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Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (A Government of India Enterprise)

JTO PHASE-II
NSS -GPRS

(NORTEL)

Rajiv Gandhi Memorial


Telecom Training Centre
(ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED)

Meenambakkam, Chennai 600 027.

Objectives
After this lesson, you will be able to Describe all the MSC external interfaces in the NSS Draw the DMS architecture and its main internal interfaces Explain the principles of the Nortel Networks time-switch and recognize its configurations Identify layout the SuperNode, the Size Enhanced hardware

Describe the XA-Core hardware layout Describe the GSM Passport Platform hardware layout

Nortel Networks NSS Solution


DMS-MSC
VLR HLR AUC

HLR-AUC

DMS-MSC

HLR

AuC

DMS-MSC-HLR
DMS-HLR
VLR

Nortel Networks offers a full of part of a solution of the NSS with the DMS (Digital Multiplex System). These are: DMS-MSC: This includes the actual MSC with the VLR DMS-HLR: This includes the HLR and the AuC DMS-MSC-HLR: Also known as the trinode. It represents the full solution of the NSS and includes the MSC, VLR, HLC and AuC.

NSS Architecture
Site 1
HLR VLR BSS
D D

Site 2

VLR BSS

G-interface B-interface A-interface Other GSM, PSTN, ISDN F

C interface

B-interface

MSC

AUC E-interface F

GMSC

A-interface

Other GSM, PSTN, ISDN

EIR

IWF

Billing Server

VMS

Billing Server

IWF

SMSC

The distributed architecture of the NSS is organized with MSCs, servers and databases, linked by standard interfaces (B to G). There are two types of MSC to provide switching services to a defined part of the PLMN: an MSC, used to establish traffic channels and to switch signaling messages between PLMN entities and other GSM networks or fixed networks, a Gateway MSC (GMSC), a specialized MSC managing the central data base HLR, containing permanent and dynamic subscriber data. All the information requested by the different functions is stored in four types of database connected to (or included in) the MSCs: HLR or Home Location Register: permanent data specific to each subscriber, including service profile, location and billing options, VLR or Visitor Location Register: in order to minimize access to the HLR, the MSC uses this database, which contains working data for subscribers moving within its coverage area (LAs), Network security and access control are provided by the Authentication Center (AUC) and by the Equipment Identity Register (EIR): AUC: to ensure that only authorized users have access to the network, EIR: to maintain a list of stolen, faulty and valid equipment identities.

The NSS also includes specific equipment such as: an Inter-working Function (IWF): to provide the different bearer services offered by the network, a Short Message Services Center (SMSC): used to store and forward point-to- point short messages, a Voice Mail System (VMS), a Billing Server.

Nortel Networks MSC: DMS Switch


DMS - Digital Multiplexer Switch
Proven DMS SuperNode MSC and HLR Platform Low - High Capacity Systems - Scalable/Modular

SuperNode (SN)

SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)

The Nortel DMS-MSC performs the following functions: the basic switching function of the Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) within a GSM PLMN, mobile voice call handling, mobile data call handling, emergency call handling, supplementary services, enhanced services, intelligent networks (IN), external interfaces, Gateway MSC function. The DMS SuperNode is the Nortel Networks state-of-the-art switch that supports advanced network services as well as customer needs for customized network management functions. The DMS is a software-controlled, large-scale switching system that is capable of handling up to a theoretical value of 58,000 trunks with the SuperNode processor. The architecture of the DMS uses modular concepts in both hardware and software. The DMS SuperNode switch is easily adaptable to new and more powerful microprocessors as technology evolves. This ability to expand increases the processing and call-handling capacity. The DMS SuperNode switch provides an interface with fiber transmission systems and establishes the technology platforms upon which a host of advanced network services and applications can be deployed.

Digital Multiplexer Architecture


Processor: Computing Module or XA-Core Processor DS512 (CM) or OC-3 (XA-Core) MS 1

DMS Core

Storage: System Load Module or XA-Core disk & tape

DMS-Bus
DS512 DS30

MS 0

DS30/ DS512
DS30

ENET ENET
DS 512

Input/Output Controller

Link Peripheral Processor Integrated Service


DSx channels access message DSx channels (voice, data, and signaling)

PCM Digital Trunk Controller PCMs To PSTN /ISDN

Module (ISM)

To BSSs

Nortel Networks Digital Multiplex System (DMS) is a basic unit made up of the following: the DMS-Core, made up of two units: the processor unit: Computing Module, or XA-Core processor, the storage unit: System Load Module, or XA-Core disk&tape, the DMS-bus, the messaging component, the switching matrix, Enhanced NETwork (ENET), the Link Peripheral Processor (LPP), the PCM Digital E1/T1 Trunk Controller (PDTC), the Input/Output Controllers, (IOC), now replaced by the Input Output Modules (IOM). For reliability, the DMS-Bus features two Message Switches (MS) that route messages and allow direct communication between the different modules of the DMS-Super-Node (Switching Matrix ENET, Link Peripheral Processor, PCM Digital Trunk controller). The DMS-Bus also houses the system clock, used by both the Bus and the DMS Core to carry out general timing functions. The system clock, which receives the network synchronization from the PSTN, provides synchronization for the DMS and can serve, in turn, as a master clock source to allow the entire network (the different BSSs) to run at the same frequency. The DMS-Bus access port can be configured as either DS30 copper interface or DS512 fiber-optic interface: DS30 consists of 32 channels (2.56 Mbps). DS512 consists of 512 channels (49.15 Mbps) equivalent to 16 DS30.

SuperNode SN
FSP FSP FSP FSP FSP
FSP

FSP

MTD
P S U P S U P S U P S U PP SS UU

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

LMS 0 LMS1

P S U

PP SS UU

MS 1 MS 0 CM 1 CM 0

PP SS UU

P S

P S

PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller


P S U

P SS UU

ENET 0.0 ENET 0.1 ENET 1.0 ENET 1.1

P SS UU

P S

Maintenance P Trunk Module Maintenance P Trunk Module U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

LIS LIS LIS


Cooling Unit

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PDTC 1

P S U

PP SS U PP SS UU P U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

P S

P S

PP

12345 678 9 11 123456

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

SLM 0 SLM 1
Cooling Unit

P S U

P S

PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller PDTC 0 P

SS U

PP
P

SS UU PP SS UU

IOC

P U

P S

Maintenance Trunk Module Maintenance Trunk Module U Cooling Unit

P S

123456

7 10 9 1123456

PP SS UU

P S

Cooling Unit

DDU

P S

P S

Cooling Unit

Cooling Unit

Cooling Unit

Cabinetized Link Peripheral Power Processor (LPP) Distribution Center

Dual-Plane Combined Core

OR

Cabinetized SuperNode Data Digital Manager (SDM) Trunk Controller for Offshore ISDN Equipment

Enhanced Cabinetized Cabinetized Network Input/Output Trunk (ENET) Equipment Module equipment Equipment OR
FSP

MS.0 MS.1
Filler

Integrated Service Module

Not Used

2 1 0

XA-Core

The SuperNode consists of the following cabinets: The Cabinetized Power Distribution Center (CPDC) which provides the power for the DMS SuperNode (row by row). The SuperNode (SN) cabinet, or DPCC, which contains two Message Switch (MS) shelves, a dual plane Computing Module (CM) shelf, and a dual plane System Load Module (SLM) shelf. The Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment (CTME) which contains up to four Maintenance Trunk Modules (MTM). The Cabinetized Input/Output Equipment (CIOE) cabinet which contains the Input/Output Controller and suitable devices (DDU, MTD). The ENET Cabinet (ENC) which contains the Enhanced NETwork (ENET). The Cabinetized Digital Trunk Equipment (CDTE) which may contain two PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controllers (PDTC). The SuperNode Data Manager (SDM) may house storage devices. The Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) cabinet, which contains SS7 and Ethernet coupling devices. The SuperNode (SN) cabinet, or DPCC can be replaced by the new DPCC XA-Core. The Cabinetized Input/Output Equipment (CIOE) and the Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment (CTME) can be replaced by the new Integrated Service Module (ISM) cabinet.

The DMS

The slide shows a DMS used as Nortel Networks NSS.

DMS Core Module (CM/SLM)


MS 1

DMS-Bus
MS Links

MS 0

DMS Core
Memory CM 0 CPU 0 MEB RTIF 0 RTIF 1 CPU 1

CM 1 Memory

SCSI

Crossover buses

SCSI

Local and Remote Reset Terminals

Disk

Disk

Local and Remote Reset Terminals

SLM 0

Tape

SLM 1

Tape

MEB: Mate Exchange Bus (redundancy communications), RTIF: Reset Terminal Interface SCSI: Small Computer System Interface (hard disk interface)

Features: The DMS Core Module is a dual macro synchronized module working in duplex mode (both CPUs are on-line and running simultaneously, one is designated as active and the other as hot standby). Thus Both CPUs are instep, executing the same sequence of instructions. If an inequality is detected, a mismatch interrupt is generated and the faulty CPU is isolated. The standby CPU becomes active. Coordinates call processing activities of system components. Serves as control component for the DMS-MSC. Can house some application processes like the MSC, the VLR, the HLR, the STP (Signaling Transfer Point), and MSC/HLR combinations. The DMS Core Module consists of: The Computing Module (CM), which manages high-level call processing functions with up to 256 Mbytes (SR70 processor) of memory per plane. The System Load Module (SLM), which stores and loads system images from hard disk and tapes. Each SLM is made of one cartridge tape drive of 525 Mbytes and one disk of 1 Gbyte. The Mate Exchange Bus (MEB), which ensures operations of duplication. This medium allows the two Computing Modules to routinely check each others mode of operation. There is one RTIF paddle board for each CPU of the CM and each one interfaces a pair of Reset Terminals (local and remote).

DMS Core Module (XA-Core)


DMS-Bus
Processor Elements MS Links PE PE SM SM SM MS 1 MS 0 Shared Memory

IOP
CMIC RTIF

Input/Output Processors

IOP

DMS Core

Disk

Tape

Local and Remote Reset Terminals

CMIC: Computing Module RTIF: Reset Terminal Interface

Interface

Circuit

The XA-Core (eXtended Architecture) extends the call processing capacity and mass storage of the DMS SuperNode. The nodes in the switch architecture of a DMS SuperNode XA-Core are the same as those in the original SuperNode with the following exceptions: XA-Core processing components replace the Computing Module (CM), XA-Core disk and tape drives replace the System Load Module (SLM). The CM and the XA-Core processing complex use different types of links to communicate with the Message Switch: the CM uses DS512 links, the XA-Core uses OC-3 links to provide future bandwidth capability. The XA-Core consists of the following components: Processor Elements (PEs) boards, process program store and dynamic data. Shared Memory (SM) boards, store and retrieve dynamic data. The SM cards are collectively referred to as Shared Memory. Input/Output Processors (IOPs) transfer dynamic data between their dependent packlets and Shared Memory.

Packlets are modules plugged into a host motherboard, used to interface links with CMIC or RTIF and to provide mass storage: Disk drive packlets provide hard disk drive mass storage. Digital audio tape (DAT) drive packlets provide magnetic tape mass storage. There is one RTIF packlet (with a backup) for all the processors and each one interfaces a pair of Reset Terminals (local and remote).

SuperNode Configuration
Dual Plane Combined Core Cabinet
DPCC (CM/SLM)
FSP PP SS UU PP SS UU

DPCC (XA-Core)

MS 1

MS.0
PP SS UU

MS 0

PP SS UU

MS.1

PP SS UU

CM 1

CM 0

PP SS UU

Filler

PP SS UU

SLM 0

SLM 1

PP SS UU

XA-Core

Cooling Unit Cooling Unit

The standard SuperNode platform is used for large GSM networks. The DMSCore is housed in the DPCC (Dual Plane Combined Core Cabinet). In this cabinet, there are three shelves: one shelf per MS, one shelf for the CMs, one shelf for the SLMs. There is up to 960 Mbytes of memory per CPU Plane.

Enhanced NETwork Matrix (ENET)


ENET In
Fiber interface #0

X8 V e r t i c a l B u s

Time Slot Interchange Unit X 64

In

Fiber interface #7

Fiber interface #7

Out

Horizontal Bus

X8

Fiber interface #0

Out

The ENET (Enhanced NETwork) is a single stage, non blocking, time switch capable of switching 131,072 one-way digital circuits or 65,536 two-way digital circuits (2048 PCM 30): Single-stage switch, means that connections are established at a single cross point rather than through a series of switching stages. Non-blocking switch means that any input channel may connect to any output channel. The switching network, consists of eight Vertical buses for input, and eight Horizontal buses for output. A Time Slot Interchange Unit (TSIU) is located at each of the 64 crosspoints: unswitched channels entering onto the Vertical bus are written into a double-buffered memory of the TSIU board, the appropriate cross-point circuit takes unswitched channels from the Vertical Bus and feeds them to the suitable Horizontal Bus in the right time-slot, from the H-bus, the time-slot goes back through the V-bus, where it is transmitted to the appropriate terminating peripheral, each TSIU board (16K x 16K time-switch) stores 16,384 TSs in a double-buffered configuration so that the delay through the TSIU board is always a fixed 125 micro seconds. The Nortel Networks ENET time-switch is available up to 128K (2 cabinets of 128K, one plane in each cabinet) channels configuration. The SuperNode DMS currently uses an ENET of up to 64K channels (one cabinet of 2 planes, each of 64K).

Enhanced NETwork Matrix (ENET)


FSP PP SS UU P P S S UU

ENET 0.0

PP SS UU

ENET 0.1

P P S S UU

PP SS UU

ENET 1.0

P P S S UU

PP SS UU

ENET 1.1

P P S S UU

Cooling Unit

ENET = Enhanced NETwork matrix

The ENET Cabinet (ENC) contains four Enhanced NETwork matrix (ENET) shelves.

LPP: Channelized and Direct Access


XA-Core XA-Core DMS BUS (MS) DMS BUS (MS) LPP LMS 0 LIS 1 Direct access V.35 EIR/HLR/VLR LMS 1 DS30
L I U E I U

ENET

DS30, DS512

PDTC

LIS 2 Channelized access from BSS

LIS 3

N I U 0

N I U 1

LLL III UUU

TCP/IP

4215/MRP

The Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) equipment provides the following functions: Terminates a number of link types and implements a number of protocols, to connect the DMS to external operating and signaling networks (PCM, Ethernet, V.35). Receives and transmits all CCS7 messages to/from switch into PLMN and PSTN either in direct (V.35) or channeled access (PCM30 link). Interfaces DMS-Core and CCS7 through DMS-Bus. Allows for increased message handling by connecting the CCS7 network to the DMS-Core (through the switching matrix). The Link Peripheral Processor consists of several units: LMS: Local Message Switch, controls the messaging between LPPs equipment and DMS-Bus. NIU: Network Interface Unit, acts as a switch for channeled access and manages CCS7 signaling coming through PCM30 trunks from BSS. A NIU handles up to 10 LIU7s. LIU7: Link Interface Unit, performs the necessary routing functions on the signaling messages thereby relieving DMS-Core of this function or coming from other nodes such as VLR, HLR, (V.35). EIU: Ethernet Interface Unit, interface between DMS-bus and any Ethernet LAN.

PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controller (PDTC)


PCM-30 #0 Processor Fiber interface DS512

ENET

Shelf 0
PCM-30 #7
PCMs To BSSs & PSTN /ISDN

PCM Digital Trunk Controller


Processor Fiber interface DS512

PCM-30 #8

Shelf 1
PCM-30 # 15

The PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controller (or PDTC) is designed to provide the necessary functions for supporting trunk termination to the outside world. The Dual-shelf Digital Trunk Access (DTA0, DTA1) processor operates in hot standby mode. One shelf's processor is active, providing the necessary processing and control functions, while the adjacent shelf's processor is in a standby mode that is able to takeover if a fault occurs on the active shelf's processor.

PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controller (PDTC)


FSP

PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller PDTC 1

PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller PDTC 0

Cooling Unit

CDTE = Cabinetized Digital Trunk Equipment

The Cabinetized Digital Trunk Equipment (CDTE) contains up to two PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controllers (PDTC).

Peripherals: ISM
ISM = Integrated Service Module
The ISM Shelf contains: -Maintenance and service
FSP

circuits: -Enhanced Digital Recorded Announcement Machine (EDRAM) -Conference Trunk Module (CTM) -Special circuit packs for: -alarm cross-connect shelf -Office Alarm Unit -IOM pack ISM Dimensioning: 3 shelves per cabinet -Up to 18 test and service circuits

Not Used IOM Packs ISM Shelf # 2


P O R T DAT + D D U P O R T + D D U

ISM Shelf # 1

ISM Shelf # 0 Cooling Unit

IOM = Input Output Module

The Integrated Service Module (or ISM) accommodates up to 18 test and service circuit packs used in switch and facility maintenance like: the Enhanced Digital Recorded Announcement Machine (EDRAM), the Conference Trunk Module (CTM), and, with special circuit packs, an alarm cross-connect shelf, an Office Alarm Unit. The Input/Output Module (or IOM) is a DMS pack that replaces the functionality of the Input Output Controller (IOC), disk drive, tape drive units and Enhanced Multi-Protocol Controller (EMPC), which were provided by various boards in the Input/Output Controller shelf. In addition, the IOM provides new functionality: support of V.32, V.FAST, V.42 and asynchronous communications of up to 28.8 kb/s, support of an optional Digital Audio Tape (DAT) drive for removable storage of up to 1.3 Gbytes. The IOM is housed in the new Integrated Services Module (ISM) shelf. A second IOM can be provisioned in a different ISM shelf, for redundancy.

