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Environmental protection

Definition:
Environmental protection refers to any activity to maintain or restore the quality of environmental media through preventing the emission of pollutants or reducing the presence of polluting substances in environmental media

Salient Features of Environment (Protection) Act 1986-- In brief, the following are the special features of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986:1. Object of the Act-- Environment has been defined as the aggregate of all external conditions and influences effecting the life and development of an organism. Development without regard to the ecological equilibrium has led to an environmental crisis in the recent past. In fact, there is growing evidence of man made harm in many regions of the earth, dangerous levels of pollution in air, water, earth and living beings, thereon, major and undesirable disturbances to the ecological balance of the biosphere, destruction and depletion of irreplaceable resources and gross deficiencies harmful to the physical, mental and social wealth of man in the man made environment. Thus,the protection and improvement of human environment is a major issue which effects the well beings of the people and economic development throughout the world. It is, therefore, the urgent desire of the people of the whole world and the duty of the all Governments and the all peoples to protect environment. That is why the Articles 48A and 51A of the Constitution of India have cast a solemn duty not only on the State but also on the citizens towards the protection of the environment and conservation of the forests and the wild life. Recent Legislation in India- The Water (Prevention and COntrol of Pollution) Act was passed in 1974. It aimed at maintianing the purity of water by preventing water pollution and provided for establishment of the Pollution Control Boards at the State Level. Similarly, the Air (prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passedin 1981 to COntrol Air Pollution. Objects and Reasons- The act was passed for the following objects and reasons i.e. for the protection, regulation of discharge of environmental pollutants and handling of hazardous substances, speedy response in the event of accidents threatening environment and deterrent punishment to those who endanger human environment , safety and health. 2. Short, Title , Extent and COmmencement- Acc to Section 1 of the Enviroment (Protection) Act, 186i) This act may be called the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. ii) It extends to the whole of India. iii) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the offical gazette, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of the Act and for different areas. Thus, it is clear from the perusal of S. 1 of this Act that the Environment Act, 1986 applies to the whole of India equally. The Act come into force in India on 19 November 1986 by a notification published in the official gazette vide notification No. G.S.R 1198 (E) dated 12.11.1986. it is to be noted that this act is a special law and has priority over the other general laws like Water, Air, Air Act etc. 3. Definitions of Various Terms used in the Act- Acc to Section 2 in this act, unles the context otherwise requires;i) Environment- 'Environment' includes water , air and land and the interrelationship which exsits among and between water, air and land and human beings , other living creatures, plants, microorganism and property; ii) Environmental Pollutant- 'Environmental pollutant' means any solid, liquid, or gaseous substance present in such concentration as may be, or tend to be, injurious to environment.; iii) Environmental pollution- 'Environmnetal pollution' means the presence inthe environment of any

environmental pollutant; iv) Handling-"Handling' in relation to any substance, means the manufacture, processing, treatment, package, storage, transportation, use, collection, destruction, conversion, offering for sale, transfer or the like of such substance; v) Hazardous Substance- means any substance or preparation which by reaosn of its chemical or physico- chemical properties or handling, is liable to cause harm to human beings, other living creatures plans, micro-organisms property or the environment; vi) Occupier- in relation to any factory or premises, means a person who has control over the affiars of the factory or the premises and includes, in relation to any substance , the person in possession of the substance; vi) Prescribed- means prescribed by rules made under this Act.

Wild life
Definition
The term wildlife refers to all the plants and animals on the planet that are not domesticated by humans. Among the world's wildlife, there are many endangered species of both plants and animals.

Features
It's Free - there are no fees. The scheme recognises the significant contribution being made by landholders. Voluntary - landholders make a personal commitment to the scheme. They may withdraw at any time if they wish. Free of legal binds - Land for Wildlife status doesnt alter the legal status of a property in any way. It does not convey the right of public access (for hunting or any other purpose) nor does it mean that the area is an official wildlife sanctuary prohibiting hunting all year. Support network - the scheme has a network of extension officers and community volunteers around the State. Each property is visited and assessed. Inclusive - Farms, bush blocks, parks, school grounds, golf-courses, municipal reserves, cemeteries, scout and youth camps, tourist enterprises, Commonwealth land, prisons, industrial land; small and large properties, are eligible. Cooperative - the scheme has a co-operative relationship with the Bird Observers Club of Australia, a community organisation. Groups - can also be registered (ask for our group brochure). Group registration is particularly suited to a number of small blocks or several larger properties with a 'landscape approach' to wildlife habitat.

