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Anda di halaman 1dari 7

A. Chakrabarti

1A/14, Ramlal Agarwala Lane, Kolkata-700 050, India

P. C. Ray

Department of Mathematics, Government College of Engineering and Leather Technology, Block-LB, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 098, India e-mail: raypratap1@yahoo.co.in

Department of Mathematics, Heritage Institute of Technology, Anandapur, Kolkata-700 107, India e-mail: rasajit@yahoo.com

This paper investigates the free out of plane vibration of a rotating nonhomogeneous beam with nonlinear spring and mass system. The effect of nonhomogeneity of the beam appears both in the governing equations and in the boundary conditions, but the nonlinear spring-mass effect appears in the boundary conditions only. The solution is obtained by applying the method of multiple time scales directly to the nonlinear partial differential equations and the boundary conditions. The results of the linear frequencies match well with those obtained in open literature. The effect of the nonhomogeneity of the stiffer beam 0.01 reduces the frequencies of vibration of the beam. A possible physical explanation of this reduced frequency of the nonhomogeneous beam is discussed. A subsequent nonlinear study of the nonhomogeneous beam indicates that the mass of the spring and its location also have a pronounced effect on the vibration of the beam. The effect of the nonhomogeneity of the beam on the relative stability of the nonlinear vibration of the beam with spring-mass system is also studied. DOI: 10.1115/1.3025825 Keywords: nonhomogeneous, nonlinear, spring-mass system, rotating beam, multiple time scale

Introduction

The overall performance of various engineering systems, such as turbomachinery, wind turbines, robotic manipulators, and rotorcraft blades, is seriously dependent on the dynamic characteristics of rotating homogeneous beams. The determination of mode shape and natural frequencies of such rotating structures has been a topic of primary importance for various researchers working in

1 Corresponding author. Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received December 14, 2006; nal manuscript received September 9, 2008; published online August 18, 2010. Assoc. Editor: Dane Quinn.

the related eld. Helicopter rotor blades are long-slender beams undergoing moderate deformation. These blades experience large bending and centrifugal loads during operation. There has been a continued effort to develop a mechanically simple yet efcient rotor blade and hub conguration. With the advancement in technology, the external hydraulic damper in the blade of helicopters is replaced by specialized elastomer with high loss factor see Potter 1 and Mcguire 2 . In 1992, Huber 3 presented a comprehensive review of the development of modern helicopter rotors in which elastomeric dampers play an important role. In 1986, Housmann 4 carried out experiments that indicated that most of the elastomeric materials show a signicant nonlinear behavior as far as the frequency and amplitude of the motion are concerned. In 1987, Felkar et al. 5 examined the properties of an elastomeric damper used in the bell helicopter and proposed a nonlinear model for analysis. Most of the works on elastomeric dampers were published by Smith et al. 6 and Gandhi and Chopra 7 . It has been observed that the mechanical arrangement of the elastomeric damper leads to an additional nonlinear constraint during the deformation of the blade. Consequently, the dynamic analysis of advanced helicopter rotors known as bearingless rotor becomes complicated due to multiple load paths and highly nonlinear characteristics of the elastomeric damper Bousman et al. 8 and Gandhi and Chopra 7 . Beam theories for moderate deformation have been developed by several investigators see Hodges and Dowell 9 , Kaza and Kvaternik 10 , Rosen and Friedmann 11 , Nayfeh 12 , and Bauchau 13 .This approach yields a nonlinear analysis of a blade model, which are ultimately used to obtain the equilibrium positions and a subsequent linearized solution. It may be worth mentioning here that several researchers have made signicant contribution to the study of nonlinear dynamics of beams using perturbation techniques without giving much attention to the above studies related to helicopter blades. In 1975, Anderson 14 formulated the nonlinear equation of motion of a rotating beam and obtained the natural frequencies from the linearized equation. Using a harmonic balance technique, the nonlinear structural dynamic analysis of a blade model was performed by Minguet and Dugundji 15 . Nayfeh and co-workers reported several studies to determine the nonlinear response of stationary beams under large deection. In 1974, Nayfeh et al. 16 proposed a numerical perturbation method for the determination of the nonlinear response of a continuous beam having complicated boundary conditions. The nonlinear response of a simply supported beam with an attached spring-mass system was also investigated by Pakdemirli and Nayfeh 17 . In 1995, Nayfeh and Nayfeh 18 obtained the nonlinear modes and frequencies of a simply supported EulerBernoulli beam resting on an elastic foundation having quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. In 1995, Nayfeh et al. 19 determined nonlinear normal mode shapes for a cantilever beam by using the method of multiple time scales. Pohit et al. 20,21 modeled the characteristic of an elastomeric material and investigated the effect of nonlinear elastomeric constraint on a rotating blade. They applied a numerical perturbation technique to determine the frequency-amplitude relationship of a rotating beam under transverse vibration. Pesheck et al. 22 proposed a method for determining reduced order models for rotating uniform cantilever EulerBernoulli beams. Recently, Das et al. 23 discussed a problem on large amplitude free vibration of a rotating beam with a nonlinear spring-mass system. But all the above discussions rest on homogeneous beam. The discussion on a nonhomogeneous beam in this type of model has not yet been noticed by the authors. In the present analysis, we now discuss the problem on large amplitude free vibration of a rotating nonhomogeneous beam. Most of the studies on helicopter blades have focused primarily on the linearized dynamic analysis. Very little information is available on the inuence of the elastomer on the structural dynamic characteristics of a rotor blade when the elastomer is inOCTOBER 2010, Vol. 132 / 054502-1

