedavi). stanbul niv. Yay., stanbul. (in Turkish). Cemerolu, B. 1992. Fundamental Fruit and Vagetable Analysis Methods in Industry (Meyve ve Sebze leme Endstrisinde Temel Analiz Metotlar), Biltav Yay., Ankara. (in Turkish). Doan, A. and Baolu, F. 1985. Guide Book of Edible Oil Chemistry and Technology. (Yemeklik Bitkisel Ya Kimyas ve Teknolojisi Uygulama Klavuzu) Ankara Univ. Agric. Fac. Publ., Ankara. (in Turkish). Fleming, H.P., Mc Feeters, R.F., Etchells, J.L. and Bell, T.A. 1984. Pickled vegetables. In Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, (M.L., Speck,ed.) pp. 663-681, American Public Health Association, Washington DC. Minitab, 1991. Minitab Referance Manual (Release 7.1). Minitab Inc. State Coll., PA. MSTAT-C 1980. Mstat Users Guide : Statistics (Version 5 Ed.). Michigan State University, Michigan. zcan, M., Akgl, A., Akbulut, M. and zkara, R. 1998. Determination of dimethyl sulfite in pickling capers (Capparis spp.) flower buds. Selcuk Univ. Agric. Faculty J. 12, 105-110. zcan, M. 1999a. Pickling and storage of caperberries (Capparis spp.). Europ. Food Res. Technol. 208, 379-382. zcan, M. 1999b. Physical, chemical properties and fatty acid composition of raw and brined caper (Capparis spp.). Ham ve salamura kapari (Capparis spp.) meyvelerinin fiziksel, kimyasal zellikleri ve ya asitleri bileimi. Turkish J. of Agric. and Forestry. 23(3), 771-776. (in Turkish). zcan, M. 2001. Organoleptic quality and production of pickling capers (Capparis spp.) paste. Obst Gemuse und Kartoffelverarbeitung 86, 122-124. zcan, M. 2002. The marmelade of caperberies (Capparis spp.). Production, composition and microbiolojical properties. Obst-Gemuse und Kartoffelverarbeitung 86, 209-210. zalik, S. 1992. Hand Book of Food Microbiology of Laboratory Applications (Gda Mikrobiyolojisi Laboratuvar Klavuzu). Frat niv. Fen Edebiyat Fak. Yay., Elaz. (in Turkish). zkaya, H. and Kahveci, B. 1990. Analysis Methods of Cereal and Products (Tahl ve rnleri Analiz Yntemleri). Gda Teknol. Dern. Yay., Ankara. Skujins, S. 1998. Handbook for ICP AES (Vartian-Vista). A Short Guide To Vista Series ICPAES Operation. Variant Int. AG.

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Table 1. Physical properties of caperberry fruitsa (mean SD, n=2) Length Width Weight of fruit Weight of peel Weight of seed Table 1. Physical properties of caperberry fruitsa (mm) (mm) b (g) (g) (g) (mean SD, n=2) C.ovata 37,66,26 20,63,73 8,94,29 2,80,52 2,10,43 C.spinosa 55,46,74 22,72,14 Weight of fruit 16,03,3 5,30,30 Weight of seed 3,60,21 Length Width Weight of peel Pulp yield Spice a (mm) (mm) b (g) (g) (g) (%) 50 fruits were measured. b C.ovata 37,66,26 20,63,73 8,94,29 2,80,52 2,10,43 44,94 Average of two points measurement. Spice
C.spinosa 55,46,74 22,72,14 a 50 fruits were measured. b Average of two points measurement. 16,03,3 5,30,30 3,60,21 44,38

Pulp yield (%) 44,94 44,38material Dry


(%) 20,01,02 19,91,12

Dry material (%) 20,01,02 19,91,12

Table 2. Some chemical properties of caperberry pulps (mean SD, n=2)


Table 2. Some chemical properties of caperberry pulps

Spice C.ovata Spice C.spinosa

C.ovata C.spinosa

6,20,02 6,260,26

Titration acidity Dry material Protein content n=2) content Total invert sugar (mean SD, Oil (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) acidity Protein content Oil Total invert sugar 4,60,1 Saccharose pH 6,20,02 Titration1,50,01 Dry material 15,20,11 2,10,6 content 1,00,6 (%) (%) (%) 6,260,26 1,530,07 15,340,07 (%) 2,770,2 (%) 1,210,1 5,60,1 (%) pH
1,50,01 1,530,07 15,20,11 15,340,07 2,10,6 2,770,2 1,00,6 1,210,1 4,60,1 5,60,1 33,41,2 40,60,7

Saccharose (%) Total sugar 33,41,2 (%) 40,60,7


38,00,6 46,21,1

Total sugar (%) Ash content 38,00,6 (%) 46,21,1


0,600,03 0,890,01

Ash content (%) DMS 0,600,03 (g/kg) 0,890,01


130

DMS (g/kg) 130

Table 3. Mineral contents of caperberry pulps (mg/kg) Minerals Ag Al B Ba Bi Ca Cd Co Cu Fe K Li Mg Mn Na Ni P Se Sr Ti Zn Capparis ovata 2,7 14,6 18,4 2,2 0,9 1060,4 0,2 0,2 16,0 47,4 17958,4 0,1 912,9 15,4 212,9 2,7 1640,9 2,5 10,1 0,1 12,7 Capparis spinosa 0,5 35,3 22,9 2,2 0,1 953,8 0,1 0,1 18,7 38,1 23780,0 0,1 964,6 18,4 264,9 3,1 1594,5 3,6 11,4 0,9 11,0

Table 4. Duncan test of chemical properties of caperberry fruits juices according to difference of caper species (n=2) Species C.ovata C.Spinosa pH 5,153a 4,875b Titration acidity (%) 3.322b 3.971a Refractive Index (n20D) 11,460a 10,880a

Table 5. Duncan test of chemical properties of caperberry fruits juices according to type of thermal process (n=2) Type of thermal process Unpasteurized Pasteurized pH 5,793a 4,234b Titration acidity (%) 2,054b 5,240a Refractive Index (n20D) 08,190b 14,150a

Table 6. Duncan test of chemical properties of caperberry fruits juices according to rate of concentration (n=2) Concentrations (%) 5 10 pH 5,142a 5,073ab Titration acidity (%) 2,708d 3,160c Refractive Index (n20D) 10,110a 10,860a

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C.ovata C.Spinosa

5,153a 4,875b

3.322b 3.971a

11,460a 10,880a

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Type of thermal process Unpasteurized Pasteurized pH 5,793a 4,234b

Table 5. Duncan test of chemical properties of caperberry fruits juices according to type of thermal process (n=2) Titration acidity (%) 2,054b 5,240a Refractive Index (n20D) 08,190b 14,150a

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

Table 6. Duncan test of chemical properties of caperberry fruits juices according to rate of concentration (n=2) Concentrations (%) 5 10 15 20 pH 5,142a 5,073ab 4,958ab 4,884b Titration acidity (%) 2,708d 3,160c 3,956b 4,755a Refractive Index (n20D) 10,110a 10,860a 11,720a 11,990a

Table 7. Duncan test of chemical properties of caperberry fruits juices according to storage period (n=2) Storage periods (month) 1 3 6 9 12 pH 6,019a 4,992b 5,026b 4,648c 4,438d Titration acidity (%) 3,873ab 3,108c 3,524b 3,974a 3,754ab Refractive Index (n20D) 15,538a 10,713ab 12,900ab 10,638b 06,063c

Table 8. Duncan test of sensory evaluations of caperberry fruits juices according to pasteurisation (n=5) Type of processing Unpasteurized Pasteurized Color 09,995b 14,985a Taste 07,160b 12,835a Odour 08,190b 14,150a Turbidity 09,045b 13,425a

Table 9. Duncan test of sensory evaluations of caperberry fruits juices according to storage period (n=5) Storage periods (month) 1 3 6 9 12 Color 19,375a 11,038b 13,925ab 11,613b 06,500c Taste 13,650a 09,643ab 10,913a 10,538a 05,425b Odour 15,538a 10,713ab 12,900ab 10,638b 06,063c Turbidity 18,925a 10,438b 11,213b 11,000b 04,550c

Table 10. Duncan test of sensory evaluations of caperberry fruits juices according to concentration (n=5) Concentrations (%) 5 10 15 20 Taste 11,250a 10,410ab 09,500ab 08,830b Odour 11,990a 11,720a 10,860a 10,110a

Table 11. Duncan test of sensory evaluations of caperberry fruits juices according to Difference of caper species (n=5) Species C.ovata C.spinosa Turbidity 10,245a 12,225a

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Maturated caperberries (Capparis spinosa and Capparis ovata)

Dry cleaning

Washing and selection

Peeling Removing of pulp

Dosaging of pulp Capparis spinosa % pulp content of jars (200 ml) 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 % Capparis ovata % pulp content of jars (200 ml) 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %

Saccharose adding 1 %

Water adding (Rest of the jar)

900 C 5 minutes Hot filling

Pasteurized

Not pasteurized

Filling

Closing Cooling (40 C) Storage

Figure 1. Process schema of caperberry fruit juice

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THE TOTAL PHENOLIC, CITRIC ACID, TARTARICACID CONTENTS AND SOME NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEPINO (SOLANUM MURICATUM AITON) FRUIT GROWING AS ORGANIC IN MERSIN
Ahmet nver*, Derya Arslan*, Mehmet Musa ZCAN*, Mehmet Uur yldz** *Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Seluk University, 42031 Konya,Turkey. **High Collage, Akdeniz University, Manavgat-Antalya,Turkey.

ABSTRACT The dry matter, crude protein, crude oil, crude fibre, ash, L, a and b color values, titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic, citric and tartaric acid values of pepino fruit were determined. The mineral elements (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Se and Zn) of fruit were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The citric and tartaric acid contents were analysed via HPLC equipped. Ca (3256.96 mg/kg), K (43465.60 mg/kg), P (7907.32 mg/kg), Na (1496.13 mg/kg) and Mg (2541.12 mg/kg) were established as major minerals in fruits. These results show that pepino fruit may be useful for the evaluation of dietary information in important food crops. Keywords : pepino, S. muricatum., proximate composition, organic acid, HPLC, minerals. INTRODUCTION Pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton) is a small, herbaceous plant or bush with a woody base and fibrous roots. It is belong to Solanaceae family, and also known as mishqui, melon pear and pepino dulce. Pepino is of interest as a crop for horticultural diversification in intensive horticulture systems. The pepino is a horticulture crop from the subtropical and temperate grown for its edible fruits (Gonzales et al., 2000, Prohens and Nuez, 2001, Huyskens-Keil et al., 2006, Anonymous, 2007 a). The fruit also show considerable diversity in size and shape. The colors also vary completely purple, solid green or green with purple stripes, or cream colored with or without purple stripes. The flesh is greenish to white and yellowish-orange. The plant likes a sunny or semi-shaded, frost-free location, sheltered from strong winds (Anonymous 2007 a). The fruit is sweet and fragrant, high in vitamins (Redgwell and Turner, 1986) and may have hypertensive and anti-tumors effects (Ren and Torg, 1999; Prohens and Nuez, 2001). Pepino is a sucrose accumulator fruit (Schaffer et al., 1989), and post harvest ripened fruits are less sweet than those ripened on the plant (Prohens and Nuez, 2001). The volatile constituents of some clones of pepino ( S. muricatum) fruit were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Rodriguez-Burruezo et al., 2004). The pepino is a very versatile fruit and can be consumed in different ways depending on its maturity stage. When ripe, it has a flavors resembling the cantaloupe melon (Sweet, 1986; Ruiz et al., 1992; Ahumada and contwell, 1996 Gonzales et al., 2000). At this stage it is consumed as a refreshing dessert fruit, or as an ingredient of fruit salads. It can also be used in meat, fish or seafood dishes (National Research Council, 1989), for preparing juices, preserves, ice creams and Jams (Morley-Bunker, 1983). When it is in an earlier ripening stage it can be used as a vegetable in stews (Esquivel and Hammier, 1999). The aim of this study was to determine the some physical and chemical properties, organic acids and mineral contents of pepino (S.muricatum) fruits harvested at mature stages growing in Bykeceli-Glnar-Mersin where has a very important fruit growing climatic (semi-subtropical) conditions in Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS MATERIAL Pepino plants grow in Mersin (Bykeceli-Glnar) province in South Turkey. Fruits were harvested in mature stages, and selected according to uniformity in colour, shape and size as well as for lack of injuries and foreign odour (Huykens-Keil et al., 2000; HuykensKeil et al., 2006).

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METHODS Physical and Chemical analysis L,a and b color values of pepino fruits were assessed with HunterLab color meter (Gonzales et al., 2000). The fresh weights of 20 fruits were determined. The chemical properties (dry matter, crude protein, crude oil, crude fibre, ash, titratable acidity, pH, total phenol, tartaric and citric acids) of pepino fruit were analysed according to AOAC (1994) methods. Nitrogen was established by Kjeldahl analyses, multiplied by 6,25 and determined as protein (AOAC, 1994). The total oil content was determined in accordance with AOAC (1994) method. Crude oil was obtained from finely dried crushed fruit (ca 20g) extracted with petroleum ether (Merck- Darmstadt) in a Soxhlet apparatus; the remaining solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. The extracted oil was stored at 4 C in tubes with anhydrous sodium sulphate. Total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (Kahknen et al.1999). Quantification was performed with the hydrolysed samples. Results were expressed as mg/of gallic acid /g dry samples. For organic acids extraction, approximately 500 g of each frozen sample were used and each replicate was used separately. 1 g of homogenized sample was weighed and powdered with liquid nitrogen in a mortar and mixed with 20 ml of aqueous meta-phosphoric acid (3%) at room temperature for 30 min using a shaker. This mixture was filtered and made up to 25 ml with the same solvent, then used for HPLC analysis.The high-performance liquid chromatographic apparatus (Shimadzu LC 10A vp, Kyoto, Japan) consisted of an in-line degasser (DGU-20A5), pump and controller coupled to a photodiode array detector (Shimadzu SPD-M20 A) equipped with an automatic injector (20 L injection volume) interfaced to a PC running Class VP chromatography manager software (Shimadzu, Japan). Separations were performed on a 250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5 m, reverse-phase Inertsil ODS3 analytical column (GL Sciences, Japan) operating at 30oC (column oven CTO-10AS vp) with a flow rate of 0.5ml/min. Detection was carried out with a sensitivity of 0.1 a.u.f.s. between the wavelengths of 200 and 360 nm. Elution was isocratic with 0.5% aqueous meta-phosphoric acid. Components were identified by comparison of their retention times to those of authentic standards under analysis conditions and UV spectra with an in-house PDA library. A 10 min equilibrium time was allowed between injections. All the samples were directly injected to the reverse phase chromatography column. For the stock solution of the organic acid standards, L-ascorbic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and citric acid, were dissolved in methanol at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. All samples and standards were injected three times each and mean values were used (Kafkas et al.20006). Determination of mineral contents About 0,5g of dried and ground pepino fruit was put into burnig cup with 15 ml of pure NHO3. The sample was incinerated in a MARS 5 microwave oven at 200 C. Distilled deionized water and ultra high-purity commercial acids were used to prepare all reagents, standards, and pepino samples. After digestion treatment, samples were filtrated through whatman No 42. The filtrates were collected in 50 ml Erlenmayer flasks. The mineral contents of the samples were quantified against standard solutions of known concantrations which were aralyzed concurrently (1998). Working conditions of ICP-AES: Instrument, ICP-AES (Varian-Vista); RF Power, 0,7-1,5 kw (1,2-1,3 kw for Axial);Plasma gas flow rate (Ar),10,5-15 L/min. (radial) 15 (axial);Auzilary gas flow rate (Ar),1,5 ; Viewing height, 5-12 mm; Copy and reading time, 1-5 s (max.60 s); Copy time, 3 s (max. 100 s). Statistical analysis Results of the research were analysed for statistical significance by analysis of variance (Psklc and kiz,1989). This research was performed by three duplicates with a replicate. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The L value of pepino fruit skin showed a loss of the green color (Table 1). Regarding the b value, a strong increase was established in yellow tones. Our results were found similar with results of Gonzales et al., (2000). The physical and chemical properties of pepino fruit are shown in Table 1. Fresh fruit weight, dry matter, ash, crude protein, crude oil, titratable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, citric acid, total phenol, crude fibre values of fruit were established. Fresh weights were determined as average 173 g. Proximate compounts (%) were: protein (1.70), ash (1.81), dry mater (12.8), crude oil (0.22), crude fibre (2.7). In addition, pH, total phenol, tartaric and citric acid were established as 5.46, 117 mg/100 g, 0.1232 mg/L and 2607.5 mg/L, respectively. The average total phenol content of conventionally grown and frozen Marion berries , strawberries, and corn were 412, 241, and 24,7 mg/100g of fresh weight, respectively (21). A growing body of evidence indicates that secondary plant metabolites play critical roles

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in human health and may be nutritionally important (21,22). Kafkas et al. (2006) reported that the chemical composition and quality characteristics of nine promising hybrids and two varieties of strawberries were evaluated for their quality attributes during ripening. Total organic acid contents of experimental varieties had varied between 11.90 g/kg to 23.47 g/kg. The main organic acid was citric acid and its concentrations varied between 9.15 and 20.27 g/kg frozen weight in the ripe period (Kafkas et al., 2007). The amounts of citric, malic and ascorbic acids were reported as 3.21 , 1.11 and 0.19 g/kg of FW in strawberry fruits by Perez et al. (1997). Ascorbic acid content of strawberry raged from 0.37 to 1.04 g/kg (Kafkas et al., 2007). A minimal content of ascorbic acid was found in kiwi fruits of Gaivard cultivar; in juice 5.44, skin 1.14 and pulp 4.20 mg/g (Kvesitadze et al., 2001). The mineral contents of pepino fruit were determined by ICP-AES (Table 2). Fruits were found to be rich in some minerals such as Ca (3256.96 mg/kg), K (43465.60 mg/kg), P (7907.32 mg/kg), Na (1496.13 mg/kg) and Mg (2541.12 mg/kg). Also, K, P, Na and Se and Mg concentrations were higher than that of terebinth (P.terebinthus) [Na, 906.64 mg/kg; K, 1364.19 mg/kg; P, 801.88 mg/kg; Mg,318.39 mg/kg] (zcan,2004). Demir and zcan (2001) established 890,5 mg/kg Mg and 146,7 and 133,3 mg/kg Ca in Hadim and Kastamonu rose fruit samples, respectively K, P, Ca values of fruit were clearly higher according to findings of Demir and zcan (2001). Calcium is the major component of bone and assists in teeth development (Brody, 1994). The Mg, Fe and P levels are adequate. Some inorganic elements which may contribute to biological processes, but which have not been established as essential are bromine, cadmium, lead and lithium (Macrae et al., 1993a). Cadmium and lead are best known for their toxicological properties. Lithium is another element with beneficial pharmacological properties in the treatment of macic depresssive disorders (Macrae et al.1993b). Decreasing of these toxic element contents is an advantage. The highest mineral contents were P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. This work attempts to contribute to knowledge of the nutritional properties of these seeds. In addition, knowledge of the mineral contents, as condiments at various baked products is of great interest. As a result, the differences in physical properties of fruits having about the same size were probably due to environmental conditions in conjunction with the analytical methods used (Guil et al.1998). In addition, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude fibre, organic acid and crude oil contents of fruits are affected chiefly by variety and growth conditions. These findings may be useful for dietary information, which requires prior knowledge of the nutritional composition of edible fruits. The consumption of pepino fruits is rising around the world owing to the increasing popularity of natural products. According to results, it could be said that pepino fruits have a rich source of a number of important that provide a very useful effect on human health. It may be useful for the evaluation of dietary information in important food crops. REFERENCES
AHUMADA M., CANTWTELL M. 1996. Postharvest studies on pepino dulce ( Solanum muricatum Ait.): maturity at harvest and storage behavior. Postharvest Biol Technol 7,129-136. ANONYMOUS 2007. Availablein:userwww.sfsu.edu/zephycat/Project/orfg_f inal/encyclopedia/content/solanum_muricatum.html AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Aralysis, 14 th edn. Assoc. Offic.. Anel.Chem., Arcingten,VA. ASAMI DK., HORG Y J., BARRETT DM., MITCHELL A E. 2003. Comparison of the total phonetic and ascorbic acid content of freze-dried and air-dried Marion berry, straw berry, and corn grown using conventional, organic, and sustainable agricultural practices. J Agric Food Chem 11, 1237-1241. BLOCK G., PATTERSSON B., SUBAR A. 1992. Fruit, vegetables and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutrition Cancer 18,1-29 BRODY T. 1994. Nutritional Biochemistry. San Diego, CA: Academic Pres. ALARIRMAK N. 2003. Biochemical and physical properties of some walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.). Nahrung/Food 47(1),28-32. DEMIR F., KALYONCU .H. 2003. Some nutritional, pomological and physical properties of cornelian cherry ( Cornus mas L.). J Food Eng 60, 335-341 DEMR F., ZCAN M. 2001. Chemical and technological properties of rose ( Rosa canina L.) fruits Grown wild in Turkey. J Food Eng 47,333-336 GONZALEZ M., CAMARA M., PROHENS J., RUIZ J., TORIJA E., NUEZ F. 2000. Colour and composition of improved pepino cultivars at three ripening stages. Gartenbauwissenschaft 65,83 87 GUIL JL., GIMENEZ JJ., TORIJA ME. 1998. Mineral nutrient composition of edible wild plants. J Food Comp Anal 11,322-326. HUYSKENS-KEIL S., PRONO-WIDAYAT HP., LUDDERS P., SCHREINER M., PETERS P. 2000. Physiological changes in pepino fruits during ripening. Acta Hort 531,251 255 HUYSKENS-KEIL S., PRONO-WIDAYAT HP., LUDDERS P., SCHREINER M., 2006. Posthartvest quality of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) fruit in controlled atmosphere storage. J Food Eng 77, 628 634 KAFKAS E., KOLAR M., PAYDA S. KAFKAS S., BAER KHC. 2007. Quality characteristics of strawberry genotypes at different maturation stages. Food Chem 100, 1229 1236 KAHKNEN MP., HOPIA AI., HEIKKI JV., RAUHA JP., PIHLAJA K., KUJALA TJ. 1999. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 47, 3954 3962 KVESITADZE GI., KALANDIYA AG., PAPUNIDZE SG., VANIDZE MR. 2001. Identification and Quantification of Ascorbic Acid in Kiwi Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Appl Biochem Microbiol 37(2), 215 218 MACRAE R., ROBINSON RK., SADLER MJ. 1993a. Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition, Vol. 5, 3126-3131, Academic Press INC., San Diego,CA. MACRAE R., ROBINSON RK., SADLER MJ. 1993b. Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition, Vol. 7, 4593-4600, Academic Press INC., San Diego,CA. MORLEY-BUNKER MJS. (1983). A new commercial crop, the pepino (Solanum muricatum, Ait.) and suggestions for further development. Annu Rpt Royal NZ Inst Hort 11, 8 -19. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 1989. Lost crops of the Incas: Little known plants of the Andes with promise for wolrldwide cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington. ZCAN M. 2004. Charactesitics of fruit and of terebinth (Pistacia terebibthus L.) growing wild in Turkey. J Agric Food Chem 84,517-520. PEREZ AG, OLIAS R, ESPADO JM, SANS C. 1997. Rapid determination of su gars, nonvalatile acides and ascorbic acid in strawberry and other fruits. J Agric Food Chem 45, 3545 3549. PROHENS J, NUEZ F. 2001. Improvement of mishqui ( Solanum muricatum) earliness by selection and ethephon applications. Sci Hort 87, 247-259 PSKLC H, KZ F. 1989. Introduction to Statistic. Bilgehan Press, p333, Bornova, zmir,Turkey. (in Turkish) REDGWELL RJ, TURTNER NA 1986. Pepino ( Solanum muricatum ): chemical composition of ripe fruit. J Sci Food Agric 37,1217-1222. REN WP., TANG DG 1999. Extract of Solanum muricatum ( pepino 7 CSG) inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis. Anticancer Res 19 (1A), 403 408 RODRIGUEZ-BURRUEZO A, KOLLMANNSBERGER H, PROHENS J, NITZ S, NUEZ F. 2004. Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum

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muricatum). J Agric Food Chem 52 (18),5663 5669 RUIZ JJ, NUEZ F, 1997. The pepino ( Solanum muricatum Ait.), an alternative crop for areas affected by modetate salinity. Hort Sci 32, 649-652. RUIZ JJ, NUEZ F, AMURRIO M, DERON A, FUEYO M. 1992. Adaptation of the pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Spain. Acta Hort 318, 213-216. SCHAFFER AA, RYKSKI I, FOGELMAN M 1989. Carbohydrate content and sucrose metabolism in developing Solanum muricatum fruits. Phytochem 28,737-739. SKUJINS J 1998. handbook for ICP-AES(Varian-Vista). A short Guide to Vista Series ICP-AES Operation. Varian Int. AG, Zug,Version 1-0, Switzerland.

Table 1. Color, physical and chemical properties of pepino fruits* Properties L a b Dry matter (%) Weight (g) Crude oil (%) Crude protein *%) Crude fibre (%) Ash (%) Total phenol (mg/100 g) Titratable acidity (%) pH Citric acid (mg/L) Tartaric acid (mg/L) Brix Values 62.060.51 4.670.17 18.950.47 12.80.12** 17315 0.220.02 3.210.63 2.71.14 1.180.33 17.3201.13 0.080.02 5.46 0.11 260743.4 0.12320.0042 571

Table 2. Mineral contents of pepino fruits* Minerals Al B Ca Cu Fe K Mg Mn Mo Na Ni P Se Zn Values(mg/kg) 90.465.44** 27.231.19 3256.96132.41 17.171.64 79.733.27 43465.59117.11 2541.1227.15 7.391.223 1.140.32 1496.1311.24 1.660.08 7907.3221.01 2.230.04 29.672.28

*Nx6.25 **mean standard deviation

*Drymatter **Mean standard deviation

COPEPODS AS AN ALTERNATIVE LIVE FEED IN MARINE LARVICULTURE


Mine Uzbilek Krkaa Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Aquaculture Engineering, Dkap 06110 Ankara, Turkey kirkagac@agri.ankara.edu.tr

ABSTRACT Organic aquaculture focuses on best environmental practices, a high level of biodiversity, preservation of natural resources. Organically grown fish should be matured without the use of pesticides, dyes and antibiotics. Thus, organic fish farming requires spesific standards. It was declared by the Sustainable Organic Finfish Hatchery Standards 2004 that only naturally occuring live feeds would be produced and organically derived manures and fertilizers would only be permitted. Although hatchery feeds represents a tiny fraction of total lifetime of feeding, live feeds are very essential for larval survival and growth. A major bottleneck in the cultivation of many marine fish species for commercial purposes is the lack of suitable food for the first feeding of larval stages. With a rapid expansion of the aquaculture sector, increasing interest in new species and the culture of ornamental species to replace wild fisheries, requirements arise that cannot be met by traditional live feeds. The traditional feeds, Artemia and rotifers (Branchionus spp.) are not always effective foods due to their size, biochemical composition and swimming behaviour. Some enrichment methods are needed for their biochemical composition. Marine copepods, the principle diet for most marine fish larvae in nature, are rich in fatty acids. Due to their superior nutritional value, researchs has been focused on investing copepods as an alternative live feed in recent years.

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INTRODUCTION Copepods constitute a first vital link in the marine food chain leading from primary producers to fish, in nature. In the open water marine environment, calanoids dominate the herbivorous zooplankton and provide the food chain base for practically all marine fish larvae and planktivorous fish. In esturies and coastal areas, harpacticoids are an important constituent in the diet of larval and juvenile fish, such as flatfish and salmonids (Stottrup 2003, Stottrup 2006). The critical importance of fish larvae successfully capturing live prey during their first few days of life has been a concept central to aquaculture production and fisheries recruitment for many years. Copepods and their nauplii are the dominant prey of many first feeding fish larvae, often making up as much as 90-100% of their diet. (Chesney 2005, Stottrup 2006). Live feed usage in marine fish hatcheries has lead to a rapid expansion in aquaculture sector since the 1980s. In the investigations in live feed area, it was determined that natural and cultured copepods provide additional desirable characteristics such as size and nutritional value to fish larvae rather than rotifers and Artemia nauplii that are the two common live food organisms for early life stages of marine fish in hatcheries and have played a supplemental role in larval rearing (Stottrup and McEvoy 2003). In recent years, with the understanding of copepods importance as live feed in marine fish hatcheries, aquaculture researchers have focused their interests in rearing new culture species with very small larvae such as marine ornamental species or species difficult to rear on the traditional live prey, rotifers or Artemia nauplii, or with a small mouth size such as grouper (Epinephelus sp.), dhufish (Glaucosoma sp) and red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) (Doi et al 1997). Raised copepods as well as harvested zooplankton contain biochemical characteristics that make them a good alternative or supplement live food for larval rearing. Copepods are already used semiextensively on an industrial scale. They are also part of the natural fish preys present in aquaculture ponds and promising results from some sustainable intensive cultures have been reported (Drillet et al 2006, Engel-Sorensen et al 2004). COPEPODS USED IN CULTIVATION Although more than 11500 species of copepods have been classified, the number of species that are cultured at larger scales relevant for rearing fish larvae are very few and in the three order of the copepods, the Calanoida, Harpacticoida and Cyclopoida (Mauchaline 1998). Researchers have received most attention to calanoida that are most abundant in the pelagic environment. The mostly cultured calanoid species belong to the genera Acartia, Calanus, Centropages, Eurytemora and Temora. These copepods are small, with relatively short generation times and a wide thermal and salinity tolerance and easily adaptable to laboratory conditions. Among the primarily epibenthic harpacticoid copepods, species belonging to the genera Euterpina, Tigriopus and Tisbe to be ideal candidates for cultivating in large cultures. Very few cyclopoid species have been reared in laboratory. Oithona spp. and Apocyclops spp. appear to be the best candidates and they are relatively easy to culture over several generations and ideal as food for marine fish larvae (Stottrup 2003, Stottrup 2006). The choise of copepods for cultivation depends on geography, size of the predator (fish) and whether culturing will take place indoors or outside (Kleppel et al. 2005) CULTURE METHODS FOR COPEPODS Extensive systems In extensive culture conditions, copepods are collected by the several types of filtering device that have been developed for this purpose, from nature, from fjords or inlets where natural densities are high and used directly as live prey, inoculated into outdoor tanks on land to produce live zooplankton for fish larval rearing, or harvested and frozen, dried or freeze-dried for later use as an inert diet. Enclosed or semi-enclosed areas such as fjords can be directly use for rearing marine fish in North Europe countries. Potential predators in the enclosed system were initially killed of with rotenone. The phytoplankton production is enhanced by adding fertilizers and where possible water-flow to maintain a high and stable production of zooplankton. Copepod starting culture is derived from resting eggs or are collected from the sea and transferred to the enclosures. Fish larvae are then transfered to these enclosures at densities 0.01-1.32-1, during the larval rearing prey densities should be maintained in the range of 200-500 l-1 and if it is needed additional prey may be added. Disadvantages of this type of system include the inability to control production, food level and predators. Production in outdoor ponds and large tanks is carried out in Europe and Asia for the culture of cod, grouper, turbot. In these systems filtered sea water were used and phytoplankton can be monitored by adding nutrients. In Norwey, prey densities were about 10-300 l-1 and 1.4-2.8 fish larvae are added to ponds, resulting in the production of 3.8-40 cod juveniles m-3. An advantage of outdoor pond and tanks, is the possibility of culturing zooplankton at least one generation before using them as food. Because many parasites such as trematods and cestods use copepods as intermediate hosts. By using first generation nauplii as food for fish larvae, the risk of parasite transfer will reduce (Stottrup 2003, Stottrup 2006). Intensive systems Several attempts to mass culture copepods in intensive systems have been undertaken with varying success and have resulted in the development of different systems for particular species of copepods. Most calanoid species fed by phytoplankton which can be filtered from the water, although it was demonstrated that it was possible to use rice bran for feeding. A combination of at least two algal species with high n-3 polyunsaturated lipid content and of a size that can be utilized by both the feeding naupliar stages and

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the copepodits and adult stages, probably comprises an adequate diet for culture. Aeration is required to maintain phytoplankton in suspension. In copepod culture it is preferable to choose species with similiar thermal-salinity optima in rearing conditions, although copepods adapt themselves different temperature- salinity regimes. Contamination of copepod cultures by bacterial blooms, ciliate infections, other copepods may pose a problem. It should be cared to use different siphons for each tank to avoid contamination. Light regime in cultures should be at least 12 h of light. These culture techniques for calanoids are similiar to the other copepod groups, harpacticoid and cyclopoid. The main difference is in the culture tank sizes and their shapes. In calanoids, large volumes and cyclindrical tanks are required and a high tank height to tank diameter should be preferred in order to reduce the surface area to be siphoned and thus the loss of copepods. In benthic harpacticoids needs available surface area than the culture volume. It was reported that in four trays, 40x60 cm sized contained 3 litres of filtered sea water, 300000 nauplii day-1 was produced and it corresponds to daily output of 100000 nauplii per litre. Also filtered, non treated sea water and artificial sea water may be used and a whole range of inert food is acceptable to harpacticoids (Stottrup 2003, Stottrup 2006). USE OF COPEPODS AS LIVE PREy FOR MARINE FISH LARVAE Copepods have superior nutritional value resulting in normal pigmentation and development and eliminating the need for enrichment, their optimal lipid to protein content for fast-growing fish larvae preventing dietary lipid overloading. Fatty asid composition in copepods allow the larval fish to cope better with stressful condition superior than traditional live feeds (Artemia and rotifers) even after enrichment. Copepods are valuable source of lipids, essential fatty acids (DHA, EPA and ARA), protein, amino asids, easily assimilated carotenoids, minerals and enzymes. They could be an inexpensive fishmeal and an alternative or supplement to Artemia nauplii or rotifers. Copepods contain high levels of vitamin C and may be an important source of vitamin C in fish larvae. Copepods have no alternative live food because of size for very small first-feeding fish larvae. All stages of copepods are suitable as food. Harpacticoid copepods may serve as tank cleaners, thus helping to maintain tank hygiene. Copepods are an important source of exogenous digestive enzymes that improve digestion of prey in early-stage fish larvae in which the gut is not fully functional and their swimming behaviour helps algal cultures in suspension in green-water systems. Copepods provide improvement in larval condition and a higher resistance to disease (Stottrup 2006, Drillet et al 2006, Treece and Davis 2000, Stottrup 2000). CONCLUSION Copepod nauplii offer a diverse size spectra and nutritious prey that can meet the specialized needs of small fast-growing fish larvae. Rearing methods are needed for the mass propagation of suitably small copepods as live prey that can meet the needs of these species and be practical for broad-scale application by commercial aquaculture businesses (Chesney 2005). Copepoda is rich in species and a lot of candidates potentially relevant for aquaculture are still need to be discovered. A basic knowledge of physiological processes and population dynamics of a species is a prerequisite for the development of rearing techniques (Stottrup 2000). Extensive cultivation of copepods has been shown to be biologically and economically feasible and has been adopted in commercial hatcheries. However scaling-up small scale intensive techniques is complicated and the development of economically viable, large-scale culture systems for calanoid or harpacticoid copepods remained to be demonstrated. Intensive production systems for copepods remains open for the next century. It would seem sensible to concentrate copepod-rearing efforts on planktonic, estuarine species, which are naturally adapted to variable conditions and tolerant to rearing at high densities (Stottrup 2000, Stottrup 2006). REFERENCES
Chesney, J.E. 2005. Copepods as Live Prey: A Review of Factors That Influence the Feeding Success of Marine Fish Larvae. In:Copepods in Aquaculture Edited by C.Lee, P.J. OBryen and N.H. Marcus, pp.133-150, Blackwell Publishing,USA Doi, M., Toledo, J.D., Golez, M.S., De Los Santos, M. and Ohno, A. 1997. Preliminary Investigationof Feeding Performance of Larvae of Early Red-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coiodes, Reared with Mixed Zooplankton. Hydrobiologia, 358, 259-263. Drillet, G., Jorgensen, N.G., Sorrensen, T. F., Ramlov, H. and Hansen, B.W. 2006. Biochemical and Technical Observations supporting the Use of Copepods as Live Feed Organisms in Marine Larviculture. Aquaculture Research, 17, 756-772. Engel-Sorenson, K., Stottrup, J.G., Holmstrup, M. 2004. Rearing of flounder (Platichthys flesus) juveniles in semi-extensive systems. Aquaculture, 230, 475-491. Kleppel, G.S, Hazzard, S.E. and Burkart, C.A. 2005. Maximizing the Nutritional Values of Copepods in Aquaculture: Managed versus Balanced Nutrition. In:Copepods in Aquaculture Edited by C.Lee, P.J. OBryen and N.H. Marcus, pp.133-150, Blackwell Publishing,USA. Mauchline, J. 1998. The Biology of Calanoid Copepods. In Advances in Marine Biology. Academic Press, 710 pp. Stottrup, J.G. 2000. The elusive copepods: their production and suitibility in marine aquaculture. Aquaculture Research, 31, 703-711. Stottrup, J.G. 2003. Production and nutritional value of copepods. In: Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture, Edited by Stottrup, J:G and L.A. McEvoy, pp.145-205. Blackwell Publishing, , Oxford. Stottrup, J.G. 2006. A Review on the Status and Progress in Rearing Copepods for Marine Larviculture, Advantages and Disadvantages. Among Calanoid, Harpacticoid and Cyclopoid Copepods. In Avances en Nutricion Acuicola VIII. Edited by M.G.N.Lopez, A.V. Cavazos, G. Ortega.pp. 62-84, Mexico. Trece, G.D. and Davis, D.A. 2000. Culture of Small Zooplankters for the Feeding of Larval Fish. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. 701, p.7.

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IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRI-ENVIRONMENT OBSERVED WITH NEW TECNOLOGIES


Nihal yCEKUTLU1 and yavuz yCEKUTLU2
1

Hacettepe University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06532 Beytepe Campus, Ankara- TURKEY

The Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Air Management Department, Betepe, Ankara- TURKEY nihal.yuce@gmail.com
2

ABSTRACT Land use and land cover changes are important aspects of global environmental changes. They are controlled by natural factors and are affected by new technological. This paper describes to investigate future land use by studying a wide range of scenarios defining climate and agri-environment changes. In recent years, dust storms were investigated for transport and deposition processes and for their strong impact on the concentration levels and composition of atmospheric aerosol. Effective management and monitoring of soil resources require spatial data at various scales in order to incorporate land use patterns, geomorphology, topography, and hydrologic and vegetation parameters. Remote sensing may be the only feasible means of providing such spatially distributed data at multiple scales and on a consistent and timely basis. Quantify basic nutrient transformation and transport processes and their controlling factors in agricultural systems. Assess the influence of soil resource management strategies on C and nutrient cycles in agricultural ecosystems. Develop nutrient management practices to improve nutrient efficiency and protect environmental quality [8]. The results of an investigation of the utility of LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) for recovering ecological variables are detailed. Therefore, measurement of forest attributes and evaluation of their variety is often advocated as a good indicator of biodiversity in the context of conservation management [1]. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is the most extensively used satellitederived index of vegetation health and density. Since climate is one of the most important factors affecting vegetation condition, satellite-derived vegetation indexes have been often used to evaluate climatic and environmental changes at regional and global scale. Mechanisms that initiate land degradation include biophysical, chemical and biological processes [6]. Keywords: Climate change, aerosol properties, soil management, LiDAR techniques, NDVI, vegetation cover. INTRODUCTION Of an estimated 2 billion metric tons of dust that move some distance in Earths atmosphere each year, approximately 75% originates from the Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa [10]. Natural deposition is mainly originating from pulses of mineral dust from North Africa into the Mediterranean region [4] and from marine aerosols delivered by the Mediterranean Sea. The biogeochemical impact of desert dust also remains a matter of discussion regarding its contribution for different major and minor elements to terrestrial and marine systems and especially its potential fertilizing role for remote oceanic areas by supplying micronutrients as phosphorus and iron [2]. 1 Effects of Saharan dust inputs Rainwater chemistry was monitored during a two years period (Nov. 2003 Oct. 2005) for quantification of the atmospheric input over a small (70 km2) rural Mediterranean watershed. Major ions contents (HCO3, Cl, NO3, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na, and K) were determined by IC, nutrients content ( PO43-, NO3-, NO2- and NH4+) determined and trace element contents (Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, U, V and Zn) by ICP-MS [13]. It has been further shown that besides the photochemical production of Fe(II) as well as producing some other essential nutrient elements like Zn, Mn along with PO4 2- [14]. This natural source of bioavailable iron is very essential since for many years iron deficiency suggested to be a limiting oceanic micronutrient in some oceanic regions, away from lands [7]. Mineral analyses of the used Saharan desert soil sample are composed of 55% quartz, 17% calcite, 4% clay, 23% gypsum and 1% feldspar [15]. These results were agreed with literature [16]. 2 Aerosols and climate effect Aerosol particles have been found to play a key role in human health, in pollution problems and in global climate change. The quantity of dust has the potential to induce regional and ecosystem responses such as red tides or degradation of coral reefs due to infestation of foreign fungal or microbial populations. Saharan or mineral dust has recently been implicated as a significant force factor in

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regional climate changes, specifically in influencing local precipitation patterns [11]. 3 Agri-environment and soils Agri-environment schemes have management options for habitat re-creation and restoration. Before offering such agreements, detailed information on soils is often necessary to identify whether a particular site is suitable and, if it is, to determine the most appropriate target habitat to aim for. Regular soil analysis should be undertaken as a vital part of good [12]. Furthermore, soils are an integral part of the biosphere, interacting with the biogeochemical and physical climate systems, affecting productivity, carbon fluxes, and biodiversity. Space and airborne sensor systems, with their synoptic and repetitive coverage of the land surface, are increasingly being relied on to characterize and map the spatial variation of soil physical and biogeochemical properties for environmental and natural resource management purposes. LiDAR, an emerging remote sensing technology that directly measures the three-dimensional distribution of plant canopies, can accurately estimate vegetation structural attributes and should be of particular interest to forest, landscape, and global ecologists [5]. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 1 Monitoring requirements Airborne LiDAR is an ideal tool for surveying regional scale projects. Predicting mineral aerosol distributions is a difficult task due to the episodic nature of the sources and transport. Mineral aerosols are suggested to play an important role in climate forcing by altering the radiation balance in the atmosphere [9]. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI and other related vegetation indices have been shown to be directly related to many ecosystem parameters and processes such as leaf area index, biomass, production, and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation. Characterizing a regional climatology of aerosols and clouds and their relationships to forest cover is important to understanding the interaction of ecosystems and the atmosphere [16]. CONCLUSIONS Qualitatively, NDVI generally show the proper sense of change in greenness. Management of forest ecosystems at landscape scales means projecting, evaluating interactions and cumulative impacts on many resources at a time. Characterizing a regional climatology of aerosols and clouds and their relationships to forest cover is important to understanding the interaction of ecosystems and the atmosphere. LiDAR remote sensing only recently has become available as a research tool, and it has yet to become widely available. In addition to their ability to assess dust structure and optical properties with high vertical resolution, LiDARs should play a major role in future operational dust model validation and assimilation activities if observations are performed in regular time intervals and with reasonably good density and distribution of stations in the horizontal located over a particular region. REFERENCES
[1] Brandtberg, T., Warner, T.A., Landenberger, R.E. and McGraw, J.B., Detection and analysis of individual leaf-off tree crowns in small footprint, high sampling density LiDAR data from the eastern deciduous forest in North America. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2003, 85(3): 290-303. [2] Duce, R., Liss, P. S., Merrill, and J. T., Atlas, et al.: The atmospheric input of trace gas species to the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5, 193259, 1991. [3] Ganor, E. and Foner, A. The mineralogical and chemical properties and the behavior of aeolian Saharan dust over Israel. In: The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean. Eds: Guerzoni, S and Chester, R., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1996, pp: 163-172. [4] Herut, B., Krom, D., Pan, G. and Mortimer, R., 1999. Atmospheric input of nitrogen and phosphorus to the SE Mediterranean: Sources, fluxes and possible impact. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44: 1683-1692. [5] Jerry L. Hatfield and John H. Prueger, Seeing Air in a New Light with LiDAR, Agricultural Research, 2004. [6] Lal, R., Tillage effects on soil degradation, soil resilience, soil quality and sustainability. Soil Tillage Res., 1993, 27: 1-8. [7] Martin, D., G. Bergametti and B. Strauss. On the use of the synoptic vertical velocity in trajectory model: validation by geochemical tracers. Atmospheric Environment, 1990, 24A, 2059- 2069. [8] McCarty, G.W., Reeves, J.B., Comparison of near infrared and mid infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for field scale measurement of soil fertility parameters, 2006, Soil Science. 171:94-102. [9] Miller, R. and I. Tegen, 1999: Radiative forcing of a tropical direct circulation by soil dust aerosols. J. Atmos. Sci, 56, 2403-2433. [10] Perkins, S., 2001. Dust, the Thermostat. Science News 160 (September 29), 200201. [11] Rosenfeld, D., Rudich, Y. and Lahav, R..Desert dust suppressing precipitation: A possible desertification feedback loop. PNAS, 2001, 98, 5975-5980. [12] Rural Development Service Technical Advice Note 3, Soils and Agri-environment Schemes: interpreting soil analysis for habitat creation/restoration, Published November 2005. [13] C. Salles, N. RicoCaicedo, J.L. Seidel , B. Picot, and M. G. Tournoud, Atmospheric input of contaminants to a small Mediterranean basin, 1 Universit Montpellier 2 - Hydrosciences (UMR 5569 CNRS-IRD-UM2), Universit Montpellier II, Maison des Sciences de lEau, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France, 2008. [14]Saydam, A. C., and H. Z. Senyuva (2002), Deserts: Can they be the potential suppliers of bioavailable iron?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(11), 1524. [15] Ycekutlu, A. N., 2004. The investigation of possible impact of elemental composition of Saharan dust on the growth parameters of some selected wheat variets. Master of Science Thesis Hacettepe University, Department of Environmental Engineering. [16] Zoran M., Stefan S., Climatic Changes Effects on Spectral Vegetation Indices for Forested Areas Analysis From Satellite Data. Proceedings of the 2nd Environmental Physics Conference, 18-22 Feb. 2006, Alexandria, Egypt.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON ZEA MAyS PARTS ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL IN DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES ON AMARANTHUS RETROFLEXUS GERMINATION AND GROWTH
Nima Nobari1, Mehrdad yarnia2, Farrokh Rahimzadeh Khoyi3, Mohammad Bagher Khorshidi Benam4
1 2 3 4

MS student of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch Assistant Professor of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch Professor of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch Assistant Professor of Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch

ABSTRACT By using allelopathic effects of plants one of the aspects of weeds control in fields is production of organic crops in sustainable agriculture. In this reason a trial to evaluating allelopathic effect of different parts of maize in different growth stages under water stress on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus has been done. This research had been done in laboratory and greenhouse hydroponicaly. For providing different maize parts extracts maize have been planted in fields of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz in Iran in two level of irrigation (irrigation per 7 and 14 day). Then maize materials get from different parts of maize (root, shoot, leaf, stem, control), in different growth stages (growth, flowering and filling). Then from this material water extracts in 10 percent concentration provided. In this research factorial based completely randomized design with three replication used. Results showed that germination of seeds of this weed was one of the susceptible traits surveyed in this research. So that seeds germination decreased by 871% in response to water extracts of maize leaf in flowering stage. In this trait leaf extract had highest allelopathic effect on seeds germinations. Also extracts get from flowering stage of maize had more allelopathic effect on seeds germination. Least allelopathic effect of maize parts was for root extracts. Drought also increased allelopathic effect of all parts in laboratory experiment. In greenhouse leaf water extracts of maize leaves had highest allelopathic effects on amaranthus retroflexus leaf area and in stress factors control level caused a decrease by 90%. Water extracts of roots had no effect in control of stress factor. But in condition of drought maize roots extracts decreased leaf area by 55%. In leaf area also water extract get from flowering stage had more allelopathic effect. Leaf water extracts of maize in stress factors control level also decrease biomass by 66%. Leaf water extracts of maize also decreased seed yield of Amaranthus retroflexus weed. So that this plant parts extracts in control level of stress factor decreased yield by 83% than control. This decrease in seed yield of this weed can lead to a decrease in competition of weeds in field in next years. Totally water extracts of leaf had more allelopathic effect on traits surveyed. Drought also increased allelopathic effects of plant parts of maize. At all except for root water extracts in irrigation level, all parts decreased Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination, leaf area, biomass and seed yield. Thus by using maize and sustain its residues in crops rotation, germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus have been decrease and have been useful organic crop production. Keywords: allelopathy, maize, drought, growing stages, Amaranthus retroflexus INTRODUCTION Weeds consist of one percent of plant species, but they can cause harsh negative effect on crops (Singh et al, 2006). To this allelopathic interaction of crops and weeds maybe seems to be small, but this interaction by changing copmpitition have intensive effect (preston et al, 2002). In spite of importance of this interaction, many of researches concentrated on allelopathic effect of crops on weeds. but certain weeds allelopathic affect of crops on are useful and extinct competitive weeds (narval et al, 2005). Allelopathic affect of plants first depend on genotype (Xuan et al, 2005). But concentration of this compounds can be influenced by developmental stages of plants (namedo, 2007) and environmental conditions such as water stress (Noguchi, 1999). Also production of allelochemicals depend on plant different parts (Lopez et al, 2009). Leaves and their remains usually are most important sinks and roots have less allelopathic effect in comparison to leaves (Turk and Tavaha, 2003). Maize allelopathy received less attention in comparison to other crops (Minorsky et al, 2002). Of most important evidence, obtained by Noguchi (1999). He extracted 6 allelopathic compounds (wang et al, 2005).

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The goal of this investigation was to evaluate allelopathic effect of different maize parts obtained in different growth stages in different water regimes on germination and growth of amaranthus retroflexus. MATERIAL AND METHODS This investigation has been done in 2008-2009 growing season in laboratory and greenhouse trials in Islamic azad university of tabriz, iran. Maize planted in field under two watering regimes: 1- irrigation each 7 day 2- irrigation each 14 day. In different growth stages, maize different parts harvested in different growth stages, dried and milled. Then 10 and 20% water extracts prepared. Maize parts factor consisting of roots, leaf, stem, total plant extracts and control. Growth stages factor also consisting of growing stage, tasseling and filling of maize kernels stage. This investigation has been done in factorial based on randomized completely design in three replication. Laboratory investigations carried out in germinator. Germination tests carried based on ISTA roles for 10 days. Green house surveys also carried on hydroponically in perlite and based on completely randomized design. Hoagland nutrient solution used to supply nutrients required by amaranthus retroflexus plants. Traits measured were shoot height, biomass, leaf area and seed yield. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Significant differences observed in all unilateral and reciprocal effects in 1% level in germination trait. In leaf area, different watering level and extracts different of different maize parts had meaningful effect in 1 % level. Effect of extracts get from different growth stages also was significant in 5% level. Reciprocal effect of watering level in extracts of different maize parts was significant in 1% level. In shoot dry weight, watering level and extracts of different maize parts in 1% level and reciprocal effect of watering level in extracts of different maize parts in 5% level had meaningful effect. GERMINATION PERCENTAGE Leaf water extracts of maize get from two growth and developmental stages of growth and tusseling had more decreasing effect on germination than other treatment levels and decreased germination percentage by 84 and 87 % than control, respectively. Turk and Tawaha (2003) also pointed out that leaves and their remains are most important sink of allelochemicals. In this investigation after leaves, extracts of total plants and stem, respectively have more allelopathic on germination. Germination along with growth and establishment of seedling have dynamic role in plant communities (Fernandez et al, 2008). Thus this reduction in germination percentage of Amaranthus retroflexus seeds due to maize allelochemicals has dynamic role and lead to a reduction in weeds interaction. Figure 3-1: effect of extracts of maize different parts from different growth stages on seed germination

According to figure 3-2 it observe that drought stress increased allelopathic effect maize different part extracts. So that leaf extract under water stress lead to more 13 % depression in germination percentage than leaf water extract in full watering regime.