Advantages
wildlife sanctuaries help to preserve and bring back endangered species by giving them a natural environment to live in while they are in no danger of predetors or humans. it also helps to keep some species from becoming endangered. wildlife sanctuaries also educate people about the creatures so that they can maybe help in preserving them

disadvantage is that perhaps the current wildlife conservation actions are doing more harm
then good. Or that they are favouring certain plant or animal species over that of others (which may be more important for the ecosystem). For example the invertebrates are considered the most the important animals in most ecosystems yet how often to you hear about policy or conservation of invertebrates? The "cute and cuddly" come first ... which may actually be disadvantageous for the ecosystem. Also sometimes people think that they are conserving the environment but may actually be doing detrimental things to the environment. This is largely because environmental conservation is a trial and error management tool ... and unfortunately politics nowadays does not allow managers to fail ... therefore new techniques and better techniques may not be carried out in environmental management because of the political risk of failure (or making a mistake). It is also important to realise that wildlife does not just mean animals. It includes plants too.

Essay Women education


India is the second largest country in the world so far as population is concerned. But so far as education is concerned it is a backward country. In past, women did not receive any education at all. They were not allowed to come out of the four walls of their houses. Domestic works were their only education. During the British rule in India some noble social thinkers of the time paid their attention to the education of woman in our country. Raja Ram Mohan Ray, Iswara Chandra Vidyasagar was famous reformers who gave emphasis on the education of women. They put forth a very strong argument. Man and woman are like the two sides of a coin. Without one, the other cannot exist. They help each other in every sphere. So education should be given to both man and woman. Further, women are the mothers of the future generation. If women are uneducated, the future generations will be uneducated. For this reason the Greek warrior Napoleon once said, "Give me a few educated mothers; I shall give you a heroic race."

In day to day life, the real problems are faced first by women and then the same problems are conveyed to men for solution. If the women are educated, they can solve all the problems of their houses. Very often, the working men of some families become handicapped in unfortunate accidents. In that situation, the complete burden of the family rests on the women of the families. To meet this exigency women should be educated. They should be employed in different spheres. Women can work as teachers, doctors, lawyers and administrators. Educated women are good mothers. Education of women can be helpful in eradicating many social evils such as dowry problem, unemployment problem, etc. Social peace can easily be established.

Mass communication
With the evolution of digital technology, the role of mass media has been changing at a quick pace. By definition, mass media is any medium used to transmit mass communication i.e. a message created by a person or a group of people sent through a transmitting device to a large audience or market. Until recently mass media was clearly defined as comprising of eight industries: books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television and the internet. The continuing explosion of digital communication technology has raised new questions about the inclusion of cell phones, video and computer games in mass media. Currently, marketers and advertisers are planning to tap into satellites and broadcast commercials and advertisements directly to millions of cell phones, unsolicited by the phone's user. Advertisers are looking into placing advertisements as well as incorporating product placement into the video games as well. Mass media has the potential to play a key role in developing a culture of peace and non-violence. Unfortunately, it has failed to live up to its potential. To the contrary, it has not only almost completely ignored the culture of peace and non-violence, but also it privileges news of the culture of war and violence. In fact, it appears as if a campaign or propaganda has been promulgated in the mass media in order to justify political policies of militarism. It has been used to increase publicity in recent decades for the myth that war and violence are intrinsic to human nature. The present situation can be compared to the earlier use of racist myths to justify slavery and colonialism in mid-19th and mid-20th centuries as a last-resort effort by those who had a vested interest in slavery and colonialism. That was their last effort to defend these institutions by appealing to the vulnerable belief systems of individual psychology at a time when they could no longer justify the institutions by economic or political arguments. If this is correct, even for certain sections of the media, the struggle for culture of peace in the mass media needs to receive top priority and careful strategy.

