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a casual observation of the world map would suggest that the supply of water is endless since it covers over

80% of the earth's surface. unfortunately, however, we cannot use it directly since 90% is in salty oceans, 2 % is tied up in the polar ice caps, and most of the remainder is beneath the earth's surface. therefore only a small fraction of the water in the world is available to manage for human use. the united states, as an industrial nation has a tremendous appetite for water. pengamatan biasa dari peta dunia akan menunjukkan bahwa pasokan air tidak ada habisnya karena mencakup lebih dari 80% dari permukaan bumi. sayangnya, bagaimanapun, kami tidak dapat menggunakannya secara langsung karena 90% di lautan asin, 2% terikat dalam es di kutub, dan sebagian besar sisanya berada di bawah permukaan bumi. karena itu hanya sebagian kecil dari air di dunia ini tersedia untuk mengelola untuk digunakan manusia. negara-negara bersatu, sebagai negara industri memiliki nafsu makan yang luar biasa untuk air. in 1970 about 370 billion gal per day (bgd) was withdrawn from all source for use, a rate equivalent to 1800 gallons per person per day. hydroelectric plants withdrew an additional 2800 bdg, which amounts to ever two times the total runoff of the contiguous united states. of the 370 bdg, figure 1.1 shows that industry withdrew over one-half and irrigation used most of the remainder. consumption of water, which is water incorporate into a product or lost to the atmosphere, was 87 bdg in 1970 or about 24 % of the water withdrawn. irrigation consumed 84 % of the bdg, mainly through evaporation to the atmosphere. pada tahun 1970 sekitar 370 miliar gal per hari (bgd) ditarik dari semua sumber untuk digunakan, yang setara dengan 1800 galon per orang per hari. pembangkit listrik tenaga air menarik sebuah bdg 2800 tambahan, yang berjumlah pernah dua kali limpasan total negara-negara bersatu berdekatan. dari bdg 370, gambar 1.1 menunjukkan industri yang menarik lebih dari satu-setengah dan irigasi yang digunakan sebagian besar sisanya. konsumsi air, yang air dimasukkan ke dalam produk atau hilang ke atmosfer, adalah 87 bdg pada tahun 1970 atau sekitar 24% dari air ditarik. irigasi dikonsumsi 84% dari bdg, terutama melalui penguapan ke atmosfer. since industry is the largest user of water, future industrial growth will be restricted largely to regions having adequate water supplies. these restricted would apply particularly to the heavy users of water as indicated by the periodic U.S Census. figure 1.1. shows that the major industrial users of water are the primary manufactures of metals, chemicals, paper, petroleum, and food industries. the pollutant levels in wastewater are often characterized by solid content and by biochemical oxygen demand, which is a meausre of the dissolved oxygen used by microorganism in biological oxidation of organis matter. karena industri adalah pengguna terbesar air, pertumbuhan industri di masa depan akan dibatasi terutama untuk wilayah yang memiliki pasokan air yang cukup. Pembatasan ini akan berlaku terutama bagi pengguna berat air seperti ditunjukkan oleh Sensus AS

periodik. Gambar 1.1. menunjukkan bahwa industri pengguna utama air utama manufaktur logam, bahan kimia, kertas, minyak, dan industri makanan. tingkat polutan dalam air limbah yang sering dicirikan oleh isi padat dan oleh permintaan oksigen biokimia, yang merupakan meausre oksigen terlarut digunakan oleh mikroorganisme dalam oksidasi biologi materi organis. the total biochemical oxygen demand of a aqueous industrial wastes is three times the total BOD of wastes entering municipal wastewater treatment plants. over 90 % of the industrial BOD is generated by the chemical, paper, food, and petroleum industries. the primary metals industry together with these four industries contribute 90 % of the solids entering industrial wastewater. the total solids entering sewage treatment plants from domestic wastes are less than one-half of the total solids in industrial wastes. it is apparent that heavier industrial use of the available water must be accompanied by greater treatment to ensure that the levels of toxic chemical do not accumulate and become harmful. permintaan total oksigen biokimia dari limbah industri berair adalah tiga kali BOD total limbah yang masuk perawatan tanaman air limbah kota. lebih dari 90% dari Direksi industri dihasilkan oleh kimia, kertas, makanan, dan industri minyak bumi. industri logam primer bersama-sama dengan empat industri berkontribusi 90% dari padatan memasuki air limbah industri. padatan total yang masuk pabrik pengolahan limbah dari limbah domestik kurang dari satu-setengah dari total padatan limbah industri. jelas bahwa penggunaan industri lebih berat dari air yang tersedia harus disertai dengan perawatan yang lebih besar untuk memastikan bahwa tingkat kimia beracun tidak menumpuk dan menjadi berbahaya. water quality criteria depends upon the use of water and vary considerably in the number and levels of the parameters to be considered. the water quality criteria for streams has resulted in the development of four primary classes of water as seen in the table 1.1. potable water supply microbiological counts, color, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, toxic materials, taste, odor, temperature bathing, primary contact recreation, fishing same as A but less stringent levels. industrial, agricultural, fishing, navigation. dissolved oxygen, pH, suspended solid, temperature. floating materials, pH, suspended solids. kriteria kualitas air tergantung pada penggunaan air dan sangat bervariasi dalam jumlah dan tingkat parameter yang akan dipertimbangkan. kriteria kualitas air bagi sungai telah mengakibatkan dalam pengembangan empat kelas utama air seperti yang terlihat pada tabel 1.1. minum air mikrobiologi jumlah, warna, kekeruhan, pH, oksigen terlarut, bahan-bahan beracun, rasa, bau, suhu mandi, rekreasi kontak primer, memancing