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Figure 3-2: effect of different maize parts extracts under different watering regime on seed germination

Shoot height According to figure 3-3 maize leaves extracts under drought stress have more allelopathic effect on Amaranthus retroflexus shoot height. After this treatment, leaf water extracts under full irrigation have more decreasing effect on shoot heights. But more increase in allelopathic effect of extracts observed in root extracts. Root extracts under full irrigation had no affect on Amaranthus retroflexus shoot heght, nonetheless root extracts under water stress decreased shoot heights by 42 % than control. There are some reports that some allelopathic compound release only on drought conditions. Fritz et al (2007) also pointed out that remains of plants growing under drought stress showed more allelopathic affect. Figure 3-3: effect of different maize part extracts under different watering regime on shoot height

Leaf area According to figure 3-4 leaf water extracts of maize under drought stress and leaf water extracts of maize under full watering decreased LA more than other treatments, respectively. Root water extracts under full watering dont decreased leaf area, but root extracts under drought stress decreased leaf area by 55 % than control. Based on observation drought stress can lead to an increase in Allelochemicals such as monoterpens, clorogenic acids, hydroxamic acid and phenolic acids concentration (Reigosa et al, 2006). Figure 3-4: effect of different maize parts extracts under different watering regime on leaf area

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According to figure 3-5 there is no differences in allekopathic effects of extracts obtained from growing and kernels filing stages, but extracts from tusseling stages have more allelopathic affect than extracts from other developmental stages. Thus according to this that there was no differences in different growth stages alleloparhic affects, there was traits that showed a response to allelopathic extracts from different growth stages. Researchers pointed out phonological stages of releasing plants can have an affect on allelochemicals production (Reigosa et al, 2006)Figure 3-5: effect of extracts from different growth stages on leaf area Shoot dry weight

According to figure 3-6 leaf extract under drought stress decreased shoot dry weight more than other treatments. This treatment decreased shoot dry weight by 70 percent than control. After this treatment, water extracts of leaves under full irrigation was the more allelopathic extracts on shoot dry weight. Root water extracts under full irrigation had no decreasing affect on shoot dry weight at all, but under drought stress root extracts caused a reduction by 34 % than control in shoot dry weight. Figure 3-6: effect of different maize parts extracts under different irrigation regime on shoot dry weight

Seed yield Drought has no effect on allelopathic affect of stem water extract on seed yield (figure 3-7), but allelopathic affect of other parts increased due to drought stress. Leaves water extracts has more allelopathic affect on seed yield. Root extracts in full watering has no effect on this traits, but root extracts under drought stress increased allelopathic affect of roots. Important thing about this trait, is decreasing seed production rate. Because high production rate of seeds in weeds is one of reasons for successfulness of weeds (Maharjan et al, 2007). In amaranthus retroflexus each plant can produce 100000 seed (Costea et al, 2003). In this reason this reduction will be a great chance to crops successful production in fields.

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Figure 3-7: effect of different maize part extracts under different irrigation regime on seed yield

REFERENCES
1. Costea, M., Weaver, S. E. and Tardif, F. J. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 130. Amaranthus retroflexus L. A. powelli. Swatson and Ahybridus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 631-668. 2. Fernandez, C., Voiriot, S., Mevy, J., Vila, B., Ormeno, E., Dupouyet, S. and Bousquet-Melou, A. 2008. Regeneration failure of Pinus halepensis Mill: The role of autotoxicity and some abiotic environmental parameters. Forest Ecology and Management. xxx: xxxxxx. 3. Fritz, D., Bernardi, A. P., Haas, J. S., Ascoli, B. M., Bordignon, S. A. D. and Poser. G. V. 2007. Germination and growth inhibitory effects of Hypericum myrianthum and H. polyanthemum extracts on Lactuca sativa L. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 17(1): 44-48. 4. Lopez, M. L., Bonzani, N. E. and zygadlo, J. A. 2009. Allelopathic potential of Tagetes minuta terpenes by a chemical, anatomical and phytotoxic approach. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 36: 882890. 5. Maharjan, S., Shrestha, B. B. and Jha, P. K. 2007. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaves of parthenium hysterophorus on seed germination and seedling growth of some cultivated and wild herbaceous species. Scintific world. 5(5): 33-39. 6. Minorsky, P. V .2002. Allelopathy and grain crop production. Plant physiology. 130: 1745- 1746. 7. Namdeo, A. G. 2007. Plant Cell Elicitation for Production of Secondary Metabolites. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 1(1): 69-79. 8. Narwal, S. S., Palaniraj, R. and Sati, S. C. 2005. Role of allelopathy in crop production. Herbologia. 6( 2): 9. Noguchi, H. K. 1999. Effect of light-irradiation on allelopathic potential of germinating maize. Phytochemistry. 52: 10231027. 10. Preston, C, A., H, Betts., and I, T, Baldwin., 2002, Methyl jasmonate as an allelopathic agent: sagerbrush inhibits germination of a neighbouring tobacco. Nicotiana Attenata. Chemical Ecology. Vol 28. No 11. 11. Reigosa, J. M., Pedrol, N. and Gonzalez, L. 2006. Allelopathy: a physiological process with ecological implication. Springer. 12. Singh, H, P., D, R, Batish., and R, K, Kohi. 2006. Handbook of sustainable weed management. Food Products Press. 13. Turk, M. A. and Tawaha, A. M., 2003. Allelopathic effect of black mustard (Brassica nigra L.) on germination and growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Crop Protection 22 : 673677. 14. Wang, J, T. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Zhong and S. Lau. 2005. Effect of methyl jasmonate on hydroxamic acid and phenolic acid content in maize and its allelopathic activity to Echinochloa crosgali(L). Fourth world congress on Allelopathy. Sydney. Australia. 15. Xuan, T. D., Shinkichi, T., Khanh, T. D. and Min, C. I., 2005. Biological control of weeds and plant pathogens in paddy rice by exploiting plant allelopathy: an overview. Crop Protection. 24 : 197206.

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AGROECOLOGICAL CROP PROTECTION IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: THE CASE OF CUCURBIT FLIES IN REUNION ISLAND
T. Nurbel, J.- P. Deguine CIRAD, UMR 53 PVBMT, 7 Chemin de lIrat 97410 Saint Pierre, La Runion, France ABSTRACT Cucurbit flies are considered as the main pests in organic farms in Reunion Island. Three species cohabit : Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus and Dacus demmerezi and cause 90% loss of Cucurbit yield [1]. Damage to the crop is due to oviposition by females in fruit and to the development of larvae inside the fruit. Agroecological crop protection, which is suited to organic agriculture, is an approach based on three components: sanitation, habitat manipulation and biological control [2]. It can be applied to fly management in organic farming using the following seven practices.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by Odeadom (Office de dveloppement de lconomie agricole doutre-mer), by the Regional Council of La Runion and by Cirad. REFERENCES
[1] Vayssires J.F. Les relations plantes-insectes chez les Dacini (Diptera-Tephritidae) ravageurs des Cucurbitaces La Runion. Thse de doctorat, Musum National dHistoire Naturelle de Paris, 1999. [2] Deguine J.P., Ferron P. & Russell D. Crop Protection: from Agrochemistry to Agroecology. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2009. [3] Nishida T. & Bess H.A. Studies on the ecology and control of the melon fly Dacus (Strumeta) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera Tephritidae). Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station. Technical Bulletin, 1957, 84, 12-29.

PRINCIPLES AND BENEFITS OF SOIL ECOLOGICAL CULTIVATION


Razvan Daniel Cotianu, Bioterra University of Bucharest, cotianu_razvan@yahoo.com Floarea Nicolae, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicolaebio@yahoo.com Mariana Daniela Marica, Bioterra University of Bucharest, maridaniela_2006@yahoo.com Geanina Doina Florescu, Bioterra University of Bucharest, geanina.florescu@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT Ecological cultivation of the soil corresponds to the healthy and high quality foods requests. Also, it provides the protection of natural resources on long term for the benefit of future generations. In order to practice the systemof soil ecological cultivation is important to reduce the environment pollution due to the agricultural works. The organic soil is the focus, therefore, maintain and increase soil fertility is very important. Base soil fertility is life in the soil. Soil fertility, soil productivity that is a decisive attribute, whose level in using drops. A general principle applies to organic farming is that land should be as unobtrusive, but conditions in our country is hardly give up plowing. Minimum and direct sowing systems requires appropriate equipment, heavy investment and trained. Keywords: soil ecological cultivation, organic soil, organic farming. INTRODUCTION The organic soil is the focus, therefore, maintain and increase soil fertility is very important. Base soil fertility is life in the soil. Soil fertility, soil productivity that is a decisive attribute, whose level in using drops. It therefore needs to recover first from fattening, ensuring a chain of specific effects of organic farming: healthy soil - healthy plants - healthy animals - healthy people. Work done correctly makes life in the soil and provide needed space for plant roots, contributing to: improve soil structure, raising and reducing compaction, incorporating crop residues and organic fertilizers, weed control, preparing the germinative bed. Ground work to ensure a stable structure with a maturity and an appropriate resilience to neutralize some restrictive factors: excessive rainfall, heavy rains, the settle by agricultural machines, washing the fine soil and nutrients, formation of crust, siltation. COMMENTS A general principle applies to organic farming is that land should be as unobtrusive, but full of weeds conditions in our country is hardly give up plowing. Minimum and direct sowing systems requires appropriate equipment, heavy investment and trained. Given these conditions of differentiation, the specific objectives of tillage may be: - Adjustment of physical characteristics, chemical and biological, whiles creating optimal conditions for seed incorporation, their germination and the subsequent growth of plants; - Maintaining and enhancing soil fertility restoration and regularly show raising layer soil incorporation of crop residues left after harvesting the plants, manure, green fertilizer, natural deposits of mineral fertilizers, amendments, etc.; - Weed control and some diseases and pests that development cycles in relation to the ground;

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- Enhancement effect of other technological elements, plant vigor and efficiency of fertilizers, irrigation water, crop rotation is closely related to how prepared the soil, root system of young plants grow more easily in a loose layer, than in one compact, and so work is more intense micro-worked soil. Economic efficiency of a culture is closely linked to how they are executed and why is the work of soil quality. Ground work is the technological component through rationalization leads to a substantial reduction in fuel consumption as soil preparation requires 3565% of the total energy consumed in a culture technology. Organic farming is a different model from the conventional intensive agriculture, but also too traditional of subsistence agriculture. Organic farming is creative, instructive, scientific and advanced, allowing correction of serious environmental problems and social care, and resolve imbalances facing the current agriculture and farmers in general. Most important characteristics of plants are encouraging organic cultivation, maintenance and reproduction of natural functions of soil. Organic cultivation differs significantly from the conventional and intensive methods and effects. Ground work is mainly intended immediate effect a series of positive role from the very ground work objectives: basic work, preparatory work for the bed germinative maintenance of fields. Often, however, when the work is inadequate, the effects of ground work can be immediate negative or lasting effect, remaining. Reduce traffic on the ground and making works best when the soil (in the technological and humidity) are important condition for more efficient cultivation in environmental system. Soil as part of the ecosystem, a biological system is open and lively from the presence of micro-organisms and is dynamically located in an exchange of energy and substance with the environment, but the main repository of organic matter. Accumulated in soil organic matter has a role on the development of most processes and soil properties. Also, soil organic matter, is one of the most important reservoirs of carbon (organic or mineral), which in turn is transformed under certain conditions, with a certain intensity, atmospheric carbon dioxide, a potential source for accelerating greenhouse effect. This important resource soil is in constant interaction with human activities in the agricultural and applied technology. Carbon stored in soil through photosynthesis may be released as CO2 by mineralization or decomposition. The transformation of matter is defined by a complex biological process: humification - mineralization. Much of the loss is due to anthropogenic carbon, for example through the work and soil erosion. The relationship between agriculture and the loss of carbon is complex, but it is clear that there is a link between agriculture and climate change. Raising physical layer through the work of arable soil, removing the main production and replace it with fertilizers help to change the system. Annual removal of biomass crops is a removal of carbon and nutrients in agricultural ecosystems. After repeated cycles of removal of biomass from the system, the soil is poor in nutrients and organic elements. Soil conservation practices are those which not only reduce soil erosion but be required to increase soil carbon content. Best management practices for sequestration are related to cultural remnants, such as conservation work directly sowing, minimal work, mulch soil, appropriate rotations, cover crops, eliminating grubbing summer, application of organic fertilizers and compost, optimizing fertilization soils. Plant debris left on the soil surface or incorporated surface where soil conservation systems, contribute to increased biological activity and is an important source of CO2. It restores soil structure and improves the overall drainage of the soil, allowing faster water infiltration into soil. The result is a more productive soil, better protected against wind and water erosion and requires less fuel to prepare the bed germinative. The advantage of organic cultivation of the soil is to achieve a balance between crop production and environmental protection, which can be guaranteed to prevent environmental imbalances, with possible negative influence on the results of production even further. Favorable effects of soil induced by environmental work are extending the optimal range of humidity, a workability better structure and better soil drainage. OUTLOOK The objectives of soil protection in Europe adopted a work can be applied to organic soil and our soil, whether that effect is applied correctly all necessary measures: reducing tillage intensity and aggression, respect for the right soil to be covered with vegetation all year, stopping capillarity to the soil surface (dependent crops by mechanical work to maintain soil structure and layers of vegetable soil protection) anti-erosion systems of work soil, land suitable slope; use of agricultural machines with bodies which raise and small soil by tapping and selling of land on the line of least resistance, not by cutting, compression and compaction (specific conventional system), reducing road traffic and performance at a crossing in many technological operations;

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increasing the capacity of absorption and accumulation of water (to avoid soil erosion, stabilization of pore continuity, avoid the settle soil humus content optimization, preserving structural stability); diversification of agricultural practices (crop rotation with winter summer, those with annual multi-annual). REFERENCES
1.Atudosiei Nicole Livia Nonpolluting technologies within plants protection, Publisher Cermaprint, Bucharest, Romania, 2008. 2.Cotianu R. - Policies and strategies for food security, Publisher Printech, Bucharest, 2005. 3.Dejeu L, Petrecu C., Chira A. Horticulture and environment protection, Publisher EDP, Bucharest, 1997. 4.Foster Carolyn, Lampkin N. - Organic and in-conversion land area, holdings, livestock and crop production in Europe, Final report FAIR3-CT96-1794, 2000. 5.Hera C. - World Rural - today and tomorrow, Romanian Academy Publishing House, Bucharest, 2006. 6.Lampkin N. - Organic Farming in the European Union - Overview, Policies and Perspectives, 1999.

EFFECTS OF PHOSPHOROUS SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA ON TURNIP FORAGE PRODUCTION AT LIMITED IRRIGATION SySTEM
Keshavarzafshar, R1., Chaichi2, M. R.,Moghaddam3, H., and S. M. R. Ehteshami4 M.S. student, 2. and 3. Faculty members, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 4 Faculty member, university of Guilan Corresponding author email: Rekeshavarz@ut.ac.ir

ABSTRACT Phosphorus is an essential element which plays a key role in plant growth and development and is the major nutrient after nitrogen (N) that limits plant growth [4]. Because of soil pH most of the phosphorus applied as fertilizer (75 to 90%) will not be available to the plant due to iron, aluminum and calcium complexes [7]. A significant number of soil rhizosphere bacteria and fungi known as PSM micro-organisms are able to convert the non absorbable mineral soil phosphorus to available form which is readily absorbed by plants [3]. The applications of these micro-organisms have proven to increase the yield in most of crops [9]. In terms to this fact these bacteria are known as Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. The application of these bacteria in the soil increases germination rate, root growth, crop yield, and pest control, leaf area, chlorophyll content, drought resistance and biological activities in the soil [5]. Nuel et al (1996) reported a direct relationship between IAA and Cyt production by PGPR and Canola and lettuce growth [6]. One of the most important challenges to produce food (especially in arid and semi arid regions of the world) is the shortage of reliable water resources in the world [2]. While the available water resources are constant, the population of the world is increasing annually. In this respect we need to increase the water as well as land use efficiency in our crop production practices [1]. Because of irrigation water shortage, water stress through limited irrigation systems should be imposed to some extent on the plants during the growing season. The main goal of these practices is to increase the water use efficiency by less water application in each irrigation as well as elimination of irrigations with the least efficiency. Limited irrigation will tend to decrease yield per unit area, however, the increment in planted area and maximizing the crop yield per unit of water consumption in long term will lead to more crop production [8]. The objective of this project was to determine the effect of sole and mixed application of chemical and biological phosphorous fertilizer on plant growth and yield of turnip under limited irrigation conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was conducted in Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, in Karaj/Iran during 2009. The experimental treatments were arranged as split plots were five levels of irrigation treatments were assigned to the main plots and four levels of fertilizing systems to the subplots. A randomized complete block design with four replications was employed to analyze the data. The experimental treatments are listed as follows: Irrigation treatments including IR0 (no irrigation), IR1 (Irrigation at sowing time), IR2 (Irrigation at sowing time + commencement of tube formation), IR3 (Irrigation at sowing time + commencement of tube formation + commencement of flowering) and IRN (normal irrigation). Fertilizer treatments including F0 (no phosphorous fertilizer), Fch (100% chemical phosphorous fertilizer according to soil test), FB (seed inoculation by pseudomonas putida bacteria strains 41 and 168) and 50%Fch+FB (50% chemical phosphorous fertilizer + seed inoculation by pseudomonas putida strains 41 and 168). The

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phosphorous was provided from Ammonium phosphate source (250 Kg/ha according to soil test) which was applied in strips 5 cm apart from the seed. The phosphorous biological fertilizer comprised of two pseudomonas strains 41 and 168 which was provided by Soil and Water Research Institute of Iran. The seed was immediately planted after inoculation by bacteria (in the rate of 50 gr/kg seed) on March 3rd, 2009. The harvesting was done on June 26th. Harvest samples were collected from 1 square meter quadrates per plot after elimination of border effects. All the plant and yield attributes of turnip (eg. shoot weight, root weight, total forage yield, shoot/ root ratio and etc.) were measured. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Irrigation treatments, fertilizing systems and their interaction effects was significant on turnip shoot, root and total forage production (p<0.01). At all irrigation levels the application of 100% chemical fertilizer produced the highest turnip shoot dry matter (Figure, 1). Fifty percent reduction in chemical fertilizer application led to significant reduction in turnip shoot dry matter even if biological fertilizer was applied. However, the comparison of results at different irrigation treatments indicated that the maximum efficiency of shoot yield per unit chemical fertilizer application was achieved at 50%Fch+FB. These results indicate that there is a synergistic effect between biological and chemical fertilizer in respect to shoot dry matter production which could lead to lower application of chemical phosphorous fertilizer if biological fertilizers are applied with them. The maximum root yield was obtained in IRN which followed a decreasing trend as the number of irrigations decreased. The application of biological fertilizer at IR3 and IRN led to the maximum root yield production indicating that pseudomonas bacteria is more active and more favorable in better soil moisture conditions (figure, 2). The total forage yield followed the same trend as root and shoots production as affected by different irrigation systems. At all irrigation systems the highest total forage yield was obtained from 100% chemical fertilizer (Figure, 3). At IR3 and IRN irrigation treatments no significant differences were observed between 50%Fch+FB and sole biological fertilizer applications. These results indicate that the application of 100% chemical fertilizer increases turnip forage dry matter under all soil moisture conditions, however, under more favorable soil moisture (IR3 and IRN), there is a possibility that by sacrificing of 20 (IR3) to 10 percent (IRN) of the yield we can substitute the chemical fertilizer by the biological one which is a significant movement towards the sustainable agriculture. Figures:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project was funded by Center of Excellence For Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology of Forage Crops. The authors are grateful to Eng. A. Alipour jahangiri for technical help and Dr. K. Khavazi for preparing rhizobacteria. REFERENCES
[1] Bouwer,H. Irrigation and global water outlook. Agric. Water Manage, 1994, 25:221- 231 [2]Diouf,J. Agriculture, Food security and Water. Towards the blue revolution.OECD Observe,2003.reference:http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/html [3] Egamberdiyeva, D., D. Juraeva, S. Poberejskaya, O. Myachina, P. Teryuhova, L.Seydalieva, and A. Aliev. Improvement of wheat and cotton growth and nutrient uptake by phosphate solubilizing

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bacteria., 2003, 26th Southern Conservation Tillage Conference. [4] Fernandez, L.A., P. Zalba, M.A. Gomez, and M.A. Sagardoy. . Phosphate-solubilization activity of bacterial strains in soil and their effect on soybean growth under greenhouse conditions. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 2007, 43: 805-809. [5] Lucy, M., Reed, E. and Glick, B. R. Applications of free living plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek,2004, 86: 125. [6] Noel, T. C., Sheng, C., Yost, C. K., Pharis, R. P., and Hynes, M. F. Rhizobium leguminosarum as a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium: Direct growth promotion of canola and lettuce. Can. J. Microbiol, 1996, 42, 279283. [7] Turan, M., N. Ataoglu, and F. Sahin. Evaluation of the capacity of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi on different forms of phosphorus in liquid culture. J. Sustainable Agri., 2006, 28:99-108. [8] Wang,H. Zhang,L. Dawes, W.R. Liu,C. Improving water use efficiency of irrigated crops in North China plain- measurements and modeling. Agric. Water Manage.2001,48, 151-167 [9] Whitelaw, M.A.. Growth promotion of plant inoculated with phosphate-solubilizing fungi. Adv. Agrono. 2000, 69:100-151.

POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATORS OF ORGANIC BUFFALO MILK PRODUCTION IN THE BLACK SEA REGION, TURKEy
Savas ATASEVER, Huseyin ERDEM Ondokuz Mayis University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Animal Science, 55139, Samsun, TURKEY. satasev@omu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT The total buffalo population of Turkey has decreased rapidly, in recent years. According to geographical regions, the Black Sea is the main area of the country to obtain organic milk from Anatolian buffaloes. The region presents some positively facilities to farmers. Especially, suitable water sources and abundant grasslands can be utilized for organic production. And also, no synthetic, chemical or hormonal materials using is attractive by consumers. However, relatively low milk yield per day, no artificial insemination application in mating, reduction in watery areas owing to global warming, preferring dairy cow rearing by farmers and no organization on marketing in the region can be regarded as the main limitators. To solve these problems, conducting pilot studies by research centers or universities and also establishing a cooperative similar to cattle breeders association should be performed as logical approaches. Keywords: Organic husbandry, Buffalo, organic milk, Black Sea region. INTRODUCTION Today, people demand high quality and safe food in many countries. Organic husbandry addresses this demand, and has the potential to improve the health and welfare status of an animal, and to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production [3]. Consumers in EU believe that organic food is free from residues, produced in an environmental- friendly manner and in consideration of animal welfare, has better taste, and is more healthy [13]. It can be regarded as an approach to sustainable farming that has special principles and practices on management of the farms and marketing [4]. According to organic principles, animal production should take account of naturalness, authenticity, animal welfare and agro-biodiversity [9]. Animals must be fed on organically produced feeding stuffs, preferably from the farm itself. Also, indoor area is supplemented by an outdoor area that must be at least 75% of the indoor area [5]. At the same time, organic production and marketing constitute a traceable process that has its own international regulations, and the organic products have to be registered, controlled and certified by independent inspection and certification institutions at all stages of this process [7]. Roughly, world-wide certified organic production takes place in 130 countries, half of which are developing countries [5]. According to these concepts, some livestock species such as water buffalo has been regarded more focuses for organic husbandry. In fact, the basic reasons in elevation of buffalo raising during recent years may be explained by the popularity of Mozzarella cheese, and the absence of quatos in the European Community for this production. In addition, buffalo milk is more expensive than bovine milk at least 2 fold, in many countries [11]. In our knowledge, there is no sufficient report on organic milk production from Anatolian buffaloes. In this paper, organic water buffalo milk production possibilities and preventive factors has been discussed ORGANIC LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN TURKEy: FACILITIES AND BARRIERS The market for organic products is strong, especially in Europe, North America and Oceania, but demand for organic products that cannot be grown in developed countries has resulted in the development of international trade in organic food and has led to developing countries such as Turkey, which has suitable ecological conditions, becoming a producer and exporter of organic products and foods to developed countries. Figure 1 shows that organic agriculture developed rapidly in Turkey (1990- 2006) [7]. Figure 1. Number of organic producers and area under organic management in Turkey.

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Today, the product range mainly includes fruit and vegetables. Organic animal production is still low, but there has been much private sector interest and investment and it is expected that production will be increased to cover both foreign and domestic demand [7]. Turkey has suitable ecologic conditions and export potential for organic production, however, the share of Turkish organic products in the world market is considerably low [4]. The production of by-products coming from organic farming (cheese, yoghurt, etc.) was started in 2004. Such that, produced organic milk of Turkey in 2006 was reached to 3 thousands t, approximately [8]. In this respect, it can be suggested that more focuses should be performed on dairy organic production in order to increase export. As seen from Table 1, organic farming activity has a boosting trend related to time.
Component Farmers Cattle Small ruminant 2005 131 775 10056 2006 128 1238 10469 2007 165 3842 16603

Table 1. Numbers of the farmers performing organic husbandry and animals [8] The total organic agriculture area in Turkey is only 0.14%. Thats to say, in spite of managing extensive husbandry in many location of the country, organic production potential by climate or pasture structure of the country is not assessed efficiently. However, Turkey presents among the first 30 countries those have the most organic farming areas of the world [4]. Ecologically; honey, egg, beef and milk are produced in Turkey. Of these products, only honey is exported. In 2002, 40 t organic milk was presented to market, and this level was elevated to 137.5 t in 2004. Organic milk production has been performed only in Gumushane [8]. In Gumushane province, Dogan Organic Products Company has played an important role on organic dairy sector. Such that, milks from the farm and contracted farmers are processed into various milk products on the premises [6]. Organic farming is more environment-friendly than conventional management, nevertheless, in organic production, same amount milk is taken by exploiting a larger pasture area [13]. No sudden alternations are observed in organic milk production [10]. Besides, organic husbandry proves more efficient than do conventional husbandry in converting roughage into milk. Furthermore, average multiparity percentage is higher in organically managed cows. Also, it can be expected higher reproductive performance in organic dairy husbandry [11]. Organic milk production, practiced by EU or national regulations on organic farming, has impacted in recent years on livestock system, animal feeding, forage management, reproduction behavior, and animal health [13]. Organic farming provides many challenges for good herd management. However, good animal health and welfare is definitely shown not to come as a natural consequence of conversion to organic farming, but rather through an increased effort to implement good care-taking routines into daily management [16]. Significantly less frequently performed post-milking teat dipping in organic system [12] should be regarded in the farms. Due to restriction of feeding type in dairy farms by EU regulations, correct balance of minerals and trace elements must be constantly achieved [13]. However, some researchers [14] clearly indicate that balancing energy and nutrient content of the ration with animal requirements is done under limitations. In practice; dry period mastitis is relatively often seen in organic herds [16], however, in many countries, organic milk is mainly produced in hill farming [13]. Cattle number of Turkey was reduced by 1.58% in 2008 when compared to earlier year. In this amount, reduction was 1.60% for bovine, and in contrast, elevation was 1.88% for Anatolian buffaloes. Distribution of cattle population of Turkey is seen in Table 2. A reduce in the number of buffaloes according to last decade is associated with lower production traits of buffalo cows in comparison to bovine cows, substitution of draught animals with tractors and the poor market demand for buffalo products [2]. Total 40-60% of buffaloes population are raised in the middle of Black Sea region [20]. In the region, some pilot studies have been started to improve eco-system and to move on buffalo rearing by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and Ministry of Environment and Forestry. In this Project, only buffalo owners with at least 20-30 heads in each herd should be regarded for obtaining more productivity [8].
Trait Lactation milk yield (kg) Lactation length (d) Calving interval (d) Service period (d) Gestation length (d) Maximum 1070.5279.9 269.270.0 434.357.1 112.5 326.55.8 Minimum 709.623.0 222.044.2 365.217.5 70.8 317.051.5

Table 2. Some milk and reproductive traits of Anatolian buffaloes [20] The water buffalo is called by different names such as Dombay, Camiz, Camis, and Komus in Turkish [2]. Besides, Anatolian water buffaloes are mainly used for milk and meat production in this region of Turkey. The creamy part of milk fat of these animals is popular accompanies to famous Turkish desert. Some basic traits of Anatolian water buffaloes obtained from different investigations

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are given in Table 2. When we considered that a fundamental principle of organic cattle breeding is harmonism of the production with ecological balance, organic production via Anatolian buffaloes may be seen a facility for the Black Sea region. Such that, Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak deltas of Samsun province present rich sources to sustainable husbandry by their substantial eco-system structures. In the region, buffalo population spend significant portion of the year on the pasture and freely takes nourishments from range areas [8]. In fact, it can be assumed that only roughe based feeding is one of the basic concept of organic cattle husbandry. Thus,mentioned method above can be assumed as suitable for organic husbandry, however, it can be expected decreased milk production due to unsupported feeding [17]. Furthermore, poor reflecting characteristic for estrus determination and hardness in predicting ovulation time are the main reasons for applying artificial insemination as a difficult condition in water buffaloes [18]. Buffalo milk has a great importance as human food by its integrident (Table 3). Structurally, buffalo milks include more dry matter, fat and protein, but lesser water than bovine milk [1]. It can be process to many products such as butter, yoghurt, cream and ice cream. In our country, wholly amount of buffalo milk obtained in Afyon region is used as fold cream, which is referred as lule in Turkish. Buffalo delight made from buffalo milk in Bafra region is assumed as an important taste.
Ruminant Buffalo Bovine Sheep Goat Water 82.0 87.5 82.9 87.1 Dry mater 17.7 12.4 17.2 13.0 Protein 4.1 3.4 5.4 3.7 Fat 7.8 3.6 6.2 4.1 Lactose 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.4 Trace mineral 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8

Table 3. Integridents of buffalo milk in comparison to other ruminant milks (%) However, unscientific methods using in daily activities, relatively low milk production in comparison to bovine and no artificial insemination applying in mating are other important limitators for managing organic buffalo milk production in Turkey. Besides, in recent years, reduction of watery areas of the country due to global warming may be added to preventive factors. Furthermore, it may be expected more watery area loss in the future, and thus, it would be not a surprise that number of population of Anatolian buffalo in the country has become a dramatic level. If water buffalo farmers do not organized in an umbrella setup as Cattle Breeders Association, no any progress may be expected in organic buffalo milk in the Black Sea region and also in the country. Organization of the farmers will be beneficial for presenting organic milk to consumers according to safe food principles. In this respect, one should not forget that Italian farmers sells mozzarella cheese, a product made from buffalo milk, to be 3-4 fold higher prices [15]. Also, lack of the recording in buffalo farming in the region can be assumed as a limitative factor to progress in organic milk production. Besides, routinely product testing in obtained materials is seen a logical approach for achieving safe organic milk products from buffaloes. This application may prevent many disorders in the production cycles in an early time. Organic milk products processing operations should also be established to ensure more gain in marketing. In this view, research institutes and universities located in the region can be seen as the technical head-quarters. CONCLUSION Turkey has a significant livestock population and land area to produce and process organic farming, especially for water buffalo raising. In spite of some existed limitators in production stages, organizing farmers under a cooperative or foundation is firstly advised to success efficient production and marketing. REFERENCES
[1] Atasever, S. and Erdem, H., 2008. Water buffalo raising and its future in Turkey. J. Fac. Agric., OMU, 23 (1): 59-64. [2] Borghese, A. and Mazi, M., 2005. Buffalo population and strategies in the world. Buffalo Production and Research. REU Technical Series 67. pp: 1-40. [3] Cicek, H. and Tandogan, M., 2009. A review in point of production costs and profitability in organic dairy. J. Vet. Fac. Kafkas U., 15(1): 145-151. [4] De Boer, I.J.M., 2003. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production. Livestock Prod. Sci. 80: 69-77. [5] Demiryurek, K., 2004. Organic agriculture in the world and Turkey. J. Agric. Fac. HR. U. 8 (3-4): 63-71. [6] Demiryurek, K., Guzel, A., 2006. Extension in organic Agriculture: The case of Kelkit, Turkey. J. Extension Systems. 1 (22): 63-73. [7] Demiryurek, K., Stopes, C. and Guzel, A., 2008. Organic agriculture: The case of Turkey. Outlook on Agrculture. 37(4), pp: 261267. [8] Erdem, H., 2009. Buffalo raising in the Kizilirmak Delta. Samtim. 25: 3-9. [9] Hermansen, J.E., 2001. Organic livestock production systems and appropriate development in relation to public expectations. 52nd EAAP Meeting (August 2001). Budapest. [10] Kartalkanat, A., Kucukonder, H. and Cicek, T., 2009. Potential and production statistics of organic livestock farming in Turkey. 6th Animal Science Congress (24-26 June 2009). Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. [11] Moroni, P., Rossi, C.S., Pisoni, G., Bronzo, V. et al., 2006. Relationships between somatic cell count and intramammary infection in buffaloes. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 998-1003. [12] Nauta, W.J., Groen, A.F., Veerkamp, R.F., Roep, D. and Baars, T., 2005. Animal breeding in organic dairy farming: an inventory of farmers views and difficulties to overcome. NJAS- Wageningen J. Life Sci. 53(1): 19-34. [13] Olivo, C.J., Beck, L.I., Gabi, A.M., Charo, P.S. and et al., 2005. Composition and somatic cell count of milk in conventional and agro-ecological farms: a comparative study in Depresso central, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Livestock Res. For Rural Development. 17(6): Art.72. [14]Reksen, O., Tverdal, A. and Ropstad, E., 1999. A comparative study of reproductive performance in organic and conventional dairy husbandry. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 2605-2610. [15]Roesch, M., Doherr, M.G., Schren, W., Schllibaum, M. and Blum, J.W., 2007. Subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Swiss organic and conventional production systems. J. Dairy Res. 74: 86-92.

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[16] Rosati, A. and Aumaitre, A., 2004. Organic dairy farming in Europe. Livestock Prod. Sci. 90: 41-51. [17]Sehested, J., Kristensen, T. and Segaard, K., 2003. Effect of concentrate supplementation level on production, health and efficiency in an organic dairy herd. Livestock Prod. Sci. 80: 153-165. [18] Sekerden, O., Borghese, A., Koroglu, M., Uras, H. and Guzey, Y.Z., 2005. Artificial insemination studies and effect of progesteron releasing intravaginal device (PRID) treatment on conception rate in Anatolian buffaloes. J. Agric. Sci. 11 (2): 126-128. [19]Soysal, M.I., 2006. Production of buffalo and its products. Lesson notes. Namik Kemal Universitesi, Tekirdag, Turkey. [20] Soysal, M.I., Ozkan, E., Kok, S., Tuna, Y.T. and Gurcan, E.K., 2005. Genetic characterization of ndigenous Anatolian water buffalo. breed using microsatellite DNA markers. J. Tekirdag Agric. Fac. 2 (3): 240-244. [21]Sundrum, A., 2001. Organic livestock farming- A critical review. Livestock Prod. Sci. 67: 207-215.

THE ORGANIC MILK PRODUCTION, ITS PROPERTIES AND PRODUCTION IN TURKEy


Songl AKMAKI, Elif DADEMR Atatrk University, Agriculture Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Erzurum, TRKYE e mail: songulcakmakci@hotmail.com/ cakmakci@atauni.edu.tr

ABSTRACT Organic milk is certified milk obtained from organic feeding-healthy animals and is only used to allow chemical matters in processing, packaging, transporting and storage stages. Organic milk production is possible with quality organic agriculture and organic animal production. The production of organic raw milk is essential for organic production of other dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt. In organic milk product, the strategies applied on animal nutrition have positive affect on environment. In this review, production of organic milk, its properties and differences from conventional milk production and organic milk production in Turkey were summarized. INTRODUCTION Recently consumers demand high quality, safe food produced with minimal environmental losses, under optimal conditions for animal health and welfare. Organic production systems are designed to produce optimum quantities of food of high nutritional quality by using management practise which aim to avoid the use of agro-chemical inputs and minimize damage to the environment and wildlife. [1, 2]. Plant and animal growth regulators, sentetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, livestock fed additives, antibiotics, hormones, preservatives, colorings or artificial additives are not used in organic food production or processing [3]. Organic milk production is one of the fastest improving segments of organic agriculture in the world. By the end of the 20th century, about 3% of European farmers had converted to organic farming in response to a growing market for organic products [4]. In some countries, such as Austria and Switzerland, the market share of organic milk is already approximately 10% of the total milk market [5]. The organic milk production and milk products in the United States improved to 37% between 19982003 [6]. Austria has the highest percentage of dairy cows in organic herds followed by Switzerland and Scandinavian countries. Germany and Netherlands are the other two important countries for milk production, but have a lower percentage of organic farms [7]. The properties of organic milk Organic milk production differs from conventional production because the organic production is based on the organic principle aims. Organic milk production systems are based on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the use of antibiotics and hormones in the cows and the use of synthetic chemicals in the production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the animals natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows have access to pasture. These requirements add to production cost and create obstacles to widespread adoption, such as higher managerial cost and risks of shifting to a new way of farming, and significant time and costs associated with the transition to organic production [8, 9]. One requirement of organic milk is that the cows are not treated with antibiotics. In non-organic milk production if a cow needs antibiotics it is treated and then returned to the herd once tests show that it is antibiotic free. If a cow in an organic herd needs to be treated with antibiotics, it is not allowed to return to the herd for 12 months. In addition organic milk cows must have access to pasture. Another requirement of organic milk is that the cows cannot be treated with BGH bovine growth hormone, which increases milk production. Also organic animal can only be fed grain or grass that is not treated with pesticides [10]. Calves have to be fed on their mother for at least a week, and they are then reared on organic milk for at least 12 weeks. Calf rearing pens must have suitable nonedible bedding and they must be cleaned regularly. Rotating calf paddocks regularly can assist scour and parasite management [11]. All the standards and regulations of organic farming specify similar rules for milk production and, in particular, for feeding of dairy

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cattle. Thus, all feed must be obtained by organic farming, without the use of artificial fertilizers or pesticides, predominantly on the same farm [5]. Recently in studies on the composition and hygienic quality of organic milk, the gross composition of organic milk has been reported to differ from that of conventionally produced milk [12]. Many of these researchers report that the differences in gross composition are mainly the result of different feeding systems. The hygienic quality of organic milk has also been shown to differ from that of conventionally produced milk. The total bacterial count in organic milk has been found to be similar to, or lower than, that in conventionally produced milk. Also somatic cell counts of organic milk found lower than conventional milk [13, 14]. Production of milk causes environmental side effects, such as emission of greenhouse gases and nutrient enrichment in surface water. Organic milk production has reduced environmental side effects compared to conventional milk. Also organic milk production is a way to reduce pesticide use and mineral surplus in agriculture [15]. Organic milk production in Turkey Turkey has a suitable position for organic agriculture because of its different ecosystems and rich biodiversity. Organic agriculture in Turkey was structured according to the demands that came from the exporters, traders or farmers from Europe. The organic agriculture started with dried fruits and nuts (fig, grape, apricot, and hazelnut) and was limited to eight products in 19841990. Due to increasing demand, after 1990, the number of farmers and products increased steadily in organic agriculture. The organic animal production started developing in the last 2-3 years, except beekeeping that has a longer history [16,17]. Legal liability related to organic farming has been given to The Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs [18]. The first organic milk in Turkey was produced by private sector in Kelkit, Gmhane in 2005. In this year, 1350 tons of organic milk was produced in this farm[19]. This organic milk farm is one of the highest capacity farms in Europe. The organic milk production of Turkey represented to 2.875 ton, while total milk production was 11.3 million tons in 2007. This corresponds to 0.025% of total milk production [6]. The essential conditions of organic milk production have grown up healthy animal and organic farming. In terms of the organic animal production and organic agriculture, Turkey has a certain potential and this potential should be evaluated. If organic farming and livestock is improved, organic milk production will increase in Turkey. The farmers must be informed and encouraged about organic milk production. REFERENCES
[1] Sundrum, A. Organic Livestock Farming. A Critical Review. Chapter Livest. Prod. Sci. 67, 2001, 207215. [2] akmak, S., akmak, R., 2005. Organik Gda retimi ve Gda Katk Maddeleri. Gda Mhendislii 4. Kongresi, 387400, (2930 Eyll,1 Ekim, 2005) Ankara. [3] akmak, R., Erdoan G., 2008. Organik Tarm (2. Bask). Atatrk niv. Ziraat Fak. Ofset Tesisi, Erzurum. [4] SL. Stiftung kologische Landbau, 2003, http://www.soel.de/oekolandbau/europa.htm. [5] Molkentin, J.& Giesemann, A. Differentiation of Organically and Conventionally Produced Milk by Stable sotope and Fatty Acid Analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem., 2007, 388: 297305. [6] Koyubenbe, N., Miran B., Konca, Y., Yaylak, E., Uzmay A.& Candemir M. Farmersperefences For Organic Milk Production n zmir, Turkey. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2010, 5 (1): 2433. [7] Rosati, A. & Aumaitre, A. Organic Dairy Farming in Europe. Livestock Production Science 90, 2004, 4151. [8] Greene, C. & Kremen, A. U.S. Organic Farming in 20002001. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Agricultural Information Bulletin Number 780, February, 2003. [9] McBride, W.D. & Grene, C.A. Comparison of Conventional and Organic Milk Production Systems in the U.S. The American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon, July 29-August 1, 2007. [10] Anonymous, 2009. http://organicmilkreview.com. [11] Agriculture Notes: Organic Milk Production. Farm Diversification Information Service (Bendigo) & Sue Titcumb (Ballarat) January 2000, AG0869, ISSN 1329-8062. [12] Toledo, P., Andren, A., & Bjorck, L. Composition of Raw Milk From Sustainable Production Systems. International Dairy Journal, 2002, 12, 7580. [13] Hamilton, C. Animal Health in Organic Dairy Products. Bulletin of the IDF, 2001, 347, 31-32. [14] Luukkonen, J., Kemppinen, A., Karki, M., Laitinen, H., Makic, M., Sivela , S., Taimisto, A.M. & Ryhanen, E.L. The effect of A Protective Culture and Exclusion of Nitrate on The Survival of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Listeria in Edam Cheese Made From Finnish Organic Milk. International Dairy Journal, 2005,15 449457. [15] Thomassen, M.A., van Calker, K.J., Smits, M.C.J., Iepema, G.L. & de Boer, I.J.M. Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Organic Milk Production in the Netherlands. Agricultural Systems, 2008, 96, 95107. [16] ayan, Y. & Polat, M. Development of Organic Animal Production in Turkey. Proceedings of the 3rd SAFO Workshop, Falenty, Poland. [17] Aksoy, U. & Altndili A. Dnyada ve Trkiyede Organik Tarm rnleri retimi, hracat ve Gelitirme Olanaklar, stanbul Ticaret Odas, Yayn No. 1999-70, 123 s. [18] Aksoy, U., Altndili, A. & lter, E. Ekolojik Tarmn Tarihesi ve Geliimi. Organik Tarm Eitimi Ders Notlar. zmir, 2002, 1-8. [19] Uysal, H. Organik St ve St rnleri. Tarim merkezi.com- Ege nternet Yaynclk Merkezi, 2006.

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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL WASTES ON MUSHROOM QUALITy CHARACTERISTICS OF PLEUROTUS SAJOR-CAJU


Sebnem KURT1 and Saadet BUyUKALACA2
1

Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey sebkurt@yahoo.com University of Cukurova, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Balcali, Adana, Turkey

ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of different agricultural wastes on mushroom quality characteristics of Pleurotus sajor-caju was investigated. The spawns of P. sajor-caju was inoculated on some organic wastes which were consisted of grape pruning waste, wheat straw, paddy straw, sesame straw, sawdust: wheat bran (2:1), grape pruning waste: wheat bran (2:1), wheat straw: wheat bran (2:1), paddy straw: wheat bran (2:1), sesame straw: wheat bran (2:1). Mean mushroom weight, cap width, stem length and diameter, dry matter and proteins contents of mushrooms for each treatment were determined. The highest mean mushroom weight was obtained from sesame straw: wheat bran (2:1) with 19.05 g while the lowest mean mushroom weight was obtained from wheat straw with 13.71 g. It was determined that protein contents of mushrooms from substrates with bran were higher than the ones from substrates without bran. Key Words: Agricultural waste, Pleurotus, mushroom, quality. INTRODUCTION Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) is an edible mushroom having excellent taste and flavour. Pleurotus spp. are third most cultivated edible mushrooms in the world [2]. Pleurotus sajor-caju is known as the wood-saprophytic fungus. Naturally, it grows on the dead branches of broad leaf trees especially such as poplar and willow. In artificial cultivation, log, sawdust or different organic wastes can be used as the culture substrate. The cultivation of Pleurotus spp. on various agro-residues such as wheat straw, paddy straw, coir pith, maize stover, cotton waste, sugarcane bagasse and mixtures of these wastes has been tried by various workers [3] [7] [8] [12] [13] [15]. Supplementation of wheat bran and rice bran in the cultivation of mushroom increased mushroom yield and protein content of fruit bodies [9] [16]. Pleurotus species have the advantages of good adaptability, short growth cycle and ease of artificial cultivation among the cultivated mushrooms. The fruit bodies of Pleurotus species are not very often damaged by pests and diseases [8]. The substrates used in mushroom cultivation have a great influence on yield and nutritive value of mushrooms. In this study, the effect of different agricultural wastes on mushroom quality characteristics of Pleurotus sajor-caju was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHOD 1. Fungal and raw materials P. sajor-caju ATCC 32078 was obtained from Agromantar Company (Denizli, Turkey).Wheat straw, paddy straw, sesame straw, sawdust, viticulture wastes were used as either single substrate or mixed with wheat bran at a ratio of 2:1 on a dry weight basis. 2. Substrate preparation and cultivation conditions The spawn was prepared with wheat grains that had been hydrated to a moisture content of 50 % by weight. Hydrated grains were placed in polypropylene bags and sterilized at 121 oC for 1 h. After sterilization, it was inoculated with mycelia of P. sajor-caju ATCC 32078. Inoculated bags were incubated at 25 oC in a dark room until mycelia had completely covered the bags. All materials except sawdust were chopped into small pieces (3-5 cm) and soaked in water for overnight. Excess water in the substrates was allowed to run off until moisture content 70 % (5) was reached. Following this treatment, substrates were placed in polypropylene bags and sterilized at 121 oC for 1 h. All substrates were under aseptic conditions inoculated with 2 % (w/w) spawn. The inoculated substrate was incubated at an ambient temperature of 25 oC (2) and relative humidity of 60 % - 70 %. After primordia formation, the bags were kept at 20 oC 1 with a 9 h photoperiod and 85-90 % relative humidity.

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It wasnt used any pesticide during the cultivation. Hygienic measures were carried out regularly to prevent and control of pests in growing room. Irrigation during the cultivation was done twice in a day. 3 Analysis methods All fruiting bodies were harvested and weighed. Mushroom samples were dried to a constant weight at 65 oC, and then weighed and milled for dry matter amount and protein analysis. The nitrogen content of mushroom was determined according to Kjeldahl method [5].Crude protein was calculated by multiplying the nitrogen values by a factor of 6.25. 4. Statistical analysis The variables statistically analyzed using the statistical package SAS 8.2 [14]. The determinations were done in triplicate and the variance analysis was performed using the least significant difference test. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The mushroom weight, cap width, stem length, dry matter and protein content of P. sajor- caju on different substrates are given in table 1. The differences in all parameters except cap width were statistically significant (P= 0.05). The biggest mushrooms were obtained from sesame straw:bran (2:1) (19.05 g), whereas wheat straw gave the smallest fruits with 13.7 g. P. sajor-caju grown on substrates supplemented with wheat bran produced higher mushroom weights than substrates without bran. It was determined that mean mushroom weight in P. sajor-caju was 5.84-13.0 g [11] and 3.85-11.52 g [4].There was not statistically important difference for cap widths on substrates. Wheat straw: bran (2:1), viticulture wastes: bran (2:1), and sesame straw: bran (2:1) had the biggest stem length with 4.26, 4.15 and 4.11 cm, respectively while paddy straw gave the lowest stem length. The similar results were also reported in other studies [4]. [11]. It was determined that cultivation conditions especially intensity and period of light affected mushroom stem length and thickness. Viticulture wastes:bran (2:1) gave the highest dry matter with 13.08 % while wheat straw, viticulture wastes, paddy straw, sesame straw, sawdust bran (2:1) and paddy straw:bran (2:1) gave the lowest dry matter (7.95, 8.15, 8.34, 8,65, 8.52, 8.75 %, respectively). It was stated that dry matter content of P. sajor-caju was 9.01 % cultivated on paddy straw and on different substrates ranged from 9.52 % to 10.52 % [10] and 12.64 % in P. sajor-caju [6]. The highest protein values were obtained from wheat straw:bran (2:1), sesame straw:bran (2:1) and paddy straw:bran (2:1) (38.6, 38.3 and 37.2 %, respectively) while wheat straw and paddy straw had the lowest protein content with 20.4 % and 21.1 %, respectively. The similar results were reported protein contents of P. sajor-caju being 14.0 % and 31.6 % on jute wastes and paddy straw [1], 31.9- 42.5 % on different wastes, 33.10 % [10] and 17.4 % on sugar cane wastes [7]. It was reported that crude protein content in the fruit bodies of P. ostreatus increased with an increase in the ratio of wheat bran [16]. According to Table 1, P. sajor-caju grown on substrates supplemented with wheat bran produced higher crude proteins than substrates without bran as wheat bran contains low molecular and soluble carbohydrates which are easily used by mushroom mycelium. Wheat bran proved excellent as additives to the substrate. The fruit bodies of P. sajor-caju grown on substrates with bran had higher crude protein content and dry matter content than grown on substrates with no bran. It can be concluded that the supplementation of bran had a positive effect on mushroom qualities of P. sajor-caju.
Mushroom weight (g) Viticulture wastes (VW) 17.31 bc Viticulture wastes: bran (2:1) VW:B (2:1) 17.66 abc Wheat straw (WS) 13.71 e Wheat straw: bran (2:1) WS:B (2:1) 17.96 ab Paddy straw (PS) 16.26 cd Paddy straw: bran (2:1) PS:B (2:1) 17.45 bc Sesame straw (SS) 15.62 d Sesame straw: bran (2:1) SS:B (2:1) 19.05 a Sawdust: bran (2:1) S:B (2:1) 15.54 d Substrates Cap width (cm) 7.49 7.39 7.11 7.28 7.30 7.30 7.25 7.45 7.12 Stem lenght (cm) 3.19 c 4.15 a 2.98 dc 4.26 a 2.85 d 4.02 ab 3.29 c 4.11 a 3.75 b Dry matter (%) 8.15 d 13.08 a 7.95 d 11.49 b 8.34 d 8.75 d 8.65 d 9.77 c 8.52 d Protein (%) 26.6 c 35.9 b 20.4 e 38.6 a 21.1 e 37.2 ab 22.8 d 38.3 a 28.2 c

Table 1. Effect of Different Agricultural Wastes on Mushroom Quality Characteristics of Pleurotus sajor-caju. REFERENCES
[1] Basak, M.K., Chanda, S., Bhadur, S.K., Mondal, S.B., And Nand, R., 1996. Recyling of jute waste for edible mushroom production. Industrial Crops and Products, 5: 173 176. [2] Beelman, R.B., Royse, D.J., and Chikthimmah, N., 2004. Bioactive Components in Agaricus bisporus of Nutritional, Medicinal or Biological Importance. Proceedings of the XVI th International Congress on the Science and Cultivation of Edible and Medicinal Fungi. USA, 1- 17.

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[3] Bonatti, M., Karnopp, P., Soares, H.M., and Furlan, S.A., 2004. Evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju Characteristics When Cultivated in Different Lignoscellulosic Wastes. Food Chemistry, 88: 425- 428. [4] lbay, M.E., ve Okay, Y., 1996. Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer yetitiriciliinde fndk kabuu kullanm olanaklar. Tr. J. Of Botany, 20: 285-289. [5] Kacar, B., 1972. Bitki ve Topran Kimyasal Analizleri, II. Bitki Analizleri. Ankara niversitesi Ziraat Fakltesi Yaynlar, Ankara, No: 453. [6] Kkomuzlu, B., 2003. Sterilizasyon ve formaldehit uygulamalar ile torba arlklarnn rt altnda yetitirilen Pleurotus mantar trlerinin gelime, verim ve kalitesi zerine etkileri. Ondokuz Mays niversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstits, Yksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun, 103 s. [7] Moda, E.M., Horii, J., Spoto, M.H.F., 2005. Edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju production on washed and supplemented sugarcane bagasse. Sci.Agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.), 62 (2):127-132. [8] Obadai, M., Cleland-Okine, J., and Vowotor, K.A., 2003. Comporative Study on the Growth and Yield of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom on Different Lignocellulosic by-Products. J. Ind. Microbiol Biotechnol., 30: 146-149. [9] Pani, B.K., Panda, S.N., and Das, S.N., 1998. Effect of organic supplementation of substrate on yield of some species of oyster mushroom. Horticultural Abstracts, Vol.68, No.1. [10] Patrabansh, S., and Madan, M., 1997. Studies on cultivation, biological efficiency and chemical analysis of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer on different bio-wastes. Acta Biotechnologica, 17 (2): 107-122. [11] Peken, A., 2001. Fndk zurufundan hazrlanan yetitirme ortamlarnn Pleurotus sajor-caju mantarnn verimine ve baz kalite zelliklerine etkisi. Bahe, 30 (1-2): 37- 43. [12] Philippoussis, A., Diamentapoulou, P., Zervakis, G., And Ioannidou, S., 2000. Potential for the Cultivation of Exotic Mushroom Species by Exploitation of Mediterranean Agricultural Wastes. Proceedings of the 15 th International Congress on the Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi, Netherlands, p. 523-530. [13] Ragunathan, R., Gurusamy, R., Palaniswamy, M., and Swaminathan, K., 1996. Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. on Various Agro-Residues. Food Chemistry, 55 (2): 139-144. [14] Sas Institute, 1999. SAS/STAT users Guide. Release 8.0. SAS Ins. Cary, NC. [15] Singh, M.P., 2000. Biodegradation of Lignocellulosic Wastes through Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju. Proceedings of the 15 th International Congress on the Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi, Netherlands, p. 517- 520. [16] Wang, D., Sakoda, A., and Suzuki, M., 2001. Biological efficiency and Nutritional Value of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Spent Beer Grain. Bioresource Technology, 78: 293-300.

IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION


kran Kuleaan Sleyman Demirel University Atabey Vocational School Atabey/Isparta - sukrank@sdu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT Vegetable oils play an important role in human nutrition. While vegetable oils such as sunflower, soybean and canola are produced after a series of complex refining process, some like olive, sesame, poppy seed oils are produced without refining and consumed after minor processes. Many of the pesticides and herbicides are considered to be harmful for human health. In addition to these agrosubstances, trace metals and heavy metals can be found in oil plants when the soil they were grown is contaminated. Whereas the concentration of harmful compounds may decrease after refining process, some oils are consumed in their natural state. Keywords: Organic vegetable oil, pesticides, heavy metals. INTRODUCTION Pesticides used in agricultural products have been negatively affected human health with each passing day. Most discussions of the potential risks posed by pesticides in the diet focus on the development and interpretation of risk assessments rather than on documented cases of human illnesses. Frequently, evidence supporting the relative safety of pesticide residues is based on the results of regulatory monitoring programs demonstrated that most food samples analyzed do not contain detectable levels of residues and that violation rates are quite low. Due to the relatively low exposure of consumers to pesticide residues in foods, it is the opinion of the majority of health professionals involved in food safety that the risks of pesticide residues are far lower than risks from issues such as microbiological contamination, nutritional imbalance, environmental contaminants, and naturally occurring toxins. Still, the risks from pesticides in the diet are not zero; examples of consumer poisoning from misapplication of pesticides have been documented, while pesticides may still pose theoretical risks from long-term exposure to consumers due to the scientific impossibility of proving otherwise [1] [2] [3] [4]. WHy ORGANIC VEGETABLE OIL Pesticides are used to increase agriculture production throughout the world. Studies have shown that a majority of the pesticides applied eventually reach the soil surface, where they gradually spread, translocate to other environments, or eventually degrade. Translocation to oil-bearing plant seeds has also been demonstrated. Edible oils produced after a series of refining processes (extraction, degumming, neutralization, bleaching and deodorization) and presented to consumers. As a result of this process impurities are removed from oil [5] [6]. Processing studies have shown that neither

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solvent extraction nor bleaching affects the pesticide levels in oils; however, it was found that pesticides are removed by volatilization during deodorization. The use of deodorizer distillates in animal feeds has been forbidden because of the pesticide content. Trace amounts of metals are absorbed by plants during the growing season and during fats and oils processing; most are harmful to product quality and human health and reduce the efficiency of the process. Trace quantities of copper, iron, manganese, and nickel substantially reduce the oxidative stability of fats and oils, whereas calcium, sodium, and magnesium reduce the efficiency of the refining, degumming, bleaching, and hydrogenation systems. The metals effects can be diminished by the use of chelating agents at various processing points to sequester the trace metals. The most widely used chelating agents are citric and phosphoric acids [5] [6] [7] [8]. Solvent extraction and mechanical pressing are the most common methods for commercial oil extraction. Mechanical pressing is allowed by the organic food industry; however, solvent extraction with petroleum distillates, such as hexane, is not allowed. Recently, cold press or screw pres oils have been commercially available because of the consumers desire for natural and safer food products. The sesame oil, black seed oil, olive oil, flax seed oil, poppy oil and cocoa butter obtained with screw or cold press methods contain many useful components. Refining process was not applied in the production of such oils. Thus they are rich in useful components and do not contain the remains of possible process [9]. MAJOR REASONS TO CONSUME ORGANIC FOODS 1. Safe, nutritious, unadulterated food. 2. No artificial chemicals, pesticides, and fertilizers. 3. Absence of antibiotics and growth-promoting drugs. 4. Environmentally friendly. 5. Produced without GMOs. 6. Places great emphasis on animal welfare. 7. Reduces dependence on nonrenewable resources. 8. Based on modern and scientific understanding of ecology. 9. Based on soil science and ensures soil fertility by crop rotation. 10.Better taste [10]. ADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTION 1. There is a continuously growing demand for organic foods driven primarily by consumer perceptions of quality and safety (25 50% increase each year). 2. The establishment of regional (EU) and international (Codex) guidelines for production, processing, labeling, and marketing of organic foods has been the key step in the international harmonization of requirements for organic foods. 3. The organic label is not a health claim; it is a process claim. No clear trends have been established in terms of organoleptic quality differences between organic and conventional food. 4. Because of lower chemical usage in organic food production, we have to apply better principles of storage and transport to guarantee freshness of the product. 5. Future research must focus on critically designed experiments to reveal the nutritional quality of organic food as compared with conventional food [2] [10] [11] [12]. REFFERENCES
[1] Winter C. K. Pesticide Residues in the Food Supply. In: Food toxicology, Eds. William Helferich and Carl K. Winter, CRC Press LLC, USA, pp. 1-23. 2000. [2] Tsatsakis, A. M., Tsakiris, I. N., Tzatzarakis, M. N., Agourakis, Z. B., Tutudaki M. and Alegakis, A. K. Three-year study of fenthion and dimethoate pesticides in olive oil from organic and conventional cultivation. Food Additives and Contaminants, 2003,Vol. 20, No. 6, 553559. [3] Tsoutsi, C.S., Konstantinou, I.K. and Hela, D.G. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in Greek virgin olive oil: levels, dietary intake and risk assessment. Food Additives and Contaminants, 2008, Vol. 25:12251236. [4] Lpez, B. G., Garca-Reyes, J. F. and Molina-Daz, A. Sample treatment and determination of pesticide residues in fatty vegetable matrices: A review. Talanta 79 (2009) 109128. [5] Gmkesen, A.S., Yemiiolu, F. Bitkisel Ya Teknolojisi. 2. Bask, Asya Tp Yaynclk, zmir, 2004. [6] Kayahan, M. Yemeklik Ya Rafinasyon Teknolojisi. Filiz Matbaaclk, Ankara, 2005. [7] Castillo, J.R. Jimeneza, M. S. and Ebdon, L. Semiquantitative simultaneous determination of metals in olive oil using direct emulsion nebulization. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 1999,14:15151518. [8] OBrien, R. D. Fats and oils : formulating and processing for applications 2nd ed. CRC Press, USA, pp. 10, 2004. [9] Zheng, Y., Wiesenborn, D.P., Tostenson, K. and Kangas, N. Screw Pressing of Whole and Dehulled Flaxseed for Organic Oil. JAOCS, 2003,80:1039-1045. [10] Shukla, V. K. S. Confectionery Lipids. In: Baileys Industrial Oil and Fat Products Sixth Edition Six Volume Set. Volume 4. Edible Oil and Fat Products: Products and Applications, Ed. Fereidoon Shahidi, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey (USA), pp. 4:171-172, 2005. [11] Ninfali P., Bacchiocca M., Biagiotti E., Esposto S., Servili M., Rosati A. and Montedoro G. A 3-year Study on Quality, Nutritional and Organoleptic Evaluation of Organic and Conventional ExtraVirgin Olive Oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc., 2008, 85:151158. [12] Samman, S., Chow J. W. Y., Foster M. J., Ahmad Z. I., Phuyal J. L. and Petocz, P. Fatty acid composition of edible oils derived from certified organic and conventional agricultural methods. Food Chemistry, 2008, 109:670674.

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AGROECOLOGICAL CROP PROTECTION IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: THE CASE OF TEPHRITID FRUIT FLIES ON REUNION ISLAND
Toulassi Nurbel, Jean-Philippe Deguine CIRAD, UMR Peuplements Vgtaux et Bioagresseurs en Milieu Tropical, 7 chemin de lIrat, 97410 Saint-Pierre, La Runion (France) Correspondence. Email: toulassi.nurbel@cirad.fr, jean-philippe.deguine@cirad.fr

ABSTRACT Agroecological crop protection, which is adapted to organic agriculture is a system based on three components: sanitation, habitat manipulation and biological control. This approach is applied to the management of Tephritid Fruit Flies on organic farms on Reunion. The six components of this scheme are: (i) monitoring (insecticide-free traps), (ii) prophylaxis (picking and storing infested fruits), (iii) assisted push-pull (attracting flies on refugia plants and attract and kill with bait sprays), (iv) male annihilation technique, (v) inundative and conservative biological control, and (vi) other agroecological practices. These were designed and then successfully implemented on four organic farms. In the near future, this approach will be utilized in the control of other pests and diseases in organic agriculture on Reunion. Results obtained in this study indicate that it can be successfully adapted to other organic agricultural conditions in both tropical and temperate countries. Keywords: Tephritidae, Agroecological crop protection, organic agriculture, Biological control, Reunion Island INTRODUCTION Cucurbit flies are considered the main pests on organic farms on Reunion Island. Three species co-occur: Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus and Dacus demmerezi and cause 90% loss of Cucurbit yield [1]. Damage to the crop is due to oviposition by females in fruit and to the development of larvae inside the fruit. Agroecological crop protection, which is suited to organic agriculture, is an approach based on three components: sanitation, habitat manipulation and biological control [2]. It can be applied to fly management on organic farming using seven practices: monitoring, sanitation, trap plants, attract and kill technique, male annihilation technique, biological control, and biological practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS Monitoring Populations of flies are monitored during the year using male-lure baited traps without insecticide, in order to evaluate the critical period for management. Sanitation Each fruit is able to host many fruit fly eggs and larvae. A preventive solution is to pick and destroy the infested fruits. A survey was conducted among farmers in order to design a structure to store infested fruit. Trap plants Adults of B. cucurbitae shelter and roost in vegetation bordering crops [3]. The attractiveness of corn (Zea mays) and cane grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was compared in field cage conditions for two fly species: B. cucurbitae and D. demmerezi. Attract and kill Synis-appt, permitted in organic agriculture, is a combination of an attractant and feeding stimulant, and spinosad (biological insecticide). It can be applied on border plants (corn) as a spot spray to attract Cucurbit flies and kill them. In order to evaluate the efficiency of Synis-appt on the three Cucurbit fly species, we measured their mortality rates of the due to this treatment, in cages. Male annihilation technique Under the Male Annihilation Technique (MAT), many male-lure baited traps (same traps as used for monitoring) are used to catch the maximum number of males and to disrupt the equilibrium of the population. The trap used until now, is composed of male-lure to attract males and with an insecticide to kill them. Recently, however the insecticide use has been prohibited. We wanted to design a new trap without insecticide. We designed several models of traps without insecticide and counted the number of flies caught under each model.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Designing an agroecological Fruit Fly management package We designed a technical scheme of management of Cucurbit flies, it contains seven practices:

Implementing elementary pest management components Monitoring. Population levels fluctuate during the year, with a peak during cropping season (November to April) (figure 1). Sanitation. We created an augmentorium, a tent-like structure designed to sequester flies and to allow the escape of parasitoids into the farm environment. Trap plants. Corn appeared to be the most attractive and appropriate trap plant for controlling Cucurbit flies (figure 2). Attract and kill. Our studies showed that Synis-appt was effective on all three species of flies, especially on B. cucurbitae. Further, it has no adverse effects on parasitoids. Male annihilation technique. The trap used is a plastic bottle containing a parapheromone (cue-lure), but no insecticide. It is designed with four little apertures to allow the entrance of flies but prevent their exit. Biological control. An introduced parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Braconidae, Opininae) is now well-established on Reunion and contributes to the control of the Melon Fly. However, its impact is only significant when there is no chemical insecticide pressure (i.e. in organic farming). We privileged conservative biological control is privileged; it consisted of practices that allowed the establishment of parasitoids (beetle bank). Agroecological practices. Agroecological practices, such as intercropping or minimum tillage, aim to improve the diversity of plants and the health of the soil, two key-components of the sustainability of agroecosystems. These practices allow the development of Conservative Biological Control.

Figure 1. Number of B. cucurbitae (black) and D. demmerezi (red) caught in cue-lure traps during 1994 and 1995 on Reunion. 114

Figure 2. Proportion of Bactrocera cucurbitae on corn and cane grass tested in field cages. The number of flies observed is noted above the bars. The results of binomial tests (5%) are marked with asterisks; Ho: proportion of flies on corn (Pc) = 0 and H1: Pc >50% (*** = P<0.001)

International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by Odeadom (Office de dveloppement de lconomie agricole doutre-mer), by the Regional Council of La Runion and by the CIRAD. REFERENCES
[1] Vayssires J.F. Les relations plantes-insectes chez les Dacini (Diptera-Tephritidae) ravageurs des Cucurbitaces La Runion. Thse de doctorat, Musum National dHistoire Naturelle de Paris, 1999. [2]Deguine J.P., Ferron P. & Russell D. Crop Protection: from Agrochemistry to Agroecology. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2009. [3] Nishida T. & Bess H.A. Studies on the ecology and control of the melon fly Dacus (Strumeta) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera Tephritidae). Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station. Technical Bulletin, 1957, 84, 12-29.

STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA


Vasko Zlatkovski1, Ljupco Mihajlov2, Fidanka Trajkova2, Olivera Bicikliski3 vasko.zlatkovski@ugd.edu.mk; ljupco.mihajlov@ugd.edu.mk; fidanka.trajkova@ugd.edu.mk; obicikliski@yahoo.com Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Office of Rural Development, Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. box 201, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia
1

Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Production Department, Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. box 201, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia
2

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy of the Republic of Macedonia, 15, Jurij Gagarin str., 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
3

ABSTRACT Traditional way of production in agriculture had never disappeared in the Republic of Macedonia. Such production still exists in remote areas, where human influence over the nature did not succeed to harm the environment as in the area where intensive agriculture is practiced. Although until 2005 there was no certified organic production, through current governmental support program much has been done in order to promote rural areas potential in organic agriculture. Keywords: EU Reg. 2092/91, EU Reg. 834/2007, traditional production, support program, harmonized legal framework INTRODUCTION This poster gives overview to the previous and current Legislation fully harmonized with latest EU regulation on organic agriculture. It also gives perspective over the National support program through the years, and the reflection of such program to the development of organic agriculture in Macedonia. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The development of organic agriculture begun in 2004 after the First National Law on Organic Agriculture [3] was adopted by the National Assembly. It was based on EU Reg.2092/91 [2] and since then many efforts were give in order to introduce to Macedonian farmers the opportunity they have thus transforming the handicap into advantage (Figure 1). The number of certified grower records is increasing (Figure 2), mostly in crops with less demand for technology like medicinal herbs, indigenous species and specific fruits (Figure 4, Figure 5).

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Figure 1. Level of government subsidy for organic production over the years. In 2006 with assisted by Swiss SDC & FiBL a National Strategy and Action Plan 2008-2011 [5] has been developed. That document was the turning point for driving the development of the organic agriculture, as primary goals were set as well as the identification of the rest of the participants who have their role in the development process (Figure 1).

Figure 2. Increasing trend of number of organic farms After EU had issued the new regulation (EU Reg. 834/2007 [1]) Macedonia decided to follow the path by preparing a new, fully harmonized with EU Regulation Law on Organic, which makes The Republic of Macedonia the only country in the Western Balkans (not EU member) having fully harmonized legal framework [4].

Figure 3. Certified area under organic production (ha). On the other hand the number of growers reached a critical level as the volume of production is big enough to pose a problem for the grower and small enough to be considered as serious trading partner (Figure 3).

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Figure 4. Area under organic pastures, indigenous species and fruits (ha).

Figure. 5 Number of bee-hives certified as organic. 3. CONCLUSIONS It is imminent for the farmers and the Government too, to understand the necessity for creating suitable development rather than subsidizing support program, as the marketing agencies are demanding ready-to-sell product. REFERENCES
[1] Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labeling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91. [2] Council Regulation (EEC) 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs. [3] Law on Organic Agriculture (Official Gazette No 16/2004) [4] Law on Organic Agriculture (Official Gazette No./godina) 146/09 [5] National Strategy and Action Plan 2008-2011 (2006). Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy of Republic of Macedonia, Skopje, 2006.

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ARE SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS BETTER SUITED TO ACHIEVE HIGH QUALITy IN ORGANIC SySTEMS?
A.G. Nelson1, S. Quideau2, P.Hucl3 and D. Spaner4
1

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, agnelson@ualberta.ca Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, sylvie.quideau@ualberta.ca Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, pierre.hucl@usask.ca Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, dean.spaner@ualberta.ca

2 3 4

ABSTRACT Consumers purchase organic food because these products are perceived to have superior quality attributes over conventional foods. A field study compared five Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown organically and conventionally for yield, breadmaking quality and nutrient content. Results suggest protein levels and breadmaking quality at least equal to conventional systems can be achieved in organic systems. Composted manure appeared to supply micronutrients to the organic system for improved levels of grain nutrient content. Cultivar choice is important in determining grain quality, especially nutrient content in organic systems. Keywords: Spring wheat, breadmaking quality, grain nutrient content, fertility amendments INTRODUCTION Some consumers purchase organic food because they perceive the products to have superior quality attributes over conventional foods [1]. Despite perceived benefits of consuming organic foods, organic certification is based on the process used to produce the good, not on the product itself. This suggests that organic products may not be superior to conventional ones [2]. Research into nutritional differences of organic and conventional products has not yielded consistent results [3]. Soil, climate, crop type and cultivar, management practices and post-harvest factors can all affect the nutritional quality of crops [4]. Our objectives were to determine the effect of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar choice on yield, breadmaking quality and grain nutrient content in organic and conventional cropping systems in order to design systems that produce consistently high food quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a field study 2005-2007 to compare five western Canadian spring wheat cultivars (AC Elsa, Glenlea, Marquis, Park and AC Superb) grown under organic and conventional management systems for yield and grain quality. The study was located in Edmonton, AB, Canada (5534N, 11331W), on two nearby sites with similar soil types. Yield, grain protein levels, flour yield and grain Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg and K concentrations were determined on harvested grain. Proc Mixed in SAS v.9.0 was used to analyze the combined experiment as a split plot, with management system as the main plot and cultivar as the subplot, replicated in time (year). The data were also analyzed separately by management system combined over years. For both analyses, years and blocks were considered random and management system and cultivar were considered fixed effects. RESULTS Organic yields were roughly half of conventional yields (2.74 vs. 5.02 t ha-1, respectively) (Table 1). AC Superb yielded the highest and Marquis the lowest in both systems. Grain protein levels were higher in the organic system compared to the conventional system. Flour yield was significantly higher in the conventional system than the organic system. In the combined analysis, there were significant management cultivar interactions for Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg and K (Table 1). AC Elsa grown conventionally had higher levels of grain Cu than A.C. Elsa, Marquis and Park grown organically. For Zn, Fe and Mg, organic grain had generally higher nutrient levels than conventional grain. Organically grown Glenlea had superior grain Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg and K concentrations to other organically and conventionally grown cultivars. Cultivars varied significantly (P<0.05) for grain Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg and K. Glenlea had the highest grain Zn and Fe contents, while Superb had the highest grain Mn and K contents. Management system had no significant effect on grain nutrient content.

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Within the organic system, Glenlea had the highest levels of Zn, Mn, Mg, K and Fe, followed by the most recent cultivars AC Elsa or AC Superb. In the conventional system, a number of different cultivars had the highest levels of grain nutrients (Zn Marquis, Mg Park, K - AC Superb and Fe AC Elsa).
Grain protein (%)

Cultivar

yield (t ha-1)

Flour yield (%)

Cu (ppm)

Mn (ppm)

Zn (ppm)

Fe (ppm)

Mg (ppm) 1278 1390 1352 1375 1376 ** 62.2 1285 1171 1299 1306 1289 *** 61.5 1354 1270 ns 59.1 ** 44.2 ***

K (ppm) 3296 3443 3110 2989 3259 *** 173.6 2995 3101 2886 2770 3296 *** 78.8 3220 3009 ns 129.2 *** 97.1 ***

Organic AC Elsa 2.80 16.8 72 2.83 29 49.1 57.3 Glenlea 2.78 17.2 69 4.02 35.4 56 63.5 Marquis 2.38 16.0 69 2.83 29.4 49.2 56.5 Park 2.65 16.7 71 2.75 29.4 48 53.8 AC Superb 3.11 16.3 70 3.02 33.7 46.6 61.3 F testcultivar *** *** *** *** *** * *** SEcultivar 0.796 0.350 1 0.469 4.98 6.73 5.02 Conventional AC Elsa 5.09 16.0 74 4.99 31.1 44.2 50.72 Glenlea 5.57 14.5 73 4.02 31.3 39.9 47.42 Marquis 4.04 15.6 71 4.00 32.6 46.3 47.48 Park 4.66 15.3 72 4.50 31.9 44 43.39 AC Superb 5.73 15.0 74 3.64 33.6 37.2 45.73 F testcultivar *** *** *** ns ns *** ** SEcultivar 0.421 0.17 0.6 0.709 3.81 1.26 4 Combined Organic mean 2.74 16.6 70 3.09 31.3 49.8 58.4 Conv. mean 5.02 15.3 73 4.22 32.1 42.3 46.9 F testmanagement * ** * ns ns ns ns SEmanagement 0.631 0.24 0.7 0.515 4.36 4.56 4.33 F testcultivar *** * * ns *** *** *** SEcultivar 0.467 0.8 0.8 0.523 3.93 3.63 3.63 F testm*c ** ns ns ** ** *** *** ns= not significant (P0.10), * significant at P<0.10, ** significant at P<0.05, *** significant at P<0.01, SE=standard error

Table 1. Yield, Breadmaking Quality and Grain Nutrient Content for Wheat Grown Organically and Conventionally in Edmonton, AB in 2005, 2006 and 2007 DISCUSSION & CONCLUSIONS There has been a trend towards lower protein in cereal grains produced organically [3]. Applications of composted dairy manure in the organic system (combined with lower yields) appeared to supply nutrients for improved levels of grain protein and nutrient content [5]. However, this experiment demonstrates that both organic and conventional systems can produce high quality wheat. Significant management cultivar interaction effects indicate that the choice of wheat cultivar to maximize grain nutrient levels is dependent on the management system. Glenlea grown organically had the highest grain nutrient levels compared to cultivars grown both organically and conventionally. Both systems of management are capable of producing high quality grains. Wheat cultivar choice within a management system is an important determinant of crop nutritional quality. Further studies are required to determine the impact of other agronomic cropping practices and identify best management practices within organic and conventional systems for final crop quality. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Alireza Navabi, Klaus Strenzke and Brenda Frick for technical support. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Alberta Ingenuity and the Alberta Crop Industry Development Fund. REFERENCES
[1] Yiridoe, E.K., Bonti-Ankomah, S. & Martin, R.C. Comparison of consumer perceptions and preference toward organic versus conventionally produced foods: a review and update of the literature. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 2005, 20(4), 193-205. [2] Brandt, K. & Mlgaard, J.P. Food Quality, in Organic Agriculture: A Global Perspective, Kristiansen, P., Taji, A. & Reganold, J. Editors. 2007, Comstock Publishing Associates: Ithaca, NY. p. 305-327. [3] Bourn, D. & Prescott, J. A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2002, 42(1), 1-34. [4] Hornick, S.B. Factors affecting the nutritional quality of crops. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 1992, 7, 63-68. [5] Mishra, B.N., Prasad, R., Gangaiah, B. & Shivakumar, B.G. Organic manures for increased productivity and sustained supply of micronutrients Zn and Cu in a rice-wheat cropping system. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2006, 28(1), 55-66.

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QUALITy AND SAFETy DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS
Birol Kl, Azim imek Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Food Engineering, 32260, Isparta, Turkey - bkilic@mmf.sdu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT There is an increasing consumer demand for organic meat and meat products all around the world. Studies based on consumer opinion have shown that organic products are perceived as being more healthy, natural, and tastier than conventional products. In this study, the nutritional value (protein, fat, minerals and vitamins etc.) of organic meat and meat products will be described comparatively with that of conventional meat and meat products. In addition, safety of organic meat and meat products will be discussed. Consumer attitudes to quality and safety of organic meat and meat products will also be discussed. Keywords: Quality, safety, organic, conventional, meat products INTRODUCTION Worldwide, meat is by far the most consumed food product of animal origin. Several factors contribute to the popularity of meat products, of which sensory, dietary and economic factors are the most significant. Meat, health, safety and quality have been given an increased focus. The increasing consumer demand for good tasting, healthy, safe and environmentally friendly produced meat and meat products has put demand on producers. In that sense, consumer demand for organic meat and meat products has grown in recent years. To meet that growing demand, manufacturers have developed and marketed organic meat and meat products and retail markets specializing in organic products have developed. Therefore, organic meat and meat products are growing category of products in market. Nowadays, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens and other poultry are organically raised and their meat and meat products are sold in market. High consumer demands for organic meat and meat products increased the number of the scientific investigations to determine quality and safety differences between organic and conventional meat and meat products. In this regards, nutritional (protein, fat, minerals and vitamins contents), chemical (nitrite and nitrate etc.), microbiological and sensory properties of organic meat and meat products were investigated and the results were compared with conventional counterparts. Physicochemical and Nutritional Charecteristics of Organic and Conventional Meat and Meat Products Consumers are attracted to organic meat and meat products by the perception of a superior nutritional profile in comparison with conventional once. Therefore it is important to investigate the composition of organic and conventional meat and meat products to identify differences that could show the consumer whether organic meats are better. There are a few studies compared the total lipid content of organic and conventional meat and meat products [1] [2] [3] [4]. It was reported that organically-bred cows have more lean meat than their conventional counterparts [2]. Hovewer, this was not the case in pigs [5]. Brown et. al. [6] also indicated that the lower percentage of fat was measured in organic chicken breast fillets compared to breast fillets of conventionally raised chickens. On the other hands, it was shown that meat from organically-grown cows has more polyunsaturated fatty acids [1]. Castellini et al. [7] showed that chickens of the same strain raised under an organic husbandry system have meat containing 2-3 times less abdominal fat with 23 times less fat in the filet and almost 2 times less fat in the leg. Moreover, they reported that the n3 fatty acid content in the filet was significantly higher with no difference for saturated fatty acids. Brown et. al. [6] indicated that chicken breast fillets produced from organic system have a lower pH. Hovewer, no significant differences were observed in this study for water holding capacity and instrumental colour values between conventional and organic. Grashorn and Serini [8] indicated that proportion of breast meat was lower in organic chickens, skin and meat was more yellow, grilling losses were lower and texture values were higher. Researcher reported that content of dry matter, crude protein, ash, fat and n-3 fatty acids was higher in organic chicken meat. Sensory panellists assessed organic broiler meat as tougher and tastier. They concluded that organic chicken meat had slightly better quality compared to conventional chicken meat. Sebranek and Husak [9] reported that conventionally raised chickens had a more yellow appearance for breast, thigh and skin compared to organic carcass components. Meat from conventional broilers were found to be more tender than those of organic chickens according to the results of both instrumental texture measurements and sensory evaluations. The authors indicated that organic chicken breasts and thighs had significantly higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 and n-6 fatty acids compared to conventional chickens. Kim et al [10] reported that the organic chicken breasts had a higher cooking loss, and waterholding capacity, and a lower shear force compared to the conventional chicken breasts. Researchers found higher a* and b* values and myoglobin contents in the organic chicken breasts compared to the conventional chicken breasts. Higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid contents, and a higher PUFA-saturated fatty acid ratio in the organic chicken breasts was also reported in this study. Husak, Sebranek and Bregendahl [11] reported that protein content of organic breast

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and thigh meat was greater than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher than conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow than conventional. The authors indicated that organic breasts and thighs were lower in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids than conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender and less chewy than thighs from organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. The authors concluded that a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey. Castellini et al [4] [7] [12] reported that organically produced poultry meat is leaner but it has a shorter shelf-life. The authors indicated that a higher TBARS level in organic meat could be the result of a higher content of Fe ions that catalyze peroxidation and to a greater degree of unsaturation of intramuscular lipids [4] [7]. Since a higher lipid oxidation not only limit the self-life of the organic product but have a negative affects on sensory evaluation, different strategies should be adopted to minimize this problem such as avoiding unnecessary carcass processing, reducing storage time and providing high levels of antioxidants. The intake of compounds with an antioxidant activity (like tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols) shall be considered crucial for increasing animal antioxidant defence [13]. Grela and Kowalczuk [14] analyzed nutrient contents and fatty acid profile in meat from fatteners managed and fed under the conventional and organic production conditions as well as in chosen pork-butchers meat products from organic fatteners. They reported that the meat obtained from organic fatteners showed a slightly higher nutrient contents compared to those managed at the conventional production system. A percentage of full fat flax seeds (5%) in organic diets contributed to an increased linolenic acid level in lipids of the longissimus and adductor muscles as against the animals fed conventional diets supplemented with 2% soya bean oil. They also indicated that pork-butchers meat products such as back bacon sausage, pork hunter sausage, smoked bacon and kabanos dry pork sausage, smoked bacon had the most favorable nutritional fatty acid composition for human consumption. Nuernberg et al [15] investigated the effect of different diets (the protein sources: rape seed and other grain legumes in organic farming system and soya meal in conventional farming system) on the growth, meat and fat quality of finishing lambs. They reported that the growth of the lambs was better under conventional feeding conditions compared to organic farming whereas the meat quality was not different between both feeding systems. They concluded that there was no advantage of organic farming according to the nutritional point of view. Lebas et al. [16] reported that muscle pH and fat score were slightly higher in organically reared than in conventionally reared rabbits. Combes et al. [17] reported that Organic rabbit meat was more tender than conventionally reared rabbit meat. Pla [18] indicated that organic rabbit meat had less protein, fat, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids but higher polyunsaturated fatty acids and the ratio of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids which is better from the nutritional perspective. The author also reported that the proteins in the organic meat were richer in methionine and cystine. Very limited information about mineral content of meat and meat products is available. Castellini et al. [4] [7] indicated that organic chickens grown in open fields compared with housing have somewhat higher iron levels. Barbieri, Macchiavelli and Rivaldi [19] compared organic and conventional salami, dry cured hams and cooked hams for mineral contents and they reported that organic products contained higher levels of Fe, Zn, Ca, Se, and Cu. Safety of Organic and Conventional Meat and Meat Products There is a widespread belief that organic meat and meat products are substantially healthier and safer than conventional ones. There are some studies comparing safety status of organic and conventional meats. Ludewig, Palinsky and Fehlhaber [20] investigated a total of 85 organic and 66 conventional meat products and they reported high total aerobic plate counts and high lactic acid bacteria counts in products, hovewer, they did not find pathogens like Salmonella. They did not observed significant differences between organic and conventional meat products. They concluded that there were no signs for food safety problem in products tested. Van Overbeke at al [21] found no significant differences in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. In contrast, they reported that Campylobacter infections at slaughter were significantly higher in organic broilers. They concluded that the respiratory health status is beter in organic broilers but that organic flocks were more often infected with Campylobacter than were conventional flocks. Heuer et al. [22] also reported that Campylobacter spp. were isolated from only 37 % of the conventionally reared flocks, the organism was present in 100 % of the organic flocks. They reported no difference in susceptibility patterns of isolates for antibiotic between organic and conventional systems. Another study investigated the presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in 55 samples of organic and in 61 samples of conventional poultry meat. This study concluded that there was a significantly higher prevalence of E. coli but not of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes in organic poultry meat as compared with conventional poultry meat. Bacteria isolated from organically farmed poultry samples showed significantly lower development of antimicrobial resistance against several antibiotics [23]. Miranda et al [24] determined that Enterococcus mean counts from organic chicken meat were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional chicken meat or conventional turkey meat. In this study, Enterococcus faecalis was found to be the most common species isolated from organic chicken, whereas Enterococcus durans was found to be the most common species isolated from conventional chicken and turkey. However, the authors indicated that antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolates from organic chicken meat were less than enterococci isolates from conventional chicken meat to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. Nou et al [25] investigated the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria in retailed organic and conventional poultry products. They isolated Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria from 28, 49 and 45 percent of poultry samples, respectively. In this study, Salmonella was most frequently isolated from organic poultry samples, as were Campylobacter from conventional poultry. They reported that

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Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates from organic poultry were more susceptible to the antibiotics than those from other sources. The author concluded that the high incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria contamination associated with alternatively processed poultry samples indicates the need for continued improvements of rearing and processing technologies to further reduce bacterial contamination of those products. Jackson et al [26] indicated that commercial brands of organic frankfurters showed greater growth by inoculated Clostridium perfringens than that observed for conventionally-cured control frankfurters. They concluded that organic processed meats may require additional protective measures in order to consistently provide the same level of safety from bacterial pathogens that is achieved by conventionally-cured meat products. Several other studies showed that animal products from organic and conventional production do not indicate any difference with respect to their microbiological condition [27] [28] [3]. Another food safety concern is various residues which may exist in meat and meat products. Gidini et al [29] reported that organochlorine compounds and heavy metals were detected in both conventional and organic samples at low concentrations. Hovewer, the researchers were not able to make an accurate comparison between organic and conventional meat because of the limited number of samples. Pikkemaat et al. [30] reported presence of antibiotics in kidney and meat. They indicated that detected residues were below the European Commission maximum residue limits, except for valnemulin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin in kidney, and valnemulin, cefapirin, cefalexin, kanamycin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin in meat. On the other hands, Hoogenboom et al [31] reported no residues of antibiotics in kidneys and meat of 20 organic pigs, sampled at the slaughterhouse. They also indicated that levels of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium in meat and in kidney were below the European Union limit of 1mg/kg. Nitrate and nitrite are a matter of concern for public health due to possible formation of nitrosamines which are among the most powerful natural cancer-promoting moities. For that reason, nitrate and nitrite contents of meat and meat products are an important issue in food industry. Modern conventional food processing uses a wide range of chemicals that inevitably leave residues in the product. Magrinya et al [32] investigated the effects of the celery concentrate and nitrate addition on residual nitrate and nitrite, instrumental CIE Lab color, oxidative stability and overall acceptability in fermented dry-cured sausages after ripening and after storage. They concluded that as the two nitrate sources behaved similarly for the parameters studied, nitrate-rich celery concentrate was a useful alternative to chemical ingredients for organic dry-cured sausage production. Barbieri, Macchiavelli and Rivaldi [19] reported that there was no significant difference in residual nitrite content between organic and conventional salami, dry cured hams and cooked hams while nitrate was lower in organic compared to conventional salami. On the other hands, Lucke [33] suggested that the use of nitrite at levels sufficient for curing colour and aroma formation should be permitted for the processing of meat from organic production. The author emphasized that since prohibiting the use of nitrite would bring shelf life and safety limitations, expanding the market for organic meats would be difficult. Since nitrite plays important role in cured meat quality and safety, quality and safety issues need to be carefully to make processing changes in manufacturing organic processed meats. Sensory Characteristics and consumer attitudes A few studies have been carried out to compare sensory charecteristics of organically and conventionally produced meats. Angood et al. [34] reported that organic lamb had better eating quality than conventional lamb in terms of juiciness, flavour and overall liking. They concluded that organic products was preferred more by consumers as taste better. Revilla et. al. [35] evaluated 40 L. dorsi muscles (raw and grilled) from suckling lambs raised under both organic and conventional systems using trained panel with a sixteenmember and consumers panel with 140. The results of this study indicated that the appearance of the organic meat was more fibrous, darker, and with a lower aroma intensity than the conventional counterpart, but with no differences in homogeneity or juiciness. In grilled meat, the organic samples had less subcutaneous fat, less fatness, a less fibrous texture and less aroma intensity, but also less juiciness. Regarding overall appreciation, the consumers gave higher scores to the organically produced samples. Brown et. al. [6] indicated that in the trained taste panel, chicken breast fillets produced from conventional system were rated higher for tenderness and juiciness. Flavour and overall liking meat from chicken produced in the conventional system was more preferred compared to meat from the organic systems. CONCLUSION The organic farming and organic food markets are growing fast and consumers want to have more information on these products. The results of studies in literature revealed some advantages of organic meat and meat products such as containing more polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to conventional counterparts. Since the number of studies in this area is limited, more research is needed to identify differences between organic and conventional meat and meat products to justify the consumers ideological motivation to choose organic over conventional products. At the same time, since health benefits of organic meats are of great interest and importance to the public, specific health effects should be identified by nutrition studies under well controlled conditions. REFERENCES
[1] Pastsshenko, V., Matthes, H.D., Hein T., &Holzer Z. Impact of cattle grazing on meat fatty acid composition in relation to human nutrition, in Proceedings 13th IFOAM Scientific Conference, 2000, pp. 293296. [2] Hansson, I., Hamilton, C., Ekman, T., & Forslund, K. Carcass quality in certified organic production compared with conventional livestock production, J. Vet. Med., 2000, 47,111-120. [3] Honikel, K.O. Quality of ecologically produced foods of animal origin. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr., 1998, 105:327329.

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[4] Castellini C., Mugnai C. & Dal Bosco A. Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality, Meat Science, 2002, 60, 219225. [5] Sundrum A., Btfering L., Henning M. & Hoppenbrock K.H. Effects of on-farm diets for organic pig production on performance and carcass quality, Journal of Animal Science, 2000, 78, 11991205. [6] Brown, S.N., Nute, G.R., Baker, A., Hughes, S.I. & Warriss, P.D. Aspects of meat and eating quality of broiler chickens reared under standard, maize-fed, free-range or organic systems. British Poultry Science, 2008, 49 (2): 118-124. [7] Castellini, C., Mugnai, C. & Dal Bosco, A. Meat quality of three chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system. Italian Journal of Food Science, 2002, 14: 401. [8] Grashorn, M.A. & Serini, C. Quality of chicken meat from conventional and organic production. Page 268 in XII Eur. Poult. Conf., Verona, Italy. 2006. [9] Sebranek, J.G. & Husak, R. A survey of commercially available broilers originating from organic, free-range and conventional production systems for cooked meat yields, meat composition and relative value. Leopold Center Progress Report, 2007, 16: 50-53. [10] Kim, D.H., Cho, S.H., Kim, J.H., Seong, P.N., Lee, J.M., Jo, C. & Lim, D.G. Comparison of the Quality of the Chicken Breasts from Organically and Conventionally Reared Chickens. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 2009, 29 (4): 409-414. [11] Husak RL, Sebranek JG, & Bregendahl K. 2008. A Survey of Commercially Available Broilers Marketed as Organic, Free-Range, and Conventional Broilers for Cooked Meat Yields, Meat Composition, and Relative Value. Poultry Science, 2008, 87 (11): 2367-2376. [12] Castellini, C., Dal Bosco, A., Mugnai, C & Pedrazzoli, M. Comparison of two chicken genotypes organically reared: oxidative stability and other qualitative traits. Italian Journal of Animimal Science, 2006, 5: 29. [13] Lopez-Bote, C.J., Sanz Arias, R., Rey, A.I., Castano, A., Isabel, B. & Thos, J. Effect of free-range feeding on n-3 fatty acid and -tocopherol content and oxidative stability of eggs. Animal Feed Science Technology, 1998, 72: 33. [14] Grela, E.R. & Kowalczuk, E. Content of Nutrients and Fatty Acid Composition in Meat and Pork-Butchers Meat From Organic Pig Production. Zywnosc-Nauka Technologia Jakosc, 2009, 16 (4): 34-40. [15] Nurnberg, K, Zupp, W., Grumbach, S., Martin, J., Ender, K., Hartung, M. & Nurnberg G. Does feeding under organic farming conditions affect the meat and fat quality of finishing lambs? Fleischwirtschaft, 2006, 86 (5):103-107. [16] Lebas, F., Lebreton, L., & Martin, T. Statistics on organic production of rabbits on grassland. Cuniculture, 2002, 164, 7480. [17] Combes, S., Lebas, F., Juin, H., Lebreton, L., Martin, T., Jehl, N., Cauquil, L., Darche, B. & Corboeuf, M.A. Comparison lapin Bio / lapin standard : Analyses sensorielles et tendret mcanique de la viande. Proc. 10mes Journes de la Recherche Cunicole, 2003, pp.137140 [18] Pla, M. A comparison of the carcass traits and meat quality of conventionally and organically produced rabbits. Livestock Science, 2008, 115: 112. [19] Barbieri, G., Macchiavelli, L. & Rivaldi, P. Protein quality and content of nitrite, nitrate and metals in commercial samples of organic and conventional cold meats. 16th IFOAM Organic World Congress, Modena, Italy, 2008. [20] Ludewig, M., Palinsky, N. & Fehlhaber, K. Quality of organic and directly marketed conventionally produced meat products. Fleischwirtschaft, 2004, 84(12): 105-108. [21] Van Overbeke, I., Duchateau, L., De Zutter, L., Albers, G. & Ducatelle, R. A Comparison Survey of Organic and Conventional Broiler Chickens for Infectious Agents Affecting Health and Food Safety. Avian Diseases, 2006, 50: 196200. [22] Heuer, O.E., Pedersen, K., Andersen, J.S. & Madsen, M. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2001, 33:269274. [23] Miranda, J.N., Vazquez, B.I., Fente, C.A., Calo-Mata, P., Cepeda, A. & Franco, C.M. Comparison of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Organic and Conventional Poultry Meat. Journal of Food Protection, 2008, 71(12): 2537-2542. [24] Miranda, J.M., Guarddon, M., Mondragon, A., Vazquez, B.I., Fente, C.A., Cepeda, A., & Franco, C.M. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: A comparative survey. Journal of Food Protection, 2007, 70 (4):1021-1024. [25] Nou, X., Delgado, J., Patel, J.R., Sharma, M. & Solomon, M.B. Prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria on retail organic and kosher poultry products International Association for Food Protection Program and Abstract Book. 2007, p. 157. [26] Jackson, A., Sullivan, G., Sebranek, J. & Dickson, J. Growth of Clostridium perfringens on Natural and Organic Frankfurters. Iowa State University Animal Industry Report 2009. [27] Engvall, A. May organically farmed animals pose a risk for Campylobacter infections in humans? Acta Vet. Scand. Suppl. 2001, 95: 8587. [28] Zangerl, P., Ginzinger, W., Tschager, E., & Lobitzer, I. Sensory quality and microbial load of milk products from organic farming in Austria, In: Al-foldi, T., Lockeretz,W., and Niggli, U., Eds.. IFOAM2000TheWorld Grows OrganicProceedings of the 13th International IFOAMScienticConference, Basel, Zurich: IOS Press, 29. 2000. [29] Ghidini, S., Zanardi, E., Battaglia, A., Varisco, G., Ferretti, E., Campanini, G. & Chizzolini, R. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from Northern Italy. Food Additives &Contaminants: Part A, 2005, 22:1, 9-14. [30] Pikkemaat MG, Oostra-van Dijk S, Schouten J, Rapallini M, & Van Egmond HJ. A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: the Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening). Food Control, 2007, 19: 781789. [31] Hoogenboom, L.A.P., Bokhorst, J.G., Northolt, M.D., van de Vijver, L.P.L., Broex, N.J.G., Mevius, D.J., Meijs, J.A.C & Van der Roest, J. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products: a comparison with conventional products, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2008, 25:10, 1195-1207. [32] Magrinya,N., Bou,R., Tres, A., Rius,N., Codony, R. & Guardiola, F. Effect of Tocopherol Extract, Staphylococcus carnosus Culture, and Celery Concentrate Addition on Quality Parameters of Organic and Conventional Dry-Cured Sausages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009, 57 (19): 89638972. [33] Lucke, F.K. Use of nitrite and nitrate in the processing of meat from organic production - benefits and risks. Fleischwirtschaft, 2003, 83(11): 138-142. [34] Angood, K.M., Word, J.D., Nute, G.R., Whittington, F.M., Hughes, S.I. & Sheard, P.R. A comparison of organic and conventionally-produced lamb purchased from three major UK supermarkets: Price, eating quality and fatty acid composition. Meat Science, 2007, 78: 176-184. [35] Revilla, I., Luruea-Martnez, M.A., Blanco-Lopez, M.A., Viv ar-Quintana, A.M., Palacios, C., & Severi ano-Prez, P. Comparison of the Sensory Characteristics of Suckling Lamb Meat: Organic vs Conventional Production. Czech J. Food Sci., 2009, 27:S267-270.

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RAISING AWARENESS ACTIVITIES IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: THE CASE OF IZMIR PROVINCE


Ela At, Zerrin Kenanolu Bekta, Ece Salal* Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Bornova-zmir, Turkey. *Ege University, Agricultural Research and Application Center, Bornova-zmir, Turkey. e-mail: ela.atis@ege.edu.tr; zerrin.bektas@ege.edu.tr; ece.salali@ege.edu.tr

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate raising awareness activities in organic agriculture in Izmir. In this context, it was considered the activities of universities, public institutions, local governments, private sector and non-governmental organizations that are contributed for raising awareness. In terms of raising awareness of the situation of organic sector in Izmir, were evaluated by using SWOT analysis. Results show that the province of Izmir can benefit enough from the strengths of raising awareness activities in organic sector. Organic product market and International Ecology Fair that will be held this year are very important for Izmir. New organic agriculture support payment in Turkey is also serious opportunity for Izmir organic agriculture in terms of raising awareness. In this way, zmir will create an example for Turkey in terms of organic agriculture. Keywords: Organic agriculture, raising awareness, SWOT analysis, Izmir. INTRODUCTION In recent years, the interest in organic agriculture is increasing. Organic agricultures economic, environmental and social benefits have attracted the attention of the non-governmental organizations, universities, local governments, public organizations and media organs in the recent past. However, the number of the raising awareness activities such as producer and consumer oriented education programs, projects, exhibitions and informative seminars has increased. All these developments have begun to affect countries national agricultural policies and international civil society organizations programs. The suitability of the ecological conditions of Aegean Region for organic farming is accelerated the development of organic agriculture in that region. Organic agriculture in Turkey has first begun with the production of raisins and dried figs in one of the most important agricultural center Izmir in Aegean Region. Izmir, between other provinces in Aegean Region, comes in the first place, in terms of the number of producers whom producing organic agricultural products and production area. Export of organic agricultural products is being performed from the port of Izmir, and large part of the certification company for organic products is located in Izmir province. This study have been attempting to put forward improving of awareness activities in organic agriculture in Izmir, which is the place that organic agriculture began first and also most developed province in Turkey in organic agriculture. In this context, the activities that are thought to contribute to the development of organic agriculture; of universities, public institutions and agencies, local governments, private sector and non-governmental organizations related to organic agriculture has been taken. Also, in terms of raising awareness of the situation of organic sector in Izmir, were evaluated by using SWOT analysis. Raising awareness activities and results of SWOT analysis were evaluated together to bring some suggestions for the future. AWARENESS AND ORGANC AGRICULTURE Importance of environment with environmental problems has emerged for the first time after II. World War, as a result of industrialization and thought that its interested only the region that has been linked. People living outside the region which problems arise are not interested in environmental problems and also didnt require an effort for the solution of the subject. However, at first glance environmental problems appear to be local were actually regional even after understanding the results that have worldwide consequences, the environmental consciousness began to wake up in global terms. So, what is consciousness or awareness? Consciousness is a very important feature that separates as a kind of humans from other living things. The concept of consciousness can be defined, to be aware of yourself and the environment or to know or to know as you know. Awareness is seen directly in the whole of the consciousness and working depth to the entire mind. Awareness as a whole is, to become aware of consciousness, to recognize and to understand. Mind is dealing with the events and awareness is concerned with the mind itself. In short, awareness implies vigilance in observing some thing or experience and alertness in drawing inferences from what one observes. Environmental consciousness is the actions related to environment which the living space of human beings and all living things. When we have taken into consideration that consciousness is discontinuous, it is emerging that these actions should be moved to the awareness

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dimension. Therefore, it shouldnt be forgotten that the environmental dimension is vital for humans and other living things and it should be converted to supraliminal behavior in the form of action to avoid the interruption of environmental actions. Although there is variety of uses for the concept of environmental consciousness, it also present itself as the area where policy is most intense. It is particularly important in developing countries, to build awareness in communities and institutions. Organic agriculture also is of great importance while the world food production was interrogated, in the last period. The activities for increasing awareness of organic agriculture will play an important role for a community to know organic agriculture as detailed. In awareness study to be carried out in organic agriculture; constitute the target groups such as farmers and producer groups, consumers, those who deal with trade in organic products, processors, retailers, government and school children in all age. The success of any campaign to increase awareness is important in terms of involving all actors and working together for the success of activities. Raising awareness programs extend from information and advertising campaigns to the professional and community education programs, newspaper articles and advertisements, professional publications, training and low-cost promotional sales. In terms of producer awareness, the objective is not only the producers start to organic agriculture but also to ensure its sustainability. According to raise awareness in organic agriculture, conferences and seminars can be organized, with organizing farmer fairs the information generation process related to organic agriculture can be improved and demonstration activities can be performed at village-level intended to show how to install organic systems and to produce and manage organic inputs. Demonstrations for the activities of producers raising awareness are very important. Educational activities which have an important role in organic agriculture will be done to encourage producers such as compost production are very important. Besides, printed documents such as posters that can be easily understood by farmers and adorned with pictures, flyers and brochures are also available.Farmers awareness for organic agriculture is also important for environmental awareness. Likewise, it is explained that organic farmers expressed a greater awareness of and concern for environmental problems associated with agriculture [10]. In the development of organic agriculture, consumer awareness is also important as producer awareness. Chang and Zepeda (2005) also suggest that increasing consumers awareness of organic farming and certification, as well as the availability of organic foods, may be the most effective way of moving organic foods into mainstream. Personal responsibility includes making informed consumer choice. And that requires consumer knowledge and awareness about competing products. Knowledge and awareness have other direct and indirect effects on attitudes toward consumer products, and willingness to pay a price premium (Fig.1) Awareness and knowledge about organic products, play an important role in consumers purchasing decisions. If an individual cannot clearly differentiate between organic or conventional products, a price premium on the organic product can affect the individuals purchasing decision in favor of the cheaper product. In European Union countries, many organic consumers identify organic products based on the organic labels and/or organic logos attached. Consumers generally perceive an organic label as assurance that the product is organic. Thus, deceptive or inaccurate labeling can convey the wrong signals to prospective buyers. After all, it is important to note that knowledge and awareness about organic products may not necessarily translate into direct purchase because of barriers that could limit the ability of consumers to transform such knowledge and perceived demand into actual demand [11].

