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# Western Carolina University

## Department of Engineering and Technology

Laboratory Experimentation Report

Name: Allan Overstreet Date: September 8, 2010

Course Number: EE211

Experiment Title: Measurement Lab Experiment Number: 1

Lab Partner:

Objective: To be familiar with a oscilloscope and function generator in the lab, by
knowing the capabilities of the equipment and how to operate it. Also to understand the
characteristics of a sine wave, triangle wave, and square wave.

Equipment List:

- Agilent 54622D Oscilloscope
- Agilent 33250A Function Generator

Relevant Theory/Background Information:

A sinusoidal waveform is expressed by the following equation:

) sin( ) ( | e + = t Am t e

Where Amis the amplitude, e is the radian frequency, and | is the phase angle in
degrees.

To convert radian frequency to circular frequency you would use the following
equation.

f t e 2 =

A sine wave has many characteristics, they include:
- Amplitude The amplitude of a sine wave is a measure of the voltage
from the ground marker to the peak of sine wave.
- Frequency The frequency is the number of cycles over the total time.
Expressed in cycles per second or hertz (Hz).
- Voltage Peak to Peak Voltage peak to peak is the maximum voltage
minus the minimum voltage of the sine wave.
- Period The period is the time it takes for the sine wave to complete one
cycle.
- Phase Shift A phase shift is a horizontal shift in the sine wave.
o Two sine waves are said to be in-phase when both are rising and
falling at the same time, or there is not horizontal shift both waves
are on top of each other.
o Two sine waves are said to be out of phase when there is a
horizontal shift in one of the sine waves.
- RMS Voltage

Amplitude, frequency, the peak to peak voltage, period, and RMS voltage are
represented mathematically in Table 1.

Table 1 Equations of the characteristics of a sine wave.
Amplitude
2
_ _ _ Voltage Peak to Peak
A =
time total
cycles of number
f
_
_ _
=
Frequency
T
f
1
=
Voltage Peak to Peak
min max
V V V
p p
=

f
T
1
=
div div
t N T =
(N
div
number of divisions per cycle)
(t
div
time per division in seconds.)
Period
OFF ON
T T T + =
RMS Voltage
2
_
Amplitude
Voltage RMS =

Amplitude is represented graphically in Figure 1. The period is represented
graphically in Figure 2. The phase shift is represented graphically in Figure 3.
While you can have two sine waves of different phases, you can also have two
sine waves in phase. Two in-phase signals are represented in Figure 4.

Figure 1 Graphical representation of amplitude.

Figure 2 Graphical Representation of the period.

Figure 3 Phase shift represented graphically.

Figure 4 Graphical representation of two in-phase sine waves.

A Lissajous Pattern is a method for representing two sine wave signals on an
oscilloscope; it is often referred to as X-Y Mode. When in X-Y Mode on an
oscilloscope the voltage for the Channel 1 input is displayed on the X-axis and the
voltage for the Channel 2 input is displayed on the Y-axis. If you were to have
two sine wave signals that were identical you would see a line on the
oscilloscope. A phase shift will case the line to change to an ellipse. As the phase
angle changes it will cause the ellipse to stretch at different intensities. If the
frequency of one of the signals is different from the other it will create a butterfly
pattern. The higher the frequency the greater number of ripples in the pattern on
each side. If the frequencies of both signals are the same and there isnt a phase
shift, or if the phase shift of each sine wave is the same, a line will appear on the
screen. The amplitude of a Lissajous pattern will dictate where the signal
intersects or is perpendicular to the x-axis and y-axis.

The phase angle of a Lissajous Pattern is calculated be the following equation.

|
.
|

\
|
=

b
a
1
sin u

Experimental Data/Analysis:

In the first part of our experiment we generated three signals on the function
generator and displayed them on the oscilloscope. They include:
- Sine wave 10V, 8 kHz
- Triangle Wave 10V, 5kHz
- Square wave 0 to 10V, 1kHz (With DC Offset)

Figure 5 is a screen shot of the sine wave from the oscilloscope.
Figure 6 is a screen shot of the triangle wave from the oscilloscope.
Figure 7 is a screen shot of the square wave from the oscilloscope.

Figure 5 Sine Wave

Figure 6 Triangle Wave

Figure 7 Square Wave

In the second part of the experiment we constructed a phase shifting circuit
consisting of a 2 k resistor in series with a 0.05 F capacitor. A schematic
diagram of the circuit in shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8 Schematic of phase shifting circuit.

To Channel one of
Oscilloscope and Output of
Function Generator
To Channel two of
oscilloscope.
We then viewed the phase shift, from the circuit in the X-Y mode of the
oscilloscope. This is shown in figure 9.

Figure 9 Lissajous Pattern for the Phase Shift Signal

Conclusion:

In experiment we learned about more functions of the oscilloscope and the
function generator. We learned how to construct a phase shift circuit using a
resistor and capacitor. We finally learned about the X-Y mode of the oscilloscope,
how the image was generated and how it changed with frequency, amplitude and
phase shift. The experiment was not only a learning experience but a refresher to
remember the basics of the oscilloscope and the function generator in ENGR 200.

List of Attachments:

References:

- Note: Functions in the theory section were generated with MathGV software.

This report was submitted in compliance with the WCU Academic Honesty Policy
(2005-06 WCU Catalog, p 60) _______. (Students Initials)