It has been observed in recent past, during a violent incident, the media goes full-fledged reporting and covering it live. However, the same cannot be said about a peaceful but important event. The media has to remember that it influences how their audiences think and behave. In fact, mass media plays a crucial role in forming and reflecting public opinion, connecting the world to individuals and reproducing the self- image of society. There is a complex interaction between the media and society, with the media on generating information from a network of relations and influences and with the individual interpretations and evaluations of the information provided, as well as generating information outside of media contexts. Thus, the consequences and ramifications of the mass media relate not merely to the way newsworthy events are perceived, but also to a multitude of cultural influences that operate through the media. The ability of the media to reach a wide audience with a strong and influential message has the potential to have a strong social and cultural impact upon society. Marshall McLuhan uses the phrase "the medium is the message" as a means of explaining how the distribution of a message can often be more important than content of the message itself. It is through the persuasiveness of influential media such as television, radio and print media that they have been largely responsible for structuring people's daily lives and routines. Television broadcasting has a large amount of control over the content society watches and the times in which it is viewed. The internet creates a space for more diverse political opinions, social and cultural viewpoints and a heightened level of consumer participation. Studies of various commercials, advertising and voter campaigns prove that media influence behavior. In the 20th century, aggressive media attention and negative coverage of trials involving celebrities like Roscoe Fatty Arbuckle or Michael Jackson influenced the general publics opinion, before the trials effectively started. Though the media could have an effect on people's behavior, it is not necessarily always the case. Many copycat murders, suicides and other violent acts nearly always happen in abnormal upbringings. Violent, emotionally neglectful or aggressive environments influence behavior more than watching certain programs, films or listening to certain music. Just because an audience sees acts of violence in media, this does not mean they will actually commit them. Of the millions of people who watch violent films, only a small number have carried out acts of violence as a direct result. People regularly exposed to violent media usually grow up to be completely normal people. If there are any effects from media, they only affect a very small number of people. So, there also develops a case where it is wrong to always blindly blame the media because people are not copycats, instead we should be aware of someone mental state and take other factors into account before making such claims. There are other social and cultural factors in criminal acts in which the media are not the basic influence. Actually, there is no such thing called violence in the media that either could or could not

cause violence. It is the social factors and background that make some people consume media in specific way. There is no connection between exposure to media violence and real life violence, because humans are not copycats and can realize what is wrong and what is right. Although some research claims that heavy exposure to media violence can lead to more aggressive behavior, it has been suggested that exposure alone does not cause a person to commit crimes. Often, there are demands for the banning of certain songs or the labeling of obscene albums. Such demands are put forward by people with political objectives. The public is bribed with good radio, television and newspapers into an acceptance of the biased, the misleading, and the status quo. The media are, thus, not crude agents of propaganda, but are those who organize public understanding. However, the overall interpretations they provide in the long run are those most preferred by, and least challenging to, those with economic power. It cannot be denied that the mass media play an agenda-setting function as people tend to share the media's composite definition of what is important. Although a sizable portion of mass media offerings particularly news, commentaries, documentaries, and other informational programmes deal with highly controversial subjects, the major portion of mass media offerings are designed to serve an entertainment function. These programmes tend to avoid controversial issues and reflect beliefs and values sanctified by mass audience. Such programmes have the potential to make individuals 'irrational victims of false wants' that are thrust upon them by corporations through both the advertising in the media and through the individualist consumption culture it promulgates. Thus, the modern media train the young for consumption. It would not be wrong to state that 'leisure had ceased to be the opposite of work, and had become a preparation for it.' Again, there is a threat of media bringing hyper-reality i.e. projecting more than what the reality is. The case of O.J. Simpson is an example. Another threat arises from self-censorship by members of the media in the interests of the owner, or in the interests of their careers. The two-way relationship between mass media and public opinion is now beginning to change, especially after the advent of new technologies such as blogging.

Social networking and communication


With social networking the in thing for new friendships, it can get unbelievably daunting to balance these virtual relationships, since you barely have any control here. On the one hand, accepting a person's request to be friends' online grants them access to a level of intimacy that you might not be comfortable with. Because granting them access to your page means giving them access to all the content you've put up there - photos, contacts, appointments, list of your interests and your blog musings. On the other hand not accepting a friend's request means an outright snub.

In real life you can share a different type of rapport with different people, but with social networking sites such as Orkut and Facebook, you are forced to squeeze everyone into one basket, say experts. So much so that the definition of the word 'friend' here has become so vague that it also includes perfect strangers. This dilemma is still much easier for adults to tackle. But the concept of friendship is a tricky game for kids and teens in the online world. How many online friends should you have? Who should you allow access to your friendship? Are online friends 'real'? - These are few questions that they constantly have to battle with. Sometimes these online friendships can lead to serious mischief in the offline world too. Some might argue that a little bit of online fun never hurt anyone. But it can get a bit too hot to handle when the steamy banter originates from close quarters. Thus social networking though fast growing in the modern society is not free of its dark shades. Relationships across the barrier of space are relatively easier to make however the authenticity of the friendship always remains a big question mark. In the current times especially in India the cases of emotional abuse on these online communities are few; however this kind of cyber crime is fast catching up. The Precise Passage Maintaining relationships was never easy but the online world with its blessed lines between friends and strangers is making it harder still. It is difficult to balance these virtual relationships since one can hardly have any control here. Accepting a person's request to be friends online grants them access to a level of intimacy that you might not be comfortable with- complete access to all the content that you have put up on your site such as Orkut or Facebook. The concept of friendship is a tricky game for kids and teens in the online world and shades of grey have started to surface in the once hunky- dory platform.