Fig.1. Conceptual framework of factors that affect organic consumer attitudes and purchase decisions (11, p.196). It is stated that consumer knowledge and awareness will continue to be important in the organic food market in two respects [11]. First, there is still a segment of the potential market that is not yet informed about organic foods. A second dimension to the knowledge and awareness puzzle is the possibility that those who do not consider organic products may have a general knowledge about them, but do not have enough detailed information to clearly differentiate the unique attributes of organic from conventionally

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grown alternatives. It is also clarified that the consumers simply need to be educated on what organic farming and products are all about and more so what the benefits of consumption are. The general feeling was that if consumers knew the facts, they would definitely prefer to consume organic products as opposed to nonorganic [4] Knowledge and awareness about organic products can affect attitudes and perceptions and, ultimately, buying decisions. If the skepticism about organic products stemming, in part, from reported cases of mislabeling and fraud are assuaged, perceptions about the inherent characteristics of organic may translate into increased actual demand. RAISING AWARENESS ACTIVITIES Status of Organic Agriculture in Izmir Province Organic agriculture activities in Turkey were first started in Izmir in the Aegean Region. Izmir has an important place in the development of organic agriculture in Turkey due to exportation of the majority of organic products from Izmir port and location of the large portion of organic products certification companies and organic agricultural exporting companies and Aegean Exporters Association and Association of Organic Agriculture Organization. 84 varieties of organic products are produced in 21 districts of the province of Izmir [1]. Izmir comes first in terms of product diversity. The number of the producer, making organic agriculture in the branches of crop and animal production is 1159. 12.19% of Turkeys organic agriculture producers are in Izmir province. The share of the organic agricultural farms in total agricultural farms in the province of Izmir is 1.57%, whereas this rate is 0.31% when it was examined for Turkey [7, 8]. When the status in terms of the land of organic agriculture was evaluated in the province of Izmir in 2008; the land of organic agriculture is 23355.84 hectares. 16.48% of the area is located in Izmir province in the land of organic agriculture in Turkey. The rate of organic farming is 0.64% of total agricultural land in Turkey, while the rate is 7.46% in Izmir province. In 2008, the number of producer in crop production during the conversion to organic farming in Izmir is 303 and the conversion land is 2267.86 hectares. The 5.28% of producers in transition period and the 9.02% of land of the organic agriculture in Turkey are in Izmir [7, 8]. Raising Awareness Activities in Izmir Raising awareness activities in Izmir is carried out by many organizations. Among these institutions which regulates and supports the activities, ETO, Izmir Metropolitan Municiplity, Izmir Directorate of Agriculture, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, Research Institutes, Izmir Governors Office, Aegean Exporters Association, Izmir Chamber of Commerce, Aegean Region Chamber of Industry, Certification Companies, Izmir Development Agency, Chamber of Agricultural Engineers, Izmir Chamber of Agriculture, Tari, Izmir Board of Trade, Environment and Forestry Provincial Directorate, Environment and Forests Foundation, etc. are taking place.
Event Name -A Sustainable Example in SocioEconomic Development: Organic Farming Project in Peninsula [9]. -Organic Production Project of Ege University Faculty of Agriculture [3]. -Development of a Clustering Policy Project (Izmir Organic Food Cluster) [6]. Partners of The Event - Izmir Metropolitan Municiplity - Izmir Directorate of Agriculture -Ege University Faculty of Agriculture,Dept.of Horticulture -Turkish Association on Organic Agriculture (ETO) -Ege University Faculty of Agriculture,Dept.of Horticulture -Undersecretariat of the Prime Ministry for Foreign Trade (Executive) - Aegean Exporters Association, ETO, Ege University, Izmir Board of Trade, Aegean Region Chamber of Industry (EBSO), Certification Companies, Izmir Development Agency, Izmir Directorate of Agriculture -ETO -Izmir Directorate of Agriculture -Izmir Governors Office, -Izmir Metropolitan Municiplity -Ege University Faculty of Agriculture -ETO -Izmir Chamber of Agriculture -ETO (Association of Organic Organisation) - ZFA(Izmir Fair Trade Inc.) -ASDF Fair. Activities -Producer training -Training seminars for schools -Establishment of the organic product market (Balova) -Practical organic agriculture information for students and local producers and field day. -Some purposes such as the creation of reliability of Izmir organic sector and provision of the efficient supply chain and distribution channel for organic products was targeted. In this context, several meetings are held.

-Start Organic Agriculture at Tahtal Dam Protection Field.

-Training and extension activities for the producers.

-Acting Organic by Thinking Organic -9. Organic Products and Environment Fair 6-10 May 2010 [5]

-Producer training -Intercollegiate article competition -Several meetings Agriculture -With the participation of associations of sector, certified organic production companies in different sectors and certification agencies will be provided the contribution of raising awareness in organic agriculture and the market.

Table 1. Raising Awareness Activities for Organic Agriculture in Izmir All these organizations are contributing to raise awareness about organic agriculture sometimes by participating in activities directly or indirectly, sometimes by taking part in or supporting activities in the province of Izmir. A portion of the relevant activities of these institutions are summarized below.

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Izmir Directorate of Agriculture, Izmir Metropolitan Municiplity The establishment of the organic open-air street market is aimed in Karyaka and Bornova district after Balova. Training works are underway for organizing activities at street markets related to consumer information about organic logo, certificate and label issues. In addition, the works about awareness in organic products related to municipal police, middleman and retailer in the market are going on. All the municipalities and chambers and Directorate of Wholesale Food Market take part in this study. University There are some researches completed or are still in progress which Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Horticulture, Dept. of Plant Protection, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Dept. of Soil Science, Dept. of Animal Science, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery and Dept. of Farm Structures and Irrigation are conducted as a partner of different institutions and organizations or solely, examining organic agriculture in technical and economical review. These projects are funded by Tari, Ege University Scientific Research Projects Fund, TUBITAK, Environmental Foundation, State Planning Organization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, European Union 7.Framework Programme budget. As well as projects, there is an Organic Agriculture Program in order to train well equipped technical staff for the needs of sector and trained staff about organic agriculture within Ege University demi Vocational Training School. Control and Certification Organizations In Turkey, seven of twelve organic agriculture control and certification organizations (ECOCERT, BCS, IMO, ETKO, CU, ICEA, CERES) authorized by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs are situated in the center of Izmir. These organizations dont have any training and service activities directly to the farmer. However, they contribute the trainings, projects, researches, courses and meetings conducted by other institutions. Organic Agriculture Companies Organic inputs that producers need are provided by organic companies and to adopt new agricultural techniques and applications more quickly they schedule demonstrations. They are arranging oversea trips for selected leader producer who does organic agriculture, also, it is provided for the leader producer to increase their gained experience about organic agriculture. These companies are located in close relations within the universities, Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and other institutions and organizations and participating meetings, courses and panels. They are contributing some of university projects and helping to establish testing area in the land of their contract producers. In addition, they arrange several informational meetings in villages to provide the transition of organic agriculture for the producers who dont make organic agriculture. SWOT ANALySIS FOR ORGANIC SECTOR OF IZMIR PROVINCE IN TERMS OF RAISING AWARENESS Swot Analysis: This technique is used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of organization, technique, process or situation and the opportunities and threats arising from the external environment of the examined sector. SWOT matrix is a stage of a strategic vision after analyzing the systems internal and external factors. In the process of examining the system by SWOT analysis method, internal environment factors related to system is investigated to reveal what was going on for the systems success or the strengths and weaknesses of the future belongs of the system. External analyses are the methods applied, to reveal the system facilities and threats to the system.
Strengths - The great interest and support of both metropolitan and district municipalities to organic agriculture - The center of ETO is in Izmir - 16% of the land of organic agriculture in Turkey is in Izmir province - The farmer is being sensitive and open to crop diversity - Consumers awareness in health issues - The demand for organic products because of summer houses in the district - Organizational goodwill and tolerance - Interest and support of media - High interest of schools Opportunities - 9. Organic Products and Environment Fair will be held in Izmir - New Organic Agriculture Support Payment (20 TL per decar) - Organic agriculture and organic input production credit for the discount interest rate - A large number of researches about organic agriculture carrying out by universities - Izmirs agro-tourism potential - Advanced food processing industry Weaknesses - Currently, lack of an organic product market - No continuity of organic products in supermarkets - Lack of farmers organizations - Not sufficiently farm size - The producers chemical using habit - Difficulty of reaching organic inputs - Existing pesticide and fertilizer dealers have distribution network according to the conventional products Threats - Lack of adequate support - Fertilizer subsidies for conventional agriculture - Prices for organic products - Economic crisis - Insecurity about certification - Producers difficulties for transition to organic production

Table 2. SWOT Analysis for Organic Sector of Izmir Province in terms of Raising Awareness SUGGESTIONS Suggestions for Beneficiary of the Strengths

Izmir organic sector largely takes advantage of the strengths about raising awareness. Municipality, ETO, university, Provincial 127

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Directorate of Agriculture can show a joint effort about raising awareness. However, it is needed to provide continuity of these efforts. It is very important to better assess the province of Izmir elementary schools and high schools interest about organic products training and sensitivity, in terms of promoting a wide audience, even if it notifies less demand for organic products. In Izmir, the farmers are open to crop diversity. In terms of raising awareness of producer, must benefit from the experience. Suggestions for Transition of Weaknesses to Strengths Already, there is no organic product market. However, significant progress has been made on this issue. After troubleshooting of reconstruction, it is planned to open the market place up to May 2010. As well as organic market place, in terms of ensuring the continuity of organic products in supermarkets, measures must be taken in the direction of better supply chain. The organization of producers would bring more benefits in terms of transition to organic agriculture and also, being more caring and supportive of producer organizations are critical in terms of conduct and success of awareness activities. This situation will have eased the problems of small lands as well as the high cost of certification problems. It is needed to be strengthening organic inputs distribution network as facilitating the producers access to organic inputs and in this regard the producers need to be informed. Consumers need to be informed not only organic products but also organic agriculture and certification. Suggestions for the Evaluation of Opportunities Izmir town offers many significant opportunities in terms of agro-tourism. In this district, development of agro-tourism can be evaluated in the direction of organic products demand increase and better recognition of organic products. Briefings to serving breakfast organizations in the area of peninsula project are also considered to be important in this respect. In Aegean region, farm size is usually small. These farms are needed for the redirection of increasing organic agriculture activities. It is a very important opportunity for organic agriculture that the International Ecology Fair will be held in Izmir this year. Enough to take advantage of this opportunity, in addition, dealing with production, processing and trading companies, all public have to participate the fair as much as possible. This participation is also critical in terms of environmental awareness. New Organic Agriculture Support Payment dated 16.01.2010, is serious opportunity for Izmir organic agriculture. Support payments be made to farmers for organic farming 20 Turkish Liras per decar. This support will make it possible to complete taking advantage of the opportunity with the support of the education of producers and can be useful for the producer of Izmir province. Better opportunities will be created if the researches make by Aegean University are capable for the needs of Izmir, within the conjunction of the institutions operating in organic agriculture and through the results to be transferred each other. Suggestions for the Threats Instability of organic product price, in terms of raising awareness is a threat interest of all actors in organic products sector. The pricepremiums are high for the consumers and this affect the demand negatively. When combined with the economic crisis, consumers willingness to pay is decreasing. Organic products market may offer more affordable product to the consumer to a certain extent. In addition, through training and local authorities, greater communication with consumers will raise consumers awareness and by eliminating the negative attitude will increase the demand for organic food. Despite the recent support given per decar, it can not be said given support to organic agriculture is sufficient. This constitutes disadvantage in terms of raising awareness activity especially for producers. It is necessary to go over the policy especially subsidies for chemical inputs that focused on conventional agriculture. To encourage for organic product producers at least similar subsidies for organic inputs must be applied. Nevertheless it is important to finance and support for organic agriculture researches and certification. RESULT The province of Izmir, can benefit enough from the strengths of raising awareness activities in organic sector. However, these activities have to be supported with raising awareness campaigns which will strengthen the sectors weaknesses and assess the opportunities, although Izmir organic sector will become stronger. Thus, Izmir will create an example for Turkey in terms of organic agriculture. REFERENCES
1.Anonymus, Brifing, zmir Valilii ve Tarm l Mdrl, Kasm 2009 (http://www.izmir-tarim.gov.tr/farapor/il_m%C3%BCd/webformat_brifing_10112009.pdf). 2.Chang, H.S. and Zepeda, L. Consumer Perception and Demand for Organic Food in Australia: Focus Group Discussions. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems: 20(3); 155167, 2005. 3.Duman, ., Aksoy, U, Altndili, A., XXXX, E.. Ziraat Fakltesi Menemen Uygulama ve Aratrma iftlii Organik retim Projesi, Aegean niversitesi Ziraat Fakltesi Bahe Bitkileri Blm, zmir. 4.IFOAM, The Development of a Consumer Awareness and Education Concept Based on A Consumer Survey of Attitudes and Preferences Towards Organic Foods and on the Review of Existing PR Materials in East Africa, 2006. 5.http://www.asdf.com.tr/ (Eriim tarihi: 04.01.2010) 6.http://www.clusterturkey.com (Eriim tarihi: 04.01.2010) 7.http://www.tarim.gov.tr, (Eriim tarihi: 17.08.2009) 8.http://www.tuik.gov.tr, (Eriim tarihi: 17.08.2009) 9.http:www.yarimadaorganiktarim.com. (Eriim tarihi: 04.01.2010) 10.Mccann, E., Sullivan, S., Erickson D. And De Young, R. Environmental Awareness, Economic Orientation, and Farming Practices: A Comparison of Organic and Conventional Farmers, Environmental Management Vol.21, No.5, pp.747-758, 1997. 11.Yridoe, E.K., Bonti-Ankomah, S. and Martin, R.C. Comparison of Consumer Perceptions and Preference Toward Organic Versus Conventionally Produced Foods: A Review and Update of the Literature. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 20(4), 193-205, 2005.

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EVALUATION OF THE TRADITIONAL TURKISH HOUSES FROM THE POINT OF VIEW ECOLOGICAL DESIGN
Assistant Prof. Dr. Fsun SEER KARPTA, Lecturer in Hali University Faculty of Architecture fusunsecer@halic.edu.tr, Assistant Prof. Dr. enay BODUROLU, Lecturer in MSGSU Faculty of Architecture, senay@msgsu.edu.tr Res. Assist. Esin SARIMAN, Lecturer in MSGSU Faculty of Architecture, esin.sariman@msgsu.edu.tr

SUMMARy The architecture is contemporary and stable from the intelligent interpretation of the materials and structure used, reflecting the way of life of the community to the location and building and environment relations to be integrated point of view. When the traditional architecture is analyzed in a intelligent way it could be seen that the ecological building approach has been adopted too many years before and the balanced solutions with the climate have been achieved. The ecological architecture aims the reducing the required energy by selection of the proper material and structure to minimum and taking the properties of the territory of the building, climate conditions in the design in to consideration, providing the maximum efficiency of the energy used. The concept of the maintainable architecture created as the solution to the environment problems is routed to the traditional architecture as the system of the thinking. When the buildings which are taken in the consideration of territorial data, claimed conditions and natural environment, it has been understood that they have the similarities to the criterion of sustainability in the design.The technological developments which were accelerated after the industrial revolution caused the loss of the affect of the traditional structure created by the accumulations of centuries. In the design and application of the structures built in our accommodations today and the climate conditions are not taken into account. The harmony which was developed by the traditional architecture was diminished by the time and different climate regions were started to be structured by the building having the properties of same form, the order of location, crust and material. Turkish House location organization, material and component selection and order of location, are samples from environmental and climate factors evaluation as well as intelligent using of the structure system components. Today the production and design procedures of the buildings are started to be interrogated. It was accepted that adaptation of the data obtained from Traditional Turkish House samples to the current design and application procedures as a correct process. The Traditional Turkish Houses are the best samples explaining the values oriented to the human, explaining the traditional Turkish Architecture which has been made in a sustainable manner. By starting from that point of view it has been aimed formation of the traditional architecture according to the climate properties of the buildings sustainable design criterion and evaluation according to the relations between the traditional and ecological architecture. Keywords: Traditional Architecture, Ecological Architecture, Ecological Design Criterion, Turkish Houses. INTRODUCTION Ecological concept, which seems to belong todays world, is in fact being applied since Vitrivius and can be seen in traditional structures. The main purpose in traditional architecture is to comply with it, not rule over it. In parallel with this, sustainability in todays architecture is accommodating itself to nature and also the act of designing according to comfort conditions with sophisticated technology and materials without harming nature. The need for a more comfortable living and the utilization of technology brought about environmental problems. Solution seeking related to these problems continually remain on the agenda in order to enable mankind to coexist with nature without harming it. The emergence of consumption society with industrial revolution, utilization of new techniques in building sector caused energy to seem like inexpensive and tireless and an increase in energy consumption. As a result of these, sustainable architecture concept, which aims to minimize the energy requirement of a structure in its settlement, design and material selection taking into consideration the available land data, climatic information and natural environment, came to light. Ecological concept in urban design and in building scale is one of the most important objectives of energy and environment conservation. Adapting the data taken from the traditional architecture examples to todays design and application methods can be regarded as a correct method. The determinant criteria in housing design complying with sustainable architecture principles are land data, climate data, building form, spatial organization, building shell, material selection, utilization of non-exhausting energy sources and sanitation system. TRADITIONAL TURKISH HOUSE Turks have a rooted housing tradition since long. As the Turks living in the east of Asia mainly adopted nomadic lifestyle, they lived in tents that could be easily set up and detached. Western Turks chose settled life and constructed housings accordingly. In

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definition, Turkish House is a Turkish culture product seen within the borders of Ottoman Empire and in regions influenced from this culture and shaped in various ways according to traditions, economic conditions, regional-natural data and application techniques (Ergin,1994). According to another definition, it is a house type that reflects a shape and plan suitable to the living culture and customs of traditional Turkish family and that has met the needs of Turkish people for centuries (ngr,1979). Turkish house is the result of special conditions; but, it is a unique and unprecedented design with its plan arrangements that could accommodate it to various conditions, enable it to be used in urban houses and palaces with the ability to meet even some modern requirements. It is based on a modular system. The smallest unit of this module is a room and there are service areas beside and in front of it. There are some features distinguishing traditional Turkish House from other house types. These are plan scheme, multi-storey, roof type, front properties and building techniques. Plan Scheme: Turkish House has shown development according to various plan types in different and remote areas in terms of its climatic and cultural locations. These differences emanate from the necessity to comply with local materials and climate conditions and the adoption of local customs. But, there are some unchanging properties in Turkish House plan type. Rooms: You can sleep, sit, bathe, dine and even cook in every room of Turkish House. All the rooms have the same qualities. The qualities of rooms do not change though their size differs (Gnay 1989). Hall: Hall in Turkish House is the most significant element influencing the design of the house and connecting rooms to each other. Hall is a feature distinguishing Turkish House from other house types. The place and form of hall in the structure determines different plan types: Plan Type with no Hall, Plan Type with Outer Hall, Plan Type with Interior Hall, Plan Type with Middle Hall.

Figure 1. Plan Types with Hall(AKTUNA, M,2007) Multi-Storey and Roof Type: While Turkish House is generally single-storey, its floors increased in the course of time. The main floor is kept as high as possible from ground to benefit from natural light, sun, air and landscape. The roofs are hipped roofs inclined towards four directions and they have large eaves. Frontal Properties and Building Technique: In Turkish House, fronts reflecting the functionality of the plan to outside are built. The changes in plan scheme also affected fronts. While windows were not built in ground floors to hide the interior area from the streets, bay windows getting over the streets are built in upstairs. Climate and natural light needs played a role along with social and cultural features in the emergence of corbels (zbek 1985). The most common building techniques are fillings between timber framings or lath-and-plaster. EVALUATION OF THE TRADITIONAL TURKISH HOUSES FROM THE POINT OF VIEW ECOLOGICAL DESIGN Turkish House developed in 17th and 18th centuries in Ottoman Empire and scattered to a wide geographical region. Not only Turks, but also the societies living within the borders of Ottoman Empire contributed to finding the architecture solution most suitable to vegetation, topography, climate and economic conditions (Szen ve Eruzun, 1992). According toSedad Hakk Eldem (1984), Turkish House is a house type distinctive with its unique features, formed within the borders of old Ottoman Empire and Rumelia and Anatolia Regions and continued for about five hundred years.

Figure 2. Turkish house bay windows and shadowy, solar controlled streets 130

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Todays world, climate conditions are not taken into consideration in the design and application of the buildings. It is evident that; harmonies created by traditional architecture have vanished in the process of time. Structures with the same form, location order, shell and material qualities have begun to increase in different climatic zones. But, the amount of energy used in these structures for air conditioning is very high. Ecological architecture aims to minimize the energy requirements of the structures in the placement, design and material selection of architectural structures by taking current land data, climatic data and natural environment into account. Nature-compliant traditional architecture examples give ecology lessons to todays architecture. Architecture structures that shape the buildings according to climate and environment and minimize the additional air conditioning costs as successful as seen today, can be taken as examples for instance. In our country having regions with different climatic conditions, traditional architecture examples differ according to climate conditions. Paying regard to climate conditions, Turkish Houses are assessed in terms of physical sustainability under topics like the harmonies provided in the settlement and design of the structures, ecological settlement criteria and ecological design criteria. Land and Climatic Data: Turkish Houses in different climatic zones differ in terms of establishment method. But these differences are seen as the relations of rooms and the common fields between the rooms. It is clear from the traditional Turkish House settlements that; suitability to land and topography is important and structure design is performed in a way to thoroughly protect the central area between rooms. Houses are surrounded with high walls and insulation to exterior climate and sound is achieved. High courtyard walls and corbels in both sides of the street create shadowy areas throughout the day.

Figure 3. Turkish houses in different climatic zones Building Form and Spatial Organization: Rooms in Turkish House do not differ according to their functions, all of them can be used for the same ends. The change of use generally takes places as moving to winter room in the south in winters and summer room in the north in summers. External environment is static. Suitable effects and values like view, light and wind should be contained in the rooms. They are directed at squares or mosques according to the place and needs. Solutions are developed to protect the occupants against climate and heat changes. If the external environment is hot, the whole room gets open to external influences and cooled. The most suitable area for cold is selected in the plan and cross-section and it is chosen as winter room. Moreover, courtyard brings a protective impact both in hot and cold climates. Rooms have a sitting places called as divan in front of a single wall or sometime more walls. And there are cupboards known as yklk (cupboard for beddings) and ubukluk (cupboard for tobacco pipes) on the walls. There is a cooker in one corner of the room. There are niches and shelves on the walls beside it. Along with preventing the view from the outside, windows have frameworks that provide a well solar control element as well. When we analyze some examples living until today, it is found out that; there is a large room known as eyvan (iwan) and it has thick walls and high ceilings in accordance with climatic conditions (Alsa). The upstairs where people generally live are larger and brighter with bay windows, corbels, big windows and balconies in cities. Stairs are used to get to these places.

Figure 4. Air movement and solar control and ventilation in structure surface (AKTUNA, M,2007)

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Turkish house is generally located within a garden. This section, which is of importance in terms of lifestyle and family order, also determines the other functions in the house. Garden, which is like a courtyard closed to outside with walls, is a place where fruits and vegetables are grown. The water needs of the house are fulfilled through the well in the garden. The rooms of Turkish house are multipurpose locations. They become a dining room when sini (meal serving trays) are placed at the center, they become a bedroom when beddings in the cupboards are laid to the ground. People sit inside these rooms, manage various domestic affairs and welcome guests. Furnitures are generally fixed in Turkish houses. Furnishings like diwan, cupboards, cookers and shelves are generally fixed and they are designed and installed together with the house. The flooring of the rooms is generally made of earth, bricks or wood and after putting a mat on it, rugs or carpets are laid. One of the cupboards is used as a bathing place. The house may have a bath in the ground floor or in the basement. Building Shell and Material Selection: Climate is an important factor. In suitable climates, window bay is protected with a single cover and glass sashes are not required. But, in harsh climates, opening of the whole sash is prevented in order to abstain from heat loss. There is a lintel shaped like an ornamental arch in the sections of the wooden doors looking at the hall. And, heat loss of the room is prevented by hanging a cotton curtain to this arch where the sash leans on in cold weathers. Turkish house generally consists of a single floor or two floors made of wood over a substructure with mud-walls or brick-walls. The foundation of flooring is generally left simple in Turkish Houses. It has always been important to settle it like fixed on the ground. Considering both the foundation and construction components, it is evident that; certain basic principles are applied without change. Ceilings are one of the most significant elements. As the outer parts of houses are plain, ceilings are ornamented. Wooden window sash opening types change depending on regions in Turkish Houses.

Figure 5. Traditional Turkish house garden and the well inside it Traditional architecture examples have survived until today as works in which people provided solutions suitable to their climatic and environmental conditions by trial and error for ages and reflected their own lifestyles, cultures, customs and traditions. CONCLUSION The increase in industrialization and utilization of technology to provide a more comfortable life have brought along environmental problems. Solution searches for environmental problems are constantly put on the agenda in order to enable men to coexist with nature and not harming it. Emergence of consumption society with industrial revolution, utilization of new techniques in building sector caused energy to be seen as inexpensive and tireless and an increase in the energy consumption. The impacts of history, culture and social life continuing for centuries, can be seen in the shaping of Turkish houses. When traditional Turkish House is analyzed within the context of sustainable design criteria, it is found to be planned according to land settlement properties, topographical suitability, direction selection, green fabric and climate data. It is understood that; houses are designed by taking climatic and environmental conditions into account from their settlements and designs. When ecological design strategies are in question for Turkey, reviewing how the traditional settlements and structures in Anatolia are designed under cultural, topographical and climatic conditions and adapting them to todays conditions can be regarded as a correct approach. Taking all these criteria into consideration, sustainable design strategies are known to be practiced in the traditional settlements and houses in Anatolia for ages. In conclusion, it is clear that; architects aiming at ecological design should analyze traditional architecture and interpret the building strategies used in this architecture with todays technology and materials and design buildings and settlements consuming limited energy sources as low as possible in order to remove environmental and energy problems and leave a habitable world to next generations. REFERENCES
AKIN, T., Doal evre Etmenlerine Bal Olarak Yerleme ve Bina leinde klimle Dengeli Konut Tasarm ve Denetleme Modeli, Doktora Tezi, Y.T.., stanbul, 2001. AKTUNA, M., Geleneksel Mimaride Binalarn Srdrlebilir Tasarm Kriterleri Balamnda Deerlendirilmesi Antalya Kaleii Evleri rnei Yaynlanmam Yksek Lisans Tezi, YT, Istanbul, 2007. ALSA, ., Trk Kent Dzenlemesi Ve Konut Mimarl, letiim Yaynlar, stanbul, 1993 ELDEM, S. H., Trk Evi Osmanl Dnemi I, stanbul Ant evre Turizm Deerlerini Koruma Vakf, stanbul,1984. ERGN, Y. N., Tepe Pencereli Evler zerine Bir Arastrma, Yksek Lisans Tezi, Y.T.., stanbul, 1994.

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GNAY, R., Geleneksel Safranbolu Evleri ve Oluumu, Kltr Bakanl Yaynlar, Ankara, 1989 KILALIOLU, M. ve BERKES, F., Ekoloji ve evre Bilimleri, Remzi Kitabevi, stanbul, 1994. KILALIOLU, M. ve BERKES, F., evre ve Ekoloji, Remzi Kitabevi, stanbul, 1999. KKERMAN, ., Kendi Mekannn Aray inde Trk Evi, Trkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu, stanbul, 1996. SZEN, M. ve ERUZUN, C., Anatolian Vernacular Houses, Emlak Bankas Kltr Yaynlar, stanbul,1992. TNK, S.,Bina Tasarmnda Ekoloji, Yldz Teknik niversitesi Basm Yayn Merkezi, stanbul, 2001 TNK, S., Ekolojik _lkeler Dogrultusunda Bina ve evre-Yesil Doku likileri, Pazartesi Syleileri 19961997, stanbul,1999.

IMPACT OF ORGANIC FARMING ON GLOBAL WARMING RECENT SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE


Prof. Dr. Habil. Gerold Rahmann Institute of Organic Farming, Johann Heinrich von Thnen-Institute, Trenthorst 32, 23847 Westerau, Germany, gerold. rahmann@vti.bund.de

ABSTRACT It is not clear if conversion to organic farming is an option for reducing the impact of farming on global warming. For the purpose of assessment, available literature was evaluated. Different results of the impact of organic farming concerning greenhouse effect were found among the various sources (Bockisch et al. 2000, Fritsche & Eberle 2007, Flessa et al. 2002, Nemecek et al. 2005, Hlsbergen & Kstermann 2007, Haas et al. 2001, Smukalski et al. 1992, Korbun et al. 2004, Taylor 2000, Williams et al. 2006, Kpke & Haas 1995). The different conclusions of the studies depend on the products observed, the systems observed (system borders) and the structure and intensity of the systems (low or high external input and output). It can be concluded that organic farming is less relevant to the greenhouse effect than comparable conventional farming systems. The higher emission of greenhouse gases in conventional systems is caused by purchased feedstuff from overseas, mineral fertilizer and pesticides. The higher yields per ha and animal unit are usually not able to compensate these negative impacts. Nevertheless, there are options for both conventional and organic farming to improve towards more climate-friendly farming patterns. For example, IP (integrated production systems) are comparable with organic farming systems (Nemecek et al. 2005). Organic farming has to be developed as well to reduce climatic impacts through higher output per hectare or per animal and higher energy efficiency in the whole product chain. An important factor is the Corg level of the soils (Mder et al. 2002, Capriel 2006, Hoyer et al. 2007, Penman et al. 2003, Kpke 2006). Renewable energy can help to reduce fossil energy in farming and processing (SRU 2007, Rahmann et al. 2008). Mechanisation does not conflict with the goal of being more climate-friendly (Nemecek et al. 2005). Keywords: Global warming, organic farming

INTRODUCTION The anthropogenically induced climate change has increased the world temperature in the last hundred years by between 0.6 and 0.7 C. All food production contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2005, German agriculture had a share of 108 mio t CO2-eq , respectively 6.3 % of all German GHG emissions (worldwide agriculture contributes 13 %) (UBA 2007, Rahmann et al. 2008). Agriculture plays a large role in the GHG emissions of methane (44 mio t of CH4) and N2O (41 mio t) (Tab. 1). Mineral fertilizer (N2O) and ruminant digestion (CH4) are the main source of agricultural emissions. GHG emissions of livestock production have enormous global relevance (Steinfeld et al., 2006). In Germany, 30 % of the GHG emissions from agriculture can be allocated to dairy cows (Osterburg et al.; 2009). Food production is a function of consumption. In recent years, food production and consumption contributed 16 % of the total emissions per capita (1.6 t CO2-eq) (KO 2007). The challenge of food production is to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions per product and not production unit (minimize CO2-eq emission per kg milk and not per cow or kg wheat and not per hectare). With this parameter it is not clear yet if organic farming has less impact on climate change than conventional farming. Tab. 1German agriculture-related GHG emissions in 2005 (mio t CO2-eq)

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Emission source Livestock digestion Organic fertilizer (manure) Emissions from soil utilisation Soil carbonizing Fossil energy use Mineral N-fertilizer production Total agricultural emissions Total German emissions

CO2 42.4 1.7 6.7 5.2 56.0 885.9

CH4 18.3 5.0 -0.6 0.0 0.3 23.0 51.4

N2O 3.1 42.4 0.1 8.6 54.2 66.4

Total 18.3 8.1 8.2 1.7 6.8 14.1 133.2 1003.7

Source: compiled from UBA 2007 A literature review has been carried out to identify the present state of knowledge and to define scientific challenges to reduce emissions and develop and adapt organic farming under climate change (Rahmann et al. 2008). The assessment and the development should not ignore the multi-functionality of agriculture (preservation of biodiversity and biotopes, landscape, food security and safety, tradition and culture, protection of soil, water and air, animal welfare).GHG impact of organic farming in Germany Organic farming is considered a low input - low output system (organic standards of the EU are defined in the regulations 834/2007/ EC and 889/2008/EC). Because mineral fertilizer and chemical pesticides are prohibited, and feed additives and concentrate feeds are limited (low/medium input- low/medium output farming), the efficiency/output per hectare resp. animal is less than in conventional farming (medium/high input medium/high output farming). Less animal units can be kept per hectare due to limitations in dung units (170 kg manure-N per hectare and year; 889/2008/EC). In Germany, organic farms keep only 0.69 livestock units (500 kg live weight) per ha and conventional farms 0.89 (2005/06; BMELV 2007). Different GHG balances have to be expected compared to conventional systems. Recent system comparisons still rely on single farm comparisons (Thomassen et al. 2008), special regions (Haas et al. 2001) or give raw estimates on productivity and on management differences between the farming systems (BassetMens et al. 2009). It is still unclear if lower productivity of organic systems in general has adverse effects on the GHG balance of the products. A literature review has been carried out to identify the recent knowledge (Rahmann et al. 2008). Comparative studies on crop production (Tab. 2, Tab. 3), animal husbandry (Tab. 4, Tab. 5 and Tab. 6) at the farm gate and place of purchasing food products (consumer level; Tab. 7) have been found. Some studies are done in countries adjacent to Germany but with comparable ecological and socio-economic framework conditions (e.g., Scandinavia, Great Britain, Switzerland). Comparison studies on arable crop production show big differences between organic and conventional (Tab. 2) as well as between different crops (Tab. 3). The studies show that organic farming has a clear advantage in terms of low GHG emissions per hectare. This is not the case if the GHG per product unit (e.g. kg) is considered. There is a overlapping between organic and conventional production. The GHG emission per kg legume crops is comparable to conventional production. This is due to the fact that legume crops like peas and beans do not need much fertilizer (mineral fertilizer contributes greatly to GHG emissions) in conventional systems like in organic farming, but achieve better production yields with the use of pesticides (pesticides have a low contribution to GHG emission). Overall, organic farming has low GHG emissions but integrated production is not very far from this level. Tab. 2Emission of organic (EU standards) and conventional crop production in Germany (Index 100; numbers below 100 = organic has an advantage)
Fossil fuel per hectare per product unit CO2 per hectare per product unit CH4 per hectare per product unit N2O per hectare Organic (EU) vs. Organic (EU) vs. conventional a Integrated production b non-legume crops legumes non-legume crops legumes non-legume crops legumes non-legume crops legumes non-legume crops legumes non-legume crops legumes 27 - 47 72 - 94 29 - 92 53 - 63 47 - 67 88 - 102 74 - 127 54 - 63 9 - 25 66 - 91 14 - 35 95 - 126 44 - 82 72 - 94 69 - 133 53 - 63 68 - 100 88 - 102 100 - 164 54 - 63 24 - 61 66 - 91 7 - 83 95 - 126

non-legume crops 1-4 1 - 12 legumes 74 - 88 74 - 88 non-legume crops 1 - 69 3 - 150 per product unit legumes 45 - 60 45 - 60 a high input high output; b medium input medium/high output (IP; integrated production)

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Tab. 3GHG impact of organic and integrated production for different arable crops per hectare (kg CO2-eq ha-1 a-1) and product unit (g CO2-eq kg DM-1) in Switzerland
Winter wheat Winter barley Potatos Rape Cow beans (feed) Peas (feed) ha kg ha kg ha kg ha kg ha kg ha kg Integrated production (IPintensiv) 4,126 692 3,941 605 5,428 653 3,817 1,304 3,217 978 3,209 961 Organic production (Bio Suisse-Standard) 3,424 913 3,137 804 3,852 764 2,946 1,549 3,929 1,335 3,443 1,300

Source: Nemecek et al. 2005 The British DEFRA study (Tab. 4) was discussed controversially throughout Europe. The result of the discussion was that a single element approach cannot be the relevant level for farming system comparison studies. The whole farming system has to be considered in assessments. This was done in the model calculation for dairy cows by Dmmgen and Dhler (2009) (Tab. 5). Organic dairy farming had lower GHG emission than conventional systems. The weak points of such results are the missing detailed data set. Model results are as good (or bad) as the data behind them. This is obvious, if the results of several studies are compared (Tab. 6). It shows that the range of the results is so wide, that reliability is not given. Tab. 4 Energy utilization and GHG impact of livestock keeping in UK (per t of product)
Conventional Organic Conventional Organic Conventional Organic Conventional Organic Conventional Organic Conventional (cage keeping) Organic Energy utilization [MJ t-1] 25,200 15,600 27,800 18,100 16,700 14,500 23,100 18,400 12,000 15,800 13,600 16,100 GHG emission [CO2-eq t-1] 10,600 12,300 15,800 18,200 6,360 5,640 17,500 10,100 4,570 6,680 5,250 7,000

Milk Beef Pork Lamb Poultry meat Eggs

Source: Williams et al. (2006) Tab. 5 Emissions from dairy farming depending on the farming method (kg CO2-eq cow-1 a-1)
Greenhouse gas CH4 (Digestion) CH4 (Stored) CH4 (Diesel) Sum CH4 N2O (Stored) N2O (Fertilizer) N2O (Indirect) N2O (Fertilizer-manufacture) N2O (Diesel) Sum N2O CO2 (Fertilizer) CO2 (Fertilizer manufacture) CO2 (Diesel) Sum CO2 Sum greenhouse gases [tons CO2-eq cow-1 a-1] conv., stable silage, slurry 91.8 18.2 0.0 110.0 0.94 2.80 2.88 0.13 0.09 6.83 69 101 231 401 5.36 conv., pasture, silage, slurry 92.9 15.1 0.0 108.0 0.77 3.24 3.86 0.12 0.08 8.07 72 92 210 375 5.62 conv., pasture, straw bed 92.9 4.4 0.0 97.3 0.83 3.30 3.88 0.12 0.08 8.21 72 92 210 375 5.42 organic, pasture, straw bed 92.9 4.4 0.0 97.3 0.83 1.60 4.19 0.00 0.14 6.75 0 0 353 353 4.94

Source: Dmmgen and Dhler 2009

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Tab. 6:GHG emission of milk production results of several studies Source Energy Abel, cit. in Taylor 2000 Scheitz, cit. in Taylor 2000 Bockisch et al. 2000 Haas et al. 20001 Grnroos et al. 2006 Meul et al. 2007 CO2 Bockisch et al. 2000 Haas et al. 2001 Weiske et al. 2006 CH4 Bockisch et al. 2000 Haas et al. 2001 Weiske et al. 2006 Sneath et al. 2006 Hensen et al. 2006 N 2O Bockisch et al. 2000 Haas et al. 2001 Weiske et al. 2006 Abel zit. in Taylor 2000 Scheitz zit in Taylor 2000 Bockisch et al. 2000 Haas et al. 2001 Casey & Holden 2005 Weiske et al. 2006 Unit MJ t-1 milk MJ t-1 milk MJ/ animal MJ t-1 milk MJ t-1 milk MJ t-1 milk MJ t-1 milk kg CO2 cow-1 kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 mik kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2 cow-1 kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq cow-1 d-1 kg CO2 cow-1 kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 milk kg CO2-eq t-1 feed kg CO2-eq t-1 ECM kg CO2-eq t-1 ECM kg CO2-eq t-1 milk Conventional 2,180 3,360 18,675 2,721 2,700 6,390 4,385 2,576 1,395 203 177 129 no data no data 706 516 9.6 16.1 (slurry) 32.2 (straw) no data no data 417 645 611 778 no data no data 1,300 1,156 1,500 195 1,290 Organic 740 1,640 8,113 1,474 1,200 4,410 764 140 88 83 13.96 2.52 846 635 8.1 1.8 : 1 1.4 : 1 2.0 : 1 1.6 : 1 Relation 2.9 : 1 2.0 : 1 2.3 : 1 1.8 : 1 1.9 : 1 1.4 : 1

1 : 1.20 1 : 1.23 1.18 : 1

10.23 2.17 365 676 538 691 145 27 1,299

1.14 : 1 1 : 1.05 1.13 : 1 1.12 : 1 1: 1

1,394

1: 1.08

Source: compiled by Rahmann et al. 2008 The impact of farming should not only consider one factor (e.g., GHG emission). For example, biodiversity, animal welfare, landscape and economics are further factors. For all these multi-functional factors, organic farming has big advantages compared to medium/ high input medium/high output conventional farming. High market prices for organic products are an important factor. For example, the yield per hectare for winter wheat production is 42 % lower in organic farming than in comparable conventional farming systems (3.96 t ha-1 vs. 6.87 t ha-1) (harvest year 2005). But organic winter wheat had a market price of 196.60 t-1, conventional only 95.10 t-1. Organic milk is usually 0.07 to 0.14 kg-1 higher than conventional milk (2005/06: 0.36 vs. 0.24 kg-1 ECM). Price differences are the reason that organic farms earn more money than comparable conventional farms (2005/06: 321 vs. 304 ha-1 a-1, 21,446 vs. 20,180 labourer-1 a-1). Overall, organic farms had, with 321 ha-1 in 2006, higher profits than comparable conventional farms (304 ha-1). The return for labor was, with 21.446 LU-1 in organic farming, higher than in conventional farming (20.180 LU-1) (data from test farm survey results oft he German ministry of agriculture; BMELV 2007). The previous tables show farm gate results. Transport, processing and trade of the food products are not considered at this level. Fritsche & Eberle (2007) calculated the GHG emission of food at the place of purchase. They used the GEMIS model (Globales emission model for integrated systems) (Tab. 7).

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Tab. 7GHG impact of food products at retailer level (g CO2-eq kg-1) Conventional Vegetable (fresh) 150 Vegetable (tinned) 509 Vegetable (deep frozen) 412 Potatoes (fresh) 197 Fried Potatoes (deep frozen) 5,714 Tomatoes (fresh) 327 Bread 655 Cookies 931 Poultry (fresh) 3,491 Poultry (deep frozen) 4,519 Beef (fresh) 13,303 Source: Fritsche & Eberle Conclusion Organic 127 477 375 136 5,555 226 547 831 3,033 4,061 11,371 Beef (deep frozen) Pork (fresh) Pork (deep frozen) Butter yoghurt Cheese Milk Curd (fresh) Cream Eggs Conventional 14,331 3,247 4,275 23,781 1,228 8,502 938 1,925 7,622 1,928 Organic 12,398 3,038 4,064 22,085 1,156 7,943 881 1,801 7,098 1,539

Organic farming has an advantage in less GHG emission per hectare. The prohibition of mineral fertilizer, chemical pesticides and restrictions in concentrate feed led to lower yields per hectare. Therefore the advantage of organic farming in lower GHG emission is not clear yet. Without doubt, the primary energy utilization is a clear difference between organic and conventional farming. Obviously there is an overlapping of the impact of organic and conventional farming systems in GHG emission. Best practice is necessary to avoid too high emissions. Organic farming cannot claim much less GHG emission and must develop organic farming systems to identify main sources of emissions and to reduce them. Science can help. Action fields are: optimised nutrient management improved seeds and breeds (higher yields, more resistance crops, water and nutrient efficient) better machine utilization reduced cropping measures (no/less tillage systems) improved dung storage and application techniques improved plant protection optimized feedstuff rations for animals (especially ruminants) renewable energy technology improved processing and trading changes in consumption habits Research project Climate effects and sustainability of organic and conventional farming systems - examination in a network of pilot farms Because it is still unclear if lower productivity of organic systems in general has adverse effects on the GHG balance of the products, a Germany-wide study started in 2009. Representative assessments on 40 organic and 40 adjacent and comparable conventional farms in four German regions (North: coastal region, maritime climate; East: continental climate, large farm structure; South: Alpine grassland farms and productive areas in the pre-alpine region; West: low mountain areas, Lower Rhine Basin, continental climate) will be assessed in 2009 2012 for GHG emissions. The study considers soil, plant production, animal husbandry and manure handling. Half of the pilot farms (20 organic and 20 conventional farms) are dairy systems. The data are put into the models of REPRO (Hlsbergen et al. 2000) and GAS EM (Dmmgen et al. 2002). REFERENCES
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slurry. Soil Biol Biochem 38(9):2602-2613 Leithold G (2003) Humusversorgung im kologischen Landbau : Analyse und Bewertung des Humushaushaltes mit Hilfe von Humusbilanzen [online]. Zu finden in <http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/ volltexte/2004/1446/pdf/LeitholdGuenter-2004-03-04.pdf> [Zitiert am 03.03.2008] Lovett D, Lovell S, Stack L, Callan J, Finlay M, Conolly J, OMara FP (2003) Effect of forage/concentrate ratio and dietary coconut oil level on methane output and performance of finishing beef heifers. Livest Prod Sci 84(2):135-146 Michel J ,Weiske A, Kaltschmitt M (2006) Kapitel 7: kologische und konomische Bilanzierung. In: Mller K, Leithold G, Michel J, Schnell S, Stinner W, Weiske A (eds) Auswirkung der Fermentation biogener Rckstnde in Biogasanlagen auf Flchenproduktivitt und Umweltvertrglichkeit im kologischen Landbau Pflanzenbauliche, konomische und kologische Gesamtbewertung im Rahmen typischer Fruchtfolgen viehhaltender und viehloser kologisch wirtschaftender Betriebe : (Endbericht: DBU AZ 15074). Giessen, pp 241 ff MIDAIR (2001) Greenhouse gas mitigation for organic and conventional dairy production (MIDAIR) [online]. Zu finden in <, http://www.energetik-leipzig.de/Bioenergie/Midair/MIDAIR_WP%20 summaries.pdf> [Zitiert am 15.03.2005] Mller K, Leithold G, Michel J, Schnell S, Stinner W, Weiske A (eds) (2006) Auswirkung der Fermentation biogener Rckstnde in Biogasanlagen auf Flchenproduktivitt und Umweltvertrglichkeit im kologischen Landbau Pflanzenbauliche, konomische und kologische Gesamtbewertung im Rahmen typischer Fruchtfolgen viehhaltender und viehloser kologisch wirtschaftender Betriebe : (Endbericht: DBU AZ 15074). Giessen, 396 p Monteny GJ, Bannink A, Chadwick D (2006) Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 112, 163170. Munroe L, Cook HF, Lee HC (2002) Sustainability indicators used to compare properties of organic and conventionally managed topsoils. Biol Agric Hortic 20:201-214 Murphy D, Rver M, Flachowsky G, Sohler S, Bockisch F-J, Heinemeyer O (2000) Vergleich konventioneller und kologischer Produktionsverfahren. Landbauforsch Vlkenrode SH 211:109-166 Nemecek T, Huguenin-Elie O, Dubois D, Gaillard G (2005) kobilanzierung von Anbausystemen im schweizerischen Acker- und Futterbau. Schriftenreihe der FAL 58, Agroscope FAL Reckenholz: 156p Oenema O, Velthof GL, Yamulki S, Jarvis SC (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland. Soil Use and Management 13.4, 288-95. KO (2007) Globales Emissions-Modell Integrierter Systeme (GEMIS). Version 4.4, Darmstadt (www.gemis.de) Osterburg B, Nieberg H, Rter S, Isermeyer F, Haenel HD, Hahne J, Krentler JG, Paulsen HM, Schuchardt F, Schweinle J, Weiland P (2009) Erfassung, Bewertung und Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen des deutschen Agrar- und Ernhrungssektors. Arbeitsberichte aus der vTi-Agrarkonomie 3/2009, 115p. Paulsen HM, Rahmann G (2004) Wie sieht der energieautarke Hof mit optimierter Nhrstoffbilanz im Jahr 2025 aus? Landbauforsch Vlkenrode SH 274:57-73 Paulsen HM, Schdlich O, Oppermann R (2007) Dezentrale Pflanzenlerzeugung und -nutzung auch in kologischen Betrieben? In: Zikelki S, Claupein W, Dabbert S (eds) Zwischen Tradition und Globalisierung : Beitrge zur 9. Wissenschaftstagung kologischer Landbau ; Universitt Hohenheim, 20.-23. Mrz 2007 ; Bd. 1. Berlin : Kster, pp 409-412 Paulsen HM, Schochow M, Ulber B, Khne S, Rahmann G (2006) Mixed cropping systems for biological control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops. Asp Appl Biol 79:215-219 Penman J, Gytarsky M, Hiraishi T, Krug T, Kruger D, Pipatti R, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K, Wagner F (2003) Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry [online]. Zu finden in http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf.htm [zitiert am 04.03.2008] Post J (2006) Prozessbasierte Modellierung der Bodenkohlenstoffdynamik in Flusseinzugsgebieten unter heutigen und zuknftigen Umweltbedingungen [online]. Zu finden in http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/ volltexte/2006/1150/ [zitiert am 04.03.2008] Rahmann G, Nieberg H, Drengemann S, Fenneker A, March S, Zurek C (2004) Bundesweite Erhebung und Analyse der verbreiteten Produktionsverfahren, der realisierten Vermarktungswege und der wirtschaftlichen sowie sozialen Lage kologisch wirtschaftender Betriebe und Aufbau eines bundesweiten Praxis-Forschungs-Netzes. Braunschweig : FAL, 428 p, Landbauforsch Vlkenrode SH 276 Rahmann G, Aulrich K, Barth K, Bhm H, Koopmann R, Oppermann R, Paulsen HM, Weimann F (2008) Klimarelevanz des kologischen Landbaus Stand des Wissens, Landbauforschung vTI Agriculture and Foresty Research 1/2 2008, 71-89. Reinbrecht C, Claupein W (2004) Vergleich der Anbaueignung verschiedener lpflanzenarten und -sorten fr den kologischen Landbau unter den Aspekten Speiselgewinnung und Eiweiquelle [online]. Zu finden in <www.orgprints.org/4844> [zitiert am 04.03.2008] Reinhardt G, Scheulen K (2004) Naturschutzaspekte bei der Erzeugung erneuerbarer Energien [online]. Zu finden in http://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/naturschutzaspekte_ee.pdf [zitiert am 04.03.2008 Renkema JA, Stelwagen J (1979) Economic Evaluation of Replacement Rates in Dairy Herds .1. Reduction of Replacement Rates Through Improved Health. Livestock Production Science 6.1, 15-27 Rhricht C (2005) Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse im Anbau schnellwachsender Baumarten im Kurzumtrieb im Freistaat Sachsen [online]. Zu finden in <http://www.smul.sachsen.de/de/wu/ Landwirtschaft/lfl/inhalt/download/Vortrag__SH_18_01_05_roehricht.pdf> [zitiert am 04.03.2008] Rhricht C, Kiesewalter S, Gro-Ophoff (2002) Acker- und pflanzenbauliche Untersuchungen zum Anbau ein- und mehrjhriger Energiepflanzen im Freistaat Sachsen. Schriftenr Schs Landesanst Landwirtsch 4 Rhling I, Ruser R, Klbl A, Priesack E, Gutser R (2005) Kohlenstoff und Stickstoff in Agrarkosystemen. In: Osinski E, Meyer-Aurich A, Huber B, Rhling I, Gerl G, Schrder P (eds) Landwirtschaft und Umwelt ein Spannungsfeld : Ergebnisse des Forschungsverbunds Agrarkosysteme Mnchen (FAM). Mnchen : oekom Verl, pp 99-154 Ruser R, Flessa H, Schilling R, Beese F, Munch JC (2001) Effect of crop-specific field management and N fertilization on N2O emissions from a fine-loamy soil. Nutrient Cycling Agroecosyst 59:177-191 Scholwin F, Fritsche U (2007) Kurzstudie Beurteilung von Biogasanlagenparks im Vergleich zu Hof-Einzelanlagen. Darmstadt : Inst Energetik Umwelt Sergis-Christian L, Brouwers J (2005) Dezentral hergestelltes, kaltgepresstes Pflanzenl im kologischen Vergleich mit Dieselkraftstoff. Arbeitsergebnisse / AG Land- und Regionalentwicklung am Fachbereich kologische Agrarwissenschaften der Universitt Kassel : SH 3 Smith P (2005) Carbon sequestration in croplands : the potential in Europe and the global context. Landbauforsch Vlkenrode SH 280:63-70 Smukalski M, Rogasik J, Knkel KL (1992) Landbau und Treibhauseffekt CO2-Umsatz bei unterschiedlicher Intensitt der Landwirtschaft. Landbauforschung Vlkenrode 42/2: 55-61 Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M, de Haan H (2006) Lifestocks long shadow. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Stolze M, Piorr A, Hring AM (2000) The environmental impacts of organic farming in Europe. Hohenheim : Institut fr Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre, XI, 127 p, Organic Farming in Europe 6 Sundrum A (2002) Systemimmanentes Potential zur Minderung von Emissionen. KTBL-Schrift 406:265-277 Tamminga S (2003) Pollution due to nutrient losses and its control in European animal production. Livest Prod Sci 84(2):101-111 Taylor C (2000) kologische Bewertung von Ernhrungsweisen anhand ausgewhlter Indikatoren. Gieen : Univ., 179 p Thomassen MA, van Calker KJ, Smits MCJ, Iepema GL, de Boer IJM (2008) Life cycle assessment of conventional and organic milk production in the Netherlands. Agricultural Systems 96.1-3, 95-107. UBA (2007) Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar , : Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen 1990-2005. Dessau : Umweltbundesamt Ulber B, Khne S (2007) Schdlingsbefall an Raps in Rein- und Mischfruchtanbau im kologischen Landbau. Landbauforsch Vlkenrode SH 309:96-107 van Knegsel AT, van den BH, Dijkstra J, Tamminga S, Kemp B (2005) Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle. Reprod Nutr Dev 45(6):665-688 Wagner-Riddle C, Thurtell GW, Kidd GK, Beauchamp EG, Sweetman R (1997) Estimates of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields over 28 months. Can J Soil Sci 77:135144 Wegener JK (2006) Treibhausgas-Emissionen in der deutschen Landwirtschaft Herkunft und technische Minderungspotenziale unter besonderer Bercksichtigung von Biogas, Dissertation, Universitt Gttingen, 9-33. Wiegmann K, Eberle U, Fritsche UR, Hnecke K (2005) Umweltauswirkungen von Ernhrung Stoffstromanalysen und Szenarien [online]. www.ernaehrungswende.de/pdf/DP7_Szenarien_2005_final. pdf Williams AG, Audsley E, Sandars DL (2006) Determining the environmental burdens and resource use in the production of agricultural and horticultural commodities : Defra project report IS0205 [online] www.silsoe.cranfield.ac.uk> and <www.defra.gov.uk Witzke H, Noleppa S (2007) Methan und Lachgas - Die vergessenen Klimagase, Wie die Landwirtschaft ihren Beitrag zum Klimaschutz leisten kann - Ein klimaschutz-politischer Handlungsrahmen, WWF Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main, Network for Policy Advice GbR, Berlin, 11-58. 2007