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PE = U t =

1 2

xs

EI w1 2dx +

0 L

1 2

EI w2 2dx +

xs

1 2

xs

EA u1

0

2 1 1 + w12 dx + 2 2

xs

2 1 1 2 EA u2 + w22 dx + w xs,t 2 2 1

1 + w4 xs,t 4 1

Here t denotes time, m denotes mass per unit length of the beam, EI is the variable exural rigidity of the beam cross section, is the angular velocity, A is the cross-sectional area of the beam, wi i = 1 , 2 is the transverse deection at the two segments of beam AC, ui i = 1 , 2 are the left and right axial beam displacements, and are the coefcients of the linear and nonlinear terms of the spring, respectively, and M is the mass of the nonlinear spring. Inserting Eqs. 1 and 2 into a variational principle,

t2

cluded as a subsystem. In the references of Nayfeh and Nayfeh 18 and Pohit et al. 24 , attempts have been made to study the effect of a nonlinear constraint on simply supported and rotating beams, respectively. The major objectives of the present paper are as follows: To formulate the equation of motion of a rotating nonhomogeneous beam with a nonlinear constraint starting from transverse/axial coupling through axial strain. The nonlinear constraint appears in the boundary conditions and its mass is considered during the analysis. ii To determine a nonlinear solution by applying methods of multiple time scales directly to the partial differential equations and boundary conditions. iii To study the inuence of the location of the nonlinear constraint on nonlinear frequencies. iv To study the stability of vibration in the present analysis and its comparison with that of the homogeneous case. i

T U dt = 0

t1

one can obtain the governing equations and boundary conditions as follows: mu1 + m

2

x + u1 + EA u1 + 2 w12 =0

=0 for 0 x xs 4

and mu2 + m

2

x + u2 + EA u2 + 2 w22

1

=0 for xs x L

=0

Formulation

w1 xs,t = w2 xs,t ,

w1 xs,t = w2 xs,t ,

The dynamics of a rotating beam differs from that of a nonrotating one due to the addition of centrifugal stiffness. The differential equations of motion for a rotating nonhomogeneous beam have variable coefcients, while those of a nonrotating nonhomogeneous beam have constant coefcients. Additionally, in the present problem, there is a transverse constraint at point B see Fig. 1 in the form of a nonlinear spring BF of mass M. The other end of the spring BF is attached to a rigid beam EF, which is also rotating along with beam AC. The deformation of the spring-mass system depends on the deection of the beam at point B. Here xs is the distance between A and B. The motion is restricted to the transverse direction only, thereby eliminating lead lag and tensional motion, and allows axial strain. The effect of rotary inertia is also neglected. Let us introduce space derivative with respect to distance x and time derivative with respect to time t. The expressions for the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the rotating nonhomogeneous beam are given in Eqs. 1 and 2 , respectively, KE = T t = 1 2 1 2

