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Grounding and Overvoltage Protection

INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

IP 16-4-1
Page 1 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

Changes shown by

SCOPE
I I 1.1 1.2 This practice covers bonding, grounding, overvoltage protection, and lightning protection facilities for electrical power systems and equipment, structures and buildings, and product loading stations. This practice does not cover process instrumentation systems. However, overall grounding system design shall include requirements specified in other practices, e.g. instrumentation. Contractor shall submit overall grounding design to the Owner's Engineer for approval. An asterisk () indicates that additional information is required. If a job is contracted, this additional information is furnished in the Job Specification.

1.3

SUMMARY OF ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS


I 2.1 Table 1 lists standards that shall be used with this practice. Equivalent regional or national standards may be used when approved by the Owner's Engineer. TABLE 1
STANDARDS ANSI / NFPA 70 National Electrical Code (NEC) Article 250 780 Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems IEEE 837 IEEE Standard for Qualifying Permanent Connections Used in Substation Grounding

2.2

ANSI / IEEE Std 80, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding shall be used as indicated in this practice.

DEFINITIONS
I

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

Acceptable and preferred practices. Where this practice lists more than one type of equipment or method as acceptable, the contractor shall make the selection based on the installed cost. Where one particular type of equipment or method is listed as preferred, it shall be selected, provided: (1) it is lower or equivalent in installed cost than other acceptable types or methods, (2) it has reduced maintenance and operating costs that provide sufficient cost benefit to offset an initial added investment. Owner's Engineer shall approve alternative choices. Bonding. Two or more objects are considered to be bonded if connected together through a conducting path. Objects which are not inherently in contact with each other through a conducting path may be bonded by connecting them together with a bonding conductor. The conductor shall be sized to safely conduct the current or dissipate the charge likely to be imposed. Grounding. An object is considered to be grounded when connected by a conducting connection either inherently or by a grounding conductor to the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth such as where rock or high resistivity soil is present. Grounds are the grounding electrode system. The electrodes may be buried grounding conductors, underground metallic water piping, large underground metallic objects in intimate contact with earth such as metallic building frames, pile casings, or concrete encased electrodes consisting of reinforcing bars or copper conductors in underground foundations or footings, and driven rods. The zone of lightning protection is that space adjacent to a lightning protection system that is substantially immune to direct lightning flashes. ANSI / NFPA 780 Chapter 3 Protection for Ordinary Structures" and Chapter 6 Protection for Structures Containing Flammable Vapors, Flammable Gases or Liquids That Can Give Off Flammable Vapors" cover the cone and rolling sphere concepts for determining the zone extent. Specific regional or national standards, while using the same concepts, may have requirements that result in different extents of the zone of protection. Lightning arrester (surge arrester) is a protective device for limiting surge voltages on equipment by discharging or bypassing surge current. It prevents continued flow of follow current to ground, and is capable of repeating these functions. Use of arcing horns and/or rod gaps is not an acceptable method of suppressing electrical surges.

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IP 16-4-1
Page 2 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

3.7

3.8

3.9

Liquids are classified as static electrical charge accumulators if their conductivity is 50 picomhos/meter (50 pS/m) or less. Distilled petroleum products including petroleum solvents, are generally accumulators. Crude oil, residual fuel oil, asphalts (both penetration or cutback), Bunker C, residual products with Conradson carbon above 1% and water soluble products such as alcohol have high conductivity and are classified as non-accumulators. Ground return path is a metallic connection between the metal enclosure of electrical equipment and the system neutral ground of the power supply to the equipment. If the systems neutral is grounded through impedance, the ground return path must connect on the ground side of the impedance. The path is a lowimpedance path from the equipment enclosure to the neutral ground. It serves as the equipment grounding conductor in grounded neutral systems. Switch loading is loading a high flash product into a tank truck, tank car, or container previously containing a low flash product, without cleaning or gas-freeing the tank or container. The high flash product must be treated as low flash during loading in such cases.

BONDING AND GROUNDING MATERIALS AND METHODS


S S 4.1 4.2 Bonding shall be provided where necessary to insure the electrical continuity of grounding circuits and where necessary to provide a path for the dissipation of static charges. Bonds provided for the dissipation of static charges shall have a resistance of one megaohm or less.

