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Introduction:

Water is a very important substance for human being. No living being in the world can live without water. Clean drinking water is essential to humans and other life forms. It has always been an important and life sustaining drink to humans and is essential to the survival of all organisms. Excluding fat, water composes approximately 70% of the human body by mass. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity and other factors of the human body. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries with accelerated population growth in the world. Bangladesh is a small country of 147,570 square kilometers area with a population of around 147 million people in 2006 (934 people per square kilometers) (U.N, 2006) and 150 million population in 2007 (CIA, 2007). Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. Approximately 35 to 77 million Bangladeshi are at risk of drinking water contaminated with arsenic. Any disease that is transmitted or spread through contaminated water is known as waterborne disease. Pathogenic microbes (bacteria and viruses) and some parasitic organisms are responsible for various diseases of man and other animals. Such infectious pathogens survive and spread in the environment using various strategies. Three main routes of spread are recognized - air, water and person-to-person contact. The burden of waterborne diseases is paramount in the globe. About 4% of the global burden of diseases is attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrhoeal diseases globally. Of these, 1.8 million deaths occur alone in low-income countries (WHO 2004). Bangladesh is situated in the Bay of Bengal; the whole country is full of rivers, canals, lakes, haors etc. Due to wide range of wetlands different kind of diseases spreads for different reasons. The waterborne diseases are diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, malaria, cholera, Hepatitis-A etc. Another silent killer disease is Arsenic which is spread through water of tube-wells. Globally, diarrhea alone kills more children compared to malaria and tuberculosis together. In Bangladesh, every year more than one hundred

thousand under-five children die due to diarrhea related diseases. On average, episodes of diarrhea occur more than twice a year among the children. Research indicates that more than half of acute illnesses are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene-related across all age groups. These diseases are commonly reported in low-income countries as provision of safe water, sanitation and hygiene is sub-optimal. Recent research also shows that due to climate change waterborne diseases such as diarrhea is increasing gradually. In low-income countries waterborne diseases are wellknown public health problem. Although burden of waterborne diseases is substantial in most of the low-income countries, intervention for reducing these medical conditions is fragmented. Research indicates that washing hands without soap after defecation and before eating are common in Bangladesh (BRAC 2008). Several underlying factors such as availability, affordability and negligence are associated with these unhygienic practices. Furthermore, most of the people are not much aware about the route of transmission of waterborne diseases which increase the risk notably. Even many people lack knowledge about potential risks of taking uncovered and inappropriately preserved food items, not washing hands with soap before eating, providing food to children without washing hands with soap, and not washing hands with soap after defecation. Thus the main objective of the research is to find out what kind of waterborne diseases are extreme in this country and what are the possible reasons, so that it will be helpful for both the people and the government to overcome different critical situations in times.

Objectives:
To find out the family condition of the people living in the rural areas. To know the possible reasons of waterborne diseases. To identify the principle causes of water pollution. To know the source of drinking water and its condition. To know the health education of the people living in the rural areas of Sylhet. To know the role of different organizations working in the rural areas.

Rationale:
The need of fresh drinking water is very important for human being in their daily life. Pure drinking water provides minerals and other important stuffs that is important for a healthy body. As Bangladesh is a small, developing and highly populated country, the people of this country need to know the conditions of waterborne diseases and the importance of fresh drinking water. Every year many people especially babies die of diseases transmitted through water. Most of the time they die due to the common disease; Diarrhea. The majority people of this country are uneducated, for that they are not concerned about the water borne diseases and its cause. They are not aware that sometimes these diseases can even lead them to death. Flash flood is common scene in Bangladesh during the rainy season and this flood helps to spread many lethal diseases like typhoid, dysentery, cholera, malaria and Hepatitis-A. The rationale of the study is to find all possible reasons of waterborne diseases and to know all about health education provided to the people living in the rural areas. As the people are mostly illiterate they do not know the perfect definition of pure drinking water. The main purpose is to create awareness among the people and show the need of the fresh water source. Also the aim is to highlight their condition to the society and government and show the need of health awareness and drinking water source.

Study Area:
Sylhet is one of the most important divisions in Bangladesh. It is known as the third capital of Bangladesh. Sylhet city is surrounded by many rural areas and a lot of rivers went across. There are many villages which belong to different sub-division of Sylhet region. There are many rural areas in Sylhet which are very remote for that the people of those places are deprived from many facilities. For bad transport system and lack of government interests the people living in those places remains detached from all kinds of developments. All villages in Sylhet are dependent on wetlands for various reasons. The main study area of this research is Rajonpur village and its neighboring places. As Rajanpur is at the bank of Kushiara River different diseases born from water are a common problem to the people. This study area will help to get detailed information on waterborne diseases.

Research Methods:
Human study is a corner study work of Anthropology; also fieldwork is an integral part of Anthropology. In the Anthropological research most of the information collected is qualitative in nature by many secondary resources. To complete the research the help of many past work will be taken and also the methods which will be used is given below(a) Observer as Participant: To perform the research those who are the

victim of water pollution and waterborne diseases will be observed by participating with them. By participating it will help to create a trustworthy environment with the villagers so that the main water related problems will come out and also it will help to know the perfect reasons of diseases and water pollution. (b) In depth interview: The reasons and condition of the effected people will come out by having an in-depth interview with them in a friendly environment.

(c) Focus Group Discussion: A group of 10-12 villagers will be selected

to participate in the discussion. In this way a lot of unrevealed subjects will come out by discussing with them and also their condition and needs will come out so that it will help to focus on specific issues. (d) Random sampling: The people living in the rural areas will be taken randomly so that it will help to get all the information of the study area. (e) Case study: Those who suffered from waterborne diseases and are in the risk of getting infected due to lack of drinking water source and health education will be selected to know their life style and make case study. Case study is a very important method for this kind of study.