Super Data Manager


Workstation
Fault Mgt Configuration Mgt

SDM
OMC-S

HLR-PS

DMS
Performance Mgt CIPC

Windows NT

SBA

The Super Data Manager (SDM) is located in one of the cabinets of the DMS and has following functionalities: OMC-S - Interfaces with the OMCS for fault, configuration and performance management. HLR-PS - The HLR Provisioning Server is used to add subscriber in the HLR. A HLR-VI UNIX interface is used for that purpose. CIPC - Call Intercept is used by security agencies to localize and intercept a subscriber and his call. This functionality is used in accordance to laws of the local country. SBA - The SuperNode Billing Application manages and stock billing records.

SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)


FSP FSP FSP FSP
FSP

FSP

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

Maintenance Trunk Module

P S U

PP SS UU

MS 0 Optional LIS

MS 1

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

Billing Server File Processor

MTD
P S U P S

Maintenance Trunk Module

P S

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP UU PP US PP SS P S U

P S U

Maintenance Trunk Module U

P S

P U

Maintenance Trunk Module U

P S

(up to 12 LIUs)
PP

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U P S U

Maintenance Trunk Module

P S U

PP UU

16K ENET

UU PP SS UU PP SS UU 16 PCM30s

Storage

PP SS UU

P S

Devices

IOC

P S

P S U

Maintenance Trunk Module

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U P S

PP

S L M CPU 0 CPU 1 Cooling Unit

S L M

Maintenance Trunk Module Cooling Unit

Cooling Unit

P S

SS UU

PP SS UU

Storage Devices
16 PCM30s

PP SS UU

P U

DDU

P U

P S

Maintenance Trunk Module Cooling Unit

P S

Cabinetized Power Distribution Center

Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment

SuperNode SE SCC cabinet OR


FSP
PP SS UU PP SS UU

Cooling Unit

Cooling Unit

Applications File Processor cabinet

Cabinetized Input/Output Equipment OR OR Integrated Service Module

Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment

MS 0

MS 1
PP SS UU

SuperNode SE SCC cabinet (XA-Core)

PP SS UU

Optional LIS (up to 12 LIUs)


PP SS UU

Not Used

2 1

PP SS UU

16K ENET

XA-Core

Cooling Unit

As an alternative option, the DMS SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE) gives network providers greater flexibility (footprint) in deploying advanced capabilities in small offices. The Supernode Combined Core (SCC) cabinet contains: the DMS SuperNode processing and messaging platform (CPU/SLM or XA-Core), the Enhanced Network switch matrix (ENET), the Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) platform. In the SuperNode version, this equipment requires three or four cabinets. Nevertheless we have much less capacity in term of LIU7 and PDTCs than the SuperNode (SN). If more than 16K switching capacity is required on an SNSE configuration, the SNSE ENI shelf can be replaced by a full ENET cabinet which allows for 64K with a single cabinet and is expandable to a 128K configuration.

SNSE: SCC Cabinet


1 - CM/SLM Version
Supernode Combined Core cabinet replaces 3 cabinets
FSP
PP SS UU FSP PP SS UU

LMS 0

LMS1

PP SS UU

LIS LIS LIS


Cooling Unit

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

FSP PP SS UU

MS 1

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

MS0

MS1

PP SS UU

P S U

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

MS 0 CM 1 CM 0

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

Optional LIS (up to 12 LIUs)

PP SS UU

Link Peripheral Processor (LPP)


FSP

PP SS UU

SLM 0

SLM 1

P S U

Cooling Unit

PP SS UU

16K ENET

PP SS UU

P S U

ENET 0.0

PP SS UU

P S U

ENET 0.1 ENET 1.0 ENET 1.1


Cooling Unit

PP SS UU

Dual-plane Combined Core (DPCC)

PP S SS L UU M

CM 0

CM 1

S L M

PP SS UU

PP SS U

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

Cooling Unit

Enhanced Network (ENET) equipment

The different components in the SCC cabinet are: Message Switch shelf (DMS Bus): this is a fully redundant, high speed transaction switch, which is the hub joining all peripheral modules, devices and processors that are connected to its ports. It is located on either the SNSE or the SuperNode cabinet. Link Interface shelf: LIUs process SS7 signaling messages between the DMS-Core, the DMS Bus and the SS7 signaling Network. The LPP is a stand-alone cabinet. This functionality is also provided by the LIS (Link Interface Shelf) shelf, which is located in the SNSE cabinet. Max NB V.35-LIU/EIU = 12; Max NB LIU Channelized Access = 10. ENET and Interface shelf: this provides voice and data connections between peripheral modules and message paths to the DMS Bus. It is fully redundant, non-blocking switching matrix. It is located on either the SNSE or as a stand-alone cabinet. The ENET Shelf can also support 2 standard LIU7s for CCS7 links. DMS-Core: this is a fully redundant Processing Unit with Computing Module and System Load Module. PSU = Power Supply Unit

SNSE: SCC Cabinet


2 - XA-Core Version
FSP

Supernode Combined Core cabinet replaces 3 cabinets


FSP

PP SS UU

LMS 0

LMS1

P S U

PP SS UU

LIS LIS LIS


Cooling Unit

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

MS0

MS1

PP SS UU

P S U

PP SS UU

P S U

PP SS UU

MS.0 MS.1
Filler XA-Core PP SS UU PP SS UU

Optional LIS (up to 12 LIUs)

PP SS UU

Link Peripheral Processor (LPP)


FSP

16K ENET

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

ENET 0.0

PP SS UU

PP SS U

Dual-plane Combined Core (DPCC)

ENET 0.1

PP SS UU

XA-Core

PP SS U

ENET 1.0 ENET 1.1


Cooling Unit

P S UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

Cooling Unit

In the XA-Core version of the SCC cabinet, the CM/SLM shelf is replaced by the XA-Core shelf.

InterWorking Function
Mobile Switching BSS Center PSTN

MS

Modem

Data + DTE signals Rate adaptation DTE signaling

Modem

IWF
DTE

Land-DTE

Because of GSM providing a wide range of data services to its subscribers, GSM interfaces with the various public and private data networks currently available. It is the job of the Interworking Function (IWF) to provide this interfacing capability. Networks to which IWF presently provides interface as follows: PSTN, ISDN, Circuit-switched public data networks (CSPDN), Packet-switched public data networks (PSPDN). It provides the subscriber with access to data rate and protocol conversion facilities so that data can be transmitted between GSM Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and a land line DTE (the recipient). Furthermore it allocates a suitable modem from its modem bank when required. This is the case when a GSM DTE, or a Fax machine, exchange data with a land Fax machine which works over an analog modem (V.32). The IWF also provides direct connect interfaces for customers provided with equipment such as X.25 PADs. Different protocol conversions may be required for signaling and traffic messages. This includes data rate adaptation and the addition of signaling bit reformatting. The IWF is a part of the Mobile Switching Center.

Nortel IWF: GSM PassPort Node


The Magellan cabinet can host 2 GPP nodes

12

34

7 8 9 101112131415

C P

LDE A 1 N S or C 1 C

1 1 p p D or E S 1 1 MM v v p p

C P

Cable management Function and control processor boards Power converters Air filter Cooling unit

The Inter-Working Function (or IWF) is situated in a Gsm PassPort (GPP) node. The Magellan cabinet can contain two GPP nodes. This node is used in the PassPort family of data switches: i.e. PassPort 160. Each GPP node is composed of: the cable management assembly, the function and control processor boards, the DC power converters, the cooling unit. The GPP shelf can contain up to 16 boards: slots 0 and 15 are reserved for CPs boards (one redundant CP board may be optionally provisioned), slot 1 is reserved for Ethernet board, slots 2 to 14 can contain Function Processor boards (E1C and E1MVP).

GPP Node Architecture


Function Processors (FP)

Control Processor (CP)


Control Processor
LAN Function Processor LAN Interface

DS1C/E1C Processor

Munich Chip

MVP Processor

32 DSPs

Interface Module (IM) Processor Module (PM)

i960

32M

i960

32M

i960

32M

i960

32M

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Dual 800 Mbps Cell Buses

Each GPP node is composed of four blocks: Control Processors (CP) and Function Processors (FP) are the processing elements for performing and managing Magellan PassPort functions. In most cases, the software providing a service is split into Control and Function parts: the Control part runs on the CP and the Function part, on the FP. Function Processors (FP) provide interface ports that physically connect network communications facilities and PassPort switches. They switch data from external sources through the bus and out of the switch through other FPs. FPs have been designed specifically to accommodate high data throughput. Their computational resources support and execute only those real-time processes critical to rapidly delivering a service. These processes include protocol handling, call routing, and packet forwarding. Ethernet card is a specific FP that handles IP connectivity (signaling MIP link). PassPort bus is the bridge which allows data to be switched across different types of processor cards. It is fully redundant and consists of two synchronous 32 bit 25 MHz cell buses, operating in a load-sharing capacity, which can communicate with up to 16 function and control processors. Each bus operates at 800 Mbps for an aggregate speed of 1.6 Gbps. When both buses are active, traffic is distributed across both buses (dual-bus mode); should one bus fail, the other continues, although capacity is reduced to 800 Mbps (single-bus mode).

Echo Canceller
GSM network 4 wire circuit

PSTN

Base Station SubSystem

Mobile Switching Center

Echo Canceller

Switch
4 wire circuit (PCM) Four wire circuit

Talker Echo

4w to 2w transformer Two wire circuit (Local loop) Land telephone

When the mobile establishes a circuit to the PSTN, an Echo Canceller (EC) is used at the MSCPSTN interface to reduce the effect of the GSM delay. GSM introduces a round-trip delay (which results of speech encoding, decoding, and signal processing) of the order of 180 ms. Normally this delay would not be an annoying factor to the MS, except when communicating with the PSTN, as it requires a two-wire to four-wire transformer in the circuit. This transformer (so called hybrid) is required at the toll office because the standard loop is a twowire circuit. Some of the energy at its four-wire receive side is re-transmitted to the MS and causes the echo, which does not affect the land subscriber but is annoying for the mobile user. Note that during a normal PSTN call, no echo is apparent because the delay is too short and the land user is unable to distinguish between the echo and the normal telephone side tones.

Short Message Service Centre


Send Routing Information Alert-SC Set MW Data

VMS

HLR
Voice trunks: R2, ETSI ISUP...

Voice Mail alerts


SMPP (X.25 or TCP/IP)

Note MS Present

SS7 MAP SS7 MAP

DTMF
Voice trunks: R2, ETSI ISUP...

SME

MSC
SS7 MAP

X.25 SMSC
SME

SME

PSTN

SS7 DTAP

Forward Short Message Delivery Report Various applications Submitting Short Messages

BSC

The Short Message Service is performed by a specific network element called Short Message Service Center (SMSC) or Service Centre (SC) which is commonly implemented on a server. This SMSC is functionally separated from the GSM network although this does not preclude an integrated implementation. More than one SMSC may be connected to the GSM network. For both MO and MT services the SMSC acts as store and forward center. All GSM point-to-point Short Messages are either to or from the SMSC. A message from one Mobile Station to another must pass through an SMSC. Messages may be input to the SMSC from a fixed network customer by means of a suitable telecommunication service, either from the fixed network or from a mobile network customer. The SMSC will then reformat the message into that provided by the short message service, for delivery to the mobile telephone.

PCUSN and SGSN Description

Objectives
After this lesson, you will be able to: Describe Nortel Networks GPRS products Passport for PCUSN Passport for SGSN

Passport Cabinet

A Passport Cabinet can host two Passport nodes. Each node can host the PCUSN or the SGSN function. The Passport switch cabinet dimensions are: Height 197 cm (77.5 in.) Width 60 cm (24 in.) Depth 60 cm (24 in.).

Passport Shelf

78

9 101112131415

F P C P C a r d

FF PP CC aa r r dd

F P

FF PP

FF PP CC a a r r dd

FF PP CC aa r r dd

F F PP CC a r d a r d

F P C a r d

F P C a r d C P

CCC a r d a a r r dd

The shelf assembly can contain up to 16 function and control processors. Each processor card slides into its allocated shelf slot, labeled 0 to 15, where its connector engages with a connector on the backplane. function processors can occupy any of slots 1 to 14, control processors can occupy slots 0 or 15 only. Ejector latches at the top and bottom of each processor cards front panel secure it in place. Slots not occupied by a function or control processor are fitted with blank cards to ensure proper cooling of the switch, and for electro-magnetic interference (EMI) protection and safety compliance. Blank cards are labeled Blank. Access to the function and control processors is from the front. The faceplate of each processor card contains connectors and an LED status indicator.

Passport Architecture

Backplane BUS

MASTER BOARD CP Control Processor FP Function Processor FP Function Processor

Interface CARD For example, Frame Relay

Interface CARD For example, Frame Relay or ATM, ...

Control Processor Card


CP2 model 7K CP card

RJ45 connector Hard disk

The control processor is in charge of: function processor (FP) startup, downloads new software onto FPs, performs memory-intensive tasks for services delivered by FPs, provides system timing for all other processors connected to the backplane, ensuring synchronous bus operation, manages and monitors the status of FPs, the bus, and other Passport hardware in the switch, monitors and processes alarms and the performance of real-time clocking interfaces with a network management system or a text interface device, which is used for network operator access, network monitoring, provisioning, and maintenance. Text interface devices are connected directly to a port on the faceplate of a control processor, provides sparing ability. When you install two control processors a shelf, one is active and the other is on standby. If the active control processor fails, the standby control processor becomes active.

PCUSN Shelf

12

34

789

101112131415

C P

P C U S P

P C U S P

EE 3 3 CC / / DD SS 3 3 CC

E EEE 11 1 1 BBB CCC C / / / LLL DDD / AAA SSS D 11 1 NNN CCC S KKK 1 C

B L A N K C P

A PCUSN shelf is composed of the following cards: Control Processor card (CP) which manages the shelf, PCUSP (PCU Server Processor) card which mainly deal with the RLC/MAC protocol toward the BSSs, E3C cards that make the physical link toward BSSs, E1C cards that handle the frame relay Gb interface.

PCUSN Boards
BSC1
backplane

BSC2
MUX E1/E3 or T1/T3 E3 / DS3

PCUSP SPM 1 SPM2

E1C
DS1C

E1C
DS1C

E1C
DS1C

E1C
DS1C

SPM n

Gb interface (Frame relay) towards SGSN

BSC n

E3C/DS3C Card

E3 TERMINATION PANEL

2-PORT E3C/DS3C BOARD FACEPLATE

The 2 port E3C AAL (TDM) function processor interfaces the BSC via a multiplexer. This type of card is to be used in countries where E1 PCM transmission (between the BSC and the multiplexer) is used. Board Features The 2 port E3C AAL TDM board: has two fully channelized E3 ports, supports 2*16=32 E1 tributaries, provides a gateway between a TDM (Time Division Multiplex), networks and ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) backbone, supports up to 128 AAL1 virtual channels connections (VCCs) towards the PCUSP boards (each of these VCC conveys a PCM link). E3 Termination panel The 2 port E3 FP uses the E3 Termination Panels. These panels provide a break-out for multiplexer connections and supports one-for-one sparing for 2 port E3C AAL TDM boards. E3 Termination Panel Cable A cable terminates two BNC connectors, 3 meters in length, is required to interconnected the 2 port E3C AAL TDM card to the termination panel.

PCUSP Card

SPMs

The PCUSP function processor is a two-slot FP wide which uses virtual ports. Therefore, this FP has no ports on its faceplate and requires no external cabling or termination panel. The PCUSP uses two full-size Passport-type Functional Processor (FP) cards, termed the PCUSP Mothercard and the PCUSP Daughtercard. The two cards are physically joined to form one doublewidth sized card which occupies two PCUSN card slots. Communication to the PCUSN shelf is achieved through the PCUSP Mothercard only. One PCUSP card can have up to 12 SPM integrated. Each of the SPM manage one Agprs link. PCUSP card supports one-for-one sparing through provisioning.

E1C/DS1C Card

Gb board - E1C/DS1C Function Processor: The E1C board supports Frame Relay services; Frame Relay is the OSI layer 2 protocol that is used to interconnect the PCUSN and the SGSN on the Gb interface. Board Features: The E1C/DS1C board has the following features: has four ports, each of them operating at 2.048 Mbps, operates up to 124 separate Frame Relay services. E1C Unbalanced Termination panel: When the PCM type is E1 75 ohms (coaxial), as the connector the E1C FP uses the E1 termination panels. These panels provide a break-out for customer-equipment connections so that each E1C port has its own termination point and access. The E1C termination panel exists in two flavor, depending on the type of transmission to be used from the customers E1s distribution panel: E1C unbalanced termination panel (when 75 ohms coaxial cables with straight BNC connectors are used). E1C Termination Panel Cable A cable terminates two DB15 connectors 3 meters in length is required to interconnect the E1C board to its termination panel.

The PCUSN-6 and PCUSN-12

Termination panel

Agprs multiplexor

12 Agprs PCMs to the BSCs

The PCUSN-24 for USA

Termination panel Agprs multiplexor 1

24 Agprs PCMs to the BSCs

The PCUSN-24 for EMEA/Asia/Australia

Agprs multiplexor 1

Agprs multiplexor 2

Agprs PCMs to the BSCs

Passport 15K VSS


Scalable Platform allowing for GPRS market
growth and higher end-user throughput SGSN capacity increase

Passport 7000

Scaling flexibility, more cards more subscribers

Offers smooth migration path to UMTS and


Unified Networks 3G SGSN, Media Gateway, RNC, Packet Voice Gateway, Core ATM/IP switch based on Passport 15K PP15K 2.5G SGSN cards can be re-used on 3G SGSN Economies of scale through simplified network engineering, unified spares management, single support

Passport 15000

The Passport 15K-VSS cabinet allows for a smooth migration from Passport 7K to Passport 15K capabilities. The Passport 15K-VSS: is scalable up to 40 Gbps and beyond offers a simple, versatile platform that meets the service providers immediate network requirements adds switch capability, end-user terminations, or high-speed interfaces as the demand for services grows. The Passport 15K-VSS is composed of: a PP 8K shelf with a PP 15K shelf in the same equipment frame a combination of a multiservice switch and high capacity switch in a single NEBS/ETSI compliant footprint a common management system (Preside) for both PP 8K and PP 15K.