sama seperti tingkat A tapi kurang ketat. industri, pertanian, perikanan, navigasi. oksigen terlarut, pH, ditangguhkan padat, suhu. mengambang bahan, pH, padatan tersuspensi. criterion used in classifying a water is "polluted" is the microbial count. the fecal coliform or fecal streptococci group organism are the types usually tested. criteria levels for class A waters are shown in the table 1-2 since the potability of a water is certainty a desirable standard by which to judge other class. the safe drinking act of 1974 established federal authority to control the drinking water quality by setting quantitative levels on chemical as well as bilogical criteria. the maximum levels of the contaminants are given in the table 1.3 and are intern levels pending final reviem and publication. genarally, however, quality criteria for nonpotable uses are varied and generalization are difficult. kriteria yang digunakan dalam mengklasifikasikan air adalah "tercemar" adalah jumlah mikroba. coliform fecal atau tinja organisme streptokokus kelompok jenis biasanya diuji. Kriteria tingkat untuk kelas A perairan ditunjukkan pada tabel 1-2 sejak sifat dpt diminum air adalah kepastian standar yang diinginkan yang digunakan untuk menilai kelas yang lain. tindakan minum yang aman tahun 1974 didirikan otoritas federal untuk mengontrol kualitas air minum dengan menetapkan tingkat kuantitatif pada kimia serta kriteria bilogical. tingkat maksimum kontaminan diberikan dalam tabel 1.3 dan magang tingkat tertunda reviem akhir dan publikasi. genarally, bagaimanapun, kualitas kriteria untuk menggunakan nonpotable bervariasi dan generalisasi sulit.

Waste water component and analysis The characteristic of waste water are broadly classified into physical, chemical and biological according to the type of measurement test has to be performed. The analyses range from the very specific quantitative tests usually appliaed for chemical to the broad group tests applied to biological classes. The ranges commonly found in domestic wastewater for some of the common components and their degree of removal in conventional primary-secondary plants are listed in table 1.5. although the nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved solids can be removed by the addition of chemical and by certain tertiary methods, they are not easily removed in a conventional plant. If water reuse is to be widely practiced, these minerals will have to be removed. Physical characteristic The many properties of water which appeal to the natural senses are termed the physical characteristic. The most important physical characteristic of wastewater is its solids content as it affects the esthetics, clarity, and color of the water. Other physical parameters are temperature and odors which are largely the result of baseline levels for that geographical area and are not commonly in wastewater treatment plant. Solids : The total solids in a water is the residue on evaporation of the sample at 103-105 C. any low-boiling compounds in the water will be lost during this test. The total solids are composed of matter which is settle able, in suspension, or in solution. Analytical test are performed to separate out the fraction of total solids which lie in each area. Fig 1-3 shows the size ranges of most particles in wastewater and common processes for removing them. Most solids above 10 microns can be removed by filtration and sedimentation, while those below 1 micron in size require one of the more advanced separation processes. For this reason, the analytical tests are commonly divided into settle able solids, suspended solids, and dissolved solid. There classes and their typical levels in wastewater are shown in fig 1-4. Settle able solids are those which will settle, under quiescent conditions, within one hour under the influence of gravity. They are commonly measured in a imhoff cone and the data are reported as the volume of solids (ml) per l of wastewater. It is important to measure the level of settle able solids in order to size sedimentation units and to evaluate the amount of sediment which could potentially enter a natural body of water. The total suspended solids level is determined by filtering wastewater through either a fiber pad or more recently through a 0.45 micron