BONDING AND GROUNDING CONDUCTORS R

4.3

4.4

4.5

R R R S

4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Unless otherwise specified, bonding and grounding conductors shall be bare stranded medium-harddrawn copper. Minimum sizes shall be 2 Awg (35 mm2) for underground conductors and 6 Awg (16 mm2) for aboveground conductors where the size is not specified elsewhere in this practice. Conductor sizes shall be increased above the minimum sizes if required to: a. Insure adequate mechanical strength. b. Withstand the thermal stresses of ground fault currents. Ground return conductors located within cable assemblies or run with or enclosing individual circuit conductors are preferred. When specified, common ground return conductors run with underground conduits or buried cable are acceptable. Ground return conductors located within cable assemblies may be uninsulated and shall be of the same material and stranding as the cable line conductors. If insulated, color coding shall comply with requirements of the applicable regulations. Grounding conductor burial depths shall be at least 18 in. (450 mm). Burial depths in switch or transformer yards graded with stone shall be at least 12 in. (300 mm) below the stone. If the wiring method is buried cable, common grounding conductors run with the buried cable shall be laid in the cable trenches as far as routing permits. If the wiring method is underground conduit, common grounding conductors run with the conduits shall be laid along a formed side of the duct banks. Grounding conductors leaving the ground at grade shall be protected as follows: a. Conductors except those used for lightning protection and lightning arrester grounding shall be protected by rigid metal or non-metallic conduit or pipe sleeves where they extend above grade. Lightning protection and arrester ground conductors shall be protected by non-metallic conduit sleeves. b. Sleeves shall extend a minimum of 6 in. (150 mm) below grade and 10 in. (250 mm) above grade. c. Metal sleeves shall be encased in concrete 3 in. (75 mm) thick all around. d. Concrete encasement shall extend 6 in. above grade. e. Non-metallic sleeves shall be rigid heavy wall polyvinyl chloride or high density polyethylene conduit. f. Sleeves are not required within switch or transformer yards or under elevated substations.

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Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

IP 16-4-1
Page 3 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

BONDING AND GROUNDING CONNECTIONS S 4.10 All conductor connections to structures and equipment shall be made aboveground as follows: a. Conductors shall be installed in one length between aboveground connection points. b. Single cable lengths shall also be installed between aboveground connection points and grounding electrodes or taps on common ground return cables. c. If splices or taps are required on underground runs, they shall be made with tool-installed compression connectors or by brazing or welding. d. Bolted or screw type solderless connectors or similar mechanical connectors shall not be used underground. e. Splices or taps in underground runs shall be buried. On equipment, conductor connections that are regularly disconnected for maintenance of the equipment shall be made with bolted or screw type solderless connectors. Other connections shall be made by brazing, welding, or with connectors that qualify as permanent grounding connections per IEEE Std 837.

4.11

GROUNDS S 4.12 All Grounds shall have a resistance to earth not exceeding 5 ohms throughout the year considering seasonal variations in soil conditions. Grounds for low resistance grounded systems shall not exceed 2 ohms. Grounding Electrodes. If permanently installed and located within a reasonable distance of the equipment or structure to be grounded, the following may be used as grounding electrodes: a. Buried grounding conductors having a length of not less than 20 ft (6 m) and burial depth of 30 in. (760 mm). Minimum size shall be No. 2 Awg (35 mm2). b. Underground metallic water piping if buried portion is more than 10 ft (3 m) in length. c. Large underground metallic objects in intimate contact with earth such as metallic building frames, pile casings or concrete encased electrodes consisting of reinforcing bars or copper conductors that are part of an underground foundation or footing. These electrodes shall provide the conductive equivalent of at least 20 ft (6 m) of electrically conductive reinforcing bar not less than 1/2 in. (13 mm) diameter or 20 ft (6 m) of No. 2 Awg (35 mm2) copper conductor. Concrete encasement shall not be less than 2 in. (50 mm) thickness. d. Artificial (made) electrodes consisting of driven copper-clad steel rods or equivalent. Unless specified otherwise, rods shall be copper-clad steel equivalent to Copperweld with minimum diameter of 5/8 in. (16 mm) and minimum length of 8 ft (2.5 m). Tops of rod and grounding conductor connection shall be buried at least 18 in. (450 mm) below grade. A ground well shall be provided for each rod and its connector when specified. e. If more than one electrode is connected to a grounding system, the electrode spacing shall be spaced at least 10 ft (3 m) apart. f. Electrodes of different systems shall be bonded together when in reasonable proximity