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PLANT NUTRITIONS ON ORGANIC LEEK (Allium ampeloprasum L.) SEED PRODUCTION
Glay BERL1, brahim SNMEZ1, Hlya LB2, Hasan PULLU2 gul662000@gmail.com, sonmez77@gmail.com, hulyailbi@gmail.com,
1 2

Atatrk Central Horticultural Research Institute-Yalova/Turkey Aegean University Seed Technology Application and Research Ins.-zmir/Turkey

ABSTARCT The objective of this study was to compare growing of leek seed yield and quality in organic and convantional agricultural conditions. The effects of different organic plant nutritions combinations such as; green manure (GM), GM+farmyard cattle (FC), GM+FC+seamoss (SM), GM+FC+biostimulant (BIO), GM+humic acid (HA), GM+NPK, GM+olive mill compost (OMC) were searched on seed yield and quality properties of negl 92 leek variety. The effects of different plant nutrition on seed yield (kg/da), 1000 grain weight (g), number of 1 g seeds, (%) standard germination rate (%), controlled deterioration rate and (%) seed moisture contents were investigated. The results showed that, there were no significant differences between different plant nutrition treatments on organic leek seed yield and quality properties which are 1000 grain (3.2 g), number of 1 g seed (304.0-319.6), yield (76.5-91.5 kg/da), standard germination ratio (87.81-93.75%), controlled deterioration ratio (%81.81-89.00) and seed moisture contents (11,43-12,33%). These all results were very important for showing no differences seed yield and quality between organic and conventional agricultural conditions. Because of that result, the Institute was firstly started organic certificated vegetable seed production in Turkey. From this point of view the results was encouraged us for starting organic seed production program at 7 vegetable specieses and 13 varieties in the Institute and planned same complicated research program on organic vegetable seed production. Keywords: Organic seed, vegetable, leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) INTRODUCTION Seed production has been done in Atatrk Horticultural Research Institute since 1974 in vegetable department. 33 different open pollinated vegetable varieties have been developed by classical breeding programs and certificated seed production is done on this varieties in this department by the department stuffs. The obtained seeds are sold to growers, private seed companies and researchers. Organic agriculture studies were started at the Institute in 1998 for getting data on organic fruits and vegetable production for growers who want to start organic farming. Past twelve years good data were got out on fresh fig, kiwi fruit, strawberry, tomatoes, spinach and leek production [11]. The vegetable department stuffs integrated all experiences and started the first organic vegetable seed production programme on tomatoes (cv. Invuctus Lot 335). Seed production season is longer than fresh vegetable production season. This time is twice longer for the biennial plants as leek. Leek whole life cycle is completed in 12-14 months [19] [10] [13]. As a result, plant diseases and insects have more time to attack the crop during seed maturation [16]. For these reasons, organic certificated seed production improvement very slow and the number of vegetable species which can available organic seed is very low at the practice [12]. Seed yield, 1000 grain weight, seed number per see of 1 g properties are used for yield quality in the seed production [23]. Standard germination ratio (%), controlled deterioration test and moisture content (%) characters are used for determining of seed quality [18]. Seed yield is changeable depend on variety, plant density, growing condition and nutrition source in leek. Leek seed yield is 60 kg da-1, seed number per seed of 1 g is 350-400 and standard germination ratio is 30-90 % [10] [17]. 1000 grain weight of leek seed is 2.2-5.0 g and seed yield is 40-80 kg da-1 in South Marmara Region [21]. The aim of this study was to characterise organic leek seed production by selected parameters of seed quality and yield in the South Marmara Region where mainly fresh leek and seed production is realized in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experiment was conducted in the organic field of Atatrk Central Horticultural Research Institute in Yalova stated in south of Marmara Region. The cultivar was used negl 92 which is widespread and well adapted in this region. It is an open pollinated variety and suitable for fresh consumption and processing industry. Fava bean (Vicia faba L.), Eresen-87 cv. was used as a green manure (GM) plant, 20 kg da-1. The soil analyses was done before sowing fava bean on 12 Nowember/2004, cut and mixed the soil at 25-40%flowering stage on

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13 April 2005 [1]. The soil samples were taken for determining soil structure from the experiment field before treatment of plant nutrition. At the soil analysis, the following parameters were determined: pH, in water ratio 1:2,5 [3], EC was measured at the same water ratio by the EC meter, the organic matter (OM) by the modifier Warkey-Black method [4], assailable P2O5 by the Olsen method, changeable K2O and CaCO3 by the [2] protocol. These analyses were done the Institute plant nutrition and soil laboratory and values are given Table 1. The experiment was planned in Randomized Block Design with 4 replications. A parcel area was 8.25 m2. Plant density was 15 plant per m2. Three plant rows ordered at the parcel and the middle raws plants were used for measuring and tests. The doses and quantity of the plant nutritions are at the Table 2. Inorganic N was treated as Ammonium Sulfate (AS) form before plant transplantation and Ammonium Nitrate (AN) form after 45 days of transplantation. Inorganic P was treated Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) form and Inorganic K was treated Potassium Sulfate (K2SO4) before the transplantation. Farmyard cattle (FC) was treated after GM mixing in the soil on 12 May 2005. Seamoss (SM) and Biostimulant were treated after 20 days of transplantation and repeated each after 20 days until seed maturity time. Humid acid was treated before transplantion in the soil.
year 2005 pH 7.8 OM (%) 2.4 P2O5(ppm) 26.5 K2O (ppm) 261.0 CaCO3 (%) EC (mmhoscm-1) 0.14

Table 1. Soil analyses results in the organic seed production of leek trials before plant nutrition treatments OM: Organic matter, EC: Electrical conductivity
FC (tons da-1) OMC (tons da-1) SM (g da-1) BO 250 (cc da-1) HA (kg da-1)

Treatments

Inorganic NPK AS 22,5 kg da-1 AN 22,5 kg da-1 TSP 15 kg da-1 K2SO4 10 kg da-1

Doses

4,5

3,6

70

20

10

Table 2. The doses and quantity of the plant nutrition are at the trial (2005) In the study, the seed to seed method was used [10]. The seeds were sown in the seedling in pasteurized soil by vapor on 10 June 2005. Hand irrigated system was used and during the growing of leek seedlings, the foliage of young plants was cut twice for getting thick and strong pseudostem before the transplantation to the field. The young plants were attacked by Thrips tabaci. Laser (Spinoza effected substance) which is an organic certificated prepared was used for prevented carrying of trips to the field. Transplantation is done on 20 July 2005. Weed control was done manually. The mature seeds harvest was done twice on 25 August and 1 September 2006 when mature umbels showed a third of open and come out the seeds naturally. All drying processes of the harvested umbels were completed according to Turkish Organic Farming Legislation [9]. Cleaning of seeds was done manually and carefully for protecting mixing of the treatments and replications seeds. Seed yield parameters as seed yield (kg da-1), 1000 grain weight (g) and seed number per seed 1 g were determined by ISTA specifications [6]. Standard germination tests (NST) were done ISTA protocol [7]. Four replicates of 100 seeds were sown in petri dishes and kept at 20C for fifteen days. On the final day, normal and abnormal seedling were counted according to ISTA specifications [7] and were expressed as a percentage. Controlled deterioration tests (CDT) were designated by ISTA specifications [5]. Two replicates of 1.0g seed per treatment were adjust to 19% MC (moisture content) using the filter paper method heat sealed in aluminium foil packets, and equilibrated at 10C for 24 hours. Then seed samples were deteriorated in a water bath at 45C for 24 hours. Following the ageing period, seeds were germinated as standard germination test. Seed yield trials was done in Atatrk Horticultural Research Institute vegetable laboratory in Yalova and seed quality trials were realized in Aegean University Seed Technology Application and Research Institute laboratory in zmir. Statistical Analysis; ANOVA and Duncans multiple range test with a 95% confidence interval (P <0.05) was used to compare the means of all treatments. RESULTS The seed yield was found changeable depend on treatments of plant nutritions (76.5-91.5 kg da-1), but the statistical differentiates is not significant (Table 3). The highest yield was obtained from GM+NPK and the treatments GM+FC+BO, GM+FC and GM were followed it. The lowest seed yield was got from GM+HA (76.5 kg da-1). The statistical differentiates was not found significant between plant nutrition on 1000 grain weight (3.2-3.3 g) and seed number per seed of 1 g (304.0-319.6) properties. Normal standard germination rate was found between 85.12-91.31%. The highest NST rate was got GM+HA and the lowest GM+NPK (Table 3). Abnormal standard germination rate was changed between 2.43-3.94% and total standard germination rate was 93.75-87.81% depend on different plant nutrition treatments. Controlled deterioration test values were found between 76.8-85.83%. Seed moisture content values were determined between 11.70-12.05%. The statistical differentiates was not found significant between seed quality parameters (Table 3).

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Treatments Seed yield (kg/da) 1000 seed weight (g) Seed number per seed of 1 g Normal Standard germination Abnormal (%) Total Normal Controlled deterioration Anormal test (%) Toplam Moisture content(%)

GM 87.2 3.2 319.6 86.43 3.00 89.31 79.25 5.19 84.43 11.95

GM+ FC 88.0 3.3 313.2 85.69 3.94 89.62 76.08 5.72 81.81 12.05

GM+FC+ BO 88.9 3.3 310.3 88.87 3.19 92.06 80.42 4.35 84.77 11.70

GM+ FC+SM 83.5 3.3 304.0 88.06 2.69 90.75 83.94 4.12 88.06 11.89

GM+ NPK 91.5 3.3 305.0 85.12 2.75 87.81 78.90 4.18 83.08 11.81

GM+ HA 76.5 3.2 309.8 88.68 2.75 91.43 80.94 4.14 85.08 11.96

GM+ OC 84.6 3.2 312.4 91.31 2.43 93.75 85.83 3.17 89.00 11.82

CV (%) 14.27 3.54 2.75 3.99 40.56 6.37 39.57 2.43

Table 3. Seed yield and quality properties values DISCUSSION Seed yield of all plant nutrition was determined between 76.5-91.5 kg da -1. The lowest seed yield was found GM+HA treatment but this one also higher than average leek seed yield (50-90 kg da -1) [16], similar to the result was taken in South Marmara region (70-80 kg da -1) [21] and a little lower than (78.4 kg da -1) [20] 1000 grain weight was found 3.2-3.3 g and slightly lower than those obtained by [20]and higher than the results reported in Denmark in a organic seed production (2.7 g) [14]Seed number per seed 1 g property was obtained 304.0-319.6. This value is slightly between limits of [22] (310-380) and lower than the limits of [10] (350-400). This mean is that the per seed size was found bigger in this study (Table 3). The NSG values are higher than 75% [17] slightly higher 72.5-87.7% [14], and slightly lower than 93.4% [20]. All values of normal controled deterioration were found higher than [17] and this is the lowest limit for the original seed certificate system for leek [8]. The seed moisture content is very important for determining of seed storage quality and the suitable seed moisture content is 10-12% before the storage [15]. Seed moisture content of all plant nutrition treatment are between this limit without GM+FC that was found slightly higher (12.05%) than [15]. These all results were very important for showing no differences seed yield and quality between organic and conversional agricultural conditions. Because of that result, the Institute was firstly started organic certificated vegetable seed production in Turkey. From this point of view the results was encouraged us for starting organic seed production program at 7 vegetable specieses and 13 varieties in the Institute and planned same complicated research program on organic vegetable seed production. REFERENCES
[1] Akgz, E., Yem Bitkileri (3. Bask), (15. Blm, Yeil Gbreleme, Sa: 419-424), Uluda niversitesi Glendirme Vakf, Yayn No: 182, 2001, Bursa. [2] Anonym, Soil and Plant Testing and Analysis as a Basis of Fertilizer Recommendations, F.A.O. Soils Bulletin 1980, 38/2, p 95. [3] Anonym , The Analysis of Agricultural Materials, Second Edition, Minister of Agri. Fishering and Food, RB, 427, Replaces Technical Bulletin 1981, 27, p 226. [4] Anonym. , Agricultural Anal. Handbook, Hach Company 1985, 22546-08,p2/65-2/69. [5] Anonym, Seed Science and Technology. ISTA, vol.13. No:2, 1995. [6] Anonym, International Rules for Seed Testing, Seed Science and Technology., Vol.24. Supplement Rules, 335pp. ISTA, 1996, Zurich, Switzerland. [7] Anonym, Seed Science and Technology. ISTA, 2001. [8] Anonym, Tohumluk Standartlar ve Uygulama Esaslar. T. C. Tarm ve Kyileri Bakanl, Koruma Kontrol Genel Mdrl, Tohumluk Tescil ve Sertifikasyon Mdrl, 1999, Ankara. [9] Anonim, Trkiyede Organik Tarm Kanun ve Ynetmelii, Tarmsal retimi Gelitirme Genel Mdrl, 2005, Ankara. [10] Bayraktar, K., Sebze Yetitirme Cilt III, Sebzelerde Tohum retimi. Ege niversitesi Ziraat Fakltesi Yaynlar No: 244, Sa: 106-115, 1976, zmir. [11] Beirli, G., Soyergin, S., Snmez, ., Hanta, C., Pezikolu, F. Organik Olarak Yetitirilen Prasada Verim ve Kalite zelliklerinin Belirlenmesi, Trkiye 3. Organik Tarm Sempozyumu, pp: 108-121, 2006, Yalova. [12] Bonina, J. and D.J. Cantliffe, Seed Production and Seed Sources of Organic Vegetables. University of Florida, IFAS Extension, 2004, US.,. [13] Brewster, J.L. Onions and other vegetable alliums. CAB International, 1994, UK. [14] Deleuran, L.C and B. Boelt, The Challenge of Producing Organic Vegetable Seeds of High Quality in Danmark. Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Internal Raport, No: 226, 2005, Danmark. [15] Eser, B.; Duman, .; lbi, H. Tohumculuk Laboratuvar Kontrolleri (Uygulama Klavuzu), E.. Ziraat Fakltesi, Ofset Basmevi, Sa: 71, 1997, zmir. [16] George, R.T. Vegetable Seed Production Second Edition. Longman Press, Essex., 1999. [17] Gnay, A., zel Sebze Yetitiricilii. Sa: 19-46, a matbaas, 1983,Ankara. [18] Hampton, J.G. What is seed quality? Seed Science and Technology, Vol: 30, No: 1, 1-10 pp, ISSN: 0251-0952, 2002. [19] Jones, H.A., Mann, L.K. Onions and their allies. Ed Leonard Hill, 1963, London. [20] Paunero, I.E:, Carbino, G.B.; Bazzigalibo, O. And Uviedo, R., Organic seed production of leek (Allium porrum L. ) in the nourthestern of Buenos Aires. I. Yield componends and quality, Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2003, 1 (2), 49-54. [21] Sivritepe, H.. ve V. eniz, Bursa ve Balkesirde Sebze Tohumculuunun Bugnk Durumu, Sorunlar ve neriler. Bahe 16 (1-2), 12-22, 1987, Yalova. [22] Vural, H., D. Eiyok ve . Duman, Kltr Sebzeleri (Sebze Yetitirme). Ege niversitesi Ziraat Fakltesi Bahe Bitkileri Blm, 2000, zmir. [23] Yazgan, A., Sebzecilik Tohumluk retimi. ukurova niversitesi Ziraat fakltesi Bahe Bitkileri Yetitirme ve Islah Blm, 1974, Adana.

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

LOCAL ORGANIC WASTES AS GROWING MEDIA FOR ORGANIC CUCUMBER AND TOMATO TRANSPLANTS
Jamal Javanmardi and Ali Alizadeh Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. jmljvn@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT Local organic wastes can be used as media for transplant production. An experiment was carried out to investigate the possibility of incorporating composted licorice root, palm leaf coir and cocopeat in different combinations with perlite and vermicompost plus organic fertilizers for organic cucumber and tomato transplant production. Results were compared to commercial mix (80% peat moss + 20% perlite) as control. Treatments had significant effects on germination percent and rate, height, stem thickness, number of leaves, leaf area, aerial wet and dry weight, and concentration of N, P and K in aerial parts in cucumber as well as tomato except for its germination percent. The most economical and best combination were obtained from palm leaf coir (60%) + perlite (20%) + vermicompost (20%) plus organic fertilizers, according to the final transplant characteristics, concentration of N, P and K in aerial parts, and stand establishment. Keywords: Vegetable transplant, Palm coir, Organic waste, Tomato, Cucumber INTRODUCTION Organic agricultural wastes could be difficult to dispose if those are in big quantities. Proper management may help to solve this issue. One of the best known methods is to compost and utilize them as media and soil amendments [1]. Organic vegetable production involves using organic growing media, seed and transplant. Organically grown transplants required are rarely commercially available and are usually produced on-farm from locally available, inexpensive substrates [3]. Proportion of each component in a mix may affect the physical and chemical properties of media, seedling characteristics and stand establishment. MATERIAL AND METHODS In order to evaluate the possibility of using local organic wastes as organic vegetable transplant production media, an experiment was carried out incorporated composted licorice root and palm leaf coir in different combinations with perlite and vermicompost plus organic fertilizers for organic cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Khassib) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Thuraya) transplant production (Table 1).
Table 1. Composition of media components (%) using different organic substrates. Palm leaf VermiComposted Organic Media Perlite Peat moss coir compost Licorice root fertilizer*1 A1 20 80 A2 20 80 A3 20 80 + A4 20 70 10 A5 20 70 10 + A6 20 60 20 A7 20 60 20 + A8 20 70 10 A9 20 70 10 + A10 20 60 20 A11 20 60 20 + * Applied after two-leaf stage. 1 SeaMagic (Ocean Seaweed Co. Canada) + Delphan Plus (Trade Corp. Spain) + Vitorg (Green Co. Italy) 2 NPK (20:20:20) + Trace elements

Chemical fertilizer*2 + -

Comments Control

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS According to results, leaf number, leaf area, aerial fresh and dry weight, and concentration of N, P and K in aerial parts in cucumber and tomato transplants were significantly higher in A7 combination (palm leaf coir (60%) + perlite (20%) + vermicompost (20%) plus organic fertilizers) than other organic media but not the control (Figure 1).

As previously shown [2], vermicompost may improve the quality of organic media mixture. It has been shown that 10-20% vermicompost in a mix may support transplant nutritional requirements [4]. Since the A7 mixture has optimum C/N ratio, higher soluble solids, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than other combinations, more quality cucumber and tomato transplants are produced. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] Clark, S. and M. Cavigelli. 2005. Suitability of compost as potting media for production of organic vegetable transplant. Compost Science & Utilization. 13 (2): 150-155. Diaz-perez, J.C., Grandberry, D.M. and P. Germishuizen. 2008. Growth and stand establishment of bell pepper transplants as affected by compost-amended transplant substrate. The 4th international symposium on stand establishment, organic seed and transplant production. San Antonio, Texas, USA. Larrea, E.S. 2005. Optimizing substrates for organic tomato transplant production. M.Sc. thesis. North Carolina State University . Vavrina, C.S., K. Armbrester, M. Arenas and M. Pena. 2002. Coconut coir as an alternative to peat media for vegetable transplant production. HortScience. 37(2): 309312.

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AN ORIGINAL SANITATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE MANAGEMENT AN ORIGINAL SANITATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OFOF PESTS IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN REUNION ISLAND PESTS IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN REUNION ISLAND
Jean-Philippe Deguine, Toulassi Nurbel Jean-Philippe Deguine, Toulassi Nurbel CIRAD, UMR Peuplements Vgtaux et Bioagresseurs en Milieu Tropical, CIRAD, UMR Peuplements Vgtaux et Bioagresseurs en Milieu Tropical, 7 chemin de lIrat, 97410 Saint-Pierre, La Runion (France) 7 chemin de lIrat, 97410 Saint-Pierre, La Runion (France) Correspondence. Email: jean-philippe.deguine@cirad.fr, toulassi.nurbel@cirad.fr Correspondence. Email: jean-philippe.deguine@cirad.fr, toulassi.nurbel@cirad.fr ABSTRACT ABSTRACT In Reunion Island, Tephritid FruitFruit Fliesthe main pestspests of fruit vegetable crops, causing severe yieldyield losses in Organic Farming. In Reunion Island, Tephritid Flies are are the main of fruit and and vegetable crops, causing severe losses in Organic Farming. Instead of the curative approach to reducing existing populations, this study focused on an original technique of sanitation utilising a a Instead of the curative approach to reducing existing populations, this study focused on an original technique of sanitation utilising tent-like structure called an augmentorium aimed at controlling Tephritid FruitFruit Flies. This structure sequesters adult flies emerging tent-like structure called an augmentorium aimed at controlling Tephritid Flies. This structure sequesters adult flies emerging fromfrom infested fruit while allowingparasitoids to escape, via avia aplaced at the top of the structure. The The study tested different net infested fruit while allowing the the parasitoids to escape, net net placed at the top of the structure. study tested different net mesh sizessizes inlab in order to include the mostmost effective in an augmentorium prototype adapted to the conditions of Reunion mesh in the the lab in order to include the effective one one in an augmentorium prototype adapted to the conditions of Reunion Island. The efficacy of the mesh finally retained in the tests tests (hole area 1.96 mm), proved to be perfectly effective with 100% of Island. The efficacy of the mesh finally retained in the (hole area 1.96 mm), proved to be perfectly effective with 100% of sequestration of adult flies flies (Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera zonata). In addition, 100% ofparasitoids (Fopius sequestration of adult (Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera zonata). In addition, 100% of the the parasitoids (Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri) could escape fromfrommesh if they they choose to do so. Organic farmers were enthusiastic about using arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri) could escape the the mesh if choose to do so. Organic farmers were enthusiastic about using the augmentorium prototype. Implications for the use of augmentorium in Reunion Island are discussed. the augmentorium prototype. Implications for the use of augmentorium in Reunion Island are discussed. Keywords: augmentorium, sanitation, pest pest management, organic farming, Tephritidae, Reunion Island Keywords: augmentorium, sanitation, management, organic farming, Tephritidae, Reunion Island INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Fruit FliesFlies (Diptera, Tephritidae)one of the most dangerous groups of pestspests of Agriculture aroundworld [1] [2] [3]. In In Fruit (Diptera, Tephritidae) are are one of the most dangerous groups of of Agriculture around the the world [1] [2] [3]. Reunion Island, they theythe main pestspests of vegetable fruit fruit crops[5]. Three species attack Cucurbitaceae: Bactrocera cucurbitae Reunion Island, are are the main of vegetable and and crops [4] [4] [5]. Three species attack Cucurbitaceae: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, 1899), Dacus ciliatus Loew, 18621862 Dacus demmerezi Bezzi 1917). One Onepest pest of Solonaceae: Neoceratitis cyanescens (Coquillett, 1899), Dacus ciliatus Loew, and and Dacus demmerezi Bezzi 1917). is a is a of Solonaceae: Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi, 1923). Some attack fruits (mango, Citrus): Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, 1842), Ceratitis rosa rosa (Karsch, 1887), Ceratitis capitata (Bezzi, 1923). Some attack fruits (mango, Citrus): Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, 1842), Ceratitis (Karsch, 1887), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) and Bactrocera catoirii Gurin-Mneville, 1843. (Wiedemann, 1824) and Bactrocera catoirii Gurin-Mneville, 1843. In cucurbit crops, the damage fromfromflies flies reach 100% of the yieldyieldand chemical protection, which has beenbeen used nowafor a In cucurbit crops, the damage the the can can reach 100% of the [6] [6] and chemical protection, which has used now for few decades, is nois no longer effective Furthermore, chemical control has some collateral and negative effects on health, biodiversity few decades, longer effective [7]. [7]. Furthermore, chemical control has some collateral and negative effects on health, biodiversity (particularly on natural enemies and pollinators) and the environment. For this reason, the two most important parasitoids of Fruit (particularly on natural enemies and pollinators) and the environment. For this reason, the two most important parasitoids of Fruit FliesFlies established in Reunion Island, Psyttalia fletcheri (Sylvestri) Fopius arisanus (Sonan), currently havehave a limited impact[9]. [9]. established in Reunion Island, Psyttalia fletcheri (Sylvestri) and and Fopius arisanus (Sonan), currently a limited impact [8] [8] There is now now a demandsustainable pest pest management the approach of agroecological cropcrop protection looks relevant in There is a demand for for sustainable management and and the approach of agroecological protection looks relevant in agroecosystems [10].[10]. Based on three main components, sanitation, habitat management biological control, agroecological agroecosystems Based on three main components, sanitation, habitat management and and biological control, agroecological protection is convergent withwithpoint of viewview of sustainability much sought-after in organic farming [11]. Preventive measures protection is convergent the the point of of sustainability much sought-after in organic farming [11]. Preventive measures against pests, suchsuch as prophylaxis,welcome by organic farmers, especially because theirtheir spatial temporal understanding is is against pests, as prophylaxis, are are welcome by organic farmers, especially because spatial and and temporal understanding larger thanthanfield field longer thanthangrowing cyclecycle ofcrop. It is accepted that that each infested fruit thrown onground is a is a larger the the and and longer the the growing of the the crop. It is accepted each infested fruit thrown on the the ground source for the emergence of several tens tens of adult flies able then to infestcropcrop [12]. In respect sanitation against FruitFruit Flies is source for the emergence of several of adult flies able then to infest the the [12]. In this this respect sanitation against Flies is one of the key techniques considered for the management of theirtheir populations [7]. one of the key techniques considered for the management of populations [7]. This This preventive approachbeenbeen studied in Hawaii against fruit flies [13], especially inlast decade by the use of augmentorium preventive approach has has studied in Hawaii against fruit flies [13], especially in the the last decade by the use of augmentorium [14] [14] [15] [16].augmentorium is a tent-like structure placed in a field.field. Farmers regularly dropdrop infested fruit into it. The of of [15] [16]. An An augmentorium is a tent-like structure placed in a Farmers can can regularly infested fruit into it. The aim aim the augmentorium is to is to sequester adult flies emerged from infested fruit while allowingescape of parasitoids, via avia aplaced at at the augmentorium sequester adult flies emerged from infested fruit while allowing the the escape of parasitoids, net net placed the top of the structure. To implement the technique of the augmentorium in Reunion Island, a first first basic prototype recently the top of the structure. To implement the technique of the augmentorium in Reunion Island, a basic prototype was was recently designed [17].[17]. designed In order to answer the current locallocal demand from organic farmers,aim of the present study was to measure the efficacy of the the In order to answer the current demand from organic farmers, the the aim of the present study was to measure the efficacy of mesh of different nets,nets, which plays arole,role, against different species of fruit flies sequestration) and for different species of of mesh of different which plays a key key against different species of fruit flies (for (for sequestration) and for different species parasitoids (for release). This This study is an original contribution toknowledge of the efficacy of a new new for sanitation available in in parasitoids (for release). study is an original contribution to the the knowledge of the efficacy of a tool tool for sanitation available organic farming. ThisThis study could be a be a first step towards implementing sustainable pest management based on preventive organic farming. study could also also first step towards implementing sustainable pest management based on preventive protection in horticultural crops. protection in horticultural crops.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiments were conducted in Reunion Island in the first half of 2008 in the laboratory and with the facilities of CIRAD in Saint-Pierre. Technical selection of a net for the augmentorium Preselection of the net. The dimension of the mesh of the net is one of the main keys for effectiveness of an augmentorium (i.e. sequestration of flies and escape of parasitoids). Taking account of the availability of nets on the market in Reunion Island, three types of nets were preselected for the size of the mesh. The net used in Hawaii was added as a standard in the experiment. The characteristics are the followings: - mesh # 1. Availibility: Store Mr Bricolage, Saint-Pierre (Reunion Island), manufacturer reference 170551, glass fiber covered with PVC, sustainability index: 4, stated size 1 mm x 1.5 mm (grey); - mesh # 2. Hawaiian standard mesh; availibility: Phifertex Wire Products Inc. (Tuscaloosa, Alabama); unknown manufacturer reference; glass fiber covered with PVC, unknown sustainability index, stated size 1.2 mm x 1.3 mm (grey); - mesh # 3. Availibility: Store Dco et Jardin, Saint-Pierre (Reunion Island), manufacturer reference 171512, polyethylene, sustainability index: 2, stated size 1.9 mm x 1.9 mm (green); - mesh # 4. Availibility: Store Mr Bricolage, Saint-Pierre (Reunion Island), manufacturer reference 174532, high-density polyethlene, treated with anti-UV additives, sustainability index: 3, stated size 1.9 mm x 1.9 mm (green). Mesh # 2 and mesh # 4 have the same stated size, but the mesh forms are different. Figure 1 shows pictures of the four mesh nets tested.

Figure 1. Different mesh sizes pre-selected for the experiment (scale: 1 graduation = 0.5 mm) Measurement of the size of the mesh of the net. The mesh of the four types of nets was observed with a binocular microscope and was photographed. The area of the mesh hole was measured by length and by width using Adobe Photoshop software (CS3 version). Technical ranking of the net. The four types of mesh nets were compared using 5 technical indicators: dimension of mesh (area of the mesh hole), rigidity of the mesh and mecanical resistance, availability of the mesh (facility to locally find and buy the net), cost of the net, colour of the mesh (the colour can influence some biological parameters). The objective was to compare the 4 types of mesh using these indicators. For each mesh, each indicator was marked on a scale from 1 (very bad), 2 (bad), 3 (average), 4 (good) to 5 (very good), using the Hawaiian mesh demonstrated to be effective there [15] [16] as the standard. Biological material Flies. Three species of Tephritidae (B. cucurbitae, C. capitata, B. zonata) reared in Cirad laboratories were used for experiments. The two Bactrocera species were considered because they are the most dangerous species on vegetables and fruits respectively, C. capitata because it is the smallest Tephritid species present in Reunion Island (i.e. if this fly cannot pass through the mesh, all the other species of flies cannot also pass). Pupae of wild flies were collected in June 2000 from infested fruits. Adult flies obtained from these samples were reared under controlled conditions: 25 2C, 70 20% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L: D) h. They were given free access to granulated sugar, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate (ICN Biomedicals, Aurora, OH) and water. Three times a week, for 1 h, fruit (different

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according to species of flies), were used as an oviposition substrate. The fruit were then placed in a plastic box (6 cm x 9 cm x 18 cm), containing dehydrated potatoes. The plastic box was placed inside a larger plastic container (25 cm x 12 cm x 8 cm), the bottom of which was covered with a layer of sand to allow pupation of mature larvae. The pupae were then collected, and, from the beginning of emergence, adults were kept in 40 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm cages. Parasitoids. Colonies of parasitoids (Psyttalia fletcheri and Fopius arisanus) were established in 2003 in the CIRAD Reunion Entomology Laboratory from a batch of parasitized fruit fly pupae. Emerging adults were subsequently offered eggs of flies. The main colony was reared in a 110 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm plastic screened cage at 25 2C, 70 20% RH and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L: D) h. The adults were given free access to water on a moistened sponge and to a mixture of honey/agar 15% (1:1). Both species of parasitoids (P. fletcheri and F. arisanus) reared in Cirad laboratory were used for the experiments. Efficacy of the mesh for sequestration or escape of insects Experimental device: In the lab, boxes with a top were covered with the mesh to be used to test the effectiveness of the four mesh types (figure 2). Each mesh box was placed in a larger cage in order to keep insects (flies and parasitoids) inside. Known numbers of pupae (un-parasitized pupae or parasitized pupae) were placed inside the mesh boxes before the experiments and the numbers of sequestrated or escaped insects were observed.
11 cm 8.5 cm

Mesh Cover of the box

8.5 cm

Meshed-box 9 cm

Figure 2. Mesh box used for efficacy assessment (fly sequestration, parasitoid escape) Qualitative and preliminary tests. Two types of qualitative tests were performed before the quantitative tests. First, we wanted to verify that adults of P. fletcheri (the biggest parasitoid of the two studied species) could escape out of the box, with the four types of mesh. Two replications of this test were done and in each experiment, the number of P. fletcheri in the mesh box and the number of P. fletcheri in the cage were counted. Secondly, we tested the desire, or not, of flies and of the parasitoids to exit from a box with a large scale mesh covering (6 mm x 6 mm). Two replications were done with adults of each species of fly and parasitoid. Quantitative tests on non-parasitized pupae of flies. For each fly species, four mesh boxes (one per type of mesh) were constructed. The four mesh boxes were placed in the same larger cage. For B. cucurbitae and C. capitata, 50 pupae were placed in each mesh box and there were two replications. For B. zonata, three replications were achieved, as there were more pupae available (100 for two replications, 200 for the third one). For each species, the numbers of flies retained (dead or alive), and the number of non-emerged pupae in the box were counted each day for three weeks. The number of flies which passed through the mesh could thus be calculated. Quantitative tests on parasitized pupae of flies. Experiments were conducted on pupae of B. cucurbitae parasitized by P. fletcheri and on pupae of B. zonata parasitized by F. arisanus. For each parasitoid/fly pair, four types of mesh boxes were tested (one per type of mesh). Each mesh box was placed in a large separate cage. For each pair, three replications were achieved (two with 100 parasitized pupae and one with 250). The total number of emerged parasitoids in the mesh box and the number of parasitoids which escaped from the box were counted each day for three weeks. Analysis and presentation of the results The results for the technical mesh ranking, for the qualitative tests in the lab and for the quantitative efficacy of the mesh for sequestration of the three species of flies, are presented in figures or tables and statistical tests undertaken. For the tests concerning the escape rate of parasitoids out of the mesh boxes, we fitted a Generalized Linear Model with Probit as a link function for each species of parasitoid (f-1(p) = mesh + replication). A like hood ratio test, based on a Chi-squared test, was

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performed to identify the significant factors. A Tukeys HSD test was then performed to find which mesh performances were significantly different. All tests were done with R software (version 2.7.0, R Development Core Team, 2008, Vienna, Austria). RESULTS Technical comparison of the nets and their mesh Table 1. Mesh sizes (measured using Adobe Photoshop software, CS3 version)
Mesh 1 2 3 4 length (mm) 1.6 1.3 2.0 2.5 width (mm) 1.4 1.2 2.0 1.4 length of the diagonal (mm) 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.4 area of the hole (mm) 2.24 1.56 2.25 1.96

Table 1 gives the measurements of length, width, length of diagonal and surface of the mesh of the four types of nets. Table 2 shows a comparative analysis of technical and economic parameters for the 4 mesh types. For these parameters, the fourth net (rank 1) represented the best compromise: available, cheap, size, good general quality. Table 2. Technical and economic characteristics of the four tested nets and overall rank of interest. 1 (very bad), 2 (bad), 3 (average), 4 (good), 5 (very good)

Technical and economical characteristics size of the mesh rigidity of the net availability of the net quality/cost ratio of the net overall rank

mesh #1 3 3 5 4 2nd

mesh #2 5 4 1 2 4th

mesh #3 4 3 4 3 3rd

mesh #4 5 4 5 5 1st

Efficacy of the mesh for sequestrating flies The qualitative tests showed that each species of fruit fly tested could escape out of the mesh box with large (6 mm x 6 mm) holes. The results of the different quantitative tests of sequestration of the three species are presented in table 3. No statistical analysis of these results has been done because the rate of sequestration was 100% in all cases. The four mesh types were equally effective in sequestering B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, the most dangerous species in vegetable and fruit crops respectively. The perfect efficacy obtained against C. capitata implies that the mesh nets are also effective against the other fruit fly species present on Reunion Island (because C. capitata is the smallest one).

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Table 3. Number of pupae, flies emerged from pupae and non-escaped flies for each fly species, replication and mesh. The date indicates the day when the pupae were placed in the box
Number of pupae per box Number of flies emerged from pupae Number of flies non-escaped Percentage of sequestration

Replication

Mesh

Date

Bactrocera cucurbitae 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 Ceratitis capitata 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 Bactrocera zonata 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 1 3 2 3 4 May 11th (2008) May 7 (2008)
th

50 June 3 (2008)
rd

50 50 48 50 50 49 48 50 50 45 44 46 46 50 40 43 78 76 80 72 76 74 68 72 152 176 156 156

50 50 48 50 50 49 48 50 50 45 44 46 46 50 40 43 78 76 80 72 76 74 68 72 152 176 156 156

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

50 50 50 50

June 3 (2008)

rd

50 50 50 50

May 21 (2008)

st

50 50 50 50

May 21st (2008)

50 50 50 100

May 7 (2008)

th

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200

Efficacy of the mesh for releasing parasitoids The eight qualitative tests done with P. fletcheri showed that if the parasitoids wanted to escape from one of the four types of mesh, they could. However, in the second type of qualitative tests, we noticed that sometimes they stayed in the mesh box, even those with large holes (figure 3). Table 4 gives the quantitative results for the two species of parasitoid for each replication. The mean results are presented in figures 4 and 5.

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Table 4. Number of parasitized pupae, parasitoids emerged from parasitized pupae and escaped parasitoids for each parasitoid/fly pair, replication and mesh. The date indicates the day the parasitized pupae were placed in the box
Number of pupae parasitized per box Number of parasitoids emerged from parasitized pupae Number of parasitoids escaped

Replication

Mesh

Date

Percentage of escape

Psytallia fletcheri/ Bactrocera cucurbitae 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 1 3 2 3 4 Fopius arisanus / Bactrocera zonata 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 1 3 2 3 4 May 11 th (2008) May 7 th (2008) May 7 th (2008) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 250 250 250 250 3 4 2 2 14 14 19 15 30 17 30 26 3 4 2 2 12 7 18 15 29 16 22 25 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 85.7 50.0 94.7 100.0 96.7 94.1 73.3 96.1 June 11 (2008)
th

100 May 2 (2008)


nd

47 55 24 59 48 89 90 91 190 190 197 185

12 30 18 39 8 72 48 65 136 103 140 123

25.6 54.6 75.0 66.1 16.7 80.9 53.3 71.4 71.6 54.2 71.1 66.5

100 100 100 100

May 7 th (2008)

100 100 100 250 250 250 250

Figure 3. Adult of Psyttalia fletcheri at the bottom of the box seen through the 6 mm x 6 mm mesh

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67.8% 61.4% 54.7% 66.2%

Figure 4. Total results (3 replications) of the effect of the mesh size on P. fletcheri escape: (i) number of parasitoids emerged from parasitized pupae of B. cucurbitae and (ii) number of escaped parasitoids. The percentage indicates the proportion between these two numbers (ii)/(i)

93.2%

81.6% 74.2%

97.6%

Figure 5. Total results (2 replications) of the effect of the mesh size on F. arisanus escape: (i) number of parasitoids emerged from parasitized pupae of B. zonata and (ii) number of escaped parasitoids. The percentage indicates the proportion between these two numbers (ii)/(i) Statistical results are presented in tables 5, 6 and 7. The first replication of the F. arisanus/B. zonata pair showed a very poor rate of emergence of F. arisanus from the parasitized pupae of B. zonata (with a 100% escape) and was thus not taken into account in the statistatical tests. The GLM (table 5) shows a significant effect of the mesh for both the two parasitoid/fly pairs and a significant effect of replication for the P. fletcheri/B. cucurbitae pair.

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Table 5. Generalized Linear Model results (Probit function: f-1 (p) = mesh + replication) of the mesh efficacy on parasitoid escape (3 replications for P. fletcheri and 2 replications for F. arisanus). df 1 and df 2: degrees of freedom; df 1 = (p-1) for the replication factor and (q-1) for the mesh factor; df 2 = (n-p) for the replication factor and (n-q-[p-1]) for the mesh factor with n = number of observations, p = number of modalities for replication factor, q = number of modalities for the mesh factor; ns: non significant; **: difference at 1% (p < 0.01)
Psyttalia fletcheri factor replication mesh number of factors 3 4 df 1 2 3 df 2 9 6 p-value 0.006 0.003 Signi ficance ** ** Fopius arisanus number of factors 2 4 df 1 1 3 df 2 6 3 p-value 0.314 0.008 Signi ficance ns **

The Tukeys test indicated the p-value and the significance for the mesh comparison, for the two pairs (table 6). Only three comparisons show significant differences (mesh #1 and mesh #3, mesh #1 and mesh #4 for the P. fletcheri/B. cucurbitae pair; mesh #2 and mesh #4 for the F. arisanus/B. zonata pair). In these 3 cases, mesh #4 gives better results. Table 6. Mesh comparison by a Tukeys test for the efficacy on parasitoid escape. *: p < 0.05; **: p < 0.01
Comparison mesh to mesh 21 31 41 32 42 43 Psyttalia fletcheri p-value 0.275 0.029 0.003 0.712 0.282 0.905 * ** significance Fopius arisanus p-value 0.135 0.337 0.785 0.898 0.037 0.098 * significance

Finally the overall mesh efficacy differences are given in table 7 and the mesh types are classed by rank of efficacy. Table 7. Mean results of the mesh efficacy on parasitoid escape, standard deviation and rank of the mesh types (3 replications for P. fletcheri and 2 replications for F. arisanus). a means that the corresponding mesh is significatively more effective than the mesh classed b
Mesh type 1 2 3 4 Psytallia fletcheri mean escape % 40.0 63.2 66.6 68.0 sd 29.5 15.3 11.5 3.0 a a rank b ab Fopius arisanus mean escape % 91.2 72.1 84.0 98.1 sd 7.7 31.2 15.1 2.7 a rank ab b ab

To sum up, the results of all the tests (technical, sequestration of flies, escape of parasitoids) in these experiments led to the retention of mesh #4, which systematically showed the best performance. This mesh has a hole size closest to that used in Hawaii. DISCUSSION Designing an augmentorium prototype including the retaining net The study suggested that net with mesh #4 be included as a component in a prototype of augmentorium. It is only one component of the augmentorium, but it is a key one. Indeed the characteristics of the mesh determine the efficacy of the technique.

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However the other components of the augmentorium are not less important than the net. They mostly have to be adapted to the needs of the farmers in terms of cost and sustainability and to provide an environment adapted to the emergence of the parasitoids. Allowing us to retain a net compatible for sequestration of flies and release of parasitoids present in the island, this study contributed to design a prototype (figure 5), which is currently being tested by several organic farmers in Reunion Island.

roof net with mesh #4 canvas covering opening in which to throw infested fruit

Figure 5. Augmentorium prototype designed in Reunion Island (see the net with mesh #4 on the top of the structure under the roof) Towards the use of augmentoria in Reunion Island by organic farmers In Reunion Island, recent collections of infested zucchini fruits in three locations between February and April 2009 indicated that several hundred adult flies could emerge per kilogram of infested fruit (Jacquard, 2009, personal communication). In these conditions, sanitation is important and this method of utilising damaged fruit appears to be relevant. There are some other fruit fly sanitation methods available, such as tilling crop, burying fruit, bagging fruit, steeping fruit in water or feeding culled fruit to animals [14]. In practice, for vegetable and fruit growers, the use of a specific tool such as the augmentorium, placed in the field, is an important psychological argument to encourage them to really pick up the infested fruit which has dropped to the ground. A prophylactic measure using augmentorium may thus become the technique of choice for implementing the management of fly populations. With experience, farmers may be able to integrate other techniques of crop protection, for example fly trap plants, sprays of adulticid protein baits (using biological insecticides) on the trap plants, male annihilation technique using mass trapping with sexual parapheromones, biological control and cultural practices, which are also relevant and effective when they are used together. Augmentoria may also contribute to the management of other categories of pests in a global approach. To be effective, the augmentorium technique has to be used at a large scale both in terms of time (several months or years) and space (farm, landscape) with concerted practices by the farmers, who should use this sanitation technique integrated with other measures and especially with a reduction of chemical pesticide use. Relevance of augmentorium for sustainable management of agroecosystems We showed that the augmentorium can selectively release parasitoids. This technique may thus play a role to control populations of flies using natural enemies. In this respect, the mesh of the net is a determining factor permitting escape of the parasitoids. Furthermore, augmentoria can perhaps be considered for use in augmentative biological control, by regularly placing parasitized pupae of flies in the augmentorium. Other techniques such as mass-hatching devices have been studied against other pests, in order to produce beneficials, and these have proved to be interesting [18]. Finally, another possible use of the augmentorium would be to produce compost, mixing infested fruit and other components such as vegetal residues, sugar cane stems, manure or litter of small animals. Currently studies are being carried out in this respect. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the study showed the efficacy of the retained mesh (hole area 1.96 mm), both for the sequestration of fruit flies and for the release of parasitoids. A prototype of an augmentorium has been designed using this net. Augmentoria can be considered as a

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recommended tool for sustainable protection against fruit flies, the major pests in Reunion Island. Finally, sanitation using augmentorium may become a vital component of agroecological protection against fruit flies, and it may play a central role in conservative biological control in Organic Agriculture for these fruit and vegetable species. It could be considered as a potential and significant tool of biological control by releasing parasitoids and could also be used to produce compost. These three potential roles of the augmentorium (sanitation, biological control, production of compost) gives to this technique a real relevance in agroecosystems where optimal ecological functioning of the agroecosystem is favoured and it is particularly adapted to most organic farming systems. For these reasons this technique has already been adopted by some organic farmers. The practice fits well with their mentality (preventive crop protection without chemicals) and is compatible with the possibility of making compost using organic matter mixed with infested fruit. It could be envisaged that this organic farming technique could be adapted not only to the framework of the conventional agriculture, contributing to the replacement of pesticides, but also in fruit and vegetable gardens for citizens in towns and villages. Further research is needed to demonstrate that the additive release of parasitoids from augmentoria into the farm can have measurable effects in the percentage of fruit fly infested fruit and to explore in detail these three ways in which potential benefits can be obtained and finally to propose to farmers an improved prototype of the augmentorium ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge Marie-Ludders Moutoussamy, Cedric Ajaguin Soleyen (CIRAD) and Matthias Duval (Institut Universitaire Technologique of Saint-Pierre, University of La Runion) for their contribution to the augmentorium sanitation trials. We thank Derek Russell for his help in reading and correcting the manuscript. Funding for this research was provided by Odeadom (Office de dveloppement de lconomie agricole des dpartements dOutre-mer), by the Regional Council of La Runion and by Cirad.

[1] Bateman M.A. The ecology of fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 1972, 17, 493-518. [2] White I.E. & Elson-Harris M.M. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. CABI, Wallingford, 1992. [3] Dhillon M.K., Singh R., Naresh J.S. & Sharma H.C. The Melon Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management. Journal of Insect Science, 2005. 40, 1-16. [4] Duyck P.F., P. David & Quilici S. A review of relationships between interspecific competition and invasions in fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ecological Entomology, 2004, 29, 511-520.

REFERENCES REFERENCES

[1] Bateman M.A. The ecology of fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 1972, 17, 493-518.

[2] White I.E. & Elson-Harris M.M. Fruit flies of economic significance: demography of the two cucurbit-attacking fruit flies CABI, Wallingford, 1992. [5] Vayssires J.-F., Carel Y., Coubes M. & Duyck P.F., 2008. Development of immature stages and comparativetheir identification and bionomics. in Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae and Dacus ciliatus (Diptera Tephritidae), Environmental Entomology, 37, 307-314.
[6] Vayssires J.-F. Les relations plantes-insectes chez les Dacini (Diptera-Tephritidae) ravageurs des Cucurbitaces La Runion. PhD Thesis, Musum National dHistoire Naturelle de Paris, 1999 (in [3] Dhillon M.K., Singh R., Naresh J.S. & Sharma H.C. The Melon Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and French).

management. Journal of Insect Science, Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) on vegetable crops in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean): state of knowledge, control methods and prospects [7] Ryckewaert P., Deguine J.-P., Brvault T. & Vayssires J.-F.2005. 40, 1-16. for management, Fruits, in press.
[8] Quilici S., Hurtrel B., Messing R.H., Montagnaux S. A review of relationships between interspecific competition and invasions in fruit flies control of the [4] Duyck P.F., P. David & Quilici B., Barbet A., Gourdon F., Malvoti A. & Simon A. Successful acclimatization of Psyttalia fletcheri (Braconidae: Opiinae) for biological (Diptera: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae on Reunion Island. In: BARNES B.N. (eds). Proceedings in the 6th international Symposium on Fruit flies of Economic Importance. Stellenbosh, South Africa, 6-10 May Tephritidae). Ecological Entomology, 2004, 29, 511-520. 2002. Isteg Scientific Publication, Irene (RSA), 2004, 457-460. [9] Rousse P., F. Gourdon & Quilici S. Host specificity of the egg pupal parasitoid Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in La Runion. Biological Control, 2006, 37, 284-290. [10] Ferron P. & Deguine J.-P. Crop Protection, Biological Control, Habitat Management andDevelopment of immature stages and comparative [5] Vayssires J.-F., Carel Y., Coubes M. & Duyck P.F., 2008. Integrated Farming. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2005, 25, 1-8. [11] Deguine J.-P., Ferron P. & Russell D. Crop Protection: from AgrochemistryBactrocera cucurbitae and Dacus ciliatus (Diptera two cucurbit-attacking fruit flies in Reunion Island: to Agroecology. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2009 [12] Liquido N.J. Fruit ground as reservoir of resident melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in papaya Orchards. Environmental Entomology, 1991, 20, 620-625.

[13] Liquido N.J. Reduction of Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in papaya orchards by field sanitation. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 1993, 10, 163-170. [14] Klungness L.M. Are augmentoria the only method for fruit fly sanitation? Hawaii Area-Wide Fly Pest Management Newsletter, April, 2003. [15] Klungness L.M., Jang E.B., Ronald F.L., Vargas R.I., Sugano J.S. & Fujitani E. New sanitation techniques for controlling Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Applied PhD Thesis, Musum National dHistoire Naturelle de Paris, 1999 (in French). Science for Environmental Management, 2005, 9, 5-14. [16] Jang E.B., Klungness L.M. & McQuate G.T. Extension of the use of augmentoria for sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to the alien Tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Applied Science for Environment Management, 2007, 11, 239-248.

Entomology, 37, 307-314.

demography of the Tephritidae), Environmental

[6] Vayssires J.-F. Les relations plantes-insectes chez les Dacini (Diptera-Tephritidae) ravageurs des Cucurbitaces La Runion. [7] Ryckewaert P., Deguine J.-P., Brvault T. & Vayssires J.-F. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) on vegetable crops in Reunion Island [8] Quilici S., Hurtrel B., Messing R.H., Montagnaux B., Barbet A., Gourdon F., Malvoti A. & Simon A. Successful acclimatization of Psyttalia fletcheri (Braconidae: Opiinae) for biological control of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae on Reunion Island. In: BARNES B.N. (eds). Proceedings in the 6th international Symposium on Fruit flies of Economic Importance. Stellenbosh, South Africa, 6-10 May 2002. Isteg Scientific Publication, Irene (RSA), 2004, 457-460. [9] Rousse P., F. Gourdon & Quilici S. Host specificity of the egg pupal parasitoid Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in La Runion. Biological Control, 2006, 37, 284-290. [10] Ferron P. & Deguine J.-P. Crop Protection, Biological Control, Habitat Management and Integrated Farming. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2005, 25, 1-8.

[17] Deguine J.-P., Duval M., Quilici S., Moutoussamy M.-L., Ajaguin-Soleyen C. & Laurent P. The augmentorium: a sanitation technique for controlling Tephritid Fruit Flies in Reunion Island. Poster (Indian Ocean): state of knowledge, control methods and prospects for management, Fruits, in press. Session. Proceedings of the Endure Network International Conference Diversifying Crop Protection , 12-15 October 2008, La Grande-Motte, France, 2008. [18] Kehrli P., Lehmann M & Bacher S. Mass-hatching devices: a new biocontrol technique to augment parasitoids. Biological Control, 2004, 32, 191-199.