Passport 7K Layout
19 16 Slot Shelf Redundant Control Processors Functional Processor

Redundant backplane buses

Redundant power supplies Dual fans

Passport 15K Layout

Cable Management
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Cable Management

16 slots per shelf 2 slots for redundant CPs 14 slots for FPs Redundant fabrics per shelf 56.3 Gbps redundant switch capacity per shelf Up to 40 Gb/s user bandwidth per shelf Fabric Modules at the rear of the shelves Redundant 48/60 V dc power supply Two Power Interface Modules (PIMs) per shelf Distribute power to all components.

SGSN Cards for GPRS4.0


ATM GTL GTL
C P

GSD ETH

GGSN

SGSN 7K
CGF
Gn, Gp Ga

PCUSN

Core Network (public or public/private)

DNS
CP CP

GSC GSC

Gr, Ge, Gs, Gd (Gx)

X1

User Plane Control Plane File Transfer ATM ATM SAS SAS MAP MAP

SGSN 15K

SIG

LIG

GSD cards: GPRS Subscriber Data Handle the active users (SNDCP, LLC,). GTL cards: GPRS Transport Layer Handle the Gb interface. Lan Cards Handle the connection to the Ethernet backbone (DNS, ). Intershelf cards To connect the Passport 7K to the Passport 15K by optical fibers. GSC cards: GPRS subscriber Control Manage the attached subscribers (GMM/SM). SAS cards: SGSN Accounting Server Manage the accounting CDRs. MAP cards: Mobile Application Part Handle the MAP signaling to the SIG.

Ethernet Card

The

10/100BaseT

autosensing

ethernet

board

handles:

the OA&M interface on the PCUSN and, the same type of board is used on the SGSN to interface with the GGSN and the OA&M platform. Board Features has two Ethernet 10/100Base-T ports (the RJ45 connectors are in the boards faceplate, and then this board do NOT require an ethernet termination panel), is capable of software-controllable auto-negotiation: that allows an 100baseT board to establish link operating conditions with its partner by sending Fast Link Pulses (FLP). By exchanging FLPs, the board and its partner advertise their capabilities to each other and agree on the highest common denominator as the link operating mode. In parallel with the auto-negotiation, the board also detects 10baseT Normal Link Pulses (NLP). This allows the 10/100Base-T board to communicate with 10baseT devices that do not support auto-negotiation, supports software-configurable Media Access Control (MAC) addresses, provides large number of counters for statistics gathering.

ATM Card

The 2-port OC-3 ATM function processor for the SGSN: Has two SONET ports and is available in multi-mode format. The single mode version of this card is not supported for the SGSN. Provides the functions of the GSD application. Supports either one OC-3 ATM User-Network-Interface (UNI) or one ATM Interface (PPI) for each port. These can operate from either side of the user/network boundary, and can provide access to and from a public network. They can also be used to provide an interface between Passport switches within a private network.

MSA32 Card

Cardtype: 32pE1MSA

Component SgGTL

GPRS 1.0 E1C DS1C

GPRS 1.5 E1C DS1C

GPRS 2.0/2.1/3.0/4.0/5.0 MSA32

The Multi-Service-Access card (MSA) is used to provide external frame relay connectivity from the SGSN to the BSS on the Gb interface and for some SGSN ETSI models, the GTL (GPRS Transport Layer) function. The main characteristics of this card are: Processor PowerPC 266 MHz - RAM 128 MB The MSA function processor is a double-wide (2 slot), 32-port E1/T1 card. 32 ports DS1 MSA, 24 TS per port, link speeds (56 - 1544 Kbps) 32 ports E1 MSA, 32 TS per port, link speeds (64 - 2048 Kbps) It should be noted that the DS1 and E1 interfaces are not mixed on the same MSA32 FP. Each interface requires its own type of MSA32FP. The DS1 MSA32FP provides DS1 interfaces, while the E1 MSA32FP provides E1 interfaces. The MSA32 card exists with or without the optional optical port. For SGSN functionality, only the version without optical port is used. From an Engineering perspective, the MSA cards are installed in slot 3 to 6, possibly in slot 7&8, if 3 MSA cards are required.

WPDS Card

Cardtype: WPDS (Wireless Packet Data server)

Wireless Packet Data Server The wireless packet data server (WPDS) provides data encryption and authentication for wireless applications. The WPDS card hosts a daughter card with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The daughter card provides a GPRS encryption engine for the GPRS Encryption Algorithm 1 (GEA1), and also provides the CRC machine. The WDPS in the SGSN provides the functions of the GSD application and performs encryption and decryption of data packets to and from the mobile. The WPDS and the 2PortOC3ATM cards are not supported concurrently on the same shelf for the GSD application. For a given shelf, the GSDs can be located either on the WPDS or the 2PortOC3ATM card only. The GprsIpServer component is also supported on cards where the GSD component is supported. The WPDS provides its state; it is either enabled or disabled. (If the wpds component is locked, the WPDS is disabled; otherwise, it is enabled.) A standby WPDS option supports one-for-one sparing. All traffic goes through the active FP. The standby FP is idle but ready to assume traffic should the active FP fail. This FP requires no cabling, therefore, you must provision sparing. This slide shows the faceplate for the wireless packet data server. The WPDS does not require external cabling, and therefore has no ports on the faceplate. An LED shows the operational status of the FP. For more information, see 241-5701-600 Passport 7400, 15000 Configuration Guide.

CP Card (Passport 15K)

Cardtype: CPeE

The CP3 is the control processor for the 15000 shelf. The CP3 performs nodal management in the multishelf SGSN. The CP3 has two 100 BaseT ports on faceplate, one is used for OA&M. For more information on the CP3, see NTP 241-1501-200, Passport 15000 Hardware Description.

2pGPDsk Card (GSC, MAP, SAS)

Cardtype: 2pGPDsk (2 ports General Processor Disk)

2-port General Processor with Disk (2pGPDsk): The 2-port general processor with disk (2pGPDsk) is a Passport 15000 function processor with the capability of automatically spooling data to its internal 20 gigabyte hard drive. The 2pGPDsk line rate supports asynchronous data transfer. The data transfer rate varies with the services being offered on the FP. On the SGSN, the 2pGPDsk can be used for: GSC MAP SAS (SGSN Accounting Server) and LIAF (Lawful Intercept Access Function) Ethernet interface for Gn 2pGPDsk cards can be spared. 2pGPDsk components: The 2-port general processor with disk consists of a motherboard, a memory daughter card, and a power supply daughter card, with a hard disk mounted on the motherboard. The 2pGPDsk connects to the shelf backplane, providing an interface to both fabric modules. The 2pGPDsk interface supports these functions: disk interface 1 Mbyte FLASH memory 512 Mbyte DRAM memory V.24 DCE port for Preside Multiservice Data Manager connectivity The 2-port GPDsk has a 10Base-T Ethernet debug port, and two 100Base-T Ethernet ports. These ports are for future use and are not supported. The hard drive has data automatically spooled to it by the applications running on the 2-port general processor.

4pOC3MM/SM Card

Cardtype: 4pOC3MmAtm

4-port OC-3 ATM function processor The OC-3 function processor on the 15000 shelf provides an ATM interface to the SGSN. It is used to provide connectivity between the 15000 shelf and the 7400 shelf of the SGSN. The OC3M for the 15000 shelf is a 4-port multi-mode card. This FP may also be used to provide ATM (Gn interface) connectivity instead of the 100BaseT Ethernet FPs on the 7400 shelf. This slide shows the 4-port OC-3 ATM FP faceplate. For more information on the 4-port OC-3 ATM FP, see NTP 241-1501-200, Passport 15000 Hardware Description.

GGSN Description

Objectives
After this lesson, you will be able to: Describe Nortel Networks GGSN products Contivity Extranet Switch Shasta

Contivity GGSN
GGSN REAR VIEW

GGSN FRONT VIEW

Physical interface In general, the CES provides the following hardware components: 6 available PCI slots + 1 fixed 10/100 Mb ethernet port, dual port E1/T1 boards, no limit (theoretically 12 interconnections to PDNs), single port E3/T3, limit 2, single port 10/100 Mb ethernet, no limit. Customer configure according to their requirements within the above limits. The GGSN on the CES supports these physical interfaces: GGSN01 release one Gn interface - 10 or 100 Mb Ethernet, one Gi interface - 10 or 100 Mb Ethernet. GGSN02 release T1/E1 and T3/E3, Frame Relay, multiple physical Gi interfaces. Many configurations are possible depending on customers needs. For example, in the case where a dedicated physical connection is required per PDN a GGSN can be connected to: 2 PDN (one PDN per Ethernet port) and 6 PDN (one PDN per T1/E1 port). Or another example: 3 PDN (one PDN per T3/E3 port) using the 3 of the PCI expansion slots.

Contivity 4500/4600 (Rear View)

Five PCI slots for add. Ethernet, E1/T1 or E3/T3 interfaces Default 10/100 Mbps Gi Ethernet interface Default

10/100 Mbps Gn Ethernet interface

Default means automatically provided with the base configuration

One power plug for each power supply unit. The GGSN comes with two power cords

RS232 console port

Supported Users The GGSN will support an increasing number of active users with each incremental product release. While the number of active users supported is highly dependent on the call model, targets for the number of total active users shall be derived based on the low cost call model, i.e. 100% transparent traffic, large data packets and low bit rates per user. Note that transparent equates one active GPRS user to one active PDP context, or one GTP tunnel. The number active users to be supported by the GGSN shall increase from GPRS02 through GPRS04 as follows: 50,000 75,000 100,000 (on Shasta). Tunnels The GGSN shall support a maximum number of tunnels relative to the mixture of tunnels used for transparent and non-transparent modes of Internet access. This is due to the relative processing costs of GTP vs. IPSec, in which encryption and/or compression is done. The maximum number of tunnels shall incrementally increase with increasing performance capability. The range of maximum tunnels in the initial release shall be 50,000 tunnels. Tunnel limits are defined within the GGSN relative to available memory, due to the context related information stored per tunnel. The GGSN shall increase memory from the 128M available on the CES 4500 to over 300M for 50K tunnels, with further upgrades envisioned for 75K and 100K tunnels in later releases. As it relates to tunnel limits, throughput capability of the GGSN become relevant during peak conditions in which user behavior diverges greatly from the call model, specifically either the average user throughput or data packets transmitted.

GGSN Based on Shasta Platform


High Subscriber Densities and throughput High-touch IP services without performance degradation:
High Packet Processing -112 CPUs per chassis -Over 45,000 MIPS -24 HW Encryption Engines -Over 10 GB of State Memory -100,000 per chassis 400,000 per 7ft. Rack -640 Mbps

High Level of Redundancy & reliability


Over 100 CPUs Over 100 CPUs to power high to power high touch services touch services

Fits in any network architecture:


Full Range of Interfaces -Frame Relay: DS-3, E3 -ATM: DS-3/E3, STM-1/OC-3, OC-12 -Channelized DS-3, OC-3 -Ethernet: Fast and Giga Ethernet -Packet over Sonet: OC-3, OC-12

Scalable, robust and high performance platform for subscriber aggregation and service delivery

The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is the node that is accessed by the packet data network due to evaluation of the PDP address. It contains routing information for attached GPRS users. The routing information is used to tunnel packets to the MS's current point of attachment, i.e., the Serving GPRS Support Node. The GGSN may request location information from the HLR via the optional Gc interface. The GGSN is the first point of Public Data Network interconnection with a GSM PLMN supporting GPRS (i.e., the Gi reference point is supported by the GGSN).

Shasta BSN 5000


14 slots 2 Control Management Cards (CMC) 2 Switch Fabric Card (SFC) 10 remaining slots with Up to 6 Subscriber Service Cards (SSC) Up to 10 Line Cards W: 19 H: 19.25 D: 18

In general, the Shasta provides the following hardware components: Up to 112 CPUs on SSCs Up to 7 GB of state memory Up to 42,000 MIPS Maximum of 4x, 8 port Fast Ethernet and STM-4 ATM cards. Fully redundant and hot swappable NEBS 3 compliant Full hot swap DC/AC power Customer configure according to their requirements within the above limits. The Shasta supports these physical interfaces: Gn, Gi & Gp interfaces 4 port ATM STM-1 / OC-3, single mode and multi mode fiber 8 port Fast Ethernet Interface to DHCP, RADIUS and SCP Gi interfaces 2 port 10/100BaseT Ethernet on CMC card Interface to CGF Gn interfaces 2 port 10/100BaseT Ethernet on CMC card

Shasta BSN 5000 Shelf Layout


Slot 5 & 6 or Slot 9 & 10:
Line card up to 1.2 Gbps

Slot 7 & 8: Switch Fabric Card (SFC)

Slot 13 & 14: Control Management Cards (CMC) Fan Assembly Remaining 10 slots (Slot1-6,9-12)
Subscriber Service Card (SSC) Line Cards (LC)

The following cards are supported on the Shasta GGSN: Switch Fabric Card (SFC) - provides ATM interconnect and queuing between cards Control and Management Card (CMC) - responsible for system management functions Subscriber Service Card (SSCII) - delivers scalable processing for high touch services Line Cards - provides physical connectivity into and out of the shelf The recommended configuration for the Shasta GGSN consists of the following components: 2 Shasta 5000 BSNs (for packet processing) 1 SCS server and client (for GGSN configuration) The recommended Shasta GGSN configuration is: 1 Shasta 5000 BSN Chassis 2 CMCs (1 GBytes) 2 SFCs (10 GBytes) 6 SSCs with 4 SSMII each 2 or more lines on each interface (Gn and Gi interface)

Shasta GGSN Architecture


Subscriber Service Card (SSC) Redundant (2N), Control/ Mgt Card (CMC) Redundant (1+1), Responsible for: -Subs. Assignment processor cards to SSC- 1 SSC- 2 SSC- 3 SSC- 6 ATM Switching Fabric (SFC) Modularity: 2.5, 5, 10 Gbps Redundant (1+1), ATM layer interconnection Queuing between line cards and the SSC cards Perform high touch services and policy services on a per subscriber basis

-IP routing: RIP, OSPF, BGP-4 -GGSN Accounting -GTP Control Path

Switching Fabric

GTP-U path GTP-C path

CMC-A
Gn 10/100 Ethernet Server Ports Gi

SGSN

PDN

Trunk Line Cards (xLC) Provide physical out the GGSN connectivity in and

GGSN Management and Software

JAVA

SMP

SCS Client

Shasta GGSN iSOS software SCS Server

GGSN software consists of the following major components: Service Creation System (SCS)- a system that allows centralized management and provisioning of GGSNs. The SCS software includes several cooperating servers that can be run off single or multiple workstations. SCS Client - a graphical user interface used to access the SCS. There are client versions for Win95/98/NT/2000,Solaris,and Linux platforms. IP Services Operating System (iSOS)- the GGSN s operating software. It is used to control the individual circuit pack in the GGSN chassis and to manage mobile users traffic according to the defined models Netscape directory server - the server manages the LDAP directory database used by the SCS to store data and is collocated with SCS servers.

OSS

Objectives
After this lesson, you will be able to Explain why we need an OMC-R, OMC-D and an OMC-S List the main O&M functions dedicated to the BSS, PCN and NSS Explain the OMC-R architecture and locate the Q3 interface Show what elements are controlled by an OMC-R and an OMC-D Show the hierarchy of the OMC-R objects Show the various solutions for implementation of the OMC-R network

OSS Presentation
Stage 1
WS WS

Stage 2
WS NMC

Server

Server Server

OMC/R OMN
Q.x Q.x Q.x

OMC/S

Q.3
Q.x

MD

MD

MD

BSS BSS BSS NSS NSS NSS


Q.x : Proprietary interface WS : Work Station MD : Mediation Device NMC : Network Management Center NE : Network Element

Q.x

Q.y

Q.z

OMN

BSS NE

BSS NE NE

NSS

Transmissionetwork NE NE

NE

The Operation SubSystem (OSS) is in charge of the control and management of the GSM Network. The OSS contains Operation and Maintenance Centers (OMC). There are two types of OMC: the OMC-R, which is able to manage several BSSs, the OMC-S, which is able to manage several NSS components. One OMC mainly consists of a Server and WorkStations connected through a Local Area Network such as Ethernet. The link between the Server and the BSS or NSS named OMN Interface (Operation and Maintenance Network), is an X.25 public or private Network. In a first stage, the operation and maintenance functions for the different BSS or NSS equipment, are carried out through a dedicated OMC. Each OMC dialogues with managed entities through the Q.x interface which is a proprietary interface. In a second stage, it is possible to manage the BSS or NSS from different suppliers via specific Mediation Devices at a central position: the Network Management Center (NMC). The interface between the NMC and the different MD is named Q.3 and is standardized.