L xs

EIw1 xs,t

EIw2 xs,t

1

1

6 u2 + 2 w22 = 0

1 1

at x = L

2

EA u1 + 2 w12 + EA u2 + 2 w22 + M

xs + u1 = 0

and u1 xs , t = u2 xs , t at x = xs. Let us now introduce the following nondimensional quantities to the above results: x x* = , L = a

* w1 =

w1 , r

* w2 =

w2 , r

* u1 =

u1 , r

* u2 =

u2 , r

xs L

m

0

u1 t

2

+ w2 t

2 2

w1 t +

2

E0Ar2 E 0I = , m 2L 4 m 2L 4

r = , L

t* =

t,

E = E0 f x

x + u1

dx

m

xs

u2 t

x + u2

2

dx

1 1 1 M w2 xs,t + M 2 2

xs + u1 xs,t

where r is the radius of gyration of the cross section of the beam, L is the length of the beam, and f x denotes the variation in E with respect to distance x of the beam. Introducing the above nondimensional quantities into Eqs. 4 7 and removing stars * from all the quantities for convenience and after the necessary simplication, the following equations are obtained: Equation 4 can be rewritten as Transactions of the ASME

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u1 u1 + x + f x u1 + a

1 2

1 2

w1 w1

=0

8a

and w1 f x w1 + f x u1 + a a w1

2

w1 f x w1 + f x u1 + a a t2 for 0 x

1 f x u2 + 2 w22 = a 1 2

1 2

w12

w1

=0 11b

= 0,

x 8b

2

u2 u2 + x + f x u2 + a

1 2

1 2

w2 w2

=0

9a

and

2

and w2 f x w2 + f x u2 + a a w2

2

= 0, x 1 9b

w2 f x w2 + f x a a t2 for x 1

u 2 + 2 w 2 2w 2

=0 12b

The corresponding dimensionless star free boundary conditions are w1 0,t = w1 0,t = 0, w1 ,t = w2 ,t , w1 w2 1,t = w2 1,t = 0 ,t ,

1 2

Eliminating u1 and u2 from Eqs. 11 and 12 , we have the following governing equations in the transverse mode as: w1 f x w1 + a a

3

w1 xw1 +

1 2

1 x2 w1 = 0 13

,t = w2

w1 w1

2

,t = w2 w1

,t = 0

for 0 and

x

1 2

f x w1 f x w2 f x u1 + f x u2 + where

1

1 2

w2 f x w2 xw2 + a 9c

1 x2 w2 = 0

for

1 14

w2

w2 r 2L 3 , E 0I

1w 1

3 2w 1

w1 = 0

L3 , E 0I

2 3

ML3 E 0I

The corresponding boundary conditions Eq. 9 are now given by 9d w1 0,t = 0 = w1 0,t , w1 ,t = w2 ,t , w1 w2 1,t = 0 = w2 1,t ,t ,

3

1 2 1 2

,t = w2 ,t =0

w1

,t = w2

1w 1

,t ,t 15

w2

f x w1 =0 at x = 1

1 2

,t

3 2w 1

f x w2 ,t 3w 1

w1

2,

,t

+

3

w1

+ f x u2 +

w2

=0 9e

1

1,

and M

are dened as

u1 ,t = u2 ,t

for x =

Neglecting 2-order terms in Eqs. 8a and 9a and carrying out the necessary integration, we obtain

1 2 2x

L3 , EI

r 2L 3 , EI

2 3

EI

+ f x u1 + a + f x u2 + a u1 +

1 2

1 2

w1 w2

2

Let us now assume that the variation in rigidity of the beam with its length is f x =1+ x 16

= f1 t , = f2 t ,

1 2

10a

and

1 2 2x 1 2

x

1 2

1

2

10b

for the nonhomogeneous beam, where is a nonzero constant. Then Eqs. 13 and 14 can be rewritten as a a w1 1 + x wi1v + 2 w1 +