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TCHNOLOGy FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SOyBEAN IN MACEDONIA


Ljupco Mihajlov1, Fidanka Trajkova1, Vasko Zlatkovski2 ljupco.mihajlov@ugd.edu.mk fidanka.trajkova@ugd.edu.mk vasko.zlatkovski@ugd.edu.mk Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Production Department, Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. box 201, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia
1

Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Office of Rural Development, Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. box 201, 2000 Stip, Republic of Macedonia
2

ABSTRACT Organic production within the EU is defined the Regulation, which recently replaced the old 2092/91.Although Macedonia is not yet a member of the European Union, echnology for organic production of soybeans is harmonized according to the requirements of the EEC. This paper detailed how the techniques and principles of organic production of soybeans, as it can be implemented in production conditions in different agroecosystems conditions in Macedonia. The yields from the soybean grain which can be obtained in Macedonia through organic production, depending on conditions and methods of production from 1000 to 2500 kg/ha. This technology of agricultural production is based on the results of scientific research, knowledge and practical realization within the scientific and practical experiences. The data referred to in this paper, except from existing research and experience in the field of soybean breeding conducted with us, and are supported by data from foreign literature and results from this area. Keywords: organic, soybean, production, yields, principles, technology INTRODUCTION According to the old Chinese literature, the first written information about soybean can be found in the book Materia medica from the tsar Sheng Nung from 2838 B.C. [11]. According to the written data of [1], soybean as agricultural crops is growing in China since 6-7 thousands years ago [3] [10]. The soybean together with the rice, wheat, barley and millet, was one of the five most important crops for the Chinese civilization. Development of the marine traffic in the 18th century, soybean has been spread to Europe and America. In Europe, for the first time, a German botanic Engelbert Kaempfer has spoken about it. After his trip to Japan, he wrote the book Amoenitatum exoticarum. The book is published in 1712 and contains detailed description of the plants and recipes for preparation of different drinks and food [3] [5]. Charles Linne in 1737, in the book Hortus Califfortianus is mentioning soybean as Phaseolus max, and in 1753 in his famoust masterpiece Species Plantarum is describing soybean under the name Dolichos soja. Konrad Moench is naming it as, while Maksimovi in 1873 is giving the name Glycine hispida. Today worldwide the name Glycine max (L.) Merrill is accepted, recognized by Ricker and Morse in 1948 [citation in 6]. According to USDA [15], the world production of soybean is continuously increasing. Today the biggest soybean producer is USA with 38% and 86.8 millions tones from the total world production (228.4 millions tones) in 2006. The soybean as crop for oil production is leading as compared to the other oilseed crops with participation of 57% from the total plant oil production. Also, the soybean is culture with number 1 world consumption of protein food with participation of 68%. The soybean is extremely important in human nutrition because of the special chemical composition of the grain as it contains approximately 30-50% proteins and 18-24% oil, depending of the variety and cultivation conditions. The commercial varieties averagely contain up to 40% proteins and 20-22% oils, 34% carbohydrates and about 5% mineral elements: potassium (K), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (F), magnesium (Mg) sodium (Na). Also, the grain is rich with vitamins: A, B-complex, D, E and K. The proteins are rich in essential aminoacids, especially with lysine and methionine. These aminoacids are the most similar with the animal proteins, thus they have high biological value [8]. The soybean is commonly used as fodder, but in the last two decades more and more different products for human nutrition are spreading, as: cheese tofu, soybean milk, burgers, sausages, bread, different types of sweets and other products [16]. The possibility for acquiring medical and diet products from soybean for human consumption made soybean to be very attractive for organic production. Soybean is very important in the crop rotation because the plants are naturally enriching the soil with nitrogen that is stays available for the next crop. The particularity of soybean regarding nitrogen as compared to other cultures is in the ability through symbiosis with noodle bacteria to secure major part of this element. Because of this characteristic, the soybean is

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very favourable culture for organic production, where the application of chemical fertilizers is unacceptable. The soybean is utilizing soil nitrogen only in the period of phase VE (emerging) to the period of noodle formation at the root hairs, which is according to many authors the period of the first two to three weeks after the emerging. After it the greatest part of the needs is utilised from the atmospheric nitrogen. In conclusion the needs of nitrogen fertilization are very small and necessary only in the first month of vegetation when the plants are small and the utilization is low, if symbiotic nitrogen fixation is provided. The soybean with symbiotic nitrogen fixation can fixate important quantity of nitrogen as up to 40-50 kg/ha [12]. Increasing the number of organic farms and debating for increase of energy prices, these free of charge natural ways of fertilization are coming back to the research centre of many scientists and organic farmers. The aim of soybean yield utilization (green grain, mature grain, raw material for human nutrition, raw material for fodder, green manure etc) is of main importance for making the decision for soybean organic production. The previous conditionally depends on agriecological characteristics of the area where soybean cultivation is planned, irrigation possibilities, location and size of agricultural plots, agricultural mechanization etc [9]. MATERIAL AND METHODS Climatic conditions The mean monthly temperatures for the location Ovche Pole differ for 2006 and 2007 (Figure 1 and 2). For all months in 2007 the temperature was higher or equal with those in 2006. Mean annual temperature was also differing, for 2007 is 13.02C, while for 2006 is 11.54C. During the vegetation period (May September) the values of mean monthly temperatures were higher in 2007 as compared to 2006. The analyses of precipitations show that great differences exist in the two research years for the location Ovche Pole (Figure 1 and 2). In the second year, 2007, the precipitations were two times higher (457 mm) as compared to 2006 (185.9 mm). However, in the critical vegetation period for soybean (flowering, pod formation) in July 2007 there is no rainfall. From the clime diagram (Figure 1) it is clear that the period from July to November is arid for the location Ovche Pole.

Figure 1. Walter clime diagram for Ovche Pole, 2006.

Figure 2. Walter clime diagram for Ovche Pole, 2007.

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The mean monthly temperatures for the location Strumica differ in 2006 and 2007 similar as at the first location (Figure 3 and Figure 4). The values of mean monthly temperatures in 2007 are higher almost for all months, as in the vegetation periods. Mean annual temperature values are also different. In 2007 it is 12.8C, while in 2006 was 14.1C. In July 2007, maximum mean monthly temperature of 28C is noted. At the location Strumica, the analysis of monthly precipitation shows higher values (623.9 mm) as compared to 2007 (537.4 mm). Nevertheless, these differences are not as extreme as it is for location Ovche Pole. As at the first location, the most critical month regarding the rainfall in 2007 is July (0.3 mm).

Figure 3. Walter clime diagram for Strumica, 2006.

Figure 4. Walter clime diagram for Strumica, 2007. If an experiment is conducted for one year and at one location the results will not be reliable and significant. Conducting experiments for more years and location is of highly importance for evaluation and breeding of varieties with wide adaptability [7]. Grain yield is the most important quantitative characteristic in soybean production (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) which depends of the genetic potential and the environmental conditions of growing [14]. Each environment is specific because there is specific action of predictable and unpredictable factors [citation in 13]. The field experiments are conducted on the trial fields that have been passed the organic conversion period at Faculty of Agriculture in Strumica and Poledelstvo, Erdzelija (Ovche Pole). The trial fields at both of the locations were under irrigation system. The sowing was performed in the beginning of May 2006 and 2007, at the both locations. The experiment design is randomized block system with basic trial field of 12.5 m2. The 6 tested varieties are in 00/0, I and II maturation group in two agriecological different regions in Republic of Macedonia (Ovche Pole and Strumica). In Ovche Pole the trial field was at 230 m altitude, soil type smolnica and two years wheat as pre-cropping culture. In Strumica the soil is mild carbonate with low acid pH reaction. Two basic factors are analysed, the first one is different soybean varieties and the second is different agriecological regions for growing (Ovche Pole and Strumica). The basic and before sowing plowing were standard, on time and in the same manner during the two experimental years, at the both regions. The sowing was performed manually, where the distance between rows was 50 cm and 5 cm within the row, i.e. 400.000 plants per

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hectare. Before sowing, the seeds of all used varieties were inoculated with biological concoction prepared from nitrogen fixation bacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum spp.). The following soybean varieties were examined: (1) Ilindenka is the first Macedonian soybean variety, recognized by the State Committee for varieties in 2004, II maturation group, 135 to 140 days vegetation length (2) Pela is the second Macedonian soybean variety, recognized by the State Committee for varieties in 2004, 00/0 maturation group, 90 to 100 days vegetation length (3) Daniela 97 Bulgarian variety, I maturation group, 125 to 135 days vegetation length (4) Pavlicheni 121 Bulgarian variety, 125 to 135 days vegetation length (5) ZPS015 Serbian variety, 0/I maturation group, 115 to 125 days vegetation length (6) Delta Canadian variety, maturation group 0/I, 120 to 125 days vegetation length During the vegetation, 2 manual cultivations between rows were performed, the first one in phase (V1- V2), developed simple leaves, and one to two pairs triple leaves, and the second one in the phase (R1) beginning of flowering. The first furrow irrigation (50 l/m2) was conducted in the phase (R3), beginning of pod formation, (different calendar schedule for varieties from different maturation group), and the second irrigation with the same irrigation norm at the phase (R5- R6), beginning of seed formation and their development. In the period between two irrigations the plants are foliar fertilized with biological liquid fertilizer based on dissolved humus from Californian Red Worms (Lumbricus rubellus), Bioflor [18]. There were no any pathogens and pests during the vegetation period of soybean crop during the two years of cultivation. The harvest was conducted manually in the phase (R8), full maturation which is different for different varieties that belong in different maturation groups. After the harvest, the yield (kg/ha) and grain quality characteristics were analysed. Grain quality was determined on average grain sample in laboratory. Protein content in the grains was determined according to Kjeldhal method, while the oil content according to method of extracted oils with Sokslet apparatus. All data were statistically analysed according to the method of variance analysis (ANOVA) and LSD test for evaluation of significant differences. As indicators of variability of tested characteristics for repetitions, locations and years, the following parameters were calculated: average value ( x ), average value error (S x ), standard deviation ( s ). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Grain yield is the most important characteristic in soybean breeding (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), which depends on the genetic potential and the environmental conditions of soybean growing [14]. The organic cultivation is often followed with stresses; the difference in yield from different genotypes is depending not only on genetic components but also on different abilities for their replenishment [2]. Table 1. Soybean grain yield in kg/ha from 6 tasted varieties at two locations for two years according to organic production criteria.
Region Ovche pole Strumica Average 2006 2007 2006 2007 Ilindenka 2840 1752 3100 2270 2490 Pela 1260 580 1490 670 1000 Variety Daniela 97 Pavlicheni 121 2500 1690 1510 610 2830 2570 1690 1980 2132 1712 ZPS 015 1540 935 2430 1650 1639 Delta 1710 1070 2760 1540 1770 Average 1890 1076 2530 1633 1782

The results presented in Table 1 show that average yield for all the varieties grown in conditions of organic cultivation for two years is 1782 kg/ha. The yield for all genotypes is showing higher values for 2006, location Strumica as compared to 2007 for the location Ovche Pole. The highest yield is obtained from the variety Ilindenka (3100 kg/ha) in the first year in Strumica, and the lowest yield is for the variety Pela (580 kg/ha) in the second year in Ovche Pole.

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Genotype Ilindenka

year 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007

Location Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica

Pela

Daniela 97

Pavlicheni 121 ZPS015 Delta

138.35 164.65 133.59 143.91 149.35 151.99 115.70 158.17 170.35 166.55 126.87 180.58 110.68 114.04 82.32 114.17 148.71 172.34 113.29 168.40 166.46 131.20 148.21

Sx 1.56 1.96 1.70 1.67 2.04 1.95 1.63 2.45 2.01 2.04 1.59 1.63 1.48 1.10 0.84 1.62 1.78 2.63 2.48 2.57 1.86 1.93 1.89

15.80 19.75 17.21 16.84 20.63 19.72 16.43 24.72 20.28 20.62 16.02 16.47 14.92 11.07 8.53 16.32 17.98 26.55 25.03 25.96 18.78 19.47 19.11

CV(%) 11.42 11.99 12.88 11.70 13.81 12.98 14.20 15.63 11.91 12.38 12.62 9.12 13.48 9.71 10.36 14.29 12.09 15.40 22.09 15.42 11.28 14.84 12.89

Table 2. Average values and indicators for genotypes variability for 1000 grains weight for two years and two locations. Although 1000 grains weight is depending mostly on genetic characteristics of the variety, it is also dependent on environmental conditions, mostly climatic. Absolute grains weight is determined by the speed and the duration of irrigation. The smaller grains are placed at the terminal pat of the plant because the period for irrigation is relatively short [2]. The highest value for 1000 grains weight is for the variety Daniela 97 (180.58 g) in 2007, location Strumica, and the lowest value is for variety Pavlicheni 121 (82.32 g) in 2007, location Ovche Pole (Table 2). The variability coefficient is in the range of 9.12% for variety Daniela 97 which in the same time showed the highest 1000 grains weight in 2007 in Strumica, to 5.63% for variety Pela in Strumica in 2007. It is well known that the strong interaction genotype environment has strong influence on expression on qualitative characteristics. The temperature during soybean growing is strong factor influencing the protein and oil content in soybean grains [citation in 18]. Usually, protein and oil content are inverse variation to temperature changes, e.g. temperature raise increase oil content in grains and decrease protein content [17]. The protein content is very variable characteristic (Table 3).
Genotype Ilindenka year 2006 2007 2006 Pela 2007 2006 Daniela 97 2007 2006 Pavlicheni 121 2007 2006 ZPS015 2007 2006 Delta 2007 Location Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Average Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Average Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Average Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Average Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Average Ovche Pole Strumica Ovche Pole Strumica Average Protein 29.71 34.51 27.04 28.6 29.97 35.67 32.1 36.31 36.5 35.15 31.09 32.05 21.97 29.01 28.53 33.63 32.46 25.3 32.46 30.96 32.9 34.99 24.99 31.91 31.20 35.88 33.19 28.69 35.67 32.46 Oil 22.86 21.79 23.16 20.49 22.07 22.27 24.15 25.74 20.62 23.19 22.67 22.05 26.84 23.00 23.64 20.97 22.68 24.95 22.05 22.66 21.80 21.56 25.24 21.80 22.60 20.33 22.50 23.86 19.47 21.54

LSD0,05 LSD0,01

2.25 3.05

1.10 1.49

Table 3. Average values of protein and oil content in grains of different genotypes at two locations and two years.

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The lowest and minimal protein content showed variety Pela (36.5%) in the first year 2006 in Strumica, and the lowest percent of proteins showed variety Daniela 97 (21.97%) in the second year 2007 in Ovche Pole. The highest average value of protein content, on average basis for all variants has variety Pela (35.15%), followed by the varieties Delta (32,46%), ZPS015 (31.20%), Pavlicheni 121 (30.96%), Ilindenka (29.97%) and Daniela 97 (28.53%). CONCLUSIONS From the conducted experiment on organic production of soybean in two different agriecological locations and during two experimental years, the following conclusions can be drawn: The average yield of soybean from the cultivated varieties during two years and at two locations is 1782 kg/h. Taking in account that the price of soybean grain as row material for organic products is higher, the gained yield indicates economic justification of organic production of soybean. The highest average yield is gained from the variety with the longest vegetation period (Ilindenka, 140 days), while the lowest yield is gained from the variety with the shortest vegetation period (Pela, 90 days). The highest average protein and oils content is observed in the variety with the shortest vegetation period (Pela). The low grain yield of this variety is compensated with very high quality of grains from nutrition aspect. Because of extreme low precipitations in July 2007 at the both locations, the grain yield is 40% lower as compared to 2006 for all the varieties under the experiment. According to the results of the experiment, the location Strumica showed higher average yield from all the varieties than the location Ovche Pole and it is more suitable for organic production of soybeans. REFERENCES
[1] Enken,V.B. Soja. Selskogiz, Moskva, 1959. [2] Frederic, J.R. & Hesketh, J.D. Genetic improvement in soybean: Physiological Attributes. In: Genetic improvement of field crops. Slafer, G.A. (ed.) Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, Basel, Hong Kong., 1994, pp. 237 276. [3] Gutschy, Lj. Soja i njezino znaenje u narodnom gospodarstvu, poljoprivredi i prehrani. Tehnika knjiga, Zagreb, 1950. [4] Holmberg, S.A. (1973) : Soybeans for cool temperature climates. Agric.Hort. Gent, 1973. 31, 1-20. [5] Hymowitz, T. Soybeans: The Success Story. Proceedings of the First National symposium, New crops: Research, Development, Economics. Indianapolis, Indiana, 1988, 159-163. [6] Hymowitz, T. & Singh, R.J. Taxonomy and speciation. In J.R. Wilcox (ed.) Soybeans: Inprovement, Production and Uses, Agronomy, Monography 16, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 1987, 23-48. [7] Khan, M.A. Soybean breeding strategy for Pakistan: Genotype x Environment interaction and stability for soybean yield. PhD Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2002. [8] Mihajlov, A.Lj. Productive and quality characteristics of soybean producing in Ovce Pole. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Skopje, 2002. [9] Mihajlov Lj. Organic production of soybeans. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Stip, 2009, 1-61. [10] Morse, W.J. (1950): History of soybean production. In: Markley K.S. (ed). Soybeans and soybean production, I. Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 1950, 3-59. [11] Morse, W.J., Cartter, J.L., Williams, L.F. Soybeans: culture and varieties. U.S. Dep. Agric. Farmers Bull. No. 1520, 1949, 1-38. [12] Nenadi, N., Mari, M., Plazini, V., Stiki, R., Peki, S., Boi, D., Simova-Toi, D., Toi, M., Simi, D., Vrbaki, . Soja, proizvodnja i prerada. Poljoprivredni fakultet Beograd, INR Uljarice, Beograd, 1995. [13] Sudari A., Vratari M., Duvnjak T., Klari J. (2003): Fenotipska stabilnost uroda zrna nekoliko Os-kultivara soje. Poljoprivreda. 2009, 9(2), 5-12. [14] Sudari, A. & Vratari M. (2002): Variability and interrelationships of grain quantity andquality characteristics in soybean. Bodenkultur (0006-5471), 2002, 53, 3, 131-136. [15] USDA, www.usda.gov [16] Vratari, M. & Sudari A. Soja. Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, 2000. [17] Wilson, R.F. Seed Composition. In: Soybeans: Improvement, Production, and Uses. Third edition. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, 2004. [18] Bioflor, www.bioflor.com.mk

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ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF OIL PUMPKIN AND FALSE FLAX PRODUCTION THE CASE FOR ORGANIC AND BIODyNAMIC FARMING
Matja Turinek, Maja Turinek, Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, Franc Bavec, Martina Bavec* University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Pivola 10, 2311 Hoe, Slovenia - martina.bavec@uni-mb.si

ABSTRACT Rising energy prices and climate change intensified the search for alternative farming systems where the environmental impact and energy consumption per unit will be lowered. A long-term field trial, started in 2007 at the University of Maribor, focuses on food quality and the ecological footprint of conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) farming systems. Gained data has been evaluated and interpreted using the SPIonExcel tool. Results from the first year show a significantly lower ecological footprint of both, ORG and BD, systems in production of oil pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo var. Styriaca L.) and false flax (Camelina sativa L.), mainly due to non-use of external production factors, like mineral fertilizers and pesticides. When yields are added to the equation, the ORG and BD systems emerge as more environmentally friendly per unit of produced crop as well. Thus, ORG and BD farming systems present viable alternatives for reducing the impact of agriculture on climate change, while ensuring a more sustainable food security. However, an obvious room for improvement exists in the area of the ecological footprint of machinery use in all systems studied. Keywords: organic agriculture, biodynamic agriculture, ecological footprint, farming system comparison INTRODUCTION Indicators and/or tools for evaluating sustainable development have to be chosen very carefully; regarding the method, which best suits the needs, set goals and expected results[1]. Ecological footprint (EF)[2] tries to summarize the biologically productive area, which is needed to produce yearly flows of materials spent by the population of a certain region (city, state, world) with all accompanying waste in the form of emissions (especially CO2) and the area needed for building infrastructure. This is compared to the area available to a certain population or individual, called the biocapacity [3]. Data for the EF is usually excerpted from statistical databases; in the case of agriculture from yearly statistics of individual countries. The drawback of such data lies in the inaccuracy of the attained footprint for smaller units e.g. farm level. LCA (life cycle assessment) is a tool based on actual/real data, it assesses the environmental burden caused by a product, the production process or activity[4]. It takes into account the technological processes of all activities, basic materials and transportation into and from the production unit. In the second step sources used for each single input are evaluated by adding the environmental impact, including the resulting emissions and waste. The result can be interpreted on a per unit of product basis (kg) or equivalent area (ha), where areas used outside of the production unit are included [1]. The only drawback of this tool is the limited comparability of the gained data on a world or state level. Consequently LCA needs to be joined with other indicators or tools. Research in the area of the EF or the LCA in agriculture is still developing. Furthermore, to our knowledge up-to-date there has been no scientific research published on comparing production of oil crops in different production systems using a joint framework of the EF and LCA called the Sustainable process index - SPI [5-7]. With a long-term field trial we tried to fill this void and bring some more clarity to the discussion of sustainability of various production systems. In this sense experimental data from a long-term field trial is used in this paper, therefore results reflect conditions in real-life situations and farming systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Long-term field trial The long-term field trial is located at the experimental site of the University Agricultural Centre, University of Maribor. The mean air temperature of the area in the growing period (May-September) was 18,6C, total rainfall in the same period amounted to 436 mm. Sixty 7m10m experimental field plots were established in autumn 2007 on a dystric cambisol (deep) (average pH value 5.5 (0.1 KCl solution), soil soluble P at 0.278 g/kg-1 and soil soluble K at 0.255 g/kg-1 in ploughing soil layer), within two different five-course crop rotation designs. In one rotation there are typical crops for this region (two years of red-clover grass, wheat, white cabbage, oil pumpkins), the other one is an alternative crop rotation (two years of red-clover grass mixture, spelt, red beet, false flax/ garden poppy). Four production systems + control plots were arranged in a randomised complete block split-plot design with four replicates. The farming systems differed mostly in plant protection and fertilization strategies [8]. The experimental area was managed organically since 2002, where grass-clover was produced since 2005. Also 4 m wide grass-clover protection belts are separating the farming systems under study.

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The farming systems used are defined by the valid legislation and standards conventional (CON) [9], integrated (INT) [9-11], organic (ORG) [12], biodynamic (BD) [12,13] and the control [9] farming system, where no fertilization/plant protection was used. SPIonExcel tool LCA with the Sustainable Process Index (SPI), a member of the EF family, was used in this paper, as it is well suited for this task[5]. We will not go into details of this method, as they are described in several research papers [5]. In short, SPIonExcel calculates the EF of a process and SPI of a product or service through the input that characterizes the process given by an eco-inventory. The ecoinventories used for the calculation of the overall footprint contain engineering mass and energy flows of processes in terms of input and output flows [5]. From the attained footprint an additional ecological efficiency of production systems was calculated using the following equation: Ecological efficiency of production =
ecological footprint (1) yield

The result of Eq. (1) gives an indication of the cost in terms of ecological sustainability of a given product or service [5]. The number indicates what fraction of the overall ecological budget of a production system is used to provide this good or service - in our case 1 kg of oil pumpkin seed or false flax seed. Lower values indicate better environmental performance of production systems. Data used All work done on the trial in 2008 was carefully monitored and recorded. Data collected from the field trial were transformed into tasks done in a system in one year and the time needed for those tasks (e.g. ploughing, seeding, harrowing, spraying, etc.). Because of the nature of the trial, where not all operations could be done by machines (e.g. spraying), real-life operational times were taken from the University Agricultural Centre Farm, where the experiment took place. Tasks related only to the nature of the trial (e.g. mowing of protection belts) were not included in the calculations. The footprint was determined for 1 ha of area. Statistical analysis Data for the ecological efficiency of production were analysed by one-way ANOVA with production system as a factor using Statgraphics Centurion (Version XV, StatPoint Technologies, Inc., Warrenton, VA) and were followed by means comparisons after Duncan, 95% probability [14]. Values given within the paper are means standard error (SE). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION When looking at the results of the EF of production systems for oil pumpkin and false flax, a high proportion of the final footprint with CON and INT systems derives from the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides (Table 1). However, ORG and BD systems have higher footprints in the field of machinery use impacts, mainly because of manure spreading, harrowing and the use of BD preparations with the BD system. The surprising fact is, that also control plots for oil pumpkin and false flax production leave an EF of 113334.7 m2 and 100841.6 m2, respectively. This means that only by using current standard machinery to till the soil and produce crops, we already leave a great environmental impact and consume 10-11 times more land than is needed to plant the crops on. In this sense there is great need for improvement in the current agricultural practice and the way we understand, till and work the soil. However, when the total EF area of CON oil pumpkin and false flax production is visualized, it takes some effort to perceive and realize the vast impact this industrial way of farming really has on the environment and ecosystems. The INT system performs slightly better than the CON system, although it is publicised and advertised as nature friendlier and as one of the sustainable agricultural systems [10].
Production system Oil pumpkin: Production area (m2) Machinery (m2) Fertilizers and pesticides (m2) Seed (m2) Total footprint (m2) Index (%) False flax: Production area (m2) Machinery (m2) Fertilizers and pesticides (m2) Seed (m2) Total footprint (m2) Index (%) control 10000 102398 0 937 113335 100 10000 90458 0 383 100841 100 CON 10000 103361 305836 937 420134 371 10000 96027 250163 383 356573 354 INT 10000 103361 204461 937 318759 281 10000 96027 148788 383 255198 253 ORG 10000 146949 37840 937 195726 173 10000 135009 37840 383 183232 182 BD 10000 161325 37840 937 210102 185 10000 144592 37840 383 192815 192

Table. 1 The EF for 1 ha of oil pumpkin and false flax production in 2008.

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Production system Oil pumpkins, *: EE (m2 kg -1) False flax, *: EE (m2 kg -1)

control 240.754.9c 38.016.0b

CON 962.5205.5a 171.719.9a

INT 714.1144.4ab 101.748.7ab

ORG 438.588.7bc 87.534.3ab

BD 379.764.6bc 66.217.2b

Table. 2 Ecological efficiency (EE) of oil pumpkin and false flax production for 2008 expressed in m2 of impact for 1 kg of produced DM yield. Means SE, n=3. Different letters indicate statistically significant differences at P0.05 (Duncan test). Results of the ecological efficiency of production give an even more insightful picture, as yields are taken into the equation (Table 2). The value for the ecological efficiency in the CON system amounts to 4.0, 2.2 and 2.5 times as much as in the control, ORG and BD farming systems for oil pumpkin production, respectively. Similar values can be observed for false flax production, where the CON plots reached 4.5, 1.96 and 2.6 higher values (and thus lower efficiency) when compared to control, ORG and BD plots, respectively. One has to keep in mind, however, that these are the results for the first year of crop production after grass-clover, thus values and ratios will probably change in the next 2-3 years of the trial, where control plots are expected to produce significantly lower yields than in the year 2008. Despite this fact, the ORG and BD systems still would have significantly higher ecological efficiencies of production. And taking a step further than only production levels, what will happen when we run out of oil? It is important to keep in mind is that the relation between population and oil production is one of cause and effect. The sky-rocketing of population is not merely coincident with the sky-rocketing of oil production. It is the latter that actually causes the former. With abundant oil, a large population is possible ignoring, of course, the fact that environmental degradation may eventually wipe out those human numbers anyway. Without abundant oil, on the other hand, a large population is not possible[15]. CONSLUSIONS But where can we improve in the future? As previously mentioned, efficient use of machinery and inventing new forms of working the soil will be of crucial importance. To discontinue the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides would obviously improve the ecological footprint and environmental efficiency of the prevalent CON and INT farming systems. REFERENCES:
[1] van der Werf HM, Tzilivakis J, Lewis K, Basset-Mens C. Environmental impacts of farm scenarios according to five assessment methods. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2007;118(14):327-338. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Wackernagel M, Rees W. Our ecological footprint: reducing human impact on the earth. New Soc Pr, 1995. Haberl H, Erb K, Krausmann F. How to calculate and interpret ecological footprints for long periods of time: the case of austria 1926-1995. Ecological Economics 2001;38(1):25-45. Curran M. Life-cycle assessment. In: Encyclopedia of ecology. Oxford: Academic Press, 2008. p. 2168-2174. Sandholzer D, Narodoslawsky M. Spionexcel--fast and easy calculation of the sustainable process index via computer. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2007;50(2):130-142. Narodoslawsky M, Krotscheck C. The sustainable process index (spi): evaluating processes according to environmental compatibility. Journal of Hazardous Materials 1995;41(2-3):383-397. Krotscheck C, Narodoslawsky M. The sustainable process index a new dimension in ecological evaluation. Ecological Engineering 1996;6(4):241-258. Turinek M. Okoljski Odtis Nekaterih Poljin in Zelenjadnic V Razlinih Pridelovalnih Sistemih. BSc Thesis. University of Maribor, 2009. MKGP. Zakon o kmetijstvu 2008.

[10] MKGP. Pravilnik o integrirani pridelavi poljin 2004. [11] Duban T, Bavec F, Hrustel-Majcen M, Lenik M, Simoni A, Flisar -Novak Z, tuhec J, Majeri B, Valenko B, Vranec S, Zidani B. Tehnoloka navodila za integrirano pridelavo poljin: za leto 2009. Ministrstvo za kmetijstvo, gozdarstvo in prehrano, 2009. [12] EC 834/2007. Council regulation (ec) no 834/2007 of 28 june 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing regulation (eec) no 2092/91 2007. [13] Demeter International e.V. Production standards for the use of demeter, biodynamic and related trademarks 2009. [14] Hoshmand AR. Design of experiments for agriculture and the natural sciences second edition. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2006. [15] Goodchild P. Peak oil and famine:four billion deaths 2007.

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SENSORy PROPERTIES OF RED BEET FROM DIFFERENT FARMING SySTEMS


Matja Turinek, Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, Franc Bavec, Martina Bavec* University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Pivola 10, 2311 Hoe, Slovenia - martina.bavec@uni-mb.si

ABSTRACT In recent years the importance of food quality has increased, but there is still lack of research in this field. Sensory properties are also one of the characteristics that determine the quality of food. Organic food is considered to be tastier, but results of surveys are sometimes contradictory. We examined the sensory properties of red beet, which was, in addition to the control sample, produced in conventional(CON), integrated(INT), organic(ORG) and bio-dynamic(BD) farming systems. Randomly selected evaluators scored their preference for four characteristics (colour, odour, taste and overall acceptability) using a nine-point hedonic scale. Results show statistically significant differences for all characteristics ranging from highest to lowest in the order control>BD>ORG=INT>CON, except for odour, where no significant differences were found. Furthermore, it has been found out that males scored more uniformly, whereas females expressed a sharper perception and ability to differentiate between different samples. Key words: organic agriculture, biodynamic agriculture, sensory evaluation, farming system comparison, red beet INTRODUCTION Consumer demand for organically grown products is steadily growing and has exceeded supply in many countries. Consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about food quality, especially regarding how, when and where food is produced [1]. Also consumer and research interest in the biodynamic farming system is posing questions regarding food quality[2], which have yet to be answered. Moreover, amongst consumers sensory quality is one of the more important parameters to determine the quality of food. In general, organic food is considered to be tastier, but results of surveys are sometimes contradictory [3]. Often differences appear because of discrepancies at the evaluation design and process (unevenly ripe vegetables, different varieties, wrong storage of vegetables, etc.), sometimes there are just no differences detectable to the human sense[4]. Even though some authors advocate the use of trained panellists in order to attain more consistent results[5], hedonic sensory evaluation aims at determining the acceptability of a product and/or preference of a given product compared to another one from the point of view of the consumer [6]. Thus, the main question we asked ourselves was what the consumer preferences are when tasting/choosing fresh vegetables from various farming systems? Therefore the sensory properties of red beet were examined, which was, in addition to the control plots, produced in conventional(CON), integrated(INT), organic(ORG) and bio-dynamic(BD) farming systems in a long-term controlled field trial. To our knowledge up-to-date no similar studies have been done comparing hedonic sensory quality of red beet in all of these various production systems. Therefore, the production systems and sensory evaluation methods are explored in the first part of the paper, followed by an examination of the evaluation results with a special focus on production system and sex of evaluators as factors. We round up the paper with an affirmation, that production systems do have a significant influence on the hedonic sensory profile and acceptance of red beet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Long-term field trial The experimental site for the production of the experimental material is located at the University Agricultural Centre of the University of Maribor in Pivola near Hoe (4628N, 1538E, 282 m a.s.l). The yearly mean air temperature of the area is 10.7C; where the mean monthly minimum is in January with 0.4C and the average monthly maximum is in July with 20.8C. Average annual rainfall in the area is around 1000 mm. Thirty 7m10m experimental field plots were established in 2007 on a dystric cambisol (deep) (average pH value 5.5 (0.1 KCl solution), soil soluble P at 0.278 g/kg-1 and soil soluble K at 0.255 g/kg-1 in ploughing soil layer), and are maintained within two different five-course crop rotation designs, where various sequences of crops in the crop rotations are used. In one rotation there are typical crops for this region (two years of red-clover grass, wheat, white cabbage, oil pumpkins), the other one is an alternative crop rotation (two years of red-clover grass mixture, spelt, red beet, false flax). Four production systems + control plots were arranged in a randomized complete block split-plot design with four replicates. The farming systems differed mostly in plant protection and fertilization strategies (Table 1). Soil cultivation, sowing and harvesting were identical among experimental plots and were performed on similar dates and in a similar manner to adjacent fields. The experimental area was managed organically since 2002, where grass-clover was produced since 2005. Also 4 m wide grass-clover protection belts are separating the farming systems under study.

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Table. 1 Production systems used and their differences


Production system Conventional farming according to the Slovene agriculture act and good agricultural practice (GAP) Integrated farming according to the standards for Integrated farming Organic farming according to the EC regulation on Organic Farming Biodynamic farming according to Demeter International production standards Control plots Soil cultivation and basic operations Ploughing, seedbed preparation, sowing, harvesting Ploughing, seedbed preparation, sowing, harvesting Ploughing, seedbed preparation, sowing, harvesting Ploughing, seedbed preparation, sowing, harvesting Ploughing, seedbed preparation, sowing, harvesting Weed management Pest management Manure application NPK and N mineral fertilizers used according to GAP and nutrient removal estimates NPK and N mineral Curative use of pesticides fertilizers used based on according to the rules of INT soil analysis and nutrient management removal estimates Use of some natural pesticides (Neem-oil, BT 1,4 livestock units (LU) of extract) on vegetable crops cattle manure /ha when needed 1,4 livestock units (LU) of Use of BD preparations, some natural pesticides composted cattle manure / (Neem-oil, BT extract) on ha with added BD compost vegetable crops when needed preparations none none

Preventive use of herbicides Preventive use of pesticides according to GAP, harrowing according to GAP when needed Use of herbicides according to the rules of INT management, harrowing at least once Harrowing 2-5 times/season, cover crops after cereals, weed burning in vegetables Harrowing 2-5 times/season, cover crops after cereals, weed burning in vegetables Harrowing 1-3 times/season

Farming system definition sources: [7-11] Same varieties of crops were used in all farming systems, where the origin of the seed differed organically grown for the ORG, BD and control plots vs. conventionally grown for CON and INT plots. The red beet variety Rote Kugel was chosen, as it was the only one available in both, CON and ORG, qualities. Samples of red beet in all farming systems were picked on 19th August 2008 from the centre of the experimental plots, afterwards cleaned and stored at optimal conditions [12] in a cooling room at 6C and 95% relative humidity until the sensory evaluation took place. Sample preparation We randomly picked 40 roots (10 from each repetition) from the stored samples of red beet for each farming system, which were washed, peeled, grated and stored in a plastic container with a closed lid just before the sensory evaluation took place. These five (5) pooled samples were served on open white plastic trays, marked with 3-digit random numbers. Additionally a plastic fork was offered. Each serving weighed around 17g. Serving orders were randomised. Sensory evaluation The sensory evaluation took place during the 12th Alpe Adria Biosymposium, which was held between 20th and 21st November 2008. The hedonic sensory evaluation was offered as an accompanying event and took place in a classroom (each day from 9am to 6 pm), where separate tables with ample room between them were provided for the volunteers. Each evaluator was accompanied to the table, handed out the evaluation sheet and explained the purpose and procedure of the hedonic evaluation. A 9-point hedonic scale was prepared, where 1 was marked as extremely dislike, 9 as extremely like and 5 as neither like/neither dislike. Attributes evaluated included colour, odour, taste and overall acceptability. White plain bread and water were at disposal to neutralize taste. The evaluation took place at 20C under normal white light. Statistical analysis An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the attained sensory data [13]. Production system was a factor in the model and was followed by least squares means comparisons after Duncan (95% probability, levels of significance used: n.s. - non significant (p>0,05); *0,05; **0,01; ***0,001) [14]. Additionally, a separate analysis was done for both sexes separately. To examine the association between the sensory attributes a correlation analysis was included. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A total of 91 evaluators took part in the sensory evaluation, out of which 59% (n=54) were women and 41% (n=37) men. Age of the evaluators was evenly distributed as follows: 34% between 18 and 27 years of age, 22% between 28 and 37 years of age, 22% between 38 and 47 years of age, 15% between 48 and 57 years of age and 7% between 58 and 67 years of age. This was interpreted as being a typical consumer group for Slovenia. In a previous study that we found [15], no significant differences were detected between samples of CON and BD produced red beet. In our study, however, BD and CON systems differed significantly in all measured attributes, except odour (Table 2). Beet from control

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plots attained highest scores, although also lower yields than other plots (data not shown), both of which could be correlated with the amount of N fertilizer used. However, the amount of N fertilizer applied can not be the only source of variation, for similar amounts of N were applied in remaining four production systems, whereas they were of different origin (mineral vs. organic). Another factor contributing to differences could be pesticide use in the CON and INT systems, whereas no pesticides were used in the other systems under study. Table. 2 Least square means of sensory evaluation scores for Colour, Odour, Taste and Overall Acceptability (n=455) depending on production system in the year 2008.
Production System Control Conventional Integrated Organic Biodynamic Colour ** 6,500,18a 5,400,24c 5,870,19bc 6,030,19ab 6,210,19ab Odour n.s. 6,010,19 5,500,19 5,750,19 5,520,18 5,480,21 Taste ** 6,500,19a 5,340,21c 5,890,19bc 5,830,20bc 6,080,19ab Overall Acceptability * 6,340,18a 5,440,20b 5,880,18ab 5,850,19ab 6,060,19a

Different letters indicate statistical significant differences at 95% probability (Duncan test). Levels of significance: n.s. - non significant (p>0,05); *0,05; **0,01. Also the difference between the ORG and BD system was only in the BD preparations being used, as no BD compost was yet available in the year 2008. The reason for differences in taste and overall acceptability may lay in sugar contents or phenolic compounds, which were shown to be higher in BD produced grapes[16]. In spite of this fact, analysis on the contents of bio-active compounds in red beet and the differences of those between production systems is yet to be done in future research studies. No significant differences were found between ORG and INT red beet. According to the correlation analysis there was a significant positive correlation between colour vs. odour, taste and overall acceptability (r=0.629, r=0.579 and r=0.734, respectively; 455 df, p<0,001), odour vs. taste and overall acceptability( r=0.705 and r=0.797, respectively; 455 df, p<0,001) and taste vs. overall acceptability (r=0.686; 455 df, p<0,001). Odour had the greatest influence on overall acceptability, whereas taste had little influence on the colour scores of the samples. The interaction between production system and sex showed no significant differences for all attributes scored (p>0,05). However, when we analysed each of the sexes separately, significant differences appeared with all scored attributes, but only with female evaluators (Table 3). Although males scored the samples differently, they were not able to significantly differentiate between various production systems. Table. 3 Least square means of sensory evaluation scores for Colour, Odour, Taste and Overall Acceptability (n=455) split between sexes with production system as a factor in the year 2008.
Sex System Female (n=270) Control Conventional Integrated Organic Biodynamic Control Conventional Integrated Organic Biodynamic Colour *** 6,760,21a 5,130,33c 5,610,29bc 6,050,26ab 6,310,24ab n.s. 6,130,32 5,780,33 6,240,19 6,00,28 6,050,31 Odour * 6,180,25a 5,240,26b 5,650,28ab 5,370,26b 5,350,28b n.s. 5,760,29 5,890,25 5,890,23 5,730,23 5,670,31 Taste *** 6,810,22a 5,180,28c 5,780,28bc 5,670,29bc 6,020,25b n.s. 6,050,33 5,570,31 6,050,24 6,080,24 6,160,31 Overall Acceptability ** 6,630,21a 5,220,27c 5,830,26bc 5,760,27bc 6,070,26ab n.s. 5,920,32 5,760,30 5,940,23 5,970,25 6,050,28

Male (n=185)

Different letters indicate statistical significant differences at 95% probability (Duncan test). Levels of significance: n.s. - non significant (p>0,05); *0,05; **0,01;***0,001. Having in mind that the majority of organic food consumers in the EU [17] or other countries [18] are represented by women in the ages from 25 to 40 (which was also the biggest age group in our study), our results indicate one of the possible reasons consumers opt to buy organic food. Women are better tasters [5] and as such are usually in charge of buying food for the whole family. Also women with children more often tend to choose organically produced food [17]. In this sense the taste of it plays, along with other factors, an important role in the decision making process especially if you are a better taster and the food you choose tends to be tastier [3]. CONCLUSIONS It was observed in the present study that production system and sex of evaluators had an impact on sensory quality of red beet. Control and BD produced red beet scored higher in most attributes than CON produced red beet, with the ORG and INT systems inbetween. The acceptance of red beet for female evaluators points towards one of the reasons why the average organic consumer prefers ORG and BD foods over CON and INT foods.

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REFERENCES
[1] [2] Haglund , Johansson L, Berglund L, Dahlstedt L. Sensory evaluation of carrots from ecological and conventional growing systems. Food Quality and Preference 1998;10(1):23-29. Turinek M, Grobelnik-Mlakar S, Bavec M, Bavec F. Biodynamic agriculture research progress and priorities. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 2009;24(2):146-154. [3] Bourn D, Prescott J. A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2002;42:1-34. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Benbrook C, Zhao X, Yez J, Davies N, Andrews P. Nutritional superiority of organic food. The Organic Center, 2008. Theurer RC. State of science review: taste of organic food. The Organic Center, 2006. Meilgaard M, Civille GV, Carr BT. Sensory evaluation techniques. CRC Press, 2007. MKGP. Pravilnik o integrirani pridelavi zelenjave 2002. MKGP. Pravilnik o integrirani pridelavi poljin 2004. EC 834/2007. Council regulation (ec) no 834/2007 of 28 june 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing regulation (eec) no 2092/91 2007.

[10] MKGP. Zakon o kmetijstvu 2008. [11] Demeter International e.V. Production standards for the use of demeter, biodynamic and related trademarks 2009. [12] Henze J, Baumann H. Quality of red beet (beta vulgaris l.) as affected by storage conditions. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 1979;93:59-66. [13] Statgraphics centurion xv. Statpoint, 2005. [14] Hoshmand AR. Design of experiments for agriculture and the natural sciences second edition. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2006. [15] Hansen H. Comparison of chemical composition and taste of biodynamically and conventionally grown vegetables. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum) 1980;30(3):203-211. [16] Reeve JR, Carpenter-Boggs L, Reganold JP, York AL, McGourty G, McCloskey LP. Soil and winegrape quality in biodynamically and organically managed vineyards. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 2005;56(4):367-376. [17] Davies A, Titterington AJ, Cochrane C. Who buys organic food? British Food Journal 1995;97(10):17-23. [18] Cunningham R. Consumer food trends. Strategic Information Services Unit, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, 2004.

SORGHUM EXTRACTS ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS ON AMARANTHUS RETROFLEXUS SEED GERMINATION AND GROWTH
M. yarnia1*, M.B.Khorshidi Benam2, E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi3
1 Associate prof. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. Iran. * Corresponding Author : Email: yarnia@iaut.ac.ir and m.yarnia@yahoo.com 2 3

Assis. Prof. Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch. Iran. Email: mb.khorshidi@yahoo.com Staff member, Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch. Iran. Email: farajzadeh.elnaz@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT One aspect of organic farming is using crop allelopathic potential for against of weed germination and growth. With regards to importance and abundance of Amaranthus retroflexus weed in fields an experiment was conducted using CRD based factorial design with three replications to study the allelopathic effects of extracts at different growth stages and different concentration on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus in 2008-2009. Treatment was: different harvesting stages (vegetative, flowering and seed filling stages), extract of different organs (leaf, stem, root and total plant), different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%). Analysis of variance at germination stage showed that main and an interaction effects were significant on all attributes. Using extracts decreased germination percentage and its aspects. Leaf extract of all vegetative stages had more decreasing effect. 20% concentration of all parts and stages prevented germination. Minimum growth, seedling dry weight, germination percent and germination rate, was 49.06, 68.92, 59.44 and 67.31%, respectively. The main and interaction effects were significant in greenhouse experiment. All attributes decreased by increasing concentration from 5% to 20% in all stages. Leaf extract and stem extract had the most and least impact on Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination. Sorghum extract decreased height, leaf area and number, leaf, shoot and root dry weight and biomass as 50.40, 54.20, 57.71, 77.48, 73, 64.51 and 72.35% , respectively. Sorghum allelopathic ability can use for decreasing plant population of pigweed and prevents more using of herbicides. Key words: allelopathy, Amaranthus retroflexus, sorghum, germination, growth, INTRODUCTION Allelopathic effects can affect on all ecological factors, in stance growth, plant canopy succession, survival, extension and crop production 11. Under present condition, weed invasion is the most important reason of crops yield reduction. More use of herbicides caused increasing tolerance weeds for some of herbicides, plant population changing towards species that have near relationship with crops and increased environment pollution. Studying on allelopathy can solve these problems 18 and Allelopathic compounds can use

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as model for herbicide production 23. Leaves and leaf residuals, roots, pollens and flowers, epidermis, stem, seeds and fruits have active allelopathic property or in degradation process 24. Cessation by allelopathic compounds covered all life stages from seed until mature plant and seed germination, seedling growth, leaf area, dry matter and production 8. Amaranthus retroflexus is one of important and major weeds in world and its physiological characteristic made it well known competitive weed for crops 10.Nonchemical and biological control methods for preventing of tolerance induction to herbicides was important purpose of this weed control 3. Changing enzymes activity effects storage compounds transmission may cause germination cessation 8. Delaying or cessation of storage compounds can reduce respiration substrates and metabolic energy in allelochemicals exposed seeds decreased germination and seedling growth. Osmotic effects by affecting water absorbing rate led to delaying seed germination, and cell elongation 9. In upper concentration of these materials, seed germination and mitosis stopped 21. Allelopathic interaction in development and growth is complex process that affects all development and growth aspects 8. De Neegard and Porter 7 reported decreasing protein synthesis, hormones, chlorophyll, cell division, changing cell wall structure, membrane permeability and function, changing active transmission, especial enzymes cessation, anther germination and spores, organelle synthesis, photosynthesis, respiration, leg-hemoglobin biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation bacteria activity nitrogen fixation mycorhizal fungi, changing crop water rate and DNA, RNA by allelochemical disturbances.
8

Decreasing in carbohydrate achievement rate by allelochemical inhibitors led to decrees in plant total growth and crop dry weight . Roots are more sensitive to allelopathic compounds than shoots 17.Corn root exudates inhibited Amaranthus retroflexus and chenopodium album. Sunflower extract decreased weed canopy to 33%, sorghum residuals decreased Portuleca oleracea L, Digitaria ischaemum L population as 70% and 98%, respectively 25.

Rye, triticale, sorghum and barley extract decreased germination and growth of barnyard grass and bristly foxtail 6.100 sorghum species root extract inhibition ability on Amaranthus retroflexus germination and growth. Some species extract caused inhibition of seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus. Growth inhibition rate was 12-96% for root, 8-82 for seed germination and 13-75% for shoot growth2. Sorghum residuals decreased Chenopudum album, bristly foxtail and Amaranthus retroflexus germination up to 43- 80 and 95%, respectively 20. Alam et al 1 reported that sorghum root extract prevented Amaranthus retroflexus seedling growth up to 2165%. Inderjit et al 14 reported that sorghum extract with 3 and 4% concentration decreased Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination, root, seedling and plant growth. Sorghum extracts with 2-20% concentration decreased seed germination, complete plant and root growth of Amaranthus spinosus, Yamopsis tetragonoloba and Vigra unguiculata 16. Eirshad and Chima 15 showed that sorghum extract decreased barnyard grass dry weight from 31 to 48%. Sorghum residuals extract were main inhibition factor for Amaranthus spinosus and bean germinaton, root and shoot growth 13. Glycoside and sorgholeon are sorghum active compounds. They are stron inhibitors of Amaranthus spinosus root growth that decreased from 13 to 27% 19.The aim of this investigation was determination of extracts of Sorghum damaging effects on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus. MATERIALS AND METHODS This research was done at laboratory and greenhouses of agricultural campus of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, located at 383 N, 4627E, 1360 m altitude in 2008-2009. Experiment included three separate stages: I- Sorghum planting and prepare extract from different growth stages. II- Germination test in laboratory. III- Growth test in greenhouse. Experiments arranged in CRD based factorial design with three replicates. Experimental factors were, 1. different stage harvesting (harvesting before flowering, in flowering stage and grain filling). 2. different extracts of sorghum (leaf, shoot, root and total plant), 3. different concentration of sorghum organs extract in 4 levels (5, 10, 15 and 20 percent). Sorghum seeds (Speedfeed) were sown into moist soil to a depth of 3 cm as 6020cm. Harvesting was done according growth stages. Collected weed species were separated into roots, leaves and shoots, dried in an electrical oven at 60C for 48 hours and then milled. In order to produce extract, 20 g of powdered material was plunged in 100 ml of water for 24 hours and then filtered and centrifuged 4 . Laboratory experiment was done in Petri dishes in lab germinator based on ISTA rules for ten days. Fifty healthy Amaranthus retroflexus seeds were put in Petri dishes and the extracts of different parts of Sorghum were applied. Number of germinated seeds, shoot, root and seedling length and seedling dry weight, were measured on third, seventh and tenth day. Coefficient of Germination Rate, germination time and dry weight changes were calculated. Greenhouse experimental: Greenhouse temperature and humidity were changeable from19 to 35C and 40 to 70% in average, during test period. After seedlings growth in nine liter pots, the irrigation continued until plant establishment. There after, five plants were kept in a pot and irrigated with extract in the first every 5 days and 7 days in the end (150 to 200 cc). Plant height, shoot, leaf and root dry weight, leaf number and leaf area and biomass were measured. MSTATC and Harvard Graph 98 were used to analysis data and draw graphs, respectively. RESULT AND DISSCUSIONS Laboratory investigation: Treatment Amaranthus retroflexus seed with distilled water produced the highest seedling and root length, dry weight, and germination percentage in comparison with sorghum extracts with significant difference. Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination decreased by sorghum different organs extract and sorghum extract (concentration 20%) inhibited seed germination.

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Sorghum leaf extract and shoot extract decreased germination of Amaranthus retroflexus seeds 96.62% and 59.44% by 15 and 5 % concentration (Table2) than control treatment, respectively. Highest significant difference inhibition effects on germination were obtained by vegetative stage sorghum extract than other stages (Figure1). Treatment by sorghum extract not only decreased germination but also decreased growth and dry matter accumulation in Amaranthus retroflexus seedling. Treatment by 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentration extract decreased dry weight of Amaranthus retroflexus, as 68.92, 85.87, 86.30 and 88.91 %, respectively (Figure2). Decreasing seedling dry weight resulted by decreasing seedling growth. Treatment by different sorghum extract decreased severely Amaranthus retroflexus seedling growth. Treatment with leaf extracts in vegetative stage decreased seedling growth as 73.11% and in shoot extract at filling stage decreased as 49.06% in compairsion with control, respectively (Table3). Increasing leaf extract concentration from 5% to 20% increased inhibitor effect from 7o.76 to 92.77.Germination rate decreasing in Amaranthus retroflexus seed was from 67.31 to 94.92% by shoot 5% and leaf extracts 15% in comparision with control (Table 2) which caused increasing germination time in control as 9.6 to 29 and 155 days, respectively.

The negative impact of sorghum extracts on growth and germination of Portuleca oleracea L. and Digitaria ischamum L 25, barnyard grass, and bristly foxtail 6, Chenopodium album 20 and Amaranthus retroflexus 2,20 seed and seedling has been proven. Changes in germination activate enzymes and osmotic affects caused cessation in germination. Main effects of allelopathic compounds are delaying of radicle and shoot growth. This leads to some physiological effects that reduce growth and dry matter accumulation in plantlets 8. Greenhouse investigation: Analysis of variance showed that sorghum different stages extract and concentration had significant effect on all morphologic traits (Table1). Treatment Amaranthus retroflexus seeds with different concentration of sorghum organs extract caused significance decreasing in all traits. Sorghum different organs extract in 5% to 20% decreased Amaranthus retroflexus height, leaf number and leaf area in compare with control treatment as 50.40, 54.20 and 57.71% with shoot extract in 5% concentration and leaf extract as 92.65, 95.72 and 96.88% by with 20% concentration decreased, respectively (Table2). Highest and lowest Amaranthus retroflexus height obtained by grain filling and vegetative stages of leaf sorghum extracts (Table3). Sorghum flowering and grain filling stage extracts increased leaf number 14.39 and 4.80%, respectively in comparison with vegetative stage extract (Figure3) and these were 17.90, 10.85% for Amaranthus retroflexus leaf area (Figure4). In other hand grain filling and vegetative extracts of sorghum had minimum and maximum decreasing effect on Amaranthus retroflexus leaf area and number.