Preside Management for GSM/GPRS


Preside Client Preside servers
OMC-S

PSTN/ISDN

HLR

Preside Desktop GUI MSC

OMC-D OMC-R

IWF

SIG GGSN
FR backbone ATM backbone EMS

BTS BSC/PCUSN SGSN DNS LIG CGF


Internet/ Intranet (Application & Services)

DHCP/ Radius

The GSM/GPRS network architecture can be divided into three domains: For each of these, there is a specific Nortel Management system. BSS/Access Network - The Radio Access Network consists of the base station RF interface, the BSC and the PCUSN. The BSS is responsible for managing the RF interface, including setup, take-down, bearer channel assignment, paging, handoff (in all its many forms), as well as for the signaling back toward the core network for GSM (voice call). The PCUSN does the same for GPRS (data call). The OMC-R management system manages the Access Network radio elements. Circuit Core Network (CCN) - The Circuit Core network includes telephony circuit switches (the MSC/VLR), and subscriber information databases (Home Location Register or HLR), The OMC-S management system manages the Circuit Core network elements. Packet Core Network (PCN) - The Packet Core network includes routers and switches (not shown), a gateway to external networks (the GGSN) and the SGSN dedicated to managing data transport to the subscriber via the Radio Access Network. The SIG (SS7/IP Gateway) is an interface between the SGSN and the HLR/VLR. The OMC-D management system manages the Packet Core network elements. Application and Services can be a fourth domain, composed of servers (WAP, IMS, etc.) managed by the EMS solution.

Network Management
1 - Telecommunication Management Network
BTS Site Coupling device
Operation System Functions Hybrid coupling device Cavity coupling device

Data Communication Functions

TRX
TRX A TRX B TRX C

Mediation Functions

BCF

NSS

TMN Functions

BTS Object Classes

The operation, maintenance and administration functions follow standard telecom management principles. The GSM Recommendations use object management similar to the Telecommunication Management Network TMN developed by the ITU/T. Dialogues between management entities pertain to modeled abstract representations of the network to manage, which is defined and stored in a management data base. This model must list the different components of the network (objects), their relationships and their attributes. Examples of managed objects are: sites, machines (MSC/VLR, BSC, HLR), hardware modules, transmission links, software, observations, tests. The detailed specifications of the GSM architecture give the ability to identify object classes that will apply to all GSM networks.

Network Management
2 - Network Object Tree Example
OMC-R

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

Radio Site

Radio Site

Radio Site

TCU

TCU

TCU

BCF

Cell

Cell

TUC board

TCB board

TCB board

TRX

TRX

TRX

DRX
Channel 0

PA
Channel 7

Each entity has a software representation. One entity can be a piece of hardware, for example an electronic board (PCMI board), a cabinet, a functional entity (cell, TCU) or a piece of software. This software representation is an object model representation known as the Management Information Base (MIB) or Management Information Tree (MIT). To manipulate these objects, we use UNIX commands, not directly, but through a Graphical User Interface on an OMC-R WorkStation. For example, to access a specific object, we double-click on its representation on the screen.

OMC-R Functions
BSS Management Internal Functionality

Security

Server

Administration

Configuration

Performance

Human Machine Interface

Common Functions

Fault

File Transfer Management

The OMC-R is made up of servers and stations. Each WorkStation or X-terminal provides the operating staff with a Graphical User Interface, called Human Machine Interface. The server centralizes the O&M functions dedicated to the BSS network elements and thus allows consistent management of the BSS network elements. The following O&M functions are provided: Security management: to manage user profiles in order to control the users access to functions provided by the OMC-R. Configuration management: to manage the resources to be supervised. Examples of resources that can be managed: PCM links, SS7 and traffic channels on A interface, cells, list of frequencies allocated in each cell, list of adjacent cells of a given cell, frequency hopping laws implemented in the cells, TDMA frames. Performance management: values of counters are collected from the BSS network elements and reports are generated and displayed to the users. Thresholds can be defined and associated with the counters to generate alarms for maintenance purposes. Fault management: the OMC-R handles event reports received from the network elements and related to anomalies. Alarm messages can be generated with a severity from these reports by using criteria defined by the user.

The following internal functions are provided: Server administration: supervision, switch-over and backup of the servers and stations. Common functions: inter-user mail (running within an SMS-C server), management and execution of commands file, calendar for the deferred or periodic execution of a command or a command file, on-line help. File transfer management: downloading and activation of the software releases dedicated to TCU, BSC, BCF and TRX is centralized via the OMC-R.

Security Management
Command Classes:
Configuration Fault Performance Password BDE/BDA FTAM and EFT Command files and jobs SMS/CB Inter-user message Commands: Create Delete Set Display Modify Lock

User profile

Zone of Interest

Security Management aims to manage user profiles in order to control the access users have to functions provided by the OMCs. Security Management handles authorization and control of access of the users to the OMC functionality. A user profile file is created for each OMC user. Users profile: user name and password (and password validity duration), user work timetable (inactivity time-out and scheduled access time), a set of command classes, a zone of interest.

Configuration Management
1 - OMC-R Data Bases
OMC-R User MMI

OMC-R

User view

Objects

Q.3 Manager Part

MIB

Q.3 view

Q.3
Software
Q.3 Agent Part MD-R

BDE

Mediation view

Dynamic Attributes

OMN Interface

BSS

BDA

BSC view

Managed objects are spread over three databases stored on hard disks: MIB (Management Information Base) located in the OMC-R (Q.3 level), BDE (Exploitation Data Base) located in the OMC-R (MD-R level), BDA (Application Data Base) located in the BSC. MIB: Is under OMC-R management control and is progressively built as long as objects are created. Is automatically updated whenever a relevant operation is performed. Contains BSC related objects and other specific OMC-R objects (in Q.3 format). BDE: Is under OMC-R management control and is progressively built as long as objects are created. Is automatically updated whenever a relevant operation is performed. Contains BSC related objects and other specific OMC-R objects (unknown to the BSCs). BDA Data base building is not automatic and is controlled by user. In order to operate correctly, these two data bases must remain consistent: Audit transactions check the state of the BDA compared to the BDE. Users are warned when discrepancies occur.

Configuration Management
2 - BSS Software Management
OMC BSC BCF TRX BTS

TCU
BDE BDA

TCB

OMC software BTS software

BSC software TCU software

The main functionalities of this sub-function are: Management of the software on the OMC-R disks. Downloading management (MD-R level). Software version change. The downloading operation consists of sending a set of files correctly identified on the target BSC disk. These files are stored in specific partitions of the disk, according to the type of the concerned entities: BSC. BTS: btsSiteManager (BCF) or transceiver Equipment (TRX). TCU: Transcoder board. Software management is also in charge of MD and OMC software.

Performance Management

Counter values Start of high threshold crossing End of high threshold crossing End of low threshold crossing Start of low threshold crossing Alarm start Alarm end
Time

Threshold crossing detection for preventive maintenance

Performance data monitoring allows network usage patterns and trends to be identified, enabling informed network design and engineering decisions to be made to optimize network resource utilization. Performance Management relies on counters collected by the OMC-R and OMC-S (observations), followed by the analysis and subsequent storage of resultant data. Main functions are: Reception of measurements (counters) transmitted by the BSS or the NSS. Report building, to be displayed or printed in a readable format, for the end user. Reporting the crossing of thresholds (counter values, etc.).

Fault Management

Failure Alarm reception detection Fault recovery Week-ends Day off

Days/ Nights Manufacturer S E V E R I T Y

Immediate intervention Deferred intervention No intervention

Alarm Configuration

Alarm Acknowledg.

Fault Management enables the network operator to maximize the availability of the GSM network, through rapid response to failure conditions, by performing fault isolation and fault recovery. Alarms should be acknowledged and may be configured differently in terms of severity, according to alarm criterion configurations. Severity configurations are: Immediate intervention Deferred intervention No intervention outside normal working hours. Alarm criterion configurations are: Manufacturer Days/Nights Special (week-ends and holidays).

Server Administration
Startup

Supervision

Shut down

OMC
Switch-over

Active Server

Backup Server

The following services are provided to the user: Powering-up and the powering-down of the OMC servers. Automatic purging of files deletes old data files in order to avoid overfilling of the disks. Automatic switch-over of the active server. Backup accomplishes a monitoring and supervision task as well as management of its own tasks. Supervision includes software and machine operations monitoring. Backup management can send event messages to Fault management. It can also restart, reboot or switchover to the backup server if necessary.

Common Functions
Command File Management Reference Time Consulting Data Archival

Documentation Calendar Management ? HELP On-Line

1 5 6 7 8 12131415161718 19202122232425 262728293031

9 1011

TX Mail User 1

RX Mail User 2 User Mail

This functional area provides the user with the following services: Command files management that enables the creation and the execution of sequences of user commands. The archiving and restoring of notifications and observations. A job scheduler that enables requests for deferred and/or periodical execution of a user command or a command file. The data & time provides services to read data/time of MD functions and update. A user mail facility enabling the exchanges of messages between users. An on-line help. The display of product documentation stored on CD-ROM.

Preside OAM PCN Hardware Architecture


Desktop client
PC Windows 2000 or Windows NT SUN Blade 150 or SUN Ultra 5

Preside
Backup & Restore server
SUN E250/E450

CORBA Ethernet LAN (OAM LAN)

Performanc e Server

Main Server
Optional servers (Metasolv)

SUN Fire 4800

PS
SUN E250

MG

SUN Fire 4800

SCS
SUN E250/E450

WG

Passport backbon e

SIG

LIG D DNS Radius DHCP

CGF

GGSN

BG

A&S
(BS 450, Juniper, Cisco)

NE layer

Configuration Management Toolset


Software Download Component Provisioning

Backup & Restore

Network Activation Service Provisioning

Configuration Management Toolset

Nodal Provisioning Network Reporting System

Preside MDM Configuration tools The Passport configuration tools support the activities required to configure a Passport network. The tools handle both initial configuration and ongoing administrative changes. The configuration tools can be used to define the nodes, the software, and the services that make up a Passport network. The Preside MDM Configuration tools include the following applications: Passport Nodal Provisioning tool is a graphical user interface (GUI) application for provisioning Passport components and selected services. The Passport nodal provisioning application provides the following capabilities: forms-based component provisioning forms-based service provisioning drag and drop service provisioning templates The Passport Component Provisioning tool provides the necessary functionality to present provisioning data in a hierarchical structure. The tool allows you to query, change, add, delete, update, validate, and download provisioning data through a graphical user interface. The Component Provisioning tool can be used to provision items, such as node security, and to access services, such as frame relay.

PWI for Packet Core Network


Fault Management (FM) Preside Desktop GUI (NSP client)
FM PM CM R-T PM

Configuration Accounting Performance

Management Management

(CM) (PM)

Security Management (SM)

Preside servers
Main Server

Performance Server SNMP Fmip FTP WG Passport backbone snmp GGSN snmp http telnet snmp

SNMP SIG DNS DHCP Radius

BG

IP backbone

A&S
(BS 450, Juniper, Cisco)

IP&ATM Network Elements: Contivity Extranet Switch (CES) 1500, 2500, 4500 Passport backbone (7440, 7480, 8780, 15K, 15K-VSS) Junipers Shasta 5000 Passport 1200 Passport 8600 BPS 2000 Baystack 450 Application & Services network elements: IMS Alteon 184 CDS eLC (e-Mobility Location Center) CMG WAP Openwave WAP Comverse MMS (Multimedia Messaging Services) Comverse UMS (Unified Messaging System) Comverse Nex2me Logica SMS-C (Telepath Short Message Service Center) Net Guardian Service Builder network elements (IN-SCP devices): IN-SCP SMS (Service Management System) IN-SCP IN-SCP IP (Intelligent Peripheral)

configuration tool web-based GUI (Cobweb) MDM or CLI CLI SCS or CLI CLI CLI web-based GUI web-based GUI or CLI web-based GUI web-based GUI web-based GUI web-based GUI web-based GUI MMS Manager web-based GUI + CLI web-based GUI + CLI web-based GUI web-based GUI + CLI SMS SMS web-based GUI

OMC-S Functions
NSS OMC-S
Configuration Fault HLR/AUC Security Facilities

MSC/VLR

Performance

The Operation and Maintenance Center of the NSS part (OMC-S) may be able to achieve different kinds of functions. NSS configuration management: BSCs, Location Areas, Cells. Terrestrial links, etc.. Software configuration (downloading, file transfer). MSRN and handover number management. Fault management: Detection. Presentation. Re-configuration. Performance management: Traffic control. Service quality monitoring. Security management: User profiles. Session monitoring. OMC-S operation: System management. OMN management. File transfer operations.

Hierarchical Arrangement of NMC and OMC


X-terminal Level 4 Commercial GSM network Management Network Management Center (NMC)

Q3
Level 3 X-terminal OMC-S OMC-R OMC-R OMC-S OMC-R

Q3

OMC-R

Level 2

O & M communication network X.25

HLR Level 1

MSC BSS BSS

The Network Management Center (NMC) has a view of the entire GSM Network and is responsible for network management as a whole. The NMC resides at the top of the hierarchy. It receives its information from the network equipment via the Operation and Maintenance Centers (OMC) which have previously filtered the suitable data. The NMC can thus focus on issues requiring national coordination regarding interconnection to other networks, such as the PSTN / ISDN. The features of the NMC are as follows: a Single NMC per network. Provides traffic management for the whole network. Monitors high-level alarms such as failed or overloaded nodes. Performs responsibilities of an Operation and Maintenance Center when the latter is not staffed. Provides network planners with essential data for network performance. The Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC), in turn, is considered as a "regional manager" for the network hardware and software. It supports the day-to-day operations as well as providing a database for long-run network engineering and planning tools. The OMC handles a certain area of the GSM network, thus providing regional network management.

OMC-R Architecture
Configurations
TML/RACE

BSS BSS BSS

X.25 Network BSC-MD Interface


Monitoring link

BSS BSS BSS

RACE

PSTN
TML/RACE

RACE

Monitor

Servers Sun Enterprise 4000 Storage Unit A5000


Sun
StorEDGE A5000

Monitor Terminals Server


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 ETHERNET

LAN Ethernet
AUI AUI SERIAL

AUI

SERIAL

SERIAL

CONSOLE AUX O

Router
SERIAL

SERIAL SERIAL

CONSOLE AUX O

CONSOLE AUX

X Terminal
Router
AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX O

Local WorkStations (SUN Sparc 5)


X.25 Network
AUI

Router
SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX O

CD Rom Unit

Remote LAN Ethernet

Remote LAN Ethernet

CD ROM Unit

Remote WorkStations (SUN Sparc 5)

The central OMC-R site is composed of the OMC-R servers, the WorkStations (WS), the Terminal Server and the printers. All these platforms are interconnected via an Ethernet LAN. The OMC-R server (duplicated for redundancy purposes) centralizes the O&M function as well as the database. It is connected to the BSC via X.25 links. An automatic switch-over is undertaken between the servers when needed. The WorkStations (up to 16) supporting a Graphical User Interface called Man Machine Interface (MMI). X terminals: physically connected to the LAN and which communicate with one WS. One or many printers can be shared between the WSs and X terminals. The Terminal Server concentrates the PSTN connections from BSS Local Maintenance Terminals used in the field in RACE mode (Remote Access Equipment) during maintenance interventions. At least one local OMC-R WorkStation should be provisioned in order to support the connections from the ROTs used in the field and to support X terminals. Routers that support X.25 links to OMC-R remote sites if such sites exist in the OMC-R configuration. A remote OMC-R site is composed of WSs and printers only, and is connected to the OMC-R server of the central site via an X.25 link. Therefore, routers are to be used in the remote OMC-R site, as well as in the central OMC-R site, in order to concentrate the connections from a remote site to the central site.

Implementation of the OMC-R Network


Three Solutions
1
WS WS WS WS

2
WS WS WS

3
WS WS

OMC-R Server
0 1 2 3

OMC-R Server
0 1 2 3

OMC-R Server
0 1 2 3

48 kbps

V.35

48 kbps Automatic or Manual

X.25 Switch

X.25 Switch V.35-PCM conversion


PCM

X.25 network PSPDN

Leased Lines 19.2 kbps

NSS BSC
19.2 kbps A interface

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

The OMC-R manages the BSCs, TCUs and BTSs. TCUs and BTSs communicate with the OMC-R via their respective BSC. The OMC-R interfaces with the BSC via X.25 links. The OMC-R/BSC link can be based on various communication supports: X.25 PSPDN, X.25 switches and dedicated lines, or the use of PCM timeslots of the A interface. The use of the A interface is interesting: if there is no reliable X.25 network in a given country, if the operator wants to be independent from a third-party carrier, if he wishes to reduce the leased-line cost, if he wishes to establish OMC-R and OMC-S units in the same location. The main advantage of that solution is that the OMC-R/BSC connections are supported by PCM links of the managed GSM network itself.

Hardware Architecture
New Storage Unit (from V12)
Normal capacity = 1600 cells, 6400 DRXs and 20 BSCs

Enterprise 4500 (Agent + Manager) Active

High capacity = 2400 cells, 9600 DRXs and 30 BSCs

Enterprise 4500 (Agent + Manager) Passive

Sun

StorEDGE A5000

StorEDGE A5000 Storage Unit

Two types of server are available, according to the network configuration: SPARCserver 1000 with 16.8 Go disk (less than 800 cells), Enterprise 4000 (less than 1600 cells). The high capacity OMC product is achieved with the Enterprise 4000 platform and its associated storage unit SPARCstorage Array. This high capacity OMC-R will be able to manage a great number of cells allowing its use for: micro-cell networks, networks with numerous but small sites. From V12, for the new OMC-R configurations, the new StorEdge A5000 storage unit is proposed, to take the place of the two SSA112 disks. Each server is a SUN Enterprise 4xxx. OMC-R operating capacity depends on the number of objects it manages but not on the traffic it monitors: Maximum number of BSC = 20 (30). Maximum number of cells = 1600 (2400). Maximum number of TRX = 6400 (9600). The physical OMC-R equipment limitations and software requirements are: Two servers to enable data redundancy. Sixteen WS with no more than thirteen Remote WS. One router per group of three Remote WS.

Human-Machine Interface

The major HMI characteristics are: separation of the physical and logical views, clear network logical view, separation between alarms and object status, mapping of the physical view of the network on a geographical map, graphical views of real time counters.

HMI: Logical View

TCU Level

Full Network

BSC Level

Site Level

A-Interface

Each type of display of the logical mode shows different objects: the first logical view (Full Network) shows all the Network Elements, from the MSC down to the site level, the BSC level includes the BSS objects (Signaling Point, Signaling Link) for one BSC, the Site level describes the BTSs belonging to one site, as well as the TDMA frames, the TCU level displays the LAPD Link and the TCBs belonging to one TCU. This level is the only way to access the A Interface level, the A Interface level mainly shows the XTPs used for MSC-BSC exchanges.

HMI: Topological View


Full Network Sub Network

BSS

All the topological views show the geographical backgrounds of the network: in the Full Network view, all the sub-networks are shown, in the Sub Network view, all the BSSs of the different sub-networks are displayed, in the BSS view, all of the equipment belonging to one single BSS are shown on the map. Note There is always a relationship between the logical/physical display level and, on the other side, the topological level.

HMI: Alarm Window


Customizable columns organization

Sort & filter display Alarm list management Complete alarm description Access to notifications windows On-line help

The alarm monitor has the following features: The alarms in the list are sorted according to the column order, which may be modified by the user. The user may select the type of columns (i.e. of information) he wants to be displayed in the minimized alarm summary. More than 30 criteria are available to filter the alarm list. A current alarm carries the following information: A serial record number for the alarm message identification. A serial record number of the notification that triggered the alarm and prompted the alarm message. The date and time at which the notification was sent. The type of spontaneous event. The fault number which identifies its type and therefore its cause. The priority of alarm: immediate (IM), deferred (ID), no action (SI). The alarm title. The identity and the location of the object and/or equipment from where the alarm is originated. The alarm acknowledge state, if the alarm is acknowledged, and the identity of the user or the OMC-R. If the alarm is cleared, the date and time that the original notification was sent, and the identity of the user. The notification is also included, apart from the additional information.

Remote ACcess Equipment (RACE)


1 - HTTP/RACE Server on an OMC-R WorkStation
OMC-R Site OMC-R Server
RACE Server

Terminals Server

ETHERNET 1 3 5 6 7 9 10 1213 14 16

Modem

Modem

IP Network Intranet/ Internet

PSTN BSC
TML/RACE TML/RACE

BSC Site
Modem

RACE

RACE
Modem

Firewalls BTS Site

TML/RACE

TML/RACE

TML/RACE

Modem

TML

BTS S8000/ S12000

BTS S4000/ S2000E

TML

RACE
Modem

TML/RACE

RACE

RACE client is a Web browser

The Remote ACcess Equipment offers a Web interface to the OMC-R. It provides the users with a convivial interface similar to the one of Graphic MMI and all the functionality of the ROT is available on this new feature. The RACE was first developed to replace the ROT, but it could also be used as a particular OMC-R WorkStation. The advantages of this new product are the following: The interface is user-friendly, it is close to the interface of the OMC-R. Thus, the tool is easy to manipulate for the user used to the OMC-R interface. Compared to the ROT, which has been developed with tools that are now obsolete, the RACE is implemented using new technologies, object oriented. The RACE is able to ensure a secure access to the network, which was no longer guaranteed with the ROT. Thanks to the Web-oriented conception, operations and maintenance of radio subsystems can be done from a remote site without requesting an OMC-R on-site operator: by using PSTN and any kind of secured connection system, via BTS or BSC equipment using the BSC-OMC link within the BSS, through LAN.

Remote ACcess Equipment (RACE)


2 - Overview

JAVA

Real time information

Mmi WWW HTTP server Web browser

OMC-R Kernel Server

RACE Client

OMC-R WorkStation / RACE server

OMC-R Server

This new application is composed of Web pages and Java applets that can be run through a Web navigator (Netscape or Internet Explorer). This new application is adapted to individual operator needs: when the operator must work from home, or when operations from BTS or BSC sites are required. A better presentation of the data allows the customers to save time: for instance, an operator had to modify a list of parameters and could make a mistake: with the ROT, it was mandatory to re-enter all the information, with the RACE, using the Back button of the navigator, he just has to modify the wrong parameters. The unique requirement to let this feature run is to have a Web browser, which brings two advantages: All data are stored on the server and are downloaded at connection, so the installation of a RACE client is done very quickly and then there is almost no upgrading to be provided on the client side, The operator can use a PC to connect to the OMC-R; such an OMC-R station is cheaper than a Unix station. Finally the RACE can run on either an OMC-R WorkStation or an OMC-R server, with a standard Internet browser for Unix.

BTS On-Site Maintenance with TML


1 - S8000/S12000 BTSs
BIST +5 V RDY ON O&M ABIS MRQ SERV RESET

TIL S8000
TIL Stand-alone mode TIL Connected mode

DRX

CSWM
T E S T
0 1 2 LC E T H TX RX LNK COL

Private PCM bus Gateway TIL BCF Internal PCM bus

J 6 4
CKI GND CKO GND

10 Mbps Ethernet link

TML/TIL
PC 486 + Ethernet board /PCMCIA

BCF

CBCF

Maintenance operations are performed on-site via a special terminal called TML (Local Maintenance Terminal). On-site maintenance provides a set of functions that give the operator information on the state of BSS elements that is not always available at the OMC-R level. This terminal is a PC-like computer including one standard Ethernet board and TCP/IP protocol, running TML tools (under Windows 95 environment). A special cable: cross Ethernet (cross RJ45-RJ45) connected to the Ethernet connector allows dialog with the BCF or a DRX module. TIB is the application part of the TIL (Terminal for Local Intervention) dedicated to the testing and checking of the BCF. The TIL S8000 software of the TML is designed to: validate the BTS in factory, install the BTS site, diagnose a hardware problem, check equipment substitution or extension. On the screen, a color button resumes the BIST status of each device. For each device (or main function), a popup menu proposes a list of tests, each performable in its specific window. This tool can be used with a BTS, in On-line or in Standalone mode.

BTS On-Site Maintenance with TML


2 - S2000 H/L
TIL COAM /Window
DRX SBCF

S2000 IN SERVICE

Ethernet

TML (PC/Windows 95 + Ethernet board)

8-31

BSC 2G On-Site Maintenance with TML


MODE
BIST RUN SCSI R U N B I S T

J5

CPU 66SE
J4
J3

Option Partition contents Software markers Board slot numbers Acces to MB II boards PROM markers Logical disk check Physical disk check Disk initialisation

NORMAL MAINTENANCE

J3

CPU 120
J2

COM1

J2

J1

J1

Serial port asynchronous link 19.2 kbps

8-32

The TML/BSC is an on site BSC 2G maintenance tool that is connected to the CPU - OMU through an asynchronous serial link at a rate of 19.2 kbps. Various tests are available on a given BSC 2G chain depending the selected mode: Normal mode is used when the BSC is running. Maintenance mode is used to isolate the chain from the system. Logical disk, physical disk check and disk initialization are not authorized in normal mode.

TCU 2G On-Site Maintenance with TML


Audit
BIST +5V RDY R1 R2 R3 RL EXT RESET

PC 486

TUC
T E S T

Serial port COM1: asynchronous link

Complete automatic Clock TDTI boards number TCB boards number Markers All boards TUC TDTI TCB BIST All boards TUC TDTI TCB Alarms Straps configuration TEI configuration TDTI boards configuration Continuity test All boards TDTI TCB Internal PCM states External PCM states All boards TDTI

J 6 4

TML/TCU test tree structure TUC Board

The TML/TCU is the TCU 2G maintenance tool that runs on the local tool TML. It is connected to the TCU 2G board through an asynchronous serial link at a rate of 9.6 kbps. All tests are performed in a standalone mode.

BSC/TCU e3 On-Site Maintenance with TML e3


1 - Overview
BSC/TCU e3

HTTP Server

HTML JAVA

Physical path Manager

LAN
Test server Test Management S/W Bus ATM Manager

TML e3 Interface Node access Transcoder Node access

Hardware Manager

The TML e3 application is a Java applet stored in the BSC e3 disk (MMS). The TML hardware is a PC: it works under Windows and behaves like a Java browser. The TML can be connected to the OMU module of the BSC e3 through Ethernet connections. The operator can plug into the active or passive module, if the LED status is correct. The TML can also be plugged into a hub that could be hosted in the SAI of the BSC e3. The TML e3 interface is independent of the BSC e3/TCU e3 software evolutions. The TML e3 allows a first BSC e3/TCU e3 installation to be performed. It allows the customization parameters of the BSC e3/TCU e3 to be read and modified: BSC number, IP address, PCM type, etc.. The configuration information on the different hardware modules can be read from the TML: board identification and states, software version, software and patch markers.

BSC/TCU e3 On-Site Maintenance with TML e3


2 - Principle
TML PC
http://mmm.ii.jjj.kk/BSCe3. html HTTP Server HTML JAVA

BSC e3 Platform

WEB Browser

Download html page and Java applet

TML e3 Application

Try connection Send USER and PASSWORD Send commands Receive answers Test server

Using a web browser, the TML operator loads an HTML page (through HTTP) holding the TML applet. The TML applet is then downloaded to the TML PC using the HTTP server. Once the TML e3 software is loaded in the TML PC, it is possible to start a test session. The messages exchanged between the TML and the BSC e3 are then done through a TCP/IP connection. The TML e3 communicates with the Test server software module. The TML e3 accesses the MIB for: modification of commissioning data: OMC-R link definition (IP, direct, ), PCM trunk setup, physical location definition (name, floor), consultation of software and hardware marking information.

BSC/TCU e3 On-Site Maintenance with TML e3


3 - Main Windows

The BSC e3 is able to inter-work with and manage TCU 2G (TCB2). This means that the transcoding resources of a given BSC e3 can be made of TCU 2G only or TCU e3 only or a mix of TCU2G and TCU e3. The support of TCU2G by BSC e3 allows protecting the customer investment on TCU2G (TCB2) done for EFR. The flexibility offered by this feature allows different product deployment scenarios: When new BSC e3 are added in the network for capacity extension, naturally TCU e3 will be installed with those BSC When installed BSC 2G are replaced by BSC e3, the existing TCU 2G can be kept as EFR transcoding resource, and possibly TCU e3 can be added for capacity reason for AMR When installed BSC2G are replaced by BSC e3, the customer may replace the TCU 2G as well, for capacity reason, floor space saving and operational simplification of the network. Each TCU (2G & e3) will require LAPD link for communication with the BSC e3.

OMC-S

Q3

FM agent PM agent

FM agent PM agent

The OMC-S is associated with Fault Management and Performance Management agents running on the SuperNode Data Manager/Fault Tolerant (SDM/FT) platform. These agents interact with the network elements internal operations and maintenance functions, receiving and storing fault and performance data which are transferred to the OMC-S or external NMC/OSS when required. The Open Q.3 interface requires interoperability testing and is between the SDM/FT and external OSS for Fault Management application. The open Q.3 interface for Performance Management application will be available in GEM09 release. This separation of management and agent functionality, allows the O&M processing to be efficiently deployed by minimizing the amount of information required to be transferred to the management system. The OMC-S applications may be run on both PCs. The OMC-S Man Machine Interface provides user access to: Configuration management. Fault management. Performance management.

SDM-FT Platform
1 - Architecture
SuperNode Data Manager- Fault Tolerant
-48 V dc A Feed

Maintenance and Power Bus A I/O Domain 0

Computing Core CPU 0

Disk Subsystem

Comm & I/O

Dual Fault Tolerant I/O Buses

CPU 1

Disk Subsystem

Comm & I/O

I/O Domain 1
-48 V dc B Feed

Maintenance and Power Bus B

The SDM/FT (SuperNode Data Manager/Fault Tolerant) platform, introduced in GEM08 release, is based on Motorola FX open system Series and is housed in a standard DMS-MC or DMS-HLR cabinet (C28). This platform is fully integrated into the DMS power (-48 V) and alarm subsystems: up to 512 M RAM and 22 GB Disks on each I/O domain, high speed DS-512 optical connections to CM cabinet. This platform collects and processes data to/from the managed MSC and HLR. The SDM/FT is necessary to support all OAMP applications, apart from Billing Management which is supported by GSM Billing Mediation Device (GBMD): FM and PM agents, provisioning server, service quality.

SDM-FT Platform
2 - Cabinet and Software Components
MSP

MSC
Shelf 2 I/O Expansion Chassis (Optional)
12345 678 9 10 11 121314156

Shelf 1 Main Chassis


123456 7 9 1121314516

Cooling Unit

OMC-S Element Manager Main Window


Menu Bar Tool Bar Fault Management Area

Configuration & Performance Area

Network Configuration Manager

OMC-S Configuration Management covers: Displaying Configuration Management Window in List or Graphic mode. Displaying Information on Elements. Displaying Log files.

Performance Management

Performance data monitoring allows network usage patterns and trends to be identified, enabling informed network design and engineering decisions to be made to optimize network resource utilization. The OMC-S PM contains two main components: Data Selection allows the user to control performance data retrieval. The user can define studies by selecting measurements to be retrieved, as well as using pre-defined measurements. The user can also define the start and stop time when measurement data is to be retrieved along with the retrieval frequency. Data Display allows the user to view the performance data either as a graph, which can have several measurements superimposed, or in raw data format. As well as displaying current data, the user can access archived data for historical performance analysis. The user can even export the raw data selected, for use with external processing packages. The Performance Management Agent running on SDM/FT supports the collection, processing and delivery of operational measurement data for its associated network element to the OMC-S by providing the following capabilities: Reception of the Operational Measurements (OM)s from the Network Element at the end of each transfer period (every 15, 30, 60 minutes, daily, weekly or monthly). Filtering and correlation of the Operational Measurements. Accumulation of OMs allowing the user to create new OMs by summing or processing existing ones, e.g. generating a summary measurement. Storage of raw and processed OMs which can be used directly by the manager or exported for use by other applications. Notification to the management layer of the arrival of new OM data.

Fault Management

Fault Management enables the network operator to maximize the availability of the GSM network, through rapid response to failure conditions by performing fault isolation and fault recovery. The OMC-S FM provides control of all fault management alarm information for the monitored Network Elements (NE) including: Displaying of received alarms where each alarm contains the name, date and event that occurred, and the affected components. The alarms displayed can be filtered, depending on user-defined criteria. Alarm alerts, enabling alarm changes on each NE to be received by the current alarm list. New alarms are added to the list. If the change means that a previous alarm has been cleared, it is removed from the list. Advanced fault filtering, allowing the operator to define the alarm criteria and create any alerting actions. The alerting actions can be programmed by the operator to trigger external alarm systems or more sophisticated procedures such as paging or e-mailing the support staff. The Fault Management Agent monitors the state of the resources in its associated Network Element (NE), providing two main functions: Resource Discovery allows the agent to retrieve and maintain information about the NE resources, e.g. signaling links, traffic circuits within the associated NE. Event Notification controls the updating of the NE resources from fault logs received for the NEs. The logs are converted into standardized TMN operations, and the relevant notification message indicates the event is transmitted to the OMC-S and/or NMC via Open Q.3 Interface.

Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

Section 4
Glossary,
Web Sites, Technical Books

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

8PSK

8 Phase Shift Keying: radio modulation used by GSM/EDGE.

A
A Abis Interface between MSC and TCU Interface between BTS and BSC

Access class Parameter stored on the SIM, (16 values) used to specifically bar certain types of subscribers. AC Alternative Current Absolute Characteristic: Subset of attributes which define an operational database managed by the OMC-R Configuration Management function. ACCH ACE ACFA ACM Associated Control CHannel: dedicated Slow (SACCH) or Fast (FACCH) radio signaling channel. Auxiliary Control Element Advanced CMOS Frame Aligner: Integrated DDTI board circuit enabling external PCM frame alignment. Address Complete Message Authentication Center Management ACSE ACU ADM Association Control Service Element: service element providing the exclusive ability to set up and terminate application associations. Air Conditioning Unit (S8000 outdoor) ADMinistration function enabled by OMC-R

ADM_MASER Main BSC administration processor functional unit ADM_SLAVE Auxiliary BSC administration processor functional unit ADSL AF AGCH Agprs Air interface AIS AIX A-law Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: network access technology on copper pair. Audio Frequencies: low audible frequencies. Access Grant CHannel: common mobile radio channel used exclusively for assign commands sent over the network in response to mobile access requests. Interface between BSC and PCUSN (GPRS) See Radio interface Alarm Indication Signal: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards). UNIX type Operating System of OMU module (BSC e3). Logarithmic coding standardized by ITU for transmission of digital speech on PCM transmission lines.
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


ALA ALAT ALATO ALArms collecting board, housed in the equipment cabinet supporting the alarm loops management (BSC 6000/12000). ALArms(s) regrouping board: BTS board supporting the S4000 Indoor BTS alarm management function. ALArms(s) regrouping board outdoor (S4000 Outdoor BTS, S2000 BTS and S4000 Smart BTS): board supporting S4000 Outdoor BTS, S4000 Smart BTS and S2000 Indoor BTS alarm management function. Automatic Level Control: gain control loop of the DRX. ALarm COllecting board of the BTS S8000 first version (before CBCF). ALarm PROtection board for external alarms and remote controls of the ALCO/RECAL board (BTS S8000). Alternate Mark Inversion: bipolar coding standard in which 1 is alternatively positive or negative. Advanced MaNagment Unit of the DRX: unit of the DRX processing AMRT frames. Advanced Mobile Phone System: first analogue radio cellular telephone (800 MHz) standard in USA (1978). Adaptative Multi-Rate: GSM vocoder (TCU). Automatic Maintenance Unit ANswer Message American National Standards Institute Advice of Charge Advice of Charge Charging Advice of Charge Information Functional processing part enabling BSC access to OMC-R Application Processor Cabinet: (DMS) BSC service element dedicated to OMC-R access functions. MSC/VLR switching system MSC/VLR control system Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number: corresponding to frequency value of the carrier. Advanced Speech Call Items: three services standardized by ETSI in GSM Phase 2+ (eMLPP, VBS and VGCS). Application Specific Integrated Circuit: device customized for a specific application.

ALC ALCO ALPRO AMI AMNU AMPS AMR AMU ANM ANSI AoC AoCC AoCI AOMC APC APE APT APZ ARFCN ASCI ASIC

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


ASN1 Ater ATM ATM-SW Attribute AuC AUI AUX AV A3 A5 A8 Abstract Syntax Notation 1: specification language for unambiguously describing complete protocol stacks. Interface between BSC and TCU. Asynchronous Transfer Mode: cell based data transfer technique using switching mode. ATM SWitch module (BSC e3/Control Node) Column in an OMC-R data server file. Authentication Center: management of security data (Ki) for authentication of subscribers (NSS function). Attachment Unit Interface: interconnecting cable. AUXiliary frame processor equipping the DCU board. Ventilation power supply. Authentication algorithm. Ciphering algorithm. Ciphering key computation algorithm.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

B
B BAIC BAOC BBU BCC Interface between MSC and associated VLR. Barring of All Incoming Calls Barring of All Outgoing Calls Base Band Unit: unit accommodating processors. Base station Color Code: Network cell color code = 3 last three BSIC code bits. The BCC is used to identify one of the cells sharing the same BCCH frequency. Neighboring cells may, or may not, have different BCC. Broadcast Control CHannel: common mobile logical channel used for broadcasting system information on the radio interface. Base Common Functions: common BTS control and switching unit (see CBCF and SBCF). BCF Back-Panel of the BTS BSC Application Database: contains all the information objects describing the BSS. Exploitation Data Base (OMC-R): contains all the information objects describing the BSS under OMC-R management control, and the objects required to manage OMC-R functionality. Part of the DRX: regenerates GSM TIME bus signals. Bit Error Rate: method of measuring the quality of radio link transmission. Bad Frame Indicator: flag indicating the quality of a received traffic frame. Busy Hour Call Attempts: Unit of telecommunications traffic intensity. Barring of all Incoming Calls when Roaming outside the home GSM network. Base Interface Front-end Processor: CPU board of the BSC 12000 managing the interface with BTS - see CPU-MPU. Built-In Self Test: system built into most BTS and BSC boards which automatically execute self tests when the boards are initialized or configured. Barring Outgoing International Calls Base Station Controller Basic Software Functions Base Station Identity Code: used to identify a base station which allows mobile stations to distinguish the cells sharing the same BCCH frequency. A BSIC is defined by an (NCC, BCC) combination. Base Station Subsystem: Radio Cellular Network radio subsystem made up of Base Station Controllers, one or more remote TransCoder Units and one or more Base Transceiver Stations.
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BCCH BCF BCFBP BDA BDE

BDT BER BFI BHCA BIC-Roam BIFP BIST BOIC BSC BSF BSIC

BSS

Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


BSSAP BSSMAP BSSOMAP BSTCE BTS BTU B8ZS BSS Application Part of the BSS A interface protocol stack (BSSMAP + DTAP). BSS Management Application Part of the A interface protocol stack charged with managing BSS radio resources and transferring calls. Application Part of the A interface protocol stack charged with BSS O&M. Base Station Terminal Control Element Base Transceiver Station: radio base station managing one or more cells. British Thermal Unit: 1 B.T.U. = 1055.056 Joules. Bipolar 8 Zero Substitution Coding: bipolar coding standard used on T1 PCM.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

C
C CA Interface between MSC and HLR Cell Allocation: radio frequency channel allocated to a cell.

CALL CLEARING Call release message CAMEL CBC CBCF CBCH CBDS CC CCBS CCCH CCF CCH CCITT CCS CCS7 Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic: IN based mechanisms for GSM. Cell Broadcast Center Compact BCF: new BCF module of the S8000/S12000 Indoor and Outdoor. Cell Broadcast CHannel: logical channel used inside a cell to broadcast short messages in unacknowledged mode. Connectionless Broadband Data Service: connection data transfer protocol. Call Control: application protocol between MS and MSC Country Code. Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers Common Control CHannel: common bidirectional mobile control channel, used for transmitting signaling information on the radio interface. Call Control Function (IN) Control CHannel: common or dedicated control channel. Comit Consultatif International Tlgraphique et Tlphonique: previous standardization organization replaced by ITU. Common Channel Signaling: MSC/VLR subsystem of common channel signaling links. Common Channel Signaling CCITT No. 7: BSC common channel signaling No. 7 interface board (A interface). (call processing).

CDE process IEC support process. CDMA CDO CDPD CDR CD-ROM CDX CEI CEPT Code Division Multiple Access BTS downloading control element. Cellular Digital Packet Data MSC Charging Data Record Compact Disc-Read Only Memory: for SUN system software installation. BTS software element handling the active/standby processing units. Commission Electrotechnique Internationale: ISO standards organization. Confrence Europenne des administrations des Postes et Tlcommunications.
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


CFB CFNRc CFNRy CFU CGI Call Forwarding on Busy subscriber Call Forwarding on MS Not Reachable Call Forwarding on No Reply Call Forwarding Unconditional Cell Global Identifier: identifier of a mobile network cell. Containing the Location Area Code (LAC), the Mobile Country Code (MCC), the Mobile Network Code (MNC) and the cell identifier in the Location Area CHannel Decoder CHannel Encoder MSC/VLR CHarging Subsystem Circuit Identity Code: terrestrial circuit reference used for A interface communications. Ciphered call Carrier on Interference Ratio: new name for C/I. BTS software element handling layers 1 and 2. Calling Line Identification Presentation Calling Line Identification Restriction Configuration Management: network O&M function enabled by OMC-R. Connection Management Level 3 of radio interface assembling call processing procedures (CC), short messages (SMS), and supplementary services (SS). CMA CMC CMCF CMG CMIC CMIP CMIS CMISE CML CMT CMW CMY BTS software element controlling the ALAT or ALATO board. SYN or SYNO board clock management software element of the BTS? Compact Main Common Function: main board of the CBCF (S8000/S12000). BTS software element controlling the CSW board. Packlet of the XA-Core (DMS). Common Management Information Protocol: OSI level 7 protocol for network management. Common Management Information Service: OSI Application level service. Common Management Information System Element BTS software element handling PCM links. BTS software element controlling FH bus and transmitter boards. BTS software element controlling the switching matrix. BTS software element controlling the SYN board.

CHD CHE CHS CIC CIPHER CIR CL2 CLIP CLIR CM

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


CNAP C-Node CO2 COAM CODOP CoLP CoLR COMICO COP CP CPCMI CPS Calling Name Presentation Control Node (BSC e3) BTS software element handling O&M bus layers 1 and 2. Centralized Operation Administration and Maintenance: new BCF architecture from V10 (S2000H&L) or V12 (S4000 and S8000) or V14 (S12000). Operation code Connected Line Identification Presentation Connected Line Identification Restriction COMbiner InterCOnnection module for the RF combiners (S8000/S12000) Signaling co-processor on the DCU board Central Processing unit Compact PCM Interface: PCM interface board of the CBCF (S8000/S12000). Cambridge Positioning Systems Limited Central MSC/VLR Processing Subsystem CPU Central Processing Unit: processing boards (BSC 6000/12000).

CPU-MPU/BIFP CPU - Main Processing Unit/Base Interface Front-end Processor: BSC processing boards. CPU-OMU CPU-SE CRC CRCC CRCn CS CS CSA CSAB CSB CSC CSMA/CD CSPDN CPU - Operations & Maintenance Unit: BSC Operation and Maintenance board. Central Processing Unit: Master BSC processing unit (CPU486SE or CPU66SE). Cyclic Redundancy Check: method for detecting errors in serial data transmission (CRC4 and CRC6) Also: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards). Cyclic Redundancy Check Controller Cyclic Redundancy Check (n = 4 or 6): Cyclic redundancy check four performed by DTI, DDTI and TDTI boards on PCM frames. Circuit Switched Coding Scheme for GPRS (CS1 to CS4) Control memory A TSM address memory Control memory B TSM control memory C. Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection: bus access mechanism of Ethernet LAN. Circuit Switched Public Data Network

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


CST CSU CSW CSW1 CSW2 CSWM CUG CVC CW CSW board initialization software element. Control Switching Unit (S4000 BTS). Control and Switching: BTS control and switching unit made up of CSW1 and CSW2 boards. BTS control unit. BTS switching unit. Control and SWitching Module: manages the BCF and contains the connection matrix in the BTS S8000 first version (before CBCF). Closed User Group: group of subscribers communicating only among themselves. HDB3AMI/B8ZS error counter filling threshold alarm. Call Waiting

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

D
D DACS DAT DBMS DC DCC DCCH DCE DCS DCU or DCU4 DCU8 DD DDM DDTI DI DLCI DLNA DLU DMS DOC DP DPMD DPRAM Interface between HLR and VLR. Direct Ambient Cooling System: System Cooling Unit Outdoor). (BTS S8000/S12000

Digital Audio Tape: cartridge used for backing up and storing data. Data Base Management System: OMC-R uses the SYBASE data management system. Direct Current Data Channel Concentrator (BTS) Dedicated Control CHannel: dedicated radio signaling channel with one SDCCH + one SACCH. Data Circuit terminating Equipment: modem for example. Digital Cellular System: Radio Cellular Network standard adapted for the 1800 MHz frequency band. Therefore, also called GSM 1800. Dual Channel Unit: FP unit designed to process TDMA frame time slots. Digital Control Unit for 8 channels: signal processing module, part of the DRX. Dynamic Data: dynamic attribute of an operational database object updated by BSC applications. Digital Data Module Dual Digital Trunk Interface: BSC interface board controlling two external PCM links with BTS (interface Abis) or TCU (interface Ater). Internal Data: Parameter of an operational database object under local management control in the OMC-R operations database. Data Link Connection Identifier Duplexer Low Noise Amplifier: radio module (BTS e-cell). Downloadable Logical Unit: configuration file for software customization (BTS). Digital Multiplex switching System: Nortel switch equipment used for MSC (NSS). Department Of Communications Permanent Data: permanent attribute of an operational object managed in BDE and BDA databases. Planned release data. Dual Port Random Access Memory: Type of random access memory equipping central BSC processing units.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


DRAM DRMD DRU DRX Dynamic Random Access Memory: type of read/write memory equipping central processing units (BSC 6000/12000). Effective release date. DRiving Unit (TCB board). Discontinuous Reception: used on Radio interface Driver and Receiver unit: signal processing unit for radio transmission and reception (BTS S12000, S8000 and S2000H&L). Static Data: Static OMC-R configuration data. Data Signaling Concentration: BCF signaling concentration board (BTS S8000). Digital Signal Processor: device dedicated to signal digital treatment. Direct Transfer Application Part: application of the A interface protocol charged with transferring transparent messages between mobile stations and MSC. Data Terminal Equipment: end equipment of a communication path; PC or server for example. Digital Trunk Interface: BTS board controlling one external PCM link. Dual Tone Multiple-Frequency: dialing method using a combination of two frequencies among a standardized set of frequencies. Discontinuous Transmission: used on Radio interface to switch-off the radio activity during the silent times until the conversation resumes. Data User Part: interface with PAD (PSDN).

DS DSC DSP DTAP DTE DTI DTMF DTX DUP

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

E
E EA EC ECI ECIA ECIB ECSD EDA EDGE eDRX EEC EFD EFR EFT EGPRS E-GSM EIR EIRP EIU EL EMC EMI eMLPP ENET EOS E-OTD ePA EPROM Interface between two MSCs. Early Assignment Echo Canceller Equipment Cabinet Interface: supervision board of several Equipment cabinet boards (BSC 6000/12000). ECI board partnered with the MPUA processing unit. ECI board partnered with the MPUB processing unit. Enhanced Circuit Switched Data: circuit switched version of EDGE. Estimated Data of Availability Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution edge capable DRX European Economic Community Event Forwarding Discriminator Enhanced Full Rate: high quality speech vocoder (MS and TCU). Transferable File Element: sets of files used between OMC-R and BSS, controlled by the FTAM function. Enhanced GPRS: packet switched version of EDGE. Extended GSM: frequency band allowed to extend the GSM 900. Equipment Identity Register Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power Ethernet Interface Unit: LPP board of the DMS. Software element: Processor functional unit component. Electro-Magnetic Compatibility Electro-Magnetic Interference enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption: supplementary service allowing priority levels and resources preemption (ASCI service used in GSM-R). Enhanced NETwork: switching matrix of the DMS (Nortel MSC). End Of Silence allowing normal voice frame transmission (see DTX). Enhanced Observed Time Difference edge capable PA Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory: type of on-board memory.
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


EQPD EQPD0 EQPD1 EQPI Erlang ERP ESF E-TCH/F43.2 E-TCH/F32.0 E-TCH/F28.8 eTRX ETSI EQuiPment cabinet shelf housing DDTI boards (BSC 6000/12000). The first PCM shelf housing DDTI boards in a BSC 6000 equipment cabinet. The second PCM shelf housing DDTI boards in a BSC 6000 equipment cabinet. EQuiPment cabinet shelf housing ALA, RCB and TSCB boards (BSC 6000/12000). Unit of telecommunications traffic intensity representing the average number of resources or circuits occupied during the peak traffic hour. Effective Radiated Power Extended Super Frame: PCM T1 multiframe (24 basic frames and CRC6). 43.2 kbps full rate data traffic channel. 32.0 kbps full rate data traffic channel. 28.8 kbps full rate data traffic channel. Edge capable TRX = eDRX + ePA or = eDRX + HePA. European Telecommunication Standards Institute: European organization responsible for standardization in Europe. It emerged from CEPT in 1988.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

F
F FAC FACCH Fb FCC FCCH FCH FCS FDMA FE FEC FH FH bus FIFO FM FMS FN FP FPGA FPRX FP-RX bus FR Interface between MSC and EIR. Final Assembly Code Fast Associated Control CHannel: dedicated signaling channel (Um interface). Radio transmission Frequency bit Federal Communication Commission Frequency Correction CHannel: common frequency synchronization channel. Frequency CHannel: common frequency synchronization channel. Frame Check Sequence: added to information and control fields of LAPD, LAPDm and SS7 frames. Frequency Division Multiple Access: access sharing technique which divides the frequency space into a multiplicity of frequencies. Frame Error: frame alignment error counter alarm. Also: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards). Frame Error Counter: on DTI board, FEC counts frame lock error. Frequency Hopping Frequency Hopping bus: BTS data transmission bus between the FP and TX. First In First Out memory Fault Management: O&M network function enabled by MD-R or OMC-R. MSC/VLR File Management Subsystem Frame Number: internal clock of a BTS, to which every MS has to synchronize before the beginning of the communication (see hyperframe). Frame Processor: TDMA radio frame processor in BTS. Field Programmable Gate Array: programmable integrated circuit. TDMA radio frame processor and receiver function. BTS data transmission bus between FP and RX. Full Rate: normal quality speech vocoder (MS and TCU).

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


FRONTEND BTS front end telecommunications processor. FRU FTAM FTS Field Replaceable Unit File Transfer Access and Management: ISO file transfer and remote file management protocol used by the EFT. File Transfer Service: OMC-R service that manages the FTAM protocol. FTS acts on behalf of other OMC-R applications to send and receive files known to the OMC-R file manager and to manage remote BSC files.

G
G GDMO GMLC GMSC GMSK GPP GPRS GPS GSC GSM GSM-R GSM time Interface between one VLR and another VLR. Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects Gateway Mobile Location Center Gateway Mobile Switching Center: MSC that allows a GSM network to interface with other networks. Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying: radio modulation used by GSM. GSM PassPort: Nortel PassPort switch customized for IWF. General Packet Radio Service Global Positioning System Group Switching Center Global System for Mobile communications GSM network for Railway companies GSM system clock in BTS.

GSM time bus GSM time distribution bus in BTS: BTS bus used to distribute GSM time. GTW GUI GaTeWay board between the BCF and the DRXs of the S8000 first version (before CBCF). Graphic User Interface

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

H
HANDOVER Automatic call transfer implemented between the radio channels of the same or different cells without interrupting transmission. HDB3 HDLC HePA HLR HMI HO HON HRS HSCSD HSCX HSI HSN HR HOLD H2D H4D High Density Bipolar 3: bipolar PCM link coding standard 3. High-level Data Link Control: data link protocol family: LAPB (ISDN), LAPDm (GSM), MTP-2 (SS7). High power version of an ePA Home Location Register: data base for permanent subscribers information (profile, billing, location, etc.). Human-Machine Interface: interface between the human user and any kind of machine (replace MMI). HandOver: automatic call transfer implemented between the radio channels of the same or different cells without interrupting transmission. HandOver Number: Number issued to establish a circuit between MSC for a called to be handed over. Home location Register Subsystem supported by MSC/VLR. High Speed Circuit Switched Data High-level Serial communications Controller eXtended: Controller managing two HDLC links. High-Speed Interface (X.25 SUN server board). Hopping Sequence Number (see Frequency Hopping). Half Rate: quality speech vocoder (MS and TCU). Call Hold service Hybrid Coupler 2 ways with integrated Duplexer Hybrid Coupler 4 ways with integrated Duplexer (X.25), LAPD

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

I
IAM Id ID IDE IEC IEEE IEEE 802.3 IETF Initial Address Message Identifier: BSC or OMC-R object instance identifier Non urgent action: Abbreviation identifying an urgent alarm requiring action which may be slightly postponed. Integrated Disk Electronic: hard disk interface between CPU-OMU and MMU_IDE boards (BSC 12000HC). International Electrotechnical Committee: A standardization body of the ISO. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Recommendation IEEE 802.3: standardization of Ethernet, using the CSMA/CD access method and bus topology LAN. Internet Engineering Task Force: organization that provides the coordination of standards and specification development for TCP/IP networking.IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity: permanently stored in the MS. ISDN Link Controller (CLR). Urgent action: Abbreviation identifying a received alarm requiring immediate action. International Mobile Equipment Identity: identification of the mobile equipment rather than the subscriber and used to detect the stolen MEs (black list). International Mobile Subscriber Identity: primary identification of the subscriber. Intelligent Network: open system for universal networks services number, prepaid calling, sponsored calling, location enquiry, VPN, etc.). Interface Node: Interface and switching node (BSC e3). Input/Output. Input Output Controller: (DMS). Input Output Module: (DMS). Input Output Processor module: (DMS). MSC/VLR Input/Output Subsystem. Internet Protocol: level 3 protocol usually used above Ethernet Intelligent Peripheral: IN node. ISDN Primary Access Transceiver: ISDN subscriber access protocol access). Integrated Services Digital Network. Integrated Service Module: (DMS). International Standards Organization.
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ILC IM IMEI IMSI IN I-Node I/O IOC IOM IOP IOS IP IPAT ISDN ISM ISO

(personal

(basic

Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


ISPBX ISUP ITU IWF IWU Integrated Services Private Branch eXchange. ISDN user part: protocol used by the MSC for signaling towards the ISDN (SS7). International Telecommunication Union: standardization organization. InterWorking Function: subsystem of the NSS used for data communication with other networks. InterWorking Unit: NSS function for data services.

K
kb Kc key kHz Ki kW kilobyte (1024 bytes). Key of ciphering: encrypting key assigned to a mobile subscriber. Identifies a logical file record by one or more attributes. kiloHertz. Identification key for every SIM card, stored on the AuC/HLR. kiloWatt.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

L
L1 L1M L2 L2ML LAC LAI LAN LAP LAPB LAPD LAPDm LAPDp LAPDs LAPD_ACC LAPD_DL Lb LBO Lc LC LCO LCS LDB Le LED LFA BTS software element handling the LAPD Level 1 protocol. Layer one Management: Processor functional unit handling BTS radio measurements. BTS software element handling the LAPD Level 2 protocol. Abis interface layer level 2 management function. Location Area Code: code used to identify a location area. Location Area Identity: geographic identity of a group of cells used to locate a mobile station. Local Area Network: local OMC Ethernet network. Link Access Protocol family: LAPB, LAPD, LAPDm. Link Access Protocol Balanced: X.25 link signaling protocol. Link Access Protocol on D channel: signaling protocol used on the Abis interface between BTS and the BSC and on the Ater interface between BSC and TCU. Link Access Protocol on D channel, modified: signaling protocol used on GSM radio interface. Link Access Protocol on D channel, principal. Link Access Protocol on D channel, secondary. LAPD_ACCess: BSC processor functional unit monitoring LAPD interface access. LAPD_DataLink: BSC processor functional unit monitoring the LAPD protocol Interface between Serving MLC and BSC (BSC interface). Line Build Out: PCM T1 line attenuation. Interface between Gateway MLC and gsmSCF (CAMEL interface). Logical Channel. Inter-processor communication layer: Core system software layer enabling inter board interchanges, OSI layer management and file transfer applications. LoCation Services. Operating system: one of the three BSC core system software levels. Interface between External User and MLC (external interface). Light Emitting Diode Loss of Frame Alignment: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards).
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


LFA Lg Lh LIU LIC LL LMS LMU LNA LNA-splitter Loss of Frame Alignment: LED on front face of DTI board. Interface between Gateway MLC and VMSC (Gateway MLC interface). Interface between Gateway MLC and HLR (HLR interface). Link Interface Unit: LPP board DMS. Board initialization software Leased Line. Local Message Switch: LPP board of the DMS. Location Measurement Unit Low Noise Amplifier Low Noise Amplifier-splitter: used for separation of signals received in the BTS.

logical record Line in an OMC-R data server file. LOS Lp LPD box LPP Ls LSA-RC LVC LOSs of PCM frame alignment alarm signal. Interface between two SMLCs. Lightning Protection and Distribution box. Link Peripheral Processor: main interface equipment of the DMS. Interface between Serving MLC and VMSC (Serving MLC interface). Low Speed Access-Resource Complex: BSC e3 interface module controlling several external PCM links with BTS (interface Abis) or TCU (interface Ater). Low Voltage Circuit

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

M
MA MAIO MAN MAP MAS MASTER Mb MBII MCC MCGS MCIP MCP MCS MCS MDB MDO MD-R MDS ME MEU MexE MFR MGS MHz MIB MIS MLC Mobile Allocation: table of channel associated frequency allocations. Mobile Allocation Index Offset: reference of channel associated frequencies. Mobile Access Number: Number identifying a mobile subscriber. Mobile network Application Part protocol. MSC/VLR maintenance subsystem Master frame processor on the DCU board. Megabyte (1024 kb) See Multibus II. Mobile Country Code: a 3 digits number that identifies a country (not a PLMN). Meridian Cabinet Global Switch: main cabinet of the Micronode DMS. Meridian Cabinet Interface Power: cabinet of the Micronode DMS. OMC-R server X.25 interface controller. Modulation and Coding Scheme for EGPRS (MCS1 to MCS9). Man machine Communications Subsystem. Core System: Processor network reference model which may be tailored to fit several different hardware architectures. Software element controlling BTS software downloading. Mediation Device OMC-Radio ManageD System (BSC). Mobile Equipment: Mobile Station without SIM. Masthead Electronics Unit: Mini-masthead electronics cabinet. Remote amplifier located between BTS and the antenna. Mobile Station Execution Environment Measurement Function Receiver ManaginG System (OMC-R) MegaHertz Management Information Base: data base containing managed objects in Q3 format. Power supply converter unit located in the basic BTS cabinet switching rack (CSU) and extension cabinet MIS shelf. Mobile Location Center
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


MM MMC MMI MMS MMU MMU_IDE MNC MNP MNU MODEM MOM MoU MPC Mobility Management: user protocol between the MS and the NSS for MS location (roaming and security functions). Man Machine Communications: By extension, command issued by users on the MMI interface to implement dialogues with OMC-R. Man Machine Interface enabling message exchanges between OMC-R and users. Mass Memory Storage: SCSI hard disk board (BSC e3). Mass Memory Unit: SCSI hard disk board (BSC 6000/12000). Mass Memory Unit_IDE hard disk board (BSC 12000HC). Mobile Network Code: 2 digits number used to identify a PLMN. Microcom Network Protocol: Data transmission protocols (compressing, error detection and correction). MaNagement Unit: BTS processor. FP frame management unit. MASTER and AUX processor controlling handling frame modulation and demodulation on the DCU board. BTS software element handling Operation and Maintenance. Memorandum of Understanding Minutes of Usage: subscriber activity. Message Passing Coprocessor: Message transfer buffer circuit between the CPU-MPU board and the SICX board bus (for X.25) or SICD board bus (for LAPD). Maximum Permissible Exposure Multiparty service: supplementary service. Main Processing Unit: set of processor boards (BSC 6000/12000). Abbreviation used to designate the first BSC processing unit, housed on upper control cabinet shelf. Abbreviation used to designate the second BSC processing unit, housed on lower control cabinet shelf. BTS software element controlling level 3 radio resources. Mobile Station: mobile voice and data terminal or handset. Mobile services Switching Center: GSM switch equipment (NSS). Mobile Station ISDN: number used by the calling party to reach a GSM subscriber. Mobile Station Roaming Number: temporary identifier used to route mobile terminating calls. Message Signal Unit: Abbreviation designating a useful A interface frame (SS7 protocol).
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MPE MPTy MPU MPUA MPUB MRR MS MSC MSISDN MSRN MSU

Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


MSW MTP MTS Multibus II Main SWitching: switching matrix board of the SWU 6000/12000/12000HC). Message Transfer Part: CCITT signaling system No. 7 part (A interface). MSC/VLR Mobile Telephone Subsystem Data bus between the different BSC processing boards (Intel standard, equivalent to IEEE standard 1296) Multibus II is a registered trademark of Intel. (BSC

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

N
N1R N3-ALA N3-DCC N3-DTI N3-SYN N3-TX NACK NCC NDC NFS Software element controlling BTS Radio level 1. Software element controlling level 3 of BTS ALArms. Software element controlling level 3 of the BTS signaling concentrator. Software element controlling level 3 of the BTS PCM unit. Software element controlling level of the BTS synchronization unit. Software element controlling level 3 of the BTS transmitter. Negative ACKnowledgement. Network Color Code: first three bits of the BSIC code. Each PLMN is assigned a NCC. National Destination Code: part of the ISDN number (E.164) used to address an area or a service. Network File System: standard network file management system; set of level 5 to 7 protocols enabling transparent file sharing between several machines (possibly heterogeneous) connected in a local network. Network Interface Unit: LPP board of the DMS. Network Management Center: linked to all the OMC, to manage the entire GSM network as a whole. Non-Maskable Interrupt (SUP board). Network Management Platform (OMC-R) Network Management Subsystem (MSC/VLA) NO Signal: PCM alarm LED for no frame signal received boards). (DTI/TDTI/DDTI

NIU NMC NMI NMP NMS NOS NRZ NSS NTPs

Non Return to Zero: coding scheme used for binary signal (internal PCM). Network and switching SubSystem: subsystem including an MSC, main HLR, VLR, EIR and AUC. Nortel Technical Publications: Nortel Networks product documentation.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

O
OA OACSU OAM OC-3 OBR OBS OBS_MASTER OBS_SLAVE OE OEM OMA O&M O&M bus OMC OMC-R OMC-S OML OMN OMS OMU OMU OSI OSS Application object: OMC Administration, OMC-R function (cf. ADM). Off-Air Call SetUp: procedure for setting up calls with allocating a radio channel during the call routing time. OMN Access Management: functional enabled by OMC-R. Optical Carrier-3: SONET frame at 155 Mbps used between the two Nodes of BSC e3. Processor functional unit supporting BSC radio observations. Processor function unit supporting BSC OBServations. Main BSC Processor observation functional unit. Secondary BSC Processor observation functional unit. Managed object: Object managed by OMC-R on the OMN interface, modeling an entity, set, function or BSS equipment. Original Equipment Manufacturer Operations and Maintenance Access Operation and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance bus (BTS-BSC 6000/12000-TCU 6000). Operation and Maintenance Center Operation and Maintenance Center - Radio: for BSS. Operation and Maintenance Center - Switching: for NSS. Operation and Maintenance Link: LAPD link supporting BSS Operation and Maintenance functions. Operation and Maintenance Network: interface used for transferring messages between OMC-R and connected BSC. Operation and Maintenance Subsystem Operations & Maintenance Unit: BSC operation and maintenance module (BSC e3). See CPU-OMU board (BSC 12000). Open System Interconnection: standard model for computer communications, organized into seven layers, each containing several protocols. Operation SubSystem: operations subsystem including the OMC-R and OMC-S.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

P
P PA PAD PC PCH PCM See DPMD. Power Amplifier Packet Assembler/Disassembler (X.25). Personal Computer Paging CHannel: common subscriber radio paging channel. Pulse Code Modulation: PCM link connecting either BSC to BTS (Abis interface), or BSC to TCU (Ater interface). E1 : 2.048 Mbit/s (2 Mbit/s physical link supporting 32 x 64 kbit/s time slots (TS)) T1 : 1.544 Mbit/s (1.5 Mbit/s physical link supporting 24 x 64 kbit/s time slots (TS)). PCM bus PCMA Pulse Code Modulation bus: Internal BTS PCM distribution bus. Pulse Code Modulation A interface: Managed objects modeling the PCM links connecting TCU to MSC (A interface) in an architecture with remote transcoder units. PCM Interface board supporting two PCM interfaces between BTS and BSC. Personal Communication Network: High density telephone network created in 1989 by the DTI (Department of Trade & Industry). Personal Communication Service: Digital mobile network, which operates at the 1900 MHz frequency band. GSM 1900 is one of the technologies used in building PCS networks (also referred to as PCS 1900 or DCS 1900). Such networks employ a range of technologies including GSM, TDMA and cdmaOne. Power Control Unit (BTS S8000) Packet Control Unit Support Node: GPRS node. Pcm-30 Digital Trunk Interface (DMS). GPRS or EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel

PCMI PCN PCS

PCU PCUSN PDTC PDTCH

PDTCH/CS1 GPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using CS1. PDTCH/CS2 GPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using CS2. PDTCH/CS3 GPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using CS3. PDTCH/CS4 GPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using CS4. PDTCH/MCS1 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS1. PDTCH/MCS2 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS2. PDTCH/MCS3 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS3. PDTCH/MCS4 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS4.
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


PDTCH/MCS5 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS5. PDTCH/MCS6 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS6. PDTCH/MCS7 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS7. PDTCH/MCS8 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS8. PDTCH/MCS9 EGPRS Packet Data Traffic Channel using MCS9. PFU P-GSM PIN PLL PLMN PM POD PPCM PROM PS PS/A PS/B PSCMD PSDN PSN PSPDN PSTN PSU PSUC PSUE PVC Processor Functional Unit: Element of a functional unit entirely enabled by a single processor. Primary GSM band: new name of the basic GSM 900 band. Personal Identity Number: 4 to 8 digits number stored on the SIM by the user that provides limited protection against unauthorized use. Phase Locked Loop: to maintain the synthesizer frequency. Public Land Mobile Network: GSM network of an operator (identified by its NCC). Performance Management: function enabled by OMC. Physical Object Dictionary used as a configuration file by the Fault Management function (OMC-R). Pico PCM Interface: BTS e-cell board controlling two external PCM links with BSC (Abis interface). Programmable Read-Only Memory Packet Switched. Power Supply converter (BTS) Power Supply converter housed in the basic cabinet switching (CSU) unit and the extension cabinet MIS shelf (BTS). Power Supply CoMmanD board for the converters of the BCF first version (BTS S8000). Packet-Switched Data Network Public Switched Network Packet Switched Public Data Network. Public Switched Telephone Network Power Supply Unit. Power Supply Unit, Control: BSC control cabinet unit. Power Supply Unit, Equipment: BSC equipment cabinet unit. Permanent Virtual Circuit

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

Q
QoS Q3 interface Quality of Service Standard communication interface between a manager and agent in Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) architecture.

R
R RACE RACH See DRMD Remote ACcess Equipment: remote OMC-R operations terminal. Random Access CHannel: common mobile logical channel, reserved for random access requests transmitted by mobile stations on the radio interface.

Radio interface Interface between the mobile station (MS) and BTS. RAM RAND RCB RCV RDBMS REA RECAL RED REE RF RGA RGE R-GSM RISC RLC Random Access Memory: read and write memory. RANDom binary word generated by AUC for authentication algorithms. Rate Converter Board enabling PCM rate conversion for LAPD 6000/12000). ReCeiVer: RCP receiver. Relational Data Base Management System Application Elementary Response: MGS-MDS protocol unit sent by BSC to OMC. REmote Control Alarm: new board used with the Compact BCF to replace ALCO inside each S8000 cabinet. Also used in S12000 cabinet. Rectifier. Operation Elementary Response: Message sent by BSC to OMC-R in response to TEE, MGS-MDS protocol unit sent by BSC to OMC. Radio Frequency Application Global Response: Message sent in response to a TGA, containing a set of REA units. Operation Global Response: Message sent to OMC-R by BSC in response to a TGE, containing a set of REE units. Railway GSM: GSM 900 band (4 MHz) allocated to Railway companies. Reduced Instruction-Set Computer: computer which provides the ability to process an optimized set of instructions. Radio Link Control
".

(BSC

9-30

Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


RLP Roaming ROM ROSE ROT RP RPB RPE-LTP RPH RPS RR RRA RS485 RSL RTIF RTLU RX Radio Link Protocol The ability of a subscriber to move around and change the location, with or without an active connection. Read Only Memory Remote Operations Service Element: OSI layer 7 protocol for network management. Remote Operations Terminal: remote OMC-R operations terminal. Regional Processor Regional Processor Bus Regular pulse excitation-long-term prediction: procedure used to compress speech data from 64 Kbps to 13 Kbps. Regional Processor Handling (MSC/VLR) Regional Processor Subsystem (MSC/VLR) Radio Resource: layer 3 radio interface sublevel handling radio resources. Receiver Remote Alarm: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards). Electrical communications standard (physical level). Radio Signaling Link: signaling channel between TRX and BSC. Reset Terminal Interface (DMS XA-Core). Radio Test Loop Unit. Receiver part of the TRX (BTS).

RX-CONTROL FP-RX bus control link. RXD RXM BTS diversity receiver. BTS main receiver.

RX-SAMPLE FP-RX bus data transport link. RX-Splitter Reception Multicoupler.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

S
SABM SACCH SAI SAM SAPI SAT SBCF SCC SCCP SCE SCF SCH SCP SCSE SCSI SDA SDCCH Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode: initialization LAPD frame. Slow Associated Control CHannel: slow logical control channel associated with a traffic channel during a communication. Service Area Interface (BSC/TCU e3). Smart Antenna Module Service Access Point Identifier (LAPD) SIM Application Toolkit Small BCF: BCF module of the S2000H&L BTS. SuperNode Combined Core: main cabinet of the SNSE DMS. Signaling Connection Control Part (CCITT No. 7) Service Creation Environment: IN station. Service Control Function: IN function. Synchronization CHannel: common time division synchronization channel. Service Control Point: IN node. Communication Service with managed Systems: application handling communications with systems managed by OMC-R. Small Computer System Interface: hard disk interface between the MMU and CPU-OMU boards (BSC 6000/12000). Speech and Data Adaptator: DCU board vocoder. Standalone Dedicated Control CHannel: dedicated radio signaling channel temporarily allocated during call set up. There are 2 types of SDCCH = SDCCH/8 and SDCCH/4, on which the logical channels are grouped by 4 and by 8 respectively and combined with CCH. Service Data Function: (IN function) OMC-R data server (Serveur de Donnes Objet). Solstice Disk Suite: SSA operating system. Super Frame: PCM T1 multiframe (12 basic frames without CRC). Slow Frequency Hopping: FH used in GSM. Functional service: BSS subsystem function classification. SI No action: Abbreviation used to identify an alarm which does not need to be attended outside normal working hours.

SDF SDO SDS SF SFH

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


SICD SICD8V SICX SID SIGN SIM SKP SLS SLS2 SM SMLC SMP SMS Serial Interface Controller LAPD: LAPD controller board for Abis and Ater interface (BSC 6000/12000). SICD board evolution for 8 channels. Serial Interface Controller X.25 (BSC 6000/12000). SIlence Descriptor: silence frame used in discontinuous transmission (DTX). SIGNalization unit: signalization unit processing two time slots. Subscriber Identity Module: smart card containing information on the subscriber. SKiP indication received: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards). Serial Link Switch board supporting the link with OMC-R (BSC 6000/12000). Serial Link Switch board supporting the link with OMC-R (BSC 12000HC). Security Management: software management function supported by OMC-R. Serving Mobile Location Center. Software element handling BTS traffic measurements. Short Messages Service: service for sending and receiving short messages between Radio Cellular Network mobile stations. Point to point short messages include short SMS-MO/PP messages and short SMS-MT/PP messages. Service Management System: IN server Short Message Service-Cell Broadcast

SMS-CB

SMS-MO/PP Short message sent by mobile station. SMS-MT/PP SMS-SC SNSE SOM SP SPD SPE SPI SPS SPU SQL SR1 SRAM Short message received by mobile station. Short Message Service-Service Center: point to point message center equipment. SuperNode Size Enhanced: compact SuperNode DMS. Software element handling BTS Operation and Maintenance. Support Processor (MSC/VLR) SPeech Decoder SPeech Encoder Serial Peripheral Interface Support Processor Subsystem Signal Processor Unit: radio signal processor for one time slot (BTS). Structured Query Language. BTS software unit which manages level 1 radio access. Static Random Access Memory
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


SRES SRF SRR SRU SS SS7 SS7_LOW SS7_MGT SS7_UPP SSA SSF SSP STA STP STRTM SUP SUP2 SUP_F_RDS SUP_M_BSC SUP_M_CA SUP_M_SHL SWC SWE SWG SWMA SWMB SWR SWT Signed RESult: binary word generated by AUC for authentication algorithms. Specialized Resource Function: (IN function). Software element handling BTS radio resources. Set of Rectifier Units of the BTS S8000. Supplementary Services: radio interface layer 3 sublevel handling supplementary services. Signaling System 7: functional unit handling the Signaling System No. 7 (A interface). Processor functional unit handling BSC layer 1 and 2 protocol. Processor functional unit controlling BSC signaling system No 7 interface. Processor functional unit controlling the BSC layer 3 protocol. SPARC Storage Array: SUN hard disk unit of the OMC-R. Service Switching Function: IN function. Service Switching Point: IN node. Application support layer: Software layer of BSC core system. Signaling Transfer Point: node within a SS7 network which processes or relay the SS7 messages. FP-RX bus strobe. SUPervision board supervising a processing unit (BSC 6000/12000). SUPervision board supervising a processing unit (BSC 12000HC). Processor BSC radio monitoring functional unit Main physical BSC radio monitoring functional unit Processor BSC processor monitoring functional unit BSC equipment monitoring element SWitching Controller board of the SWU (BSC 6000/12000/12000HC). SWitching Extension board enabling V11/TTL conversion for internal PCM (BSC 6000/12000). SwitchinG shelf (Equipment cabinet) housing the SWU (SWC, MSW and SWE) and the ECI boards (BSC 6000/12000). SWM board partnered with the MPUA processing unit. SWM board partnered with the MPUB processing unit. Stationary Wave Rate BSC cabinet shelf housing the switching matrix units and duplicated ECI boards.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


SWU SYMPA SYN SYNAD SYNC SYNO SWitching Unit regrouping SWC, MSW and SWE boards 6000/12000/12000HC). Real time monitor SYNchronization unit (BTS) SYNchronization Adaptor: Interface for the BTS synchronization board. SYNChronization unit of the BTS containing the SYN and the SYNAD. SYNchronization Outdoor Unit (BSC

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

T
T2 Period at which Permanent, Instrument panel and Temporary observation counters are recovered to generate observation reports, and also to back up Permanent and Temporary observation reports. Temporary observation counter time. 30 mn reference period used to obtain uniform daily statistics (synchronized activation of permanent and instrument panel observations). Timing Advance: dynamic values conveyed to the MS to indicate how much earlier a burst has to be sent to the BTS, to prevent collision with bursts of other MSs. Terminal Adaptation Function: supports the MS in setting up data connections. Terrestrial Circuit: PCM link time slot used to support traffic on A interface. Transaction Capabilities Application Part (CCITT SS7). TransCoding Board, enabling speech transcoding (FR) and data rate adaptation up to 9.6 kbps (TCU 12000). TransCoding Board, enabling speech transcoding (FR and EFR) and data rate adaptation up to 14.4 kbps (TCU 12000). Traffic CHannel: radio traffic channel. adaptative mutirate full rate speech traffic channel, generic name for TCH/AFS12.2, TCH/AFS10.2, TCH/AFS7.95, TCH/AFS7.4, TCH/AFS6.7, TCH/AFS5.9, TCH/AFS5.15 and TCH/AFS4.75 adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 12.2 kbps. adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 10.2 kbps. adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 7.95 kbps. adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 7.4 kbps. adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 6.7 kbps. adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 5.9 kbps. adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 5.15 kbps. adaptative mutirate full rate speech, 4.75 kbps. adaptative mutirate half rate speech traffic channel, generic name for TCH/AHS7.95, TCH/AHS7.4, TCH/AHS5.15 and TCH/AHS4.75 adaptative mutirate half rate speech, 7.95 kbps.
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T3 T4

TA

TAF TC TCAP TCB TCB2 TCH TCH/AFS

TCH/AFS12.2 TCH/AFS10.2 TCH/AFS7.95 TCH/AFS7.4 TCH/AFS6.7 TCH/AFS5.9 TCH/AFS5.15 TCH/AFS4.75 TCH/AHS

TCH/AHS6.7,

TCH/AHS5.9,

TCH/AHS7.95

Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


TCH/AHS7.4 TCH/AHS6.7 TCH/AHS5.9 TCH/AHS5.15 TCH/AHS4.75 TCH/EFS TCH/F adaptative mutirate half rate speech, 7.4 kbps. adaptative mutirate half rate speech, 6.7 kbps. adaptative mutirate half rate speech, 5.9 kbps. adaptative mutirate half rate speech, 5.15 kbps. adaptative mutirate half rate speech, 4.75 kbps. enhanced full rate speech traffic channel. full rate traffic channel, generic name for TCH/AFS, TCH/EFS, TCH/FS, TCH/F14.4, TCH/F9.6, TCH/F4.8, TCH/F2.4, E TCH/F43.2, E-TCH/F32.0, E-TCH/F28.8, PDTCH/CS1 to CS4 and PDTCH/MCS1 to MCS9. 14.4 kbps full rate data traffic channel. 9.6 kbps full rate data traffic channel. 4.8 kbps full rate data traffic channel. 2.4 kbps full rate data traffic channel. full rate speech traffic channel. half rate traffic channel, generic name for TCH/AHS, TCH/HS, TCH/H4.8 and TCH/H2.4. 4.8 kbps half rate data traffic channel. 2.4 kbps half rate data traffic channel. half rate speech traffic channel. Transmission Control Protocol: level 4 protocol usually used above IP. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: levels 4 and 3 of the OSI reference model. Traffic Control Subsystem: MSC/VLR traffic routing and control subsystem. TransCoder Unit: Nortel name for the Transcoder Rate Adapter Unit equipment. Software element controlling coded block transmission. Software element handling frame coding and error event tests. Software element handling coded frame de-interleaving. Time Division Multiple Access: transmission frame on the radio interface, divided into eight time slots (TS) or channels. BTS signaling processing software element. Transcoder Dual Trunk Interface: board handling PCM links (TCU 12000). Application Elementary Transaction. Operation elementary transaction: MGS-MDS protocol unit sent to BSC by OMC.
".

TCH/F14.4 TCH/F9.6 TCH/F4.8 TCH/F2.4 TCH/FS TCH/H TCH/H4.8 TCH/H2.4 TCH/HS TCP TCP/IP TCS TCU TCUD TDEC TDES TDMA TDS TDTI TEA TEE

Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


TEI Terminal Equipment Identifier: address allocated to site entities (BCF and TRX), or to a TCU used to route messages to and from the BSC on the Abis or Ater interface (LAPD protocol). Signal processing software element. Microwave terminal. Software element handling the estimated frequency shift detected on received bursts. Application global transaction: A TGA contains a set of TEA units. Operation global transaction: Message sent by to OMC-R by OMC-R containing a set of TEE units. The TGE are converted into TGA. BCF part of the TIL application. TRX part of the TIL application. Terminal for Local Intervention: TML application dedicated to BTS on-site maintenance.

TEQU TFH TFRQ TGA TGE TIB TIF TIL

TIMING ADVANCE Alignment process designed to compensate propagation time between a mobile and base station. TMG TMG_CNX TMG_COM TMG_MES TMG_RAD TML TMN TMS TMSI TNSB TNV TOA TRAU TRM TRX Traffic ManaGement: processor functional unit enabling BSC traffic handling capabilities. Processor functional unit enabling BSC connection control. Processor functional unit managing BSC communications. Processor functional unit managing BSC message transfers. Processor functional unit managing BSC radio resources. Local Maintenance Terminal: specialized software running on a PC, used to test the different entities of the BSC and the BTS. Telecommunication Management Network: operation, maintenance and administration functions for networks management, normalized by ITU. Signal processor. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. Software element managing that standardizes the soft bits returning from the lattice (BTS). Telecommunication Network Voltage. Time Of Arrival. Transcoder Rate Adaptor Unit (see TCU). Transcoding Resource Module: enabling speech transcoding (FR, EFR and AMR) and data rate adaptation up to 14.4 kbps (TCU e3). Transmission/reception subsystem of a BTS.
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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books


TS TSC TSCB TSM TSS TST Time Slot: a TDMA radio frame contains eight contiguous time slots. Training Sequence Code: TSM time slot counter, end sequence code, used in error correction algorithms (TDMA frame management) Transcoder Signaling Concentration Board concentrating LAPD signaling channels between BSC and TCU into a single channel (BSC 6000/12000). Time Switching Module (MSC/VLR). Trunk and Signaling Subsystem (MSC/VLR). Time - Space - Time communication network type: System built-into most BTS boards which automatically executes self tests when the boards are initialized or configured. Toll Ticketing (MSC): End of call ticket charging. Transcoder Unit Controller board designed to monitor other boards and internal PCM cross connections (TCU 6000). Telephone User Part. Transmitter part of TRX (BTS). Period at which Permanent, Instrument panel and Temporary observation counters are recovered to generate observation reports, and also to back up Permanent and Temporary observation reports. Temporary observation counter time. 30 mn reference period used to obtain uniform daily statistics (synchronized activation of permanent and instrument panel observations).

TT TUC TUP TX T2

T3 T4

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

U
UA UDP Unnumbered Acknowledgement: acknowledgement LAPD frame. User Datagram Protocol: transport protocol used above IP layer, without acknowledgement. Underwriters Laboratory: North American standard.

UL

Umbrella cell Standard cell covering one or several microcells where antennas are located higher than roofs. Um interface See Radio interface. UMTS USART UTE Universal Mobile Telecommunications System: third generation mobile telecommunication system. Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter: Synchronous/asynchronous interface. Slave processing unit (TCU).

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

V
VA VAD VBS VCO VCXO VEA VGCS VHE VLR VMS VP VPN VSWR VU V.35 V.42 V.42bis V.110 Power supply unit ventilation (BSC). Voice Activity Detection (see DTX). Voice Broadcast Service: ASCI supplementary service allowing speech distribution into a geographical area. Voltage Controlled Oscillator: type of oscillator in which the frequency may be adjusted by a control voltage. Voltage Controlled crystal-Oscillator. Very Early Assignment: procedure for setting up calls with allocating a radio channel at initial assignment. Voice Group Call Service: ASCI supplementary service adding to VBS the change of the calling subscriber (full duplex channel) to another subscriber. Virtual Home Environment. Visitor Location Register: MSC data base for subscribers moving within its coverage area (NSS). Voice Mail System. Voltage Parallel: Equivalent unit for volt Parallel means that the voltage is provided by two units used in parallel (in case of drop out). Virtual Private Network. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. Ventilation Unit (BSC). ITU recommendation. ITU recommendation for error control procedures. ITU recommendation for data compression technique used with V42. ITU recommendation for data transmission.

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

W
WAE WAP WML WS Wireless Application Environment. Wireless Access Protocol. Wireless Markup Language. WorkStation: OMC stations linked to servers via an Ethernet LAN.

X
X.25 XCBCF ITU recommendation for terminals using packet transmission over PSPDN. eXtended CBCF for S8000/S12000 Indoor and Outdoor BTS = CMCF Phase 3 + 4 CPCMI boards. BTS software unit which manages radio level 2.

XR2

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

WEB SITES
Standards Organizations and Telecom Interest Groups
ANSI http://www.ansi.org Autorit de Rgulation des Tlcoms http://www.art-telecom.fr ATM Forum http://www.atmforum.com Australian Communications Authority http://www.aca.gov.au Bluetooth http://www.bluetooth.com Cellular Telecommunications & Internet http://www.wirelessdata.org/front.asp ECMA EIA ETSI Frame Relay Forum GPRS (Mobiles) GSM Association IEEE International EMF Project Internet IETF Internet IPv6 IP over ATM ISO ITU JAVA forum Mobile Data Association Mobile Lifestreams http://www.ecma.ch http://www.eia.org http://www.etsi.fr http://www.frforum.com http://www.mobileGPRS.com http://www.gsmworld.com http://www.ieee.org http://www.who.int/peh-emf/ http://www.ietf.org http://www.ipv6forum.com/ http://www.com21.com/pages/ietf.html http://www.iso.ch http://www.itu.ch http://www.java.sun.com http://www.mda-mobiledata.org/ http://www.links2mobile.com/

MEE forum http://www.mexeforum.org National Radiological Protection Board http://www.nrpb.org.uk/ Protocols Radicchio (m-commerce) http://www.protocols.com http://www.radicchio.cc/

Radiocommunications Agency http://www.radio.gov.uk Swedish Radiation Protection Institute http://www.ssi.se/english/ Underwriters Laboratory WAP forum 3GPP http://www.ul.com http://www.wapforum.org http://www.3GPP.org/

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

Operators
British Telecom Deutsch Telekom France Telecom NTT-DOCOMO Sprint http://bt.com http://www.telekom.com http://francetelecom.fr http://www.nttdocomo.com http://www.sprint.com

Manufacturers
Acterna Allgon Andrew Celwave DAPA EUPEN Huber & Suhner ISTAR Kathrein Mikom Mobiligence Nortel Networks RFS Rymsa Shockymap Telewave http://www.acterna.com http://www.allgon.com http://www.andrew.com http://www.celwave.com http://www.dapacom.com http://www.eupencable.com http://www.hubersuhner.com http://www.istar.com http://www.kathrein.com http://www.mikom.com http://www.mobiligence.com http://www.nortel.com http://rfs-group.com http://www.rymsa.com http://www.shockymap.com http://www.telewave.com

Editors
Amazon Artech House Eyrolles Fatbrain Herms Wiley http://www.amazon.com http://www.artechhouse.com http://www.eyrolles.com http://www.fatbrain.com http://www.editions-hermes.fr http://www.wiley.com

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Glossary, Web Sites, Technical Books

TECHNICAL BOOKS
Digital Cellular Radio George Calhoun Artech House

Principles & Applications of GSM Vijay Kumar Garg, Joseph E. Wilkes Prentice Hall (01/1999)

GSM Networks: Protocols, Terminology, and Implementation Gunnar Heine 0-89006-471-7 Artech House Publishers (1999)

GSM and Personal Communications Handbook S M Redl, M K Weber & M W Oliphant 0-89006-957-3 Artech House Publishers (1998)

GSM: Switching, Services and Protocols J Eberspaecher, C Bettstetter, H-J Vgel 0-471-98278-4 Wiley, John & Sons (06/2001)

The GSM Network: GPRS Evolution: One Step Towards UMTS Joachim Tisal Wiley, John & Sons (05/2001)

GSM, cdmaOne and 3G Systems Raymond Steele, Peter Gould, Chin-Chun Lee 0-471-49185-3 Wiley, John & Sons (10/2000)

GSM: Evolution Towards 3rd Generation Systems Z Zvonar, P Jung, K Kammerlander Kluwer Academic (02/1999)

The GSM System for Mobile Communications Michel Mouly, Marie-Bernadette Pautet 2-9507190-0-7 4, rue Elise Reclus F-91120 Palaiseau - France

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