3

1 2

w1 xw1 +

1 2

1 x2 w1 17

+ f a

w1

+ f a

u2 +

w2

=0 10c

for 0

x

1 2

1 2

1 x2 w2 = 0 18

The boundary conditions Eq. 15 are rewritten as w1 0,t = 0 = w1 0,t , w2 1,t = 0 = w2 1,t ,t , w1 ,t = w2

3

+ f 1 u2 1,t + a u2 1,t +

1 2

1 2

w2 1,t

= f2 t

10d

w1 ,t = w2 ,t , 1+ w1

1w 1

w1

,t = w2 w2 3w 1

,t w1 ,t 19

1

10e

,t + w1 1 + ,t

3 2w 1

,t w2 ,t = 0

Therefore, from Eqs. 10d and 10e , we get f 2 t = 2 , which implies that f1 t = f2 t = Now Eqs. 10a and 8b reduce to

1 f x u1 + 2 w12 = a a 1 2

,t

If = 0, Eqs. 17 19 of the present analysis exactly coincide with the results Eqs. 7 and 8 of Das et al. 23 . 2.1 Solution Methodology. Assuming the expansions for the displacements in the forms w1 x,t; and OCTOBER 2010, Vol. 132 / 054502-3 = w11 x,T0,T2 +

3

10f

1 2

1 x2

11a

w13 x,T0,T2 +

w15 x,T0,T2 +

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w2 x,t;

= w21 x,T0,T2 +

w23 x,T0,T2 +

w25 x,T0,T2 + 20

Table 1 Data for the nonhomogeneous beam to obtain the numerical results Das et al. 23 m = 9.7 kg m1 L = 6.6 = 0.0106 a = 32.8 rad s1 3 1 = 10 = 0.01, 0.01

where w1n and w2n are 0 1 ; is a small dimensionless parameter dened earlier ; T0 = t is a rst time scale characterizing changes occurring at the frequency = L , where s = Ls are the natural frequencies of the nonhomogeneous beam-spring system and T2 = 2t is a slow time scale, characterizing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases due to damping, nonlinearity, and possible resonance see Nayfeh 12 . 2.2 Linear Solution. At order , the equations and boundary conditions are linear, and the solution is assumed in the following form: w11 = A T2 ei w21 = A T2 ei

T0 T0

+ c.c. y 1 x + c.c. y 2 x

21a 21b

The numerical results obtained by using the methods outlined in the previous section are presented below in two parts. The data used are given in Table 1. 3.1 Linear Analysis. The natural frequencies of the rotating nonhomogeneous beam are obtained by using the power series method. For solving the frequency equations, we have used an order of determinant of 300 300 to make convergence guaranteed for our numerical calculation convergence actually occurred in the order of 240 240 . For calculating linear frequencies L, we have taken the tolerance limit for error as 107. It is observed that natural frequencies so obtained are in excellent agreement with those presented in Friedman et al. 25 , Gupta et al. 26 , Pohit et al. 20 , and Das et al. 23 . The lowest four frequencies of the rotating nonhomogeneous beam with massless M = 0 spring attached at different locations = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 are determined. The value of dimensionless spring constant 1 is considered to be 103. The same analysis is also carried out, taking the mass of the spring into account M 0 . To compare the mass of the spring with the total mass of the beam, we have introduced a new nondimensional a number 4 in place of 3 such as 4 = 3 = M / mL . The results are presented in Tables 2 and 3 corresponding to 4 = 0.0 massless spring , and Tables 4 and 5 correspond to 4 = 0.15 the mass of the spring is 15% to that of mass of the nonhomogeneous beam for = 0.01 and = 0.01 respectively. From Tables 2 and 3, it is interesting to note that the stiffer nonhomogeneous beam = 0.01 vibrates with lower frequencies. But we know that in the case of a homogeneous beam, a stiffer beam vibrates with higher frequencies. For = 0.01, the rigidity

where c.c. is the complex conjugate of the preceding terms. Introducing Eqs. 20 and 21 in Eqs. 17 19 , linear equations are 1 + x y i1v + 2 y 1 a =0 for 0 x

1 2 1 2

1 x2 y 1 a

y 1 + xy 1

y1 22a

1 + x y i2v + 2 y 2 + xy 2 a for x 1

1 x2 y 2

y2 = 0 22b

1y 1

y 1 0 = 0, , y1

y 2 1 = 0, = y2 y2 =0 , y1 y2

y2 1 = 0 = y2

3

= y2

+ y1 1 + +

3 2

y1 23

y1

If = 0, Eqs. 22 and 23 exactly coincide with deductions 15 and 16 , respectively, of Das et al. 23 . The power series solutions of Eqs. 22 and 23 can be expressed as y1 x =

k=1

Akxk1

for 0

24a

y2 x =

1

Bkxk1

for

24b

To get nontrivial solutions using Eq. 24 in Eqs. 22 and 23 , one gets a system of equations involving linear frequency L. 2.3 Nonlinear Solution. Using the method of multitime scales see Nayfeh 12 , 3-order Eqs. 17 19 are solved. To satisfy the solvability condition, one can introduce solutions in the form w13 x,t = A T2 ei w23 x,t = A T2 ei

T0

Table 2 The lowest four linear frequencies of the nonhomogeneous beam with the massless linear spring M = 0 for various locations of the spring: 1 = 103, 3 = 0.0, 4 = 0.0, = 0.01, and a = 0.0106 First mode 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 1.116186 1.144720 1.187861 1.241553 Second mode 3.331870 3.450952 3.635752 3.874930 Third mode 7.620383 7.894288 8.277884 8.687945 Fourth mode 13.911739 14.261377 14.564012 14.526995

+ c.c. + c.c.

x + W1 x,T0,T2 x + W2 x,T0,T2 25

Table 3 The lowest four linear frequencies of the nonhomogeneos beam with the massless linear spring M = 0 for various locations of the spring: 1 = 103, 3 = 0.0, 4 = 0, = 0.01, and a = 0.0106 First mode 0.1 0.15 0.20 0.25 1.162946 1.195889 1.246068 1.309116 Second mode 3.626365 3.756414 3.956941 4.214438 Third mode 7.951810 8.227456 8.608572 9.004313 Fourth mode 14.223583 14.568444 14.855319 14.791787

T0

2 L

y4 1

1 b1 +

2 4y 1

A2

26

where nL is the nonlinear frequency, L is the linear frequency, A is the amplitude of vibration of the beam, and b1 = 0 y 2dx 1 + 1 y 2dx. 2 054502-4 / Vol. 132, OCTOBER 2010

Table 4 The lowest four linear frequencies of the nonhomogeneous beam-spring with the mass M 0, for various locations of the spring: 1 = 103, 4 = 0.15, = 0.01, and a = 0.0106 First mode 0.1 0.15 0.20 0.25 1.115920 1.143961 1.186482 1.239472 Second mode 3.324391 3.428348 3.590666 3.798305 Third mode 7.517019 7.577384 7.653616 7.718285 Fourth mode

nonlinear freq. vs amp.( for 3rd mode) 800 for = 0.01 700

600

Amp(A) >

500

400

300

E increases from the xed end A to the free end C of the beam see Fig. 1 . So, the outer part of the beam tries to vibrate with higher frequency than the inner part of the beam. This outer part is near the free end of the beam, releases vibration energy rapidly, and results in lower frequencies of vibration of the beam. In the case of a less stiff beam = 0.01 , the higher frequency vibrations are trapped in the inner part near the xed end of the beam and dominates the vibrations of the whole beam. It is also observed that due to the presence of the mass of the spring M 0 , all the natural frequencies decrease for xed , the position of the spring. From Tables 2 and 4, one can compare natural frequencies for different values of for = 0.01. For = 0.20 and 0.25, it is evident that inuence of nonhomogeneity of the beam and mass of the spring on the natural frequencies of different modes of vibration, have pronounced effect. Similar results are also observed for = 0.01, and the results are compared in Tables 3 and 5. It may be concluded that at locations = 0.20 and 0.25, the mass of the spring should not be neglected while determining the linear frequencies for the nonhomogeneous beam. In the nonlinear analysis, graphs corresponding to = 0, 0.01, and 0.01 have been drawn to show the effect of the nonhomogeneity of the beam. The effect is more prominent for = 0.01. 3.2 Nonlinear Analysis. It has been observed that an elastomeric material exhibits nonlinear characteristics as far as the amplitude of motion of the nonhomogeneous beam is concerned. As the amplitude increases, the degree of nonlinearity becomes more predominant. In this section, we address the aspect of the nonlinear frequency with respect to the amplitude of motion of the rotating nonhomogeneous beam. The nonlinear frequency amplitude of the rotating nonhomogeneous beam with a spring-mass system is given in Eq. 26 . Calculations are performed with a value of the nonlinear spring con7 stant 2 as 10 . It may be noted that the nonlinear spring constant of the damper material actually used in a helicopter rotor blade exhibits an even higher value Pohit et al. 24 . Figure 2 shows the variation in nonlinear frequencies for the third mode of vibrations with amplitudes for different locations of , the position of the spring. In this case the spring is considered without mass M = 0 , and the rigidity of the nonhomogeneous beam has been considered as E = E0 1 + x , with = 0.01, which indicates that rigidity decreases with the increase in

200

100

= 0.1

= .15

= 0.2

=0.25

0 7.5

8.5

9.5

nl

Fig. 2 Variation in nonlinear frequency versus amplitude of oscillation for third mode with different locations of the massless spring M = 0 system, 1 = 103 and 2 = 107

the beam length x . The effect of this type of the nonhomogeneity of the rotating beam is shown in Fig. 2 For = 0.1 in Fig. 2, it is shown that the amplitude of vibration increases slowly with the increase in nonlinear frequency than for other values of . In Fig. 2, we also observe that the relative stability of vibration increases for lower values of . This situation of relative stability has been compared for a homogeneous beam = 0 has been compared with that for the nonhomogeneous beam = 0.01 , as shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3 for = 0.1, the comparison of amplitudes for different rigidities has also been made with nonlinear frequency for the rst four modes of nonlinear frequency of massless spring M = 0 . The solid lines for the homogeneous beam = 0.0 and the dashed lines for nonhomogeneous beam = 0.01 exhibit that in all the natural modes amplitudes increase more slowly for the nonhomogeneous beam

700

=0

= 0.01

Amp(A)>

600

500

400

300

200

Table 5 The lowest four linear frequencies of the nonhomogeneous beam-spring with the mass for various location of the spring: 1 = 103, 4 = 0.15, = 0.01, and a = 0.0106 First mode 0.1 0.15 0.20 0.25 1.162614 1.194935 1.244330 1.306495 Second mode 3.616603 3.726821 3.897725 4.113590 Third mode 7.836635 7.875957 7.924885 7.965629 Fourth mode 13.594334 13.093318 12.970824 13.236410

10

15

nonlinear freq.(nl)>

Fig. 3 Comparison of nonlinear frequency versus amplitude of oscillation for different rigidities = 0.0, 0.01 of the massless spring M = 0 system with spring location = 0.1, 1 = 103 and 2 = 107

600

500

case. This difference of amplitudes becomes more prominent for the lower mode of vibration than the higher ones, as shown in Fig. 5. From the above discussions, it may be observed that whether the spring is with or without mass, the effect of nonhomogeneity of the beam = 0.01 , that is, when the rigidity of the beam decreases with the increase of beam length, is that the relative stability of nonlinear vibration is more pronounced for lower modes = 0.1 . For other values of , the similar features can be experienced for the lower modes modes 1 and 2 .

Amp(A)>

400

300

Conclusions

100

mode1

10

15

nonlinear freq.(nl)>

Fig. 4 Comparison of nonlinear frequency versus amplitude of oscillation for different rigidities = 0.0, 0.01 of the massless spring M = 0 system with spring location = 0.1, 1 = 103 and 2 = 107

= 0.01 than for the homogeneous beam = 0.0 . Thus the above mentioned nonhomogeneity affects the increase in the relative stability of the nonlinear vibration. In Fig. 4 for = 0.1, we have compared the nonlinear vibration of a homogeneous beam with that of a nonhomogeneous beam when the rigidity increases along the beam = 0.01 . In this case, the amplitude increases faster for all four modes with the increase in nonlinear frequency, and the relative stability of the nonlinear vibration of the nonhomogeneous beam decreases compared to that of the homogeneous beam. In Fig. 5 for = 0.1, we have compared the amplitudes of nonhomogeneous beams = 0.01 and = 0.01 with that of a homogeneous beam having spring-mass M 0 and 4 = 0.15 . From the gure it is clear that for the modes of vibrations modes 1 and 2 , the amplitudes increase more slowly for a nonhomogeneous beam = 0.01 , as shown by the dashed lines, than for the other

A large amplitude free vibration analysis of a nonhomogeneous rotating beam with an attached spring-mass system has been investigated. Formulation of the rotating nonhomogeneous beam assumes variable rigidity and spring with nonzero mass of the nonlinear constraint that appears in the boundary conditions also. The method of multiple time scales is directly applied to the partial differential equations and boundary conditions to determine the nonlinear frequencies of the system. The rst four linear frequencies are also calculated for a few locations of the springmass system. It is revealed that the effects of nonhomogeneity and spring-mass are quite prominent on certain spring locations, and it is not wise to neglect nonhomogeneity and spring-mass while calculating the natural frequencies of the system. It may be reiterated that in this investigation, the frequencies of the less stiff nonhomogeneous beam = 0.01 are found higher than those of the stiffer nonhomogeneous beam = 0.01 . In the nonlinear analysis, a closed form frequency-amplitude relationship of the rotating nonhomogeneous beam is obtained. The effects of nonhomogeneity and the mass of the spring on nonlinear frequencies are investigated. It may be concluded that the mass of the spring and the nonhomogeneity of the beam play signicant roles in predicting the frequency-amplitude relationship and stability of nonlinear vibration. Further study is made to highlight the inuence of the location of the spring-mass system on the rotating frequencies of the nonhomogeneous beam, and it is noted that spring location has a pronounced effect on frequencies. It is also revealed in this analysis that if the rigidity of the nonhomogeneous beam decreases linearly with the length of the beam, the nonhomogeneous beam will exhibit relatively more stable vibration than the homogeneous beam. This is a signicant nding in the present analysis.

Acknowledgment

All the authors would like to express their sincere thanks to both the learned reviews for their valuable comments and suggestions for the improvement of the contents of this paper.

600

References

1 Potter, J. L., 1959, Improving Reliability and Eliminating Maintenance With Elastomeric Dampers for Rotor Systems, Lord Library No. LL2120. 2 Mcguire, D. P., 1960, The Application of Elastomeric Lead-Lag Dampers to Helicopter Rotors, Lord Library No. LL2133. 3 Huber, H., 1992, Will Rotor Hubs Loss Their Bearings? A Survey of Bearingless Main Rotor Development, 18th European Rotorcraft Forum, Avignon, France. 4 Housmann, G., 1986, Structural Analysis and Design Considerations of Elastomeric Dampers With Viscoelastic Material Behaviour, Proceedings of the 12th European Rotorcraft Forum, Garmisch Partenkirchen, Germany, September, pp. 70.170.26. 5 Felkar, F., Lan, B., McLaughlin, S., and Johnson, W., 1987, Non-Linear Behaviour of an Elastomeric Lag Damper Undergoing Dual-Frequency Motion and its Effect on Rotor Dynamics, J. Am. Helicopter Soc., 34 4 , pp. 4553. 6 Smith, E. C., Beale, M. R., Govindswamy, K., Vascsineci, H. J., and Lesientre, G. A., 1995, Formulation and Validation of a Finite Element Model for Elastomeric Lag Dampers, Proceedings of the 51st Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, Forth Worth, TX, May, pp. 11011116. 7 Gandhi, F., and Chopra, L., 1996, Analysis of Bearingless Main Rotor Dynamics With the Inclusion of an Improved Time Domain Non-Linear Elastomeric Model, J. Am. Helicopter Soc., 41 3 , pp. 267277. 8 Bousman, W. G., Ormiston, R. A., and Mirick, P. H., 1983, Design Consid-

Amp(A)>

500

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300

200

Fig. 5 Comparison of nonlinear frequency versus amplitude of oscillation for different rigidities = 0.0, 0.01, 0.01 of the mass-spring 4 = 0.15 system with spring location = 0.1, 3 7 1 = 10 and 2 = 10

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11

12 13 14 15

16

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erations for the Bearingless Rotor Hubs, Proceedings of the 39th Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, St. Louis, MO. Hodges, D. H., and Dowell, E. H., 1974, Non-Linear Equations of Motion for the Elastic Bending and Torsion of Twisted Non-Uniform Rotor Blades, NASA Report No. TN D-7818. Kaza, K. R., and Kvaternik, R. G., 1977, Non-Linear Aeroelastic Equations for Combined Flap-Wise Bending, Chord-Wise Bending, Torsion and Extension of Twisted Non-Uniform Rotor Blades in Forward Flight, NASA Report No. TM-74059. Rosen, A., and Friedmann, P. P., 1979, The Non-Linear Behavior of Elastic Slender Straight Beams Undergoing Small Strains and Moderate Relations, ASME J. Appl. Mech., 46, pp. 161168. Nayfeh, A. H., 1981, Introduction of Perturbation Technique, Wiley, New York. Bauchau, O. A., 1985, A Beam Theory for Anisotropic Materials, ASME J. Appl. Mech., 52, pp. 416422. Anderson, G. L., 1975, On the Extensional and Flexural Vibrations of Rotating Bars, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., 10, pp. 223236. Minguet, P., and Dugundji, J., 1990, Experiments and Analysis for Composite Blades Under Large Deection: Part 2-Dynamic Behavior, AIAA J., 28, pp. 15801588. Nayfeh, A. H., Mook, D. T., and Lobiz, D. W., 1974, Numerical-Perturbation Method for the Non-Linear Analysis of Structural Vibrations, AIAA J., 12, pp. 12221228. Pakdemirli, M., and Nayfeh, A. H., 1994, Non-Linear Vibration of a BeamSpring-Mass System, ASME J. Vibr. Acoust., 116, pp. 433439. Nayfeh, A. H., and Nayfeh, S. A., 1995, Non-Linear Normal Modes of a

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Continuous System With Quadratic Non-Linearities, ASME J. Vibr. Acoust., 117, pp. 199205. Nayfeh, A. H., Chin, C., and Nayfeh, S. A., 1995, Non-Linear Normal Modes of a Cantilever Beam, ASME J. Vibr. Acoust., 117, pp. 477481. Pohit, G., Mallik, A. K., and Venkatesan, C., 1999, Free Out-of-Plane Vibration of a Rotating Beam With Non-Linear Elastomeric Constraints, J. Sound Vib., 220 1 , pp. 125. Pohit, G., Venkatesan, C., and Mallik, A. K., 2000, Elastomeric Damper Model and Limit Cycle Oscillation in Bearingless Helicopter Rotor Blade, J. Aircr., 37 5 , pp. 923926. Pesheck, E., Pierre, C., and Shaw, S. W., 2002, Modal Reduction of a NonLinear Rotating Beam through Normal Modes, ASME J. Vibr. Acoust., 124, pp. 229236. Das, S. K., Ray, P. C., and Pohit, G., 2005, Large Amplitude Free Vibration Analysis of a Rotating Beam With Non-Linear Spring and Mass System, J. Vib. Control, 11 12 , pp. 15111533. Pohit, G., Venkatesan, C., and Mallik, A. K., 2004, Inuence of Non-Linear Elastomer on Isolated Lag Dynamics and Rotor/Fuselage Aeromechanical Stability, J. Aircr., 41 6 , pp. 14491464. Friedmann, P., Yuan, K., Millott, T., and Venkatesan, C., 1994, Correlation Studies for Hingless Rotors in Forward Flight, Proceedings of the AIAA Dynamics Specialists Conference, Hilton Head, SC, AIAA Paper 94-1722, pp. 402415. Gupta, P. K., Venkatesan, C., and Singh, O., 1997, Structural Dynamics of Rotor Blades With Precone-Presweep-Predoor-Pretwist and Torque Offset Including Hub Motion, Proceedings of the 48th AGM, Aeronautical Society of India, Kharagpur, India.

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