Table 1. Analysis of variance of surveyed germination attributes of Amaranthus retroflexus

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Source of variation Organs Residual amount Organs*residual Stages Organs*stages Stages*concentration Stages*concentration*organs Experimental error CV%

Degree of freedom 3 4 12 2 6 8 24 120

Plant Height 60.74** 14111.3** 7.87** 100.78** 2.60** 1.08 0.60 0.65 3.07

Leaf number 73.29** 6628.87** 8.06** 64.66** 0.61 11.77** 0.25 0.36 3.96

Leaf area 136.38** 15765.8** 11.15** 219.13** 1.37 56.60** 0.43 0.72 3.72

Leaf dry weight 0.76** 452.76** 0.36** 9.55** 0.06** 4.32** 0.02* 0.01 4.22

Shoot dry weight 0.62** 532.72** 0.49** 12.42** 0.15** 4.81** 0.08** 0.007 2.97

Root dry weight 0.65** 192.55** 0.17** 7.42** 0.05** 1.52** 0.03 2.19 7.22

Leaf and shoot dry weight 2.20** 1967.66** 1.33** 43.74** 0.35** 18.15** 0.13** 0.02 2.58

biomass 7.34** 3385.40** 2.91** 82.40** 0.46** 30.65** 0.19** 0.05 3.2

* and ** significant at 5% and 1% respectively


B RDW SDW LDW LA LN H CRG SL GP Extract (g) (g) (g) (g) (cm2 ) (cm) (cm) % concentration Dry matter 5.09c accumulation rate in different organs of Amaranthus retroflexus decreased by sorghum extracts. This decreasing depends 1.91c 1.95c 1.63d 20.15d 15.78c 26.59c 2.06d 2.71e 32.33d Root on concentration, organ and growth stage. Leaf, shoot and root dry24.58d decreased by leaf extract with Leaf concentration in weight 1.40e 20% 3.58e 1.4e 1.62e 0.87f 18.55e 13.46de 1.86g 31.13e 5% comparison6.59b control as 97.92, 98.32 and 98.46%, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus dry matter accumulation in root, shoot and with 2.08b 2.57b 1.95b 24.77b 17.32b 29.23b 3.41b 3.56c 38.13b Stem 4.85d 1.78d 1.73d 25.18d 2.43c 37.23c Total leaf was decreased 77.48, 73 and 64.51 1.83c sorghum 5% 15.71c % by 22.34c concentration shoot extracts,3.13d respectively (Table2). Sorghum leaf extract 3.23f 1.19f 1.29f 11.09f 22.94e 1.12f 1.84gh 13.08g Root in vegetative stage and shoot extract at0.98e filling stage had maximum and minimum effects on Amaranthus retroflexus dry matter grain 16.42f 2.24g 0.74h 0.94g 0.83f 14.73g 9.50g 20.15f 0.83gh 0.97 i 10.28h Leaf accumulation in shoot and root respectively (Table3). 10% 3.59e 1.24f 1.28f 1.01e 19.22e 14.02d 23.01e 1.43e 2.45f 17.41f Stem Sorghum extracts allelopathic effects decreased 16.72f Amaranthus retroflexus biomass, the reduction by 20% concentration of root, leaf, 2.24g 1.04g 0.94g 0.92ef 12.94e 22.67e 0.98fg 1.74h 8.28 i Total 1.67h 0.64hi 0.68 i 0.54gh 11.33i 5.68 i 0.92g 0.74 98.07%, respectively. The reduction in 5% 6.55 j Root shoot and mixture organs extracts in comparison with control was 16.79h 98.45, 96.64 and j 97.65, 1.17j 0.48jk 0.66 i 0.45h 9.76j 5.25 i 15.2 0.53 ij 0.23 l 3.17k Leaf concentration was 78.64, 84.98, 72.35 and 79.65%, respectively (Table2).i Sorghum different parts extract at vegetative stage affected 15% 1.73h 0.54ij 0.81h 14.0gh 18.06g 0.93g 8.72 i Stem Amaranthus retroflexus biomass more 0.59g flowering and 9.36g filling stage (Table3). 0.96 i than grain 1.38 i 0.41k 0.77h 0.57g 13.58h 8.52h 16.49h 0.69hi 0.57k 8.17 i Total Seedling stage was the most sensitive stagei to allelopathic 3.15k compounds and sorghum allelopathic 0.0 l compounds affect rate on Amaranthus 0.56 l 0.13 l 0.52j 0.23 4.47m 6.13 l 0.0j 0.0k Root 0.37 l 0.09 l 0.16 l 0.18 i 1.83n 1.62 l 4.33m 0.0j 0.0k 0.0 l Leaf retroflexus in germination and seedling stage will have important role in canopy establishment. Allelopathic compounds caused 20% 0.80k 0.29k 0.27 i 4.07 8.13 j 0.0j 0.0k 0.0 l morphologic injured0.19 l on Amaranthus retroflexus7.28k seedling and weed seedling growth was less than crop inStem Changes in enzyme field. 0.46 l 0.16 l 0.20 l 0.19 i 5.92in production and metabolic energy0.0k l 3.02k 7.29k 0.0j 0.0 l caused Amaranthus retroflexus Total activities, respiration production deficit, reduction transmission 23.83a 58.57a 37.82a 10.43a 6.36a Control process 9.52a Amaranthus retroflexus seed58.93a germination 59 to100% and 94 a seedling growth 49 to73%. More seed sessation 8.This 5.86a decreased8.66a

sensitivity to allelopathic compounds may depend on small seed size of Amaranthus retroflexus. Small seeds are more sensitive to allelopathy because they have less carbohydrate storage and germination occurred in soil surface or near soil surface that there are more allelochimical and increase allelochimicals absorption amount 13. Delaying of germination and increasing germination time by sorghum extracts from 9 days to more than 30 days had more effect on crop competition and larger crop seedlings had better B RDW SDW LDW H SL Extract competition with this weed. (g) (g) (g) (g) (cm) (cm) concentration

9 2.02f 25.09de 1.98f Root , photosynthesis rate, transpiration, enzyme activity, metabolic energy for Allelopathic compounds may5.74h decrease 1.65fg cell turgor2.32f 2.25g 1.82g 23.73f 1.71g Leaf respiration and development 5.24 i 5 mitosis division, DNA replication 22 protein and hormonevegetative stage activity 1.34 i synthesis 7, mineral absorption and 5.87h 1.58gh 8 2.31f 1.98f 25.64d 2.25e 12 Stem transmission from roots to other parts of plant , photosynthetic pigments synthesis , chloroplast and, mitochondrion membrane 5.26 i 1.49h 2.11h 2.04f 24.68e 1.95f Total permeability changing and increasing abscisic acid rate 25 per oxidation induction 26 and finally decreasing cells growth, shoot and root 6.90e 1.98d 2.74d 2.43d 26.44c 2.45d Root by sorghum allelopathic compounds may lead to 2.74d decreasing in shoot and root growth of Amaranthus retroflexus as 50-90% and 646.45g 1.72f 2.24e 24.70e 1.97f Leaf flowering stage 98%, respectively. 7.28d 1.96de 2.92c 2.56c 27.48b 2.64c Stem

6.70f 1.87e 2.67e 2.48cd 26.23c 2.83d Total 7.87b 2.21b 3.10b 2.77b 27.29b 2.85b Root 7.27d 2.08c 2.97c 2.53c 25.47d 2.26e Leaf GENERAL CONSEQUENCES grain filling stage 8.63a 2.41a 3.41a 2.95a 29.29a 3.24a Stem Sorghum root and shoots extracts effect Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination and growth that showed different allelochemicals 7.70c 2.19b 3.12b 2.79b 27.43b 2.88b Total

presence in sorghum which effect different Amaranthus retroflexus attributes. Leaf extracts in all concentration in vegetative stage had more effect on growth and germination factors of Amaranthus retroflexus that showed secondary metabolite higher concentrations in vegetative stage in sorghum leaves. Sorghum stem extract in grain filling stage have lowest effect because of assimilates transportation from lower leaves and stem to grains decreased concentration of these materials. Extract highest inhibition effect on Amaranthus retroflexus germination and growth was as below order: vegetative extract< flowering extract<grain filling and leaf< total organs< root<shoot. All of sorghum organs have allelopathic effects and decreased Amaranthus retroflexus germination and growth as 60 and 50%, respectively, may be important in decreasing Amaranthus retroflexus density in fields and establishment sustainable agriculture.

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Leaf number shoot weightbiomass freedom Height area weight weight dry freedom Height number weight weight weight weight weight Organs 3 60.74** 73.29** 136.38** 0.76** 0.62** 0.65** 2.20** 7.34** Organs 3 60.74** 73.29** 136.38** 0.76** 0.62** 0.65** 2.20** 7.34** Residual amount 4 14111.3** 6628.87** 15765.8** 452.76** 532.72** 192.55** 1967.66** 3385.40** idual amount 4 14111.3** 6628.87** 15765.8** 452.76** 532.72** 192.55** 1967.66** 3385.40** Organs*residual 12 7.87** 8.06** 11.15** 0.36** 0.49** 0.17** 1.33** 2.91** gans*residual 12 7.87** 8.06** 11.15** 0.36** 0.49** 0.17** 1.33** 2.91** Stages 2 100.78** 64.66** 219.13** 9.55** 12.42** 7.42** 43.74** 82.40** Stages 2 100.78** 64.66** Organic Agriculture 219.13** 9.55** 12.42** 7.42** 43.74** 82.40** International Conference on2.60** Organs*stages 6 0.61 1.37 0.06** 0.15** 0.05** 0.35** 0.46** rgans*stages 6 2.60** 0.61 1.37 0.06** 0.15** 0.05** 0.35** February 2010 in Famagusta in S cope of Environmental Problems 11.77** 03-071.52** 0.46**18.15** Stages*concentration 8 1.08 56.60** 4.32** 4.81** 30.65** s*concentration 8 1.08 11.77** 56.60** 4.32** 4.81** 1.52** 18.15** 30.65** Stages*concentration*organs 24 0.60 0.25 0.43 0.02* 0.08** 0.03 0.13** 0.19** ncentration*organs 24 0.60 0.25 0.43 0.02* 0.08** 0.03 0.13** 0.19** Experimental error 120 0.65 0.36 0.72 0.01 0.007 2.19 0.02 0.05 rimental error 120 0.65 0.36 0.72 0.01 0.007 2.19 0.02 0.05 CV% 3.07 3.96 3.72 4.22 2.97 7.22 2.58 3.2 CV% 3.07 3.96 3.72 4.22 2.97 7.22 2.58 3.2

ce of variation

Table 2- Sorghum different parts extracts effects on Amaranth attributes


B (g) 5.09c 3.58e 6.59b 4.85d 3.23f 2.24g 3.59e 2.24g 1.67h 1.17j 1.73h 1.38 i 0.56 l 0.37 l 0.80k 0.46 l 23.83a RDW (g) 1.91c 1.4e 2.08b 1.78d 1.19f 0.74h 1.24f 1.04g 0.64hi 0.48jk 0.54ij 0.41k 0.13 l 0.09 l 0.19 l 0.16 l 5.86a B SDW (g) (g) 5.09c 1.95c 3.58e 1.62e 6.59b 2.57b 4.85d 1.73d 3.23f 1.29f 2.24g 0.94g 3.59e 1.28f 2.24g 0.94g 1.67h 0.68 i 1.17j 0.66 i 1.73h 0.81h 1.38 i 0.77h 0.56 l 0.52j 0.37 l 0.16 l 0.80k 0.29k 0.46 l 0.20 l 23.83a 9.52a RDW LDW (g) (g) 1.91c 1.63d 1.4e 0.87f 2.08b 1.95b 1.78d 1.83c 1.19f 0.98e 0.74h 0.83f 1.24f 1.01e 1.04g 0.92ef 0.64hi 0.54gh 0.48jk 0.45h 0.54ij 0.59g 0.41k 0.57g 0.13 l 0.23 i 0.09 l 0.18 i 0.19 l 0.27 i 0.16 l 0.19 i 5.86a 8.66a SDW LA (g) (cm2 ) 1.95c 20.15d 1.62e 18.55e 2.57b 24.77b 1.73d 22.34c 1.29f 16.42f 0.94g 14.73g 1.28f 19.22e 0.94g 16.72f 0.68 i 11.33i 0.66 i 9.76j 0.81h 14.0gh 0.77h 13.58h 0.52j 4.47m 0.16 l 1.83n 0.29k 7.28k 0.20 l 5.92 l 9.52a 58.57a LDW LN (g) 1.63d 15.78c 0.87f 13.46de 1.95b 17.32b 1.83c 15.71c 0.98e 11.09f 0.83f 9.50g 1.01e 14.02d 0.92ef 12.94e 0.54gh 5.68 i 0.45h 5.25 i 0.59g 9.36g 0.57g 8.52h 0.23 i 3.15k 0.18 i 1.62 l 0.27 i 4.07 0.19 i 3.02k 8.66a 37.82a LA H (cm2 ) (cm) 20.15d 26.59c 18.55e 24.58d 24.77b 29.23b 22.34c 25.18d 16.42f 22.94e 14.73g 20.15f 19.22e 23.01e 16.72f 22.67e 11.33i 16.79h 9.76j 15.2 i 14.0gh 18.06g 13.58h 16.49h 4.47m 6.13 l 1.83n 4.33m 7.28k 8.13 j 5.92 l 7.29k 58.57a 58.93a LN CRG 15.78c 2.06d 13.46de 1.40e 17.32b 3.41b 15.71c 2.43c 11.09f 1.12f 9.50g 0.83gh 14.02d 1.43e 12.94e 0.98fg 5.68 i 0.92g 5.25 i 0.53 ij 9.36g 0.93g 8.52h 0.69hi 3.15k 0.0j 1.62 l 0.0j 4.07 0.0j 3.02k 0.0j 37.82a 10.43a H SL (cm) (cm) 26.59c 2.71e 24.58d 1.86g 29.23b 3.56c 25.18d 3.13d 22.94e 1.84gh 20.15f 0.97 i 23.01e 2.45f 22.67e 1.74h 16.79h 0.74 j 15.2 i 0.23 l 18.06g 0.96 i 16.49h 0.57k 6.13 l 0.0k 4.33m 0.0k 8.13 j 0.0k 7.29k 0.0k 58.93a 6.36a CRG GP % 2.06d 32.33d 1.40e 31.13e 3.41b 38.13b 2.43c 37.23c 1.12f 13.08g 0.83gh 10.28h 1.43e 17.41f 0.98fg 8.28 i 0.92g 6.55 j 0.53 ij 3.17k 0.93g 8.72 i 0.69hi 8.17 i 0.0j 0.0 l 0.0j 0.0 l 0.0j 0.0 l 0.0j 0.0 l 10.43a 94 a SL (cm) 2.71e Root 1.86g Leaf 3.56c Stem 3.13d Total 1.84gh Root 0.97 i Leaf 2.45f Stem 1.74h Total 0.74 j Root 0.23 l Leaf 0.96 i Stem 0.57k Total 0.0k Root 0.0k Leaf 0.0k Stem 0.0k Total 6.36a GP Extract % concentration 32.33d Root 31.13e Leaf 38.13b5% Stem 37.23c Total 13.08g Root 10.28h Leaf 17.41f10% Stem 8.28 i Total 6.55 j Root 3.17k Leaf 8.72 i15% Stem 8.17 i Total 0.0 l Root 0.0 l Leaf 0.0 l 20% Stem 0.0 l Total 94 a Control Extract concentration 5%

10%

15%

20% Control

Table 3- Sorghum different parts extracts in different growth stage effects on Amaranth attribures
B (g) 5.74h 5.24 i 5.87h 5.26 i 6.90e 6.45g 7.28d 6.70f 7.87b 7.27d 8.63a 7.70c RDW (g) 1.65fg 1.34 i 1.58gh 1.49h 1.98d 1.72f 1.96de 1.87e 2.21b 2.08c 2.41a 2.19b B SDW (g) (g) 5.74h 2.32f 5.24 i 2.25g 5.87h 2.31f 5.26 i 2.11h 6.90e 2.74d 6.45g 2.74d 7.28d 2.92c 6.70f 2.67e 7.87b 3.10b 7.27d 2.97c 8.63a 3.41a 7.70c 3.12b RDW LDW (g) (g) 1.65fg 2.02f 1.34 i 1.82g 1.58gh 1.98f 1.49h 2.04f 1.98d 2.43d 1.72f 2.24e 1.96de 2.56c 1.87e 2.48cd 2.21b 2.77b 2.08c 2.53c 2.41a 2.95a 2.19b 2.79b SDW H (g) (cm) 2.32f 25.09de 2.25g 23.73f 2.31f 25.64d 2.11h 24.68e 2.74d 26.44c 2.74d 24.70e 2.92c 27.48b 2.67e 26.23c 3.10b 27.29b 2.97c 25.47d 3.41a 29.29a 3.12b 27.43b LDW H SL (g) (cm) (cm) 2.02f 25.09de 1.98f Root 1.82g 23.73f 1.71g Leaf 1.98f 25.64d 2.25e Stem 2.04f 24.68e 1.95f Total 2.43d 26.44c 2.45d Root 2.24e 24.70e 1.97f Leaf 2.56c 27.48b 2.64c Stem 2.48cd 26.23c 2.83d Total 2.77b 27.29b 2.85b Root 2.53c 25.47d 2.26e Leaf 2.95a 29.29a 3.24a Stem 2.79b 27.43b 2.88b Total SL Extract (cm) concentration 1.98f Root 1.71g Leaf vegetative Stem stage 2.25e 1.95f Total 2.45d Root 1.97f Leaf flowering Stem stage 2.64c 2.83d Total 2.85b Root 2.26e Leaf grain filling stage 3.24a Stem 2.88b Total Extract concentration vegetative stage

flowering stage

grain filling stage

GP: Germination percent, SL: Seedling length, coefficient of Germination Rate, H: plant Height, LN: Leaf Number, LA*: Leaf Area, LDW*: Leaf Dry Weight, SDW*: Stem Dry Weight, RDW*: Root Dry Weight, B*: Biomass, *: (in plant) REFERENCES:
1-Alam, S. M., S. A. Ala., A. R. Azmi., M. A. Khan and R. Ansari. 2001. Allelopathy and its role in agriculture. Journal of Biological Science. Vol 1(5): 308-315. 2-Alam, S. M., S. A. Ansari, and M. A. Khan. 2001. Influence of leaf extract of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) on germination and seedling growth of wheat. Wheat Information Service. No, 92:17-19. 3- Bond, W., and R, Turner. 2006. The biology and non-chemical control of common amaranth (Amarantus retroflexus L.) HDRA. 4-Chon, S. U., H. G. Jang, D. K. Kim, Y. M. Kim, H. O. Boo, and Y. J. Kim. 2005. Allopathic potential in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants. Scientia Horticulturae. 106:309-317. 5-Colpas, F. T., E. O. Ohno, J. D. Rodrigues and j. D. D. S. Pass. 2003. Effects of some phenolic compounds on soybean seed germination and on seed- borne fungi. Braz. Arch. Biol. and Techno. 46 (2): 387-392. 6-Dhima, K, V., I, B, Vasilakoglu, I, G, Elefterohorinos, and A. S. Lightourgidis. 2006. Allelopathic potential in cereal crops. Mulches on grass weed suppression and sugar beet development. Crop Sci. 46:1682-1691. 7-De Neergard, A. and J. Porter. 2000. Allelopathy. Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science. http://www.kursus. kvl.dk/shares /ea/ 03Projects/32gamle/_Project%20files/allelopathy. 8-El-Khatib, A. A., A. K. Hegazy, and H. K. Gala. 2004. Does allelopathy have a role in the ecology of Chenopodium murale? Ann. Bot. Fennici-41:37-45. 9-El-Khawas, S. A. and M. M. Shehala. 2005. The allelopathic potentialities of Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus prostrate on monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants. Biotechnology. 4(1):23-34. 10-Feltner, K. C. 1990. The ten worst weeds of field crops. 5. Pigweed. Crop and Soils. 23:13-14. 11-Ferguson, J. J. and B. Rathinasabapathi. 2003. Allelopathy: How plants suppress other plants. University of Florida, Institute of food and Agriculture Sciences: UF/IFAS. 12-Granli, T. E. and N. Johansson. 2003. Increase in the production of allelopathic substances by Prymnesium parvum cells grown under N- or P-deficient conditions.Harmful Algae. 2:135145. 13-Haromoto, E. R. and E. R. Gallandt. 2005. Cover cropping: II. Effects on growth and interfrence of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). 19(4):187-198. 14-Inderjit, W. J. and E. T. Nilson. 2003. Biossays and field studies for allelopathy in terrestrial plants: progress and problems. Chemical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 22(3):221-238. 15-Irshad, A., and Z, A, Cheema. 2006. Comparative efficacy of sorghum allelopathic potential for controlling barnyard grass in rice. Australian Allelopathy Congress. 6-9 September, 2006. 16-Li, H., A. William, A. Payne, L. Gerald, J. Michels, B. Charles and M. Rush. 2008. Reducing plant abiotic and biotic stress: Drought and attacks of greenbugs, corn leaf aphids and virus disease in dryland sorghum. Environmental and Experimental Botany 63: 305316.

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17- Khalid, S., Ahmad, T., and Shad, R. A. 2002. Use of allelopathy in agriculthure. Asian Journal of Plant Science. 1(3):296-297. 18-Macias, F. A., R. M. Varela, A. Torres, R. M. Oliva and J. M. G. Molnillo. 1998. Bioactive nonsesquiterpenes from Helianthus annus with potential allelopathic activity. phytochemistry. 48(4): 631-636. 19-North , R, S., and S, Paul. 2006. Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Minnesota Department of Agriculture. 55 155- 2538. 20-Patil., M, B., S, S, Jalapure, N, S, Prakash, and C, K, Kokate. 1983. Anti cellular properties of alcoholic extract of sorghum spp in rats. ISHS Press. 21- Peterson, C. A., Betts, H., and Baldwin, I. T. 2002. Methyl jasmonate as an allelopathic agent: sagerbrush inhibits germination of a neighbouring tobacco, Nicotiana Attenata. Chemical Ecology. 28(11):441-446. 22-Roshchina, V. V. 2001. Molecular-cellular mechanisms in pollen allelopathy. Allelopathy Journal. 8:11-28. 23-Schabes, F. I. and E. E. Sigstad. 2007. A calorimetric study of the allelopathic effect of cnicin isolated from Centaurea diffusa Lam. on the germination of soybean (Glicine max) and radish (Raphanus sativus). Thermochimica Acta. 458:8487. 24-Turk, M. A. and A. M. Tawaha. 2003. Allelopathic effect of black mustard (Brassica nigra L.) on germination and growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Crop Protection. 22:673677. 25- Yang, C, M., C, N, Lee, and C, H, Chou. 2002. The biology of Canadian weeds. 130. Amaranthus retroflexus L. A. powelli. Swatson and Ahybridus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84:631-668. 26-Yu, J. Q., S. F. Ye., M. F. Zhang and W. H. Hu. 2003. Effects of root exudates and aqueous root extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and allelochemicals, on photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes in cucumber. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 31: 129139.

CHANGES IN yIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF ONION IN ROTATION WITH SUGAR BEET
M. B. Khorshidi Benam*1, M. S. Abedi2, M. yarnia3, A. Faramarzi1, E. Ismaeili1 *1Assistant Prof, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh branch - mb.khorshidi@yahoo.com 2 Staff member, East Azarbayjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center 3 Associate Prof, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch - m.yarnia@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Correct rotation performances in crops led to decreasing in disease, insect and weed population and increase soil organic carbon percentage. As yield increases chemical materials application which is one of organic agriculture aspects is done. For studying onion possible rotation with sugar beet, an experiment in three replications was conducted in two years. Rotation with sugar beet increased 35-55 mm bulbs number from 170 to 220, and bulb weight from 9 to 13.4 kg, 55-75 mm bulb numbers from 18 to 33, and bulb weight from 2.2 to 5.5 kg in plot in comparison with non-rotation onion. Rotation increased also oval shape bulbs number from 140 to 184 and its weight from 5.8 to 10.5 kg, and total weight from 13.7 to 20.63 kg per plot. Rotation increased significantly 75-95 mm sugar beet roots number from 11 to 15 per plot. Differences between other attributes were not significant. It can be say that onion is susceptible to weeds so it is better to put it in rotation with competitive plant as sugar beet to improve its yield Keywords: bulb size, onion, rotation, sugar beet INTRODUCTION Rotation is a ancient crop management that improved yield of crop systems. Rotation increases yield by soil vegetation cover duration [9][10], higher water use efficiency [8], and soil nutrients conservation [1][2]. Onion is a native plant in Azarbaijan [3]. Onion is a shallow root plant and a suitable rotation increased its yield. Onion rotation must be containing with legumes as alfalfa and cuter plants as sugar beet, potato and colza, which their presence in onion rotation shows high useful effects [4]. Although these plants do not add much residuals to soil, but they have deep roots and can decrease nutrients leakage [5] and prevent some common diseases as onion rust, Downy mildew (Peronospora destructor), Pink root disease (Pyrenochaeta terrestris), Fusarium Basal Rot (F. osysporum f. sp. cepae), and onion fly (Delia antiqua) [7]. Sugar beet needs soil organic carbon and must be grown after multiyear alfalfa, it voids soil profile nutrients but they clean the field from weeds and improve soil structure. Sugar beet diseases is common with Brassicaceae and Chenopodiaceae and must not put colza in sugar beet rotation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This experiment was conducted in East Azarbaijan agricultural and natural resource research center in three replications. There was arranged onion and sugar beet in a rotation in which onion-onion, onion-sugar beet, and sugar beet-onion and these plants cultivation after fallow planted after 2-year rotation. There was no fertilizer used. Attributes like as number, shape and weight of different size onion bulbs, was measured. RESULTS 35-55 mm diameter onions increased significantly by onion after sugar beet. 55-75 mm diameter onions increased significantly by

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onion after sugar beet, it increased from 18 to 39. Some attributes like as decreasing diseases, remaining residuals on soil surface to erosion prevention and winter water reservation may be the cause of yield increasing (fig 1). There was significant difference between two systems (onion after sugar beet and onion after sugar beet) in oval shaped bulbs number. Rotation increased also oval shape bulbs number from 140 to 184 and its weight from 5.8 to 10.5 kg. The same trend was shown in oval shaped bulbs weight from 13.7 to 20.63 kg per plot (fig 2). Rotation with sugar beet increased 35-55 mm bulbs number from 170 to 220, Weight of 35-55 mm onions increased significantly in onion planted after sugar beet from 9 to 13.4 kg. Weight of 55-75 mm onions increased significantly in onion planted after sugar beet from 2.3 to 5.5 kg. Because of sugar beet deep root, it used deep soil nutrition and remained surface nutrients for onion root. Bulbs total weight increased from 13.7 in onion after fallow to 20.6 kg in onion after sugar beet. Sugar beet as a clean crop increased onion yield significantly in compare to fallow (fig 3). Pependick [11] proposed that slow growth plants, which are susceptible to pests and weeds, must cultivated after competitive or weed retardant plants, so this rotation increased their yield. Only roots with diameter 75-95mm number increased significantly in sugar beet after onion in compare sugar beet after fallow. Rotation increased significantly 75-95 mm sugar beet roots number from 11 to 15 per plot (fig 4). DISCUSSION It can be said that selected proper crop for rotation has important role. Different plants showed different behavior in related with first crop [6][12]. Monoculture of sorghum was less than its rotation with oat. However, sugar beet monoculture produced higher yield than rotation. Onion yield and yield components were higher in its rotation with sugar beet, because leaf number, bulb weight and was higher in rotation with sugar bet. In addition, there was no special disease and low extended weed observed.

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REFERENCES
[1] Anderson, I., D. Dwayne, and C. Cambardella. 1997. Cropping system effects on nitrogen removal, soil nitrogen and subsequent corn grain yield. Agron. J. 89:881-886. [2] AyneBand, A. 2005. [Crop rotation.]. Mashhad University Jahad Pub. [3] AyneBand, A. 2008. [yield and yield components of crops in rotation systems.]. PhD Dissertation. Pp 165. [4] Belvin, R.L., J.H. Herbek and W.W. Frye. 1990. Legume cover crops as nitrogen source for no tillage corn and grain sorghum. Agronomy J. 82: 769-772. [5] Caruso, G. 1998. Relationships among planting time, chemical weed control and weed cover in onion (Allium cepa L.). Acta Horticulture VIII International symposium of timing field production in vegetable crops. [6] Crookston, R.k., E. kurle, and P.J. Copeland. 1991 Rotational cropping sequence affects yield of corn and soybean. Agronomy J.83: 108-113. [7] Gergon, E. B., R. T. Aberto, M.V. Judal, M.S. Valdez, C. Ravina, and S. Miller, 1998. Effects of crop rotation on incidence of pink root disease in onion and Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice-onion cropping system). IPM CRSP Fifth Annual Report. http://www.ag.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/annrepts/ar98/asia Y5.html. [8] Harris, H. 1996. Water use efficiency of crop rotations in Mediterranean environment. Aspect of Appl. Bio. 38: 165-172 [9] Pederson P., and J.G. Lauer. 2002. Influence of rotation sequence on the optimum corn soybean plant population. Agronomy Journal. 94:968-974. [10] Pederson P., and J.G. Lauer 2003. Corn and Soybean response to rotation sequence, row Spacing, and tillage system. Agronomy Journal 95:965-971. [11] Pependick, R. 1996. Farming systems and conservation needs in northwest wheat region. Amer. J. Alternative Agric. 11: 52-56. [12] Zhang, J., A. Hamil, and S. Weaver. 1996. Corn yield after 10 years of different cropping sequences and weed management practices. Canadian J. Plant sci. 76: 795-797.

USE OF GENETIC MATERIAL SUITABLE FOR ORGANIC CHICKEN MEAT PRODUCTION


Musa SARICA, Umut Sami yAMAK Ondokuz Mayis University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Animal Science Atakum/ SAMSUN - msarica@omu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT The demand on organic production had increased in recent years and this increase showed its effect on poultry sector. Consumers prefer totally natural chicken meat despite its higher price. Organic production is consumer-driven, and consumers prefer slow growing, yellow skinned and color feathered chickens. Slow growing chickens reach slaughter weight between 80-120 days. Causes such as; abdominal fatness and some health problems which occur in fast growing chickens are eliminated by using slow growing chickens in organic production. Using fast growing genotypes in organic production can be described as a genetic dissipate. Consequently, it is necessary to crossbreed genotypes suitable for organic production. And, it is possible to use Turkish local genotypes for the breeding of slow growing genotypes. Keywords: Chicken meat, Organic production, Slow growing genotype, Welfare INTRODUCTION Poultry production in the industrialized countries has changed significantly during the past 75 years, and poultry meat is leading The Worlds total meat consumption after pork. Chicken meat represents 29 percent of meat production from farmed animals and this proportion is rising each year. Advances in genetic, biotechnology, nutrition, hatching, animal health, feed additives, but above all, increase in population and demand on cheap animal meat have effect on the rising of chicken meat [1]. All these advances shortened the production period of conventional broilers, and they reached 2-2,5 kg weight in about 42 days. Muscle system of the chicken grows rapidly, but the organs and the skeletal system can not grow in the same level. As a result of the difference in the growth of body systems, a variety of health and reproductive problems occur in broilers [2] and some of the most common health problems observed are skeletal disorders [3]. Also, heart failure is associated with rapid growth potential and growth rate, the incidence of both hypoxemia and heart failure is higher in fast growing broilers, it can be controlled by feed restriction [4]. However, feed restriction is not applied in commercial production systems. Skeletal problems compromise the birds welfare, increase mortality and increase carcass downgrading due to lesions [5]. Slow growing chickens reach to market weight of 2-2.5 kg between 80-120 days. Whole of the body parts grow in a harmony and the incidence of health problems decreases. In certain regions of the world, such as East Asia and Europe, consumers are willing to pay a higher retail price for more tasty chicken meat produced in less confined conditions [6]. Also, European Union executed to use slow growing genotypes in organic chicken meat production. In organic production systems, birds have access to outdoors. Outdoor access allows the birds to express natural behaviours such as foraging and dust bathing. In extensive organic production system birds have access to ample space, sunlight and fresh air. Also, indoor housing is used to maximize the welfare [7]. Fast growing chickens are developed for production in indoor, climate-controlled conditions. These birds grow quickly with high yield but they may not be appropriate for alternative systems where conditions are not well controlled [8]. The color-feathered and slow-growing chickens are developed for organic and free- range production systems as alternatives to fast growing broilers [9]. Slow growing chickens are more

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adapted to outdoor accessed production systems because they are more active and have better viability than fast growing chickens with fewer metabolic problems, less leg disorders and less mortality [7]. In order to diversify chicken products to take account of consumers changing demands, producers adapt breeding and management strategies accordingly. Most of the countries developed or developing their own slow growing chickens. Meat quality of slow growing chickens Appearance is a quality trait. Most of the slow growing chickens feathers are colored. The skin colors of the colored chickens are more yellow than the white ones [8]. This yellow skin is preferred by consumers. In a study on the effect of age on some physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the meat, flavour enhancement was found maximal during the sexual maturation of chickens [10]. Slaughter age of slow growing chickens is closer to sexual maturity age than fast growing chickens. Sensory qualities of meat such as tenderness, juiciness and flavor are likely to be impacted when birds are slaughtered at a younger age [11]. Hence, it is normal to find slow growing birds meat more flavorful [12]. Tenderness reflects the meat texture, affecting the firmness and chewy characteristics of meat. Meat from slow growing chickens that are marketed older is firmer and chewier than broiler meat [9]. Also, slow growing chickens have small amount of fat in abdominal part of the body [13] Breeding strategies for slow growing chickens Organic chicken meat consumption reached satisfying levels in most developed countries. Label Rouge in France, Label de Qualite Wallon in Belgium are examples of slow growing chickens which are used in organic production. The breeding companies completed the strategies in these countries. Their new focus is to develop the meat quality traits. In many developing counties, poultry production in rural areas is based on traditional systems [14]. The native chicken population of these countries can be used as a material for developing slow growing chickens. East Asia countries China, Taiwan are develoing their own slow growing chickens. There are more than 100 native chickens in China, most of the companies use these genotypes in their breeding programmes. The current breeding strategy for slow growing chickens is characterized with crossbreeding between native breeds and highlyselected lines with rapid growth rate or relatively high egg production. In most cases, native chickens have small numbers of egg production. Total egg production of these lines is not useful for commercial breeding. The breeding objectives focus on improving growth rate and reproductive efficiency while maintaining original appearance characters of native chicken such as plumage colour, body shape, comb shape, skin and shank color. The performances of native chickens have been greatly improved by crossbreeding. Most used programme is a system of two-way or three-way crossing to produce commercial chickens. In most cases, excellent native breeds may be used as the male line in order to maintain fine meat quality and the appearance characteristics. Foreign broiler lines, recessive white for instance, serve as female line to improve reproduction performance of breeders as well as growth rate of commercial chicken [9]. Selection of the native chickens for increasing the live weight also can be used for breeding commercial lines. We are executing a project about the development of slow growing chickens in our department in Ondokuz Mayis University. The purpose of the study is to bring out slow growing chickens by the crossing of heavy parents of commercial egg layers and the parents of fast growing broilers. The results of the study will be shared at the end of the study. REFERENCES
[1] Sarca, M., Trkolu, M., Tavukuluktaki Gelimeler ve Trkiye Tavukuluu. Tavukuluk Bilimi yetitirme, besleme, hastalklar. Bey ofset, 3. basm, Ankara, S:1. [2] Reddy, R.P., 1996. Symposium: The Effects of Long-Term Selection on Growth of Poultry. Poultry Science, 75: 11641167. [3] Kestin, S.C., Knowles, T.G, Tinch, A.E., Gregory, N.G., 1992. Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype. Veterinary Record, 131: 190194. [4] Olkowski, A.A., Korver, D., Rathgeber, B., Classen, H.L., 1999. Cardiac index, oxygen delivery, and tissue oxygen extraction in slow-growingand fast-growing chickens, and in chickens with heart failure andascites: a comparative study. Avian Pathol. 28, 137146. [5] Day, E.J., 1990. Future research needs focus on new, old problems. Feedstuffs, 23 (July): 1215. [6] Fanatico, A.C., Born, H.M., 2002. Label Rouge: Pasture-Raised Poultry in France. ATTRA Publication National Centre for Appropriate Technology, Fayetteville. [7] Fanatico, A.C., 2006. Alternative poultry production systems and outdoor access. ATTRA Publication National Centre for Appropriate Technology, Fayetteville [8] Fanatico, A.C., Pillai, P.B., Emmert, J.L. and Owens, C.M., 2007. Meat quality of slow- and fast- growing chicken genotypes fed low nutrient or standart diets and raised indoors or with outdoor Access. Poult. Sci. 86:2245-2255. [9] Yang, N., Jiang, R.S., 2005. Recent advances in breeding for quality chickens. Worlds Poult. Sci. J., 61:373-381. [10] Touraille, C., Kopp, J., Valin, C., Ricard, F.H., 1981. Chicken meat quality. 1. Influence of age and growth rate on some physica-chemical and sensory characteristics of the meat. Archiv fur Geflgelkunde 45: 69-76. [11] Le-Bihan-Duval, E., 2003. genetic variability of poultry meat. 52. Annual National Breeders Roundtable, May 8-9, 2003, St. Louis, MO. Proceedings. P. 11-20. [12] Sarca, M., Yamak, U.S., 2010. Yava gelien etlik pililerin zellikleri ve gelitirilmesi. Anadolu J. of Agri. Sci. In press. [13] Lee, H. F. and L. C. Lin., 1993. Studies on the general compostion and characteristics of meat quality of the Taiwan Country chicken and broiler. Food Sci. 20(2):103-111. [14] Sharma, R.K., 2007. Role and relevance of traditional family poultry in developing countries with special reference to India. Worlds Poultry Science Journal, 63, 491.

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BIOTERRA UNIVERSITy RESEARCH FOR THE OBTAINING OF ECOLOGICAL FOOD PRODUCTS WITH NUTRITIONAL AND THERAPEUTIC VIRTUES FOR HUMANS CONSUMPTION
Nicole Livia Atudosiei, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicole.atudosiei@rdslink.ro Ion Nicolae, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicolaebio@yahoo.com Floarea Nicolae, Bioterra University of Bucharest, nicolaebio@yahoo.com Paul Stefanescu, Romanian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Forestry

ABSTRACT This paper presents briefly an important achievement of Bioterra University research focused on the obtaining of an ecological food range with nutritional and therapeutic virtues for humans consumption. These food products were targeted in order to put in practice the new scientific concept about safe, healthy, and natural nourishment and they happily join together the natural genuine qualities of the traditional, ecological way of manufacturing updated to the high production request, and they proved also real therapeutic values, thus we used ecological domestic raw materials. The technologies used have low production costs due to the processing and ecological preserving manners, to the raw ecological indigenous materials and also, they are not polluting and use low energy. For instance, our paper describes a pattern of better capitalizing ecological blueberries, considering them a precious indigenous raw material featured by a lot of phyto-therapeutic, bio-stimulating and nutritive qualities, indispensable for the human body. Keywords: ecological foods range, nutraceutical products, natural processing and preserving, life quality INTRODUCTION Nowadays, the consumer became more mature; he is not anymore interested in shape, colour and aspect of the foods, but of its essence and of consequences on long-term of such alimentation on the human health and life quality. We might say that we assist to consumer higher interest for more natural, not very processed, without additives food products, healthier for consumption. These food products are targeted in order to put in practice the new scientific concept about safe, healthy, and natural nourishment and they happily join together the natural genuine qualities of the traditional, ecological way of manufacturing updated to the high production request, and they proved also real therapeutic values, thus we used ecological domestic raw materials. Considering this important aspect, Bioterra University research team focused on the obtaining of an ecological f oods range with nutritional and therapeutic virtues for humans consumption, so called, nutraceutical products.: - blueberries integral processing for getting bio-stimulating juice and sub-products ( described in this paper); - Carotina natural preserved, antioxidant, full of vitamins and minerals juice obtained from a mixture of Hyppophae rhamnoides, carrot and several indigenous aromatic and medicine plants which happily combines the taste pleasure with plants active principles; it is a health and youth elixir for all ages. It has law production price due to the processing and preserving technology and raw indigenous materials used; - soy-beans seeds with different flavours for humans consumption that are adequate processed under the shape of berries, respecting the natural way, the result being a natural delicious, nutritive ( 40% proteins ) product with different tastes and flavours of pizza, sausages, vanilla, etc.; - natural concentrate for soft drinks based on soluble roasted chicory and several aromatic plants; it is a liver protector, carminative and antioxidant product thanks to its polyphenolic compounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS The paper presents briefly an example of one of our ecological foods range with nutritional and research, respectively a pattern of better capitalizing ecological blueberries, considering them a precious indigenous raw material featured by a lot of phyto-therapeutic virtues. as fruits or as natural juices are due to the richness of their vital principles induced by photosynthesis as: glucides, lipids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins ( A, B1, B2, C, E, P, PP ), minerals ( K, Ca, Cl, Fe, P, Mg, S ),and phyto chemicals. The blueberries quality is due to their well-balanced complex composition on one hand, and to its small, very juicy fruits on the other hand; we all know that in the cells membranes there are lots of vitamins, minerals, pigments and flavours, so that there is a very high contents of noble elements per surface-unit, higher than larger fruits. Blueberries are also rich in anti-oxidants, such as vitamins and

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anthocyanins, the latest are also very useful pigment with a synergic part. The blueberries bio-chemical composition is described in the following table: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Blueberries Bio-Chemical Composition
Item No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17 18 Composition Dry matter % Total sugars % Total acidity ( malic acid ) Harmonic Ratio % Total sugars % Total acidity Pectins % Proteins % Tannins % Minerals % Potassium mg/100 g Calcium mg/100 g Magnesium mg/100 g Phosphorus mg/100 g Iron mg/100 g Copper mg/100 g Manganese mg/100 g Ascorbic acid mg/100 g Carotene mg/100 g Anthocyanins % Content 13 15 5,5 7,0 1,28 1,68 5,5 7,0 1,28 1,68 1,98 2,76 1,94 2,70 0,93 1,42 2,92 3,56 187 20 5 16 1,38 1,73 1,28 110 169 1,2 0,736

The goals of our work were the obtaining of an important range of natural food products and sub-products, such as: natural, bio-stimulating blueberries juice, concentrates from natural juices, ingredients for food industry like natural red colorants from anthocyanins pigments, purrified pectin, blueberries wines, blueberries vinegar, nutritional improved fodder for animals breeding. This was done by using an integral technology scheme with the advantage of being low costing, low energy consumer and no polluting. Briefly, in the first stage, we obtained the bio-stimulating, natural juice from indigenous blueberries in which the quite high acidity of the vacuolar juice (in the blueberry pulp) is a strong lasting pigment for purple red stabilizer for coloring juice and hydro-alcoholic extracts. In the second stage, wastes deriving from processing are used fresh, dry or powder, because of their nutritional and bio-stimulating functions due to vitamins and minerals content. After squeezing the blueberries sub-products rich of anthocyanins, i.e. the blueberry cake which is an ideal raw material with high uses and outputs, we obtained natural red pigments for food products, that represents a major purpose as we must substitute the chemical dyeing products harmful for health. The main blueberries processing technological scheme with the specific procedures is the following:

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The following products and sub-products are gained thanks to the overall processing of blueberries:
Item no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Products and sub-products Fresh blueberry fruits Selected fruits Raw blueberry juice Fruits pure Blueberry cake = blueberries leftovers Structural wastes ( seeds, peels ) % 100,00 93,07 67,63 22,82 25,19 10,25

In the second stage, we provided various ways of capitalizing blueberries after its first processing, as it is presented in the following scheme:

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OUTLOOK - The objectives of our work were accomplished by the better capitalizing of indigenous ecological blueberries, a precious raw material, with the obtaining of an important range of natural food products and sub-products, by using a ow energy consumer and no polluting technology. - We obtained natural blueberries bio-stimulating juice in which the quite high acidity of the vacuolar juice (in the blueberry pulp) is a strong lasting pigment for purple red stabilizer for coloring juice and hydro-alcoholic extracts. - The blueberry leftover cake, rich of anthocyanins, is an ideal raw material with high uses and outputs. - The achievement of natural red pigments for food products obtained from natural sources is a major purpose as we must substitute the chemical dyeing products harmful for health. - Wastes deriving from processing are used fresh or dry or powder because of their nutritional and bio-stimulating functions due to vitamins and minerals. REFERENCES
1. Atudosiei Nicole Livia Technology of fruits and vegetables processing, Publisher Cermaprint, Bucharest, Romania, 2008; 2. Stefanescu Elena, Stefanescu Paul - Food industry colorants from indigenous raw materials Romanian Patent; 3. Stefanescu Elena, Atudosiei Nicole Livia, Constantin Madalina Foodsbiochemistry Publisher Cris Book Universal, Bucharest, Romania, 2002.

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RESPONSE OF COTTON (GOSSyPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) TO USING SAHARAN DESERT SOIL AND NATURAL FERTILIZATION
Nihal yCEKUTLU * and Cemal SAyDAM * *Hacettepe University, Department of Environmental Engineering 06532 Ankara- TURKEY - nihal.yuce@gmail.com

ABSTRACT It has been shown that Saharan soil solution when illuminated with visible light have the potential of enhancing bioavailable (Fe+2/ Fe+3) iron and some other essential macro and micro nutrient elements as well as some basic amino acids. In this study, these properties of the desert soil have been tested on the certified cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by using illuminated and non-illuminated Saharan desert soil solutions. It has been shown that measurable growth parameters obtained by using illuminated Saharan dust. Thus, it can be suggested that desert origin dust under specific conditions may act as a source of natural fertilizers. Keywords: Saharan dust, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), mineral elements, natural fertilizers. INTRODUCTION Its known that the sources and transport pathways of dust play an important role in global climate and biogeochemical cycling, because dust transcends topographic and oceanic barriers. Dust from distant sources is a major component of soils in arid and humid areas. This dust provides nutrients needed for plant growth and influences hydrology by altering soil texture. Saharan dust has an important impact on climatic processes, nutrient cycles, soil formation and sediment cycles [11]. This cycle atmospheric deposition involves complex biological and chemical interactions of iron and nitrogen are amongst essential inputs for agriculture that are not yet fully understood. Airborne microorganisms are found to be ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Cultivable bacteria and fungi have been sampled high up in the stratosphere. Microorganisms attached to Saharan dust can be transported across the Atlantic Ocean [4]. Bacteria and fungi have also been found in cloud water, and precipitation [10]. In desert regions, dust is dispersed from different sources. These include alluvial deposits on dry flood plains wadis, playas, etc. In addition to wind stress, dust production is influenced by vegetation, soil structure, and moisture content of the soil, texture, mineral content and surface roughness [3]. One of the most problematic results of the topsoil erosion is the repeated blowing away of the fine particle fraction, as this upper layer believed to contains most of the nutrients [9]. This is mainly because of the accumulation of water and nutrients, which support higher levels of plant growth and biomass, and enhance species diversity [1]. The yield of agricultural products mainly depends on the availability of nutrients and if deficient, plant nutrients are added to the soil, in different manner as to increase the yield. Sulzberger and Laubscher has shown the light-induced dissolution and the photochemical production of Fe(II) by using Lepidocrosite and oxalate as a reductant based on the assumption that oxalate present in atmospheric waters due to anthropogenic sources. Recently, Saydam and Senyuva (2002) suggested that desert soil can be a potential source of bioavailable iron through in cloud photochemical reduction of iron minerals assisted by the oxalate released by the fungis present within the desert soil. Hence, in nature, the temporal and spatial variability of the bioavailable iron delivered to the crust via rain may be controlled by in cloud photochemical reduction of desert origin dust assisted by the impact of oxalate released by fungus present within the desert soil. Saydam and Senyuva (2002) has further shown that, the basic process in the photochemical production of bioavailable iron through decarboxylation reaction involves simultaneous action of oxalate released by the fungus within the cloud droplet above some threshold solar radiation. It has been further shown that besides the photochemical production of Fe(II) upon collapse of iron hydroxyl oxide containing clay mineral the release of other micro nutrient elements like Zn and Mn also been demonstrated following the release of iron along with phosphate. Therefore, desert origin dust may support the view that it may have the potential of supplying some essential micronutrient elements to the nature [11]. One essential point is the solar light intensity dependency of reduced iron production and its stoichiometry following its production since reduced iron is rather unstable and in the absence of sufficient solar light it is oxidized back to stable iron. Recently, Mace et al 2003, has reported that the organic N within rain and aerosols exhibited statistically significant linear relationships to Ca 2+, K+, Mg2+, NO3-, and SO42- during periods when kinematics trajectory analysis indicated the origin of winds from arid regions, mainly in Northern Africa, and when the aerosol optical index was high, in other words during dust pulses originating from Saharan. Detailed analyses of amino N have further shown that amino N were indicative of biological organisms and individual dissolved free amino acids contributing the largest percentages to amino N totals in aerosols were glycine, arginine, proline, and valine. The authors have further indicated that increased concentrations of glycine, proline, and valine can often be associated with a bacterial or a biological influence since primitive organisms, such as bacteria, contain these amino acids in high concentrations. Having understood the mechanism which can lead us to enhance solutions with reduced iron and some other essential elements and amino acids it was decided to imitate this process artificially and to test its possible impact by using various seeds. The first test have been performed by Ycekutlu (2004)

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on the certified wheat cultivars monocotyledons (Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum L.) by using Hewitt nutrient solution [6] and deionized water used as two extreme control solutions and illuminated and non illuminated Saharan desert solutions as. This study has shown that measurable growth and photosynthetic parameters can be obtained by using illuminated desert dust solutions under controlled environment. The growth media were; Hewitt Nutrient Solution, Illuminated Saharan Desert Soil Solutions, Nonilluminated Saharan Desert Soil Solutions, Deionize Water [14]. At this stage we have tested the impact of Saharan soil solutions by using dicotyledons cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under natural solar cycle. MATERIAL AND METHODS 1. Saharan desert soil solution In this research, Saharan desert raw soil samples taken from southern Tunisia, near Tozeur has been used. In laboratory the raw soil samples dried, sieved (200 mesh) and homogenized. As a tree different growth media, illuminated and non- illuminated Saharan desert soil solutions and distilled water have been utilized. During the course of the experiments no, in situ, Fe(II) measurements have been made but the system illuminated with natural solar light for more than twelve hours during the months of July to September 2004 at Ankara (34N, 4E) when the light intensity is well above the threshold level and it was assumed that Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio has reached to a steady sate level after two hours of irradiation as suggested by Saydam and Senyuva (2002). Basing on this hypothesis we have decided to test the impact of desert originated soil following its in cloud transformations. As to imitate the cloud, 2 kg of homogenized less than 200 mesh Saharan soil is dumped into 2 L volumetric flask and kept under solar light during the daylight and abbreviated as Saharan Irradiated (SI). The basic idea behind the use of 2 L volumetric flask was to increase the optical path as this is often reaches a few kilometers within the cloud itself. Basic aquarium pump was used to aerate the system so that complete mixing has been maintained during the irradiation that is lasted more than two hours as to reach a steady state of reduced iron formation as mentioned by Saydam and Senyuva, 2002. Similar Saharan dust containing mixture was kept in dark and abbreviated as Saharan Dark (SD) as first control and distilled water containing solution (DW) as second control solutions. Irrigations were performed every other day by spraying the respective solutions through the leaves as to imitate the rain. To avoid cross contamination during spraying the other two pots were removed. Saharan desert soil samples were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (Philips W1140 model) using CuK radiation and a goniometry speed of 2/min at Hacettepe University Department of Geological Engineering. Mineral analyses of the used Saharan desert soil sample are composed of 55% quartz, 17% calcite, 4% clay, 23% gypsum and 1 % feldspar [14]. These results were agreed with literature [2]. 2. Cotton seeds In this research, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were used. Elite seeds of the cultivars were obtained from Central, South Agricultural Research Institute in Turkey. Plants were grown during the period of 12 July/8 September 2005 at ambient temperatures. 2.1. Harvest dates Cotton seeds were planted on 12 July 2005 and lasted till 8 September 2005 when the last sampling was performed. Each pot contains equal amounts of homogenized commercial soil (pH=5.5). Pots were placed at well solar illuminated location with equal spacing. Each set contained 12 plants (3plants/pot) and harvested four times; (H3) 4th leaf stage, (H4) 5th leaf stage, (H5) 6th leaf stage and (H6) 7th leaf stage. Shoot length, leaf area and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings were measured at harvest dates H3, H4, H5 and H6. Shoot length of seedling was measured (cm.seedling-1) at harvest dates. Leaf area (cm2 seedling-1) expansion is one of the fundamentals processes of plant growth [13]. Photosynthetic pigments were extracted from eight separate seedling samples in pure acetone. The absorbance of the extracts was measured at 644.8 and 661.6 nm using a Dr Lange CADAS 200. Spectrophotometer. The concentration of chlorophyll (Chla+b) was determined and calculated using adjusted extinction coefficients [7]. 3. Experimental design and statistical analyses The experiments were performed in randomized design. Statistical variance analysis of the independent data with eight replicates (n=8) was performed by using the SPSS packet program and the differences between the means were compared with least significant differences (LSD) at the 5% level. RESULTS 1. Seedling length (cm/plant) and area (cm2) The seedling length and area of cultivates at H3, H4, H5 and H6 stages were shown in Figure 1 and 2. Growth parameters observed at each stage for cultivates sprayed by Illuminated Saharan Solution (SI) was statistically greater than dark (Non-Illuminated) Saharan Solution (SD) and Distilled Water (DW).

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Fig.1. Effect of different growth media on the length of seedling at the third, fourth, fifth and sixth leaf stage (H3, H4, H5 and H6) for cotton cultivar. Illuminated Saharan Desert Soil Solution (SI), Dark Saharan Desert Soil Solution (SD) and Distilled Water (DW).

Fig.2. Effect of different growth media on leaf area of H3, H4, H5 and H6 leaf stage of seedling for cotton cultivar (cm2area-1). Symbols and abbreviations correspond to those in Fig.1. 3. Chlorophylla+b content (mg.g-1.fw) Statistically, the observed photosynthetic growth parameter at (H3, H4, H5 and H6) stages is however much more stressed in favor of cultivates irrigated by illuminated Saharan desert solution as shown in Figure 3.

Fig.3. Effect of different growth media on Chl a+b content of H3, H4, H5 and H6 of seedling for cotton cultivar (mg.g-1 fresh leaf weight). Symbols and abbreviations correspond to those in Fig.1. DISCUSSIONS As shown by Ycekutlu (2004) by using wheat varieties, maximum measurable growth and photosynthetic parameters were also obtained by using illuminated Saharan soil solution for cotton cultivates. The observed photosynthetic activity was significantly greater for the illuminated Saharan desert solution and during the course of growth period steady increase is also observed in the chlorophyll content of illuminated cultivates. Therefore the ratios of micronutrient elements at illuminated desert soil solution may pave its way to a new fertilizer solution that is much more acceptable by nature. Saydam and Senyuva (2002) have also shown that the production of bioavailable iron is induced by solar illumination and the availability of this iron is further distributed by the sporadic nature of rain events along the path of atmospheric depression. Therefore the natural enhancement of the crops by desert induced soil can be detected by modern meteorological radars provided that the distinction between the day light and night wet deposition events is made. CONCLUSION The results of this work may lead us to change our understanding of the global dust transport and associated rain events along the track of atmospheric depressions at appropriate seasons where the solar radiation is above some threshold level as to sustain the formation of bioavailable iron. This work also carries even more importance for those developing nations that happen to own such

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resources, often accepted as land without any use, offering them the prospect of prosperity since now we have the technology to imitate the natural process and to utilize the end product in true organic farming. REFERENCES
[1] Allen, E.B.,Temporal and spatial organization of desert plant communities. In: Skujins, J. (Ed.) Semiarid Lands and Desert: Soil Resource and Reclamation. Marcel Dekker, York, 2001, pp. 295-332. [2] Ganor, E. and Foner, A. The mineralogical and chemical properties and the behavior of aeolian Saharan dust over Israel. In: The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean. Eds: Guerzoni, S and Chester, R., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1996, pp: 163-172. [3] Goossens, D., Offer, Z.Y., Loess erosion and loess deposition in the Negev Desert: theoretical modelling and wind tunnel simulations. Desert Meteorology Papers, Series A., 1988, No.13. [4] Goudie A.S. and Middleton, N.J., Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences, Earth-Science Reviews, 2001, 56200.179204. [5] Griffin D.W., Garrison V.H., Herman J.R. and Shinn E.A., African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: microbiology and public health. Aerobiologia, 2001, 17 (3), 203213. [6] Hewitt, E. J., Sand and water culture methods used in the study of plant nutrition, Bur. Hort. and Plantation Crops.Tech., 1966, Com. No. 22 (Revised 2nd edition) commw. [7] Lichtententler, H. K., Chlorophylls and carotenoids, the pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol., 1987, 148: 350-382. [8] Mace, K. A., Kubilay, N & Duce, R. A., Organic nitrogen in rain and aerosol in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere: An association with atmospheric dust. Journal of Geophysical ResearchAtmospheres, 2003, 108 (D10): Art. No. 4320 [9] Offer, Z.Y., Zngvil, A., Azmon, E., Characterization of airborne dust in Sede-Boqer area. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 1993, 41, 239-245. [10] Sattler, B., Puxbaum, H., Psenner, R., Bacterial growth in supercooled cloud droplets. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2001, 28 (2), 243 246. [11] Saydam, A. C., and enyuva, H. Z., Deserts? Can they be the potential Supplier of Biovailable Iron. Geophysical Research Letters, 2002, Vol. 29, No. 11, 10.1029/2001 [12] Sulzberger, B., and Laubscher, H., Reactivity of various types of iron(III) (hydr)oxides towards light-induced dissolution. Marine Chemistry, 1995, 50, 103115. [13] Terys, N., Waldron, L. J., Taylor, S.E., Environmental influence in leaf expansion. In: Dalke, J. E., Milthorpe, F. L. (Eds.). The Growth and Functioning of Leaver Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 179-205. [14] Ycekutlu, A. N., The investigation of possible impact of elemental composition of Saharan dust on the growth parameters of some selected wheat variets. Master of Science Thesis Hacettepe University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 200

SITUATION OF ORGANIC FARMING IN ANIMALS AND DAIRy CATTLE


zel ekerden Mustafa Kemal niversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science ANTAKYA - sekerden@mku.edu.tr ABSTRACT In recent decades, increasing numbers of animals are raised in intensive production systems. As the numbers of farm animals rise, so do their greenhouse emissions. Organic milk production increases methane emission and, therefore, can reduce global warming potential only by reducing emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide considerably. In Turkey, demands to organic animal products out of country are significant scale, although organic animal production is a little from country. Market price of organic milk products are higher than conventional ones. Priority have to be given to following subjects in organik dairy farming in Turkey; Politics related to education, research and support should be developed for short, middle and long times; Demands should be determined not only from, but also out of the country; producers must be organise; organic products have to be presented; regulation conditions have to be provided. Key Words: Organik Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Oganic dairy farming, ORGANK HAyVANCILIK VE ST SIIRCILII Entansif retim sistemlerinde yetitirilen hayvan says son yllarda artmtr. Sera gaz yaylm, populasyon byklne baldr. Dolaysyla hayvan says arttka sera gaz yaylm da artmaktadr. Organik st retimi, metan gaz yaylmn artrp CO2 ve N2O yaylmn azalttndan global snmay drme potansiyeline sahiptir. Trkiyede organik hayvansal rnlere d talep nemli lde olmakla birlikte, organik hayvansal retim ok azdr. Organik st rnlerinin market fiyat, geleneksel retim ile retilenlerden daha yksektir. Trkiyede organik tarmn gelitirilmesi iin; eitim, aratrma ve destekleme ile ilgili ksa, orta ve uzun sreli politikalar gelitirilmeli; lke ii ve lke d ihtiyalar belirlenmeli; reticiler organize olmal; organik rnler tantlmal; ynetmelik artlar salanmaldr. Anahtar Kelimeler: Organik Tarm, Hayvanclk, St Srcl INTRODUCTION Ecological agriculture is a kind of agricultural system that its every step (from production to consumption) is controlled and

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certificated and natural methods are used, and using of chemicals (such as fertilizer, medicine, hormone) is forbided. Farm animals are an important an integrated part of most organic farms. They make valuable contributions to the productivity and sustainability of organic agricultural systems. The development of organic animal husbandry has been slower than the organic plant production. There are several reasons for this, historical and philosophical as well as the fact that research on animal production often is more expensive and difficult to carry out compared to crop research. However, organic animal research has increased considerably in several European countries lately and resulting from this, improved efficiency and productivity can be expected in organic animal production, as well as beter animal welfare. There is a big interest in organic farming in Europe, both among politicians, consumers and farmers. Organic agriculture is subsidized by the EU, and the Commission is currently working on Action Plan for organic food and agriculture. Animals are an important part of most organic farms and research to develop beter organic systems is now performed in many European countries. Thus we can expect organic animal production to increase during the years to come. Livestock production which is one of the main branches of agricultural process should be conducted with objectives of saving ecological balance and obtaining biological improvement in a sustainable manner with respect to human health. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) express that all livestock should be treated under the suitable conditions to show their innate behaviour in the definition of organic farming. According to this definition, human have to apply some limitations for restrictive and forced methods, which are used in the intensive livestock production systems [10]. Today, intensive livestock production, which is conducted to meet demand for excessive animal protein, causes some problems. These are: 1. Decreasing reproductive rates livestock which are forced for higher production. 2. Increasing mastitis rates and foot diseases in dairy herds. 3. Decreasing resistance to many diseases in all livestock. 4. Developing some dengerous diseases (i.e. BSE) due to feeding intensive animal diets which contain rendering products. 5. Developing some metabolic disorders (i.e. fatty liver syndrome) and cage layer fatigue and breast blisters in the caged poultry systems. 6. Increasing of global warming. In recent decades, increasing numbers of animals are raised in intensive production systems in which chickens, pigs, turkeys, and other animals are confined in cages, crates, pens, stalls, and warehause-like grow out facilities. These production systems are devoid of environmental stimuli, adequate space, or means by which to experience most natural behaviors. Furthermore, because these industrialized, landlessfacilities tend to produce more manure than can be used as fertilizer on nearby cropland [5]. In recent years, industrial livestock production has grown at twice the rate of more traditional mixed farming systems and at more than six times the rate of production based on grazing. Confining greater numbers of animals indoors and further separating production operations from agricultural land will only exacerbate the environmental problems already posed by this sector, which FAO has deemed one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global [22]. Livestock inventories are expected to double by 2050, with most increases occuring in the developing world [22]. As the numbers of farm animals reared for meat, egg, and dairy production rise, so do their greenhause gases (GHG) emissions. GHG emmissions from livestock are inherently tied to livestock population sizes because the livestock are either directly or indirectly the source for the emissions [24]. Since the 1940s, for example, escalating animal populations have significantly increased emissions from both animals and their manure [17]. Regarded as the most important GHG, CO2 has the most significant direct-warming impact on global temperature because of the sheer volume of its emissions. Of all the natural and human-induced influences on climate over the past 250 years, the largest is due to increased CO2 concentrations attributed to burning fosil fuels and deforestation [3]. The animal agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9% of total CO2 emissions, which are primarily the result of fertilizer production for feed crops, on-farm energy expenditures, feed transport, animal product processing and transport, and land use changes [22]. As a result of as the numbers of farm animals reared for meat, egg, and dairy production increase, so do emissions from their production. By 2050, global farm animal production is expected to double from present levels. The environmental impacts of animal agriculture require that governments, international organisations, producers, and consumers focus more attention on the role played by meat, egg, and dairy production. Mitigating and preventing the environmental harms caused by this sector require immediate and substantial changes in regulation, production practices, and consumption paterns. Although demands to organic animal products from out of Turkey are significant scale, organic animal production is a little. Market price of organic animal products are high. In addition present structural problems of animal husbandry in Turkey also obstruct development of organic animal farming [26]. The reasons of organic animal farming is not develop today in Turkey, except apiculture, are as follows; - In Turkey still such as alum, plague of bovine, tuberculosis, brucellosis epidemic diseases are exist Food hygiene criteria that are applied In the World trade can not be obtained yet in Turkey. So, animal and animal products imports have been forbided by a lot of countries [26]. - Demand of organic animal products is a few in Turkey. Because income levels are very low of most of consumers in Turkey. Today

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they can not consume animal products that are produced by conventional farming in adeuate amounts - Standart rules of EU on animal health and wellfare in organic farming. Price of certificate is generally very high for small family units in Turkey. Some inputs of organic farming can be provided by out of Turkey. In addition some of necessary chemical and microbiologic analysis have to made out of Turkey [26]. Basic objective of Turkey in scope of membership to EU were determined as developing of distibuting of income, fight with poverty, to set into action of dynamics of regional developing [1]. Because of this, some activities such as supporting of organic inputs, increasing of investment potential, constituting of conditions in order to provide knowledge flow to producers and processors are some opportunities that have to be evaluated in the period adaptation to EU. According to mentioned things above, organic animal farming have potential in point of view export for today in Turkey. Because of increasing of population speedly more production is necessary for consumption of Turkey. So obligatorily modern Technologies have to be used for today. For his reason ecological production systems are not attractive in adequate level for today. In addition because of production is low and prices also are high in this system are attractiveness of organic production decreased for country markets. ORGANIC DAIRy FARMING Milk is very important food. But, as a result of conventional farming contains some remainder substances. That is why milk create some health problems. So it is important to produse of milk as organic. For this reason organic farming have to be developed in plants and animals. Organic agriculture systems are developing speedly in Europe and USA. Animal feeding strategies have positive effects on environment in organic milk production . Global warming potential of milk production is for 48-65% due to emission of methane. Organic milk production increases methane emission and, therefore, can reduce global warming potential only by reducing emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide considerably. Organic milk production reduces pesticide use, whereas it increases land use per tone of milk .In recent years organic dairy farming had acquired a big significance as alternative method of dairy farming in other dairy farming systems in America and Europe. because of some for reasons developing of standards of sustainable animal husbandry and wellfare, decreasing of negative effects to environment during producing, increasing of income of producers, protection of herd health [1] [18] [23] [25] [20]. USA, Canada an EU Countries are ahead in producing of organic animal products. But in even these countries the objectivece in related to animal health and wellfare make difficult transition from conventional to organic farming. In spite of this increase of milk and milk products are 37%/year in 1998-2003 period [24]. Production cost and profitability are different among farms in the countries which organic animal farming are made as widespread in those parts. In these countries demand to high quality organic milk and milk products produced as controlled and certificated are getting increase. Because of ocganic food usage, suitable barn conditions, suitable animal breed, animal health and some other rules in organic farming producing cost is higher than conventional farming. That is why, market price of organic products have to be convenient in point of view creating demand and unit profitability Market price of organic products are higher than conventional ones at 25-50% level. In addition, low product amount per head and rearing lower number animals per unit area also effect producing profitabity [26]. Rate of organic dairy cattle and milk production in some EU countries are given in Table 1 [2]. Table 1. Rate of organic dairy cattle and milk production in some EU countries
Country Austria Denmark Germany Holland France Great Britain Sweden Switzerland Organic dairy cattle (%) 15 7 1.2 0.5 4.3 10 Organic milk production (1000 tone /year) 300 300 28.5 60 80 20 -

Organic dairy farming are made the most intensively in Austria. In this country the share of market of organic milk and milk products is 3.5-5.1% in total milk and milk products [4]. In Denmark the sahre of ornanic milk is 20% in total cows milk production [15]. Advantages of organic dairy farming as follows; - Frequencies of health problems, that cause economic lost, is lower than conventional farming; Frequencies of some metabolic disorders such as mastitis, ketosis, milk fever, foot diseases are lower than in conventional herds [19] [8] [7]. - Convert efficiencies of forages to milk is higher [19]. -Lactating cows number in the herd is higher (Reksen et al 1999). -Conception rate is higher, service index and culling rates are lower, service period and calving interval are shorter [19]. -Resistance to many diseases is higher -Negative effect to global warming is lower, - Some dangerous animal diseases (such as BSE) are not seen, because of feeding are mainly based to forages and pastures.

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Veterinary- health costs are lower at 15.29% - 44.44% levels (Rates are differs from country to country). Because, frequencies of the diseases that cause economic lost is lower azalmaktadr [9] [13] [14]. Average milk yields of cows that are raised in organic herds are lower 4.06% (Germany) 28.35% (USA) than ones reared conventionaly [9] [13] 21]. Because, feeding are mainly based to forages and pastures [15]. Average labour costs are higher 6.63% - 94.80% in organik dairy dairy farming. ncrease rates are differs from country to country [6] [12] [16]. Organic milk is the first time produced at 2005 in Turkey, in Kelkit Organik Farming Unit (1350 tone/year). Kelkit Organic farming had established at 2002 and it has the most big capacity in Europe. Organic farming had been started with 600 imported heifers at 2003. Organic milk produced in the unit is purchased by one Firm from zmir and marketed in zmir (2.10 TL/kg =~ 1 Euro). In Europe 10-15 years ago organic milk was only processed in factory of the every unit. Today it is purchased and sold as commercial in some countries. In Turkey yet transition had not been realized to certification system and suitable standarts have not been constituted. As soon as possible standarts have to be constituted, or nternational standarts constituted have to be assimilated and producers have to be informed on the subject. Turkey only have 0.2% of organic agriculture areas of the World today (57 000 ha). Organic milk which produces in with high costs can found market higher price in point of producers and consumers respectively 1040% and 20-150%. In this situation it is difficult to develop of organik milk production in Turkey. But, when conventional structure of dairy cattle farming in Turkey is thought, future of organic dairy farming may be bright; For example East Anatolian Region have significant potantial for organic milk production. Because East of Anatolian Regions structure of agricultural area of is not dirty and it has suitable climatic condition for dairy cattle farming. As a result of, priority have to be given to following subjects in order to provide transition to organic dairy farming towards demand out of country; a) Politics related to education, research and support should be developed for short, middle and long times, b) Determining of demands from and out of country c) Producers have to be organised d) Organic products have to be presented e) Regulation conditions have to be provided f) Supervision REFERENCES
[1] Aksoy, U., Tzel, Y., Altndili, A., Can HZ, Onour E, Ana D, Okur B, iekli M, ayan Y, Krkpnar F, Kenanolu Bekta Z, elik S, Arn L, Er C, zkan C, zen DB: Organik(=Ekolojik, Biyolojik) Tarm Uygulamalar, 2007. http://www.zmo.org.tr/etkinlikler/6tk05/016uygunaksoy. pdf.Eriim tarihi: 11.12.2007. [2] Atasever S., Erdem H: Organik St Srclnn Genel zellikleri ve Trkiyedeki Uygulanabilirlii. OM Ziraat Fak. Derg., 22(3): 337-342, 2007. [3] Bierbaum RM, Holdran, JP, MacCracken MC, Moss RH, Raven PH, ens. 2007. Confronting Climate Change: Avoding the Unmanageable, Managing the Unavoidable. Washington, DC: United Nations Foundation. Available: http://www. Unfoundation.org/files/pdf/2007/SEG. Reportpdf [ accessed 23 October 2007]. [4] avdar Y: Organik Tarma Genel Bir Bak ve Organik Su rnleri Yetitiricilii. 2007. http://www.yunus.sumae, gov.tr/2003/02/06.pdf. Eriim tarihi: 15.12.2007. [5] FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2005. Responding to the Livestock Revolution-The Case for Livestock Public Policies. Available: http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/ resources/documents/pol-briefs/01/ENAGA01_10.pdf [accessed 23 October 2007]. [6] Fowler S, Lampkin N, Midmore P: Organic Farm Incomes England and Wales, 2000.http://www.organic.aber.ac.uk/library/organic%20farm%20incomes.pdf. Accessed: 20.12.2007. [7] Hamilton C, Forslund K, Hansson I, Emanuelson U, Ekman T: Health of Cows, Calves and Young Stock on 26 Organic Dairy Herds in Sweden. Vet Rec, 150 (16):503-508, 2002. [8] Hardeng F, Edge VL: Mastitis, Ketosis, and Milk Fever in 31 Organic and 93 Conventional Norwegian Dairy Herds. J. Dairy Sci, 84, 2673-2679, 2001. [9] Henning J: Economics of Organics Farming in Canada. The Economics of Organic Farming: An International Perspective, 1994/edited by N.H. Lampkin and S. Padel. CAB International. Wallingford, Oxon, 1994. [10] IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements). 2004. The Role of Organic Agriculture in Mitigating Climate Change.Available: http://www.ifoam org/pres/positions/pdfs/ Role_of_OA_Migitating_Climate_Change.pdf [accesed 23 October 2007]. [11] Lampkin NH: Economics of Organic Farming in Britain: The Economica of Organic Farming: An International Perspective, 1994/edited by N.H. Lampkin and S. Padel. CAB International. Wallingford, Oxon, 1994. [12] Leslie JB: Survey Quantifies Cost of Organic Milk Production. California Agriculture, 157-162, 2002. [13] McBride WD, Grene C: A Comparison of Conventional and Organic Milk Production Systems in the U.S. The American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon, July 29-August 1, 2007. [14] Mhlebach I, Mclebach J: Economics of Organics Farming in Switzerland. The economics of organic farming: An International Perspective, 1994/edited by N.H. Lampkin and S. Padel. CAB International. Wallingford, Oxon, 1994. [15]Norfelt,TF: Organic Farming in Denmark, 2005.http://www.Ir.dk/oekologi/diverse/org_agri.htm. Accessed: 10.12.2007. [16] Offerman F, Nieberg H: Economic Performance of Organic Farms in Europa. Organic farming in Europe: Economics and Policy; Vol. 5, 2000. [17] Paustian K, Antle M, Sheehan J, Eldor P. 2006. Agricultures Role in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, Washington, D.C: Pew Center on Global climate Change. [18] Pekel E, nalan A: Ekolojik Hayvanclk. 1. Ekolojik Tarm Sempozyumu, 21-23 Haziran, zmir, 1999. [19] Reksen O, Tverdal A, Ropstad E: A Comparative Study of Reproductive Performance in Organic and Conventional Dairy Husbandry. J. Dairy Sci, 82, 2605-2610, 1999. [20] Rosati A, Aumaitre A: Organic Dairy Farming in Europe. Livestock Production Science, 90, 41-51, 2004. [21] Smith C, Frost D, van Diegen P, Chisholm C: Market Review of the Organic Dairy Sector in Wales. Organic centre Wales, Aberystwyth, 2007. [22] Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaer T, Castel V, Rosales M, de Haan C. 2006. Livestocks Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [23] Sundrum A: Organic Livestock Farming. A critical review. Livestock Production Science, 67, 207-216, 2001. [24] USDA: Implications of U.S. and Global Organic Dairy, Livestock and Poultry Production for International Trade, 2004. http://www. Fas.usda.gov/dlp2/highlights/2000/organics/organicDLP.html. USDA, 2004. U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhause Gas Inventory: 1990-2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. [25] Von Borell E, Srensen JT: Organic Livestock Production in Europe: Aims, Rules and Trends with Special Emphasis on Animal Health and Welfare. Livestock Production Science, 90, 3-9, 2004. [26] Yaln C: Ekonomik Adan Ekolojik Hayvanclkta Hayvan Sal ve Hayvan Refah likileri. Ekolojik Hayvanclk Paneli, 18 Ekim, eme-zmir, 2002

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CAN WE CREATE NETWORKS FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVING IN OUR CITIES AND VILLAGES?
zge yalner Ercokun1, Ali Gkmen2, nci Gkmen2
1

Gazi Uni., Dept. of City and Regional Planning, Ankara, ozgeyal@gazi.edu.tr, Middle East Technical Uni., Dept. of Chemistry, Ankara, agokmen@metu.edu.tr, igokmen@metu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT This study aims to create holistic management of sustainability in cities and rural areas. The objectives are to prevent immigration from rural areas to cities, to improve quality of life in the cities and the villages, to reduce of carbon dioxide emissions and to live in harmony with the nature. This study explores the organic production potential of rural settlements around Ankara to aid in discovering and establishing sustainable agriculture practices, and helps conservation of natural balance by clean agricultural production. Organic agriculture production in Ankara and Turkey, statistics for conventional food reaching Ankara Wholesale Market, vegetable and fruit transport distances to Ankara were elaborated. A project which was held using a novel methodology, Dragon Dreaming, was used to increase awareness for organic farming among the people living in rural and urban settlements in Ankara. Various economical models integrating organic production with municipality supported organic markets, Community Supported Agriculture and the synergy created between rural and urban people in Ankara were discussed. Keywords: sustainable living, organic agriculture, community supported agriculture, Dragon Dreaming, Gneky, Ayranc Organic Products Market, Ankara INTRODUCTION United Nations established Millennium Development Goals, MDG, in 2000 and expected to improve the poor living conditions in the poor parts of the world until 2015 with the help of rich countries [1]. One important goal of MDG is to eradicate the poverty and hunger. One of the targets of this goal is to achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people. Another goal of MDG encourages the states to incorporate sustainable development policies and programs to prevent the loss of environmental resources. A rapid rise of greenhouse gases is a reminder of climate change problem. The last but not the least goal of MDG is about development of global partnership for development. Global economical crisis which was started in 2008 resulted in reduction in the growth of economies and many nations, including Turkey, suffer from increased unemployment. Turkish gross national product had a growth rate of 9.4 % in 2004, but declined to 1.1 % in 2008 and still lowered to a negative growth rate of -13.8 % in the first quadrant of 2009 [2]. The unemployment statistics for 2009 has been announced as 13.4 % [3], but rising to more than 20 % in some southern and southeastern cities of Turkey. There is a high rate of migration from rural to urban and from northern, eastern and south eastern regions of Turkey to western regions [4]. According to 2008 census, total population of Turkey is 71.5 million and 25 % lives in the rural areas. The rate of migration from rural to urban increased to 29 % in the last decade. The global economic crisis affects all nations in the world by rising unemployment, falling income and migration of people. The increasing population and increasing rate of consumption of natural resources resulted in climate change and peak oil. United Nations (UN) is working on reduction of the impact of humans on our planet earth. The UN organized international meetings for taking actions to mitigate the effect of climate change (Rio de Janeiro 1992, Kyoto 1997 and Johannesburg 2002), annual climate change conferences (COP) and established MDG to reduce the poverty in the poor regions of the world. Various forms of alternative ways of living have been experienced all over the world for creating sustainable living. The Transition Town movement has started in UK to organize the towns resilient to climate change and peak oil [5]. In Italy, Slow City movement [6] has been started and both movements are spreading in the world. The purpose of this study is in accordance with MDG mentioned above, e.g. eradication of the poverty and hunger, incorporation of sustainable development policies and programs to prevent the loss of environmental resources, development of partnership between people living in rural and urban areas. For this purpose various activities such as organic food production, raising awareness between people in these areas to support each other for a sustainable living were organized. The production of organic food by environmentally friendly cultivation techniques (e.g. drip irrigation, natural farming, companion planting, crop rotation, composting) were considered here. The multinational seed companies push hard the governments all around world to use their infertile and genetically modified seeds (GMO) by free trade agreements. That is a great threat to the food security

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of the world. The use of local seeds is forbidden by governments under the pressure of big international companies and western countries. The biodiversity of eco systems are under pressure due to GMOs, pesticides and chemicals used in agriculture. As all the food is grown locally, the reduction of food transportation radically reduces the environmental impact of food chain. People living in a town can access high-quality organic food directly from producers. Organic markets promote an urban healthy lifestyle by enabling city inhabitants to be better informed and buy organic and safe food directly from farmers [7]. It also contributes to the survival of local producers, promotes a conviviality not found in the city supermarkets and reconnects city and countryside. The organic markets, which get only minimum support from municipalities and NGOs, provide new and alternative retail channels for small organic producers. Farmers can earn more and consumers can find organic food Alternatively, in community supported agriculture (CSA) fresh, organically grown, reasonably priced box of vegetables are delivered to the doors of the supporters. This service fosters awareness of tradition, taste and the natural seasonal availability and healthy food. Being in touch with the surrounding region, getting the best from it and the luxury of receiving organic food to home brings the feeling of confidence about its provenance. Creating multi channel communication platforms between producers and consumers is seen as one of the main challenges. A workshop named Planning for Sustainability was organized by John Croft [8] in Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara in February 2009. After this workshop, a group of people including the authors of this paper came together and made a voluntary project. Their overall aim is to create a direct communication platform, producer/consumer link and raise awareness on organic agriculture by increasing cooperation between each other. In this paper, organic agriculture in Turkey and Ankara will be analyzed in section 2, focusing briefly upon local production yield and environmental effects with maps and some statistics. Case study areas of the project will be explained in section 3. The use of Dragon Dreaming methodology, overview of the project and some examples from activities held in this project will be presented. The added value, some benefits and lesson learnt from this project will be discussed in the last section. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN TURKEy AND ANKARA Organic agriculture started in Turkey in 1985 for export of 8 kinds of products, and then it is increased to 201 types today with rising demand. Organic agriculture has been held in 49 provinces in 2004, today this number is 65 [9]. Small and fragmented farms do organic farming all over the country. In 2007, 5723 farmers were in the process of transition to organic farming on 38924 hectares of fields. Today organic farming was done by 10553 farmers on 135360 hectares and had a yield of 431203 tones. The Ninth Development Plan of the country covering the years of 2007-2013, aims to increase organic agriculture areas to 3% of total agriculture area. The total production area increased to 45000 hectares between 2002 and 2007 and yield was 43000 tones. Production area is not really developed but the yield is really incremental. As seen in Figure 1, Aegean coastal provinces and southeastern Anatolia plains produce highest organic yield in the country. Major organic crops in Turkey are: cotton, wheat, apple, grape, corn, tomato and olive. Apple was at top of the list in 2004 and cotton was in 2008 [9].

Figure 1. Distribution of organic production in the provinces of Turkey

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Ankara is the capital of Turkey and case study area in this project. So, some wholesale market statistics are compiled for conventional produce. An amount of 313832 kg of vegetables and 371166 kg of fruit, with a total of 684998 kg were entered to the wholesale market in 2008 [10]. All these produce transported by 51770 trucks in that year. The wholesale market is located in the city center, the heavy traffic load and environmental pollutant effects of these vehicles are serious problem (Table 1).
The number of trucks Average amount of travel(km) Average amount of fuel (L/1000 km) Total amount of fuel (L) Total CO2 (kg) 51770 1000 250 13000000 39000000

Table 1. Ankara wholesale market statistics, 2008 [10] The main provinces which feed Ankara are zmir, Adana, Bursa, Antalya, Mersin and Eskiehir (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Provinces sending vegetables and fruits to Ankara Onion, tomato, wheat and pepper are the major organic produce in Ankara [11]. Limited number of farmers (17) in Ankara produced 3536 tons of vegetables in 308 hectares in 2008. There are 7 private firms in Ankara for organic certification. Organic agriculture is held in Beypazar and Nallhan districts in Ankara. Furthermore, 79 farmers in Kzlcahamam and amldere produce organic honey in 360 hectares in 512 beehives [12]. RAISING AWARENESS BETWEEN PRODUCERS AND USERS This part defines the case study areas, project methodology and project details about raising awareness on organic agriculture. Some activities will be presented as examples in this issue. Gneky, Hisarky and Ayranc Organic Market in Ankara In Turkey there are 81 provinces and 38000 villages. The population living in the villages is about 25% of population of Turkey. There are 944 villages in Ankara (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Villages in Ankara

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Gneky, is the first and nearest eco-village initiative near Ankara (Figure 4). In 2002, 7.5 ha of land in the Balaban Valley were purchased from the state. Balaban Valley extends 50 km in north-south direction on the border of Ankara and Krkkale provinces. The Balaban stream flows at the basin of the valley and joins to Turkeys largest river, Kzlrmak. Gneky is situated 3 km away from a local village, Hisarky [13]. Hisarky is 27 km away from Krkkale and has a population of about 300 people.

Figure 4. Plan of Gneky [13] Eight members founded Gneky cooperative in 2000 and first organic agriculture was started in 2005. The local farmers from Hisarky worked in the field and paid for the period of about 8 months. Two women from Hisarky worked as paid farmers for the first time in Gneky in 2009. A box of organic vegetables is delivered weekly to 100 families in Ankara. This is the 4th year in 2009 that this community supported agriculture (CSA) project continues between June and November. A variable amount of 8-10 kg of vegetables is put in a box and 28 different kinds of vegetables are served to the door of the supporters of project in Ankara throughout the season. In 2008, total production is about 15 tons in 0.7 ha. The resources used in this cultivation are listed in Table 2.
Water Electricity Transport CO2 production CO2 captured 4800 tons 21000 kWh 2 tons of fuel 6 tons (transport) 5.8 tons (30 tons organic matter, 4 tons dry organic matter)

Table 2. Resources used in Gneky for CSA The organic production in this small land (0.7 ha) is compared with the conventional production in Ankara (Table 3).
Conventional vegetable production in Ankara Area 39.000 ha Production 720.000 tonnes/year Yield 18 tonnes/ha Organic vegetable production in Gneky Area 0.7 ha Production 15 tonnes/year Yield 21 tonnes/year

Table 3. Comparison of conventional versus organic vegetable production in Ankara and in Gneky [13, 14] The second case study area is Ayranc Organic Market in Ankara which is the unique one established 1.5 years ago and coordinated by ankaya Municipality. Nearly 30 producers with 107 stands participate in this market. Market is in the city center and very near to the parliament and residential areas. According to the questionnaire that was given to customers at the market, consumers are from the close neighborhoods such as Ayranc, Dikmen, veler and Kavakldere. However, there are consumers from all over Ankara who has concerns on their and their families health after the GMO debates recently raised in the country. Beyond vegetables and fruits, legumes, olive oil, bread, cosmetics and detergent are also sold in the organic market. Income of the producers varies between 200 and

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2000 TL in this weekly organized organic market. Hisarky villagers also sell some of their products in this market (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Hisarkoy villagers in Ayranc Organic Product Market Ankara is a metropolitan city with 4 million inhabitants, but the organic food consumption is relatively low. There is a need for activities to raise awareness. So for this purpose a project is started in March 2009 and still continues by applying a novel methodology which is described in the next section. Dragon Dreaming Project Methodology A workshop named as Planning for Sustainability was held in February 2009, in METU, Ankara. This 3-day activity was coordinated by John Croft, founder of GAIA Foundation of Western Australia. He created a new project management methodology named as Dragon Dreaming about sustainable community projects. After giving theoretical background, he interactively guided some groups according their dreams and activated them through their goals. In many community projects, 90% of projects failed to get beyond the first stage- dreaming. Of the 10% that succeeded, another 90% failed to get beyond the second stage- planning. This means 1% of projects actually get off the ground and do what they set out to. To increase this low success rate, he developed his Dragon Dreaming approach. It is a tool to help a project through four stages; dreaming, planning, doing and evaluation/celebration (Figure 6). Leaving out any one step, the project will invariably fail [15]. Everyone involved in the project has to decide whether they are prepared to carry an equal share of the project. No one is the head or master; they are at the equal level.

Figure 6. Dragon Dreaming stages

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In Dragon Dreaming, there are 4 main steps, each having three subdivisions and altogether there are 12 steps [15]. Each step is a fractal, the structure of the whole is reflected in each of the steps [16]. In dreaming stage, the group comes together and everyone asks this question to themselves in turn: What would this project need to achieve to make your participation 100% worthwhile?. There is no evaluation, competition or criticism at this stage just go on including all the objectives. When the dreaming circle is finished, we define the objectives for the project. Planning is the second stage where an idea is worked up, where research and investigation take place. In planning stage, the Board Game is played. On a large piece of paper we draw a circle at the top labeled Start and one at the bottom labeled Finish. Then the group comes together to think of any task that will be needed to complete the projects objectives. After identifying and positioning the tasks we come up with into the 4 stages of dreaming, planning, doing and evaluating /celebrating. When we have our list of tasks, we can get a sense of the strengths and weaknesses of the group if we have mainly planners, dreamers, doers, celebrators. Then we add circles with labels for every task to our start / finish board game piece of paper, dividing the board into 4 stages. In the next step, we add lines to show any connections we can see between the tasks. Every task should have at least one input and one output if we cannot find one there are probably tasks missing [16]. When everything is connected up we the plan for the project is finished. This web is named as karabirrdt. We ask each person in the group to identify; which tasks they feel passionately about, which tasks make them would fear taking on and which tasks they feel competent to do. These are the people who should do the tasks. People taking on fearful tasks will need a mentor. Tasks with lots of inputs and outputs are key tasks and we need to make sure they are resourced properly. The group empowers fundraising through their sociogram [17]. Doing stage is where the idea is implemented. Celebration is the last stage where the success of the project is evaluated and this stage looks at the failures and difficulties before starting the cycle again [8]. John Croft kept emphasizing the need for celebration so that those who are putting energy into the project keep getting something back. This should include fun, nourishing activities but also acknowledgement for what people have done [8]. Nonviolent communication principles [18] and Gaia Foundation of Western Australias main principles such as personal growth (commitment to your own healing and empowerment), community building (strengthening the communities of which you are a part) and service to the Earth (enhancing the wellbeing and flourishing of all life) are all included in these projects [19]. Overview of the Project After the workshop, a group of people came together under the same dream for creating sustainable living in our traditional villages and connecting rural and city people for organic agriculture. Seven people from different professions such as chemists, industrial engineer, chemical engineer, agricultural engineer, city planner and an architect went to Hisarky to start a Dragon Dreaming project. In a cold day in March 2009, they met with Hisarky villagers and everyone shared many dreams, they were all written in large sheets. Then another meeting was held in METU including these people and some other stakeholders such a person having an organic certification firm, a farmer having large lands making organic agriculture and Ayranc Organic Market coordinator. They all shared their dreams again. Then in April 2009, these dreams were categorized in 4 phases, then strengths and weaknesses of the project were written down in another meeting and the main aim was created. The aim is to raise awareness about organic agriculture in Ankara inhabitants and connecting them to Gneky-Hisarky and other organic producers. A karabirrdt was built in 4 stages and many tasks were created and connected to each other (Figure 7). People in the group had many tasks and these were connected to each other. Then a Gannt chart showing timetable of the project was prepared. After all these preparations, there was core team coordinating these tasks. This team made some regular meetings every month. They gathered some statistical data about Turkey, Ankara, Gneky and Ayranc Organic Market which are presented above. Also they determined all stakeholders in this project. These stakeholders are farmers and women working in the fields of Gneky, deliverer of boxes of vegetables, organic market customers, CSA supporters, and participants of the organized activities. Academicians from METU and Gazi University in Ankara are interested in this project. ankaya Municipality, Yenimahalle Municipality, Union of Municipalities of Central Anatolia and province/district directorates of agriculture might be the future stakeholders of organic projects. Ministry of Environment, Agriculture, Public Works Ministry Rural Areas Department and Parliament constitute secondary category of possible stake holders. National and international funding agencies such as TBTAK, EU, UNEP, SGP and World Bank are taken into consideration. People are informed with radio programs and e-mail groups. Four main activities were organized for raising awareness which will be explained in the next section. Questionnaires were given to the producers in Ayranc Organic Market and to the city people participated to various activities. The mayor of ankaya was contacted for creating a city farm. A lunch was organized for the celebration phase with a famous singer, Yldz brahimova for her support to one of the activities. Some reports were written for ankaya Municipality organic agriculture advisory committee.

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Figure 7 Karabirrdt of the project Activities in the project The first activity in this project was made in June 7th, 2009 and named as Organic Garden Trip to Gneky. This activity was announced by the posters and leaflets which were distributed to the market customers in Ankara. Totally 65 people participated to this trip who were willing to see an eco-village near Ankara (Figure 8). They heard about this trip from environmental e-mail groups and leaflets in the market. The entire group met at the organic market. Most of them have seen the marketplace for the first time. According to the questionnaire given during the trip, they were wondering to see fields of organic agriculture and they were willing to meet with the other committed people and to have information on CSA of Gneky. They were not familiar with the terms of companion planting, nonviolent communication, local exchange trade system (LETS) and drip irrigation. They were unaware of the amount of pesticides and artificial fertilizers used in the country or fruit and vegetable mileage in Ankara. When they arrived at Gneky, one of the cooperative members informed the group about the site, fields, pond, strawbale building used for meeting and biodiesel fuel production operations [20]. Then some of the people cleaned the weeds, planted some vegetables and installed pipes for drip irrigation. Organizers distributed cloth bags to the participants to be used in organic market. Children competed in kite running and villagers served delicious local food to the guests coming from Ankara. According to the questionnaire, the visitors were satisfied about seeing an eco-village initiative, learnt the details of some techniques and some decided to participate CSA.

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Figure 8. Trip to Gneky The second activity was another trip to Cappadocia, Avanos for grape harvest in October 3-4, 2009. A producer who sells his organic products in Ayranc Organic Market invited customers to his farm in Avanos. It was a 2-day-grape harvesting festival. 40 people participated to this trip, they harvested organic grapes, strawberries and other vegetables and they prepared molasses and wine from grapes by pressing and boiling (Figure 9). They tasted local food and learnt to make earthenware in a local shop. Famous Turkish singer Edip Akbayram and central administrator of that district, Avanos Kaymakam also attended this festival. All the participants enjoyed the festival.

Figure 9. Pressing grapes in Avanos The third activity was made for the children in November 8th, 2009. The aim was to educate young generation about organic agriculture and while they are having fun. Project members organized a small amphitheater made up of straw bales. Famous singer Yldz brahimova, as an honorary guest gave a concert to the children in Ayranc Organic Market. Childrens Theater Team of ankaya Municipality performed some plays with the children and gave messages about healthy organic food. Then children learnt to make compost, to plant acorn seeds and they painted wooden toys (Figure 10).

Figure 10. Childrens festival in Ayranc Organic Market The last activity in Ayranc organic market was New Year Celebration in December 20th, 2009. All of the producers in the market and

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some of the participants of the market prepared local food, pastry, hot wine and fresh juice; there were an open buffet for everyone who came to the marketplace (Figure 11). Photo exhibitions from Avanos grape festival and from other activities explained above were seated in the center of marketplace. Violin and saz (local instrument) concerts were given by the producers and their children. Then Dr. John Fagan and Dr. Ayla Cevik from Maharishi International University gave a briefing on Vedic Organic Agriculture (gaining nourishment from soothing melodies) and danger of genetically modified seeds [21]. Fagans motto was Protect your ancestral and traditional seeds.

Figure 11. The New Year celebration in Ayranc Organic Market CONCLUSIONS Similar to many developing societies, the agrarian relations in Turkey face important problems in terms of their conditions of survival within the developing tendencies of capitalistic changes that are undergoing. The commercialization of the inputs that are needed for production and consumption and the integration of the villagers/producers to the extending markets through producing agricultural products and consuming industrial products force villagers to sustain their life more and more through the means of commercial relations, big seed firms and extending cash economy. The conventional agriculture made by globalized firms, wholesale market legislations, seed act impedes organic food producers in the country. So, organic markets, CSA or any kind of other alternative techniques of distributing and selling healthy food gain more importance. But this projects priority is to raise awareness of adults and children for consuming organic food in the city, learning the process of organic cultivation and to create direct communication link between producers and consumers. If people take part in the production, the added value for them is that they know what they get, where it comes from etc. and this induces the social cohesion and the sense of responsibility towards the environment, too. After making Dragon Dreaming Project on organic agriculture and synergy between city and rural people, some lessons learnt and important tips from this project management are listed below: Contribute to personal growth, community building and service to the Earth, Find a group of committed people who will leave behind their egos, (there should be minimal conflicts of interest in the core team), Involve everybody, both villagers and city inhabitants in the transition, Create together, clear written aims- karabirrdt and refer to them frequently, Some people will leave and others will join- whoever turn up are the right people, Trust the process, celebrate the successes, Build a bridge to local government, Disseminate ideas, build social networks between old and young, rural and city people, Everyone is equal (horizontal and heterarchical approach, no hierarchical and no top to bottom). Todays global economic model succeeds in creating competition by dividing people from one another. To build cooperative, harmonious societies we need an approach that creates more opportunities for people from different places and ages to interact- work together, have fun together. A healthy society is one that encourages close ties and mutual interdependence, granting each individual a net of unconditional emotional support. Acknowledgement: The authors wish to acknowledge John Croft for Dragon Dreaming methodology and his encouragement. Also special thanks to Gken Yksel who took part in the core team of this project and to Osman Yksel for his support.

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REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG_Report_2009_ENG.pdf TUIK Nfus statistikleri 2000 CD TUIK Haber Blteni, Hanehalk gc Aratrmas Sonular 2009, Say: 217 TUIK Haber Blteni, l Dzeyinde Temel gc Gstergeleri 2008, Say: 225 Hopkins, R. The Transition Handbook from Oil Dependency to Local Resilience. Devon, U.K. Green Books, 2008. http://www.slowmovement.com Meroni, A. Creative Communities: People inventing sustainable ways of living. Milan, Italy. Edizioni Poli.Design, 2007. Croft, J. Dragon Dreaming Presentations. Planning for Sustainability Workshop, METU, Ankara, 2009. Karako, U., Baykan, B.G. Trkiyede Organik Tarm Geliiyor. BETAM Aratrma Notu, 35, Baheehir Uni., stanbul, 2009. Ankara Wholesale Market Statistics, 2008. Ministry of Agriculture, Organic Agriculture Statistics, 2008. http://www.tarim.gov.tr/uretim/Organik_Tarim,Organik_Tarim_Statistikleri.html, 2/6/2009. Ankara Province Agriculture Dept., Organic Production Statistics. 2007 Gneky website, http://www.guneskoy.org.tr/, 21/12/2009. TUIK Ankara Province Agriculture Statistics. 2002. Dragon Dreaming website, http://www.dragondreaming.info/english/12-steps/, 22/6/2009. Transition Culture website, http://transitionculture.org/2007/02/21/john-crofts-dragon-dreaming-presentations/20/6/2009. Krebs, V. and Holley, J. 2002, Building Smart Communities through Network Weaving http://www.orgnet.com/BuildingNetworks.pdf, 25/2/2009. Rosenberg, M. Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. California, U.S. PuddleDancer Press, 2003. Gaia Foundation website, www.gaiafoundation.org, 25/12/2009. Gkmen, A., Kayalgil, S., Weber, G.W., Gkmen, ., Ecevit, M., Srmeli, A., Bali, T., Ecevit, Y., Gkmen, H., DeTombe, D.J. Balaban Valley Project: Improving the Quality of Life in Rural Area in Turkey. International Scientific Journal of Methods and Models of Complexity, 2004, 7(1), 1-24. Maharishi Vedic Organic Agriculture website. http://www.mvoa.com, 25/12/2009.

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THE DOUBLE-BIND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND ORGANIC AGRICULTURE. ORGANIC FARMING AS A SOLUTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENT AS AN ASSET FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING?
Philippe Fleury, ISARA-Lyon Stphane Bellon UR 767 INRA-SAD Avignon, Servane Penvern UR 767 INRA-SAD Avignon, France ISARA-Lyon - Agrapole, Dpartement SSG, 23, rue Jean Baldassini, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, Tl: +33(0)4 27 85 85 58 philippe.fleury@isara.fr

ABSTRACT This paper deals with two interconnected questions: How can organic farming (OF) cope with the increasing environmental issues? How can environmental issues be a cornerstone for the future development of organic agriculture? In this paper we propose to reassess the double-bind relationship between organic agriculture and environmental issues. Our approach combines three elements: overview of related scientific literature, valuation of the concept of ecosystem services within a network of stakeholders, identification of some promising initiatives. Firstly we present a comprehensive view on the interrelationships between environment and organic farming: the concept of ecosystem services to agriculture is used to characterise both the services to agriculture (supporting and regulating services) and the services from agriculture (non marketed services). In a holistic approach we handle a wide range of environmental components: biodiversity, water supply and quality, soil fertility, climate change. Secondly we focus on innovations and case studies involving organic agriculture for improved environmental performances. This is based on empirical surveys of a range of actions concerning biodiversity conservation, water quality improvement, landscape management and preservation of soil fertility. Finally we conclude on related outlooks for the development of organic farming. This work was realised in the frame of the technological combined network called Development of Organic Farming. This network includes in France, a wide range of partners involved in research, training and extension activities. Key-words: environment, Organic farming, ecosystem services, innovative actions,

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

INTRODUCTION Standard approaches of the relationships between organic farming (OF) and environment are mainly dedicated to assess the impacts of OF on the environment (Stolze et al., 2000; Alfldi et al., 2002; Bengtsson et al., 2005; Pimentel et al., 2005). Such studies are addressing questions of the following type: does OF result in less leaching of nutrients, in higher carbon storage, in higher level of biodiversity ? They are generally based on comparative studies with conventional agriculture, evaluating the effects of agricultural regimes on various environmental compartments with balances, indicators or model-based scenarios. But OF is not only a set of environmentally friendly practices. It is also a development model of agriculture including social and cultural components (El-Hage Scialabba, 2007). Specific management practices, knowledge and know-how are core issues in organic agriculture. In other words the relationships between organic agriculture and the environment cannot be restricted to a single linear relation of impact omitting the reverse relationship from the environment towards farming. This entails considering environment and its management as resources for OF through the enhancement of biodiversity, water, landscape, soil, energy and nutrients cycling, Subsequently we propose to characterize the interactions between the environment and OF as a double-bind relationship: 1) as usual the impact of OF; 2) the practices implemented by organic farmers to manage the environment and natural resources as production factors and assets. To characterise this double-bind relationship we used the concept of ecosystem services. After a short presentation of the diversity of ecosystem services and related management practices implemented by organic farmers we firstly focus our analysis on biodiversity and landscape, two key issues for environment preservation. A similar work has been carried out for other components of the environment: soil, water, energy consumption, contribution to climate change (results not shown). Secondly, again on biodiversity and landscape, we present some case studies and innovations involving organic agriculture for improved environmental performances. Finally we conclude on related outlooks for the development of OF: adaptation to environmental stakes with specific practices, territorial approach, multi-stakeholders project approach and cooperation with conventional farmers,. MATERIAL AND METHODS This work has been realised in the frame of the technological combined network called Development of Organic Farming. This network includes a wide range of partners involved in research, training and extension activities in France. In order to design an extensive view of the interrelationships between OF and environment we combined three methods: - Debates between stakeholders of the network (researchers, technical advisors, teachers ) to discuss the shared issues between development of OF and resolution of environmental problems. In a second step this group designed a common and shared framework to handle the interrelationships between OF and the environment. - Review of scientific literature. We investigated the literature published after 1999 through computer queries. Associated with the term OF (agriculture) we used a large set of key-words: biodiversity, water, landscape, energy use, soil, life cycle assessment, energy and nutrient inputs, nitrogen and nutrients leaching, carbon storage, - Survey about different innovative projects involving organic agriculture and farmers for improved environmental performances. We interviewed organic farmers, environmental managers, technical advisors and local facilitators. This approach refers to Participatory Action Research (PAR) (Monceau, 2005; Charles and Ward, 2007) by defining collectively a problem and then attempting to solve it by bringing together various players and resources. It allows to gather very different forms of knowledge: scientific, technical, empiric, local know-how, Interconnecting different knowledge and experiences led to the following practical issue for our work: the current societal need for improved environment could be an asset to develop OF. Addressing such a challenge requires specific knowledge on both the environmental impacts of OF on the way farmers manage agro-ecosystems and how collective dynamics towards development of OF and practices could be engaged. The concept of ecosystem services (ES) seems to be a relevant framework for reaching such an objective. ECOSySTEM SERVICES: A FRAMEWORK TO HANDLE THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OF (ORGANIC FARMING) AND THE ENVIRONMENT The concept of ecosystem services: Ecosystems services (ES) are defined as the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life (Daily, 1997). ES are defined by the demand of the society, they are directly or indirectly useful to man and society. In recent years, the concept of ES has gained wide acceptance within international scientific community and was popularized by the United Nations sponsored Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) program (Reid et al., 2005). ES were classified into four main categories: provisioning, such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control of climate and disease; supporting, such as nutrient cycles and crop pollination, and cultural, such as recreational benefits. Agroecosystems both provide and rely upon important ES. Agriculture receives and produces ES, but also receives and produces disservices that reduce productivity, increase production costs (e.g. pest damage) or jeopardise natural resources (pesticide-poisoning of non targeted species) (Zhang et al., 2007). As compared with the classification of the MEA we used a classification more suited to agricultural issues, with the three following categories (modified after Zhang et al., 2007 and Le Roux et al., 2008) (Figure 1): Input services, which contribute to the provision of resources, the maintenance of the physical and-chemical processes supporting agriculture, and which guarantee the regulation of biotic interactions, positive or negative: i.e. the maintenance of the structure or

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International Conference on Organic Agriculture in S cope of Environmental Problems

03-07 February 2010 in Famagusta

the fertility of soils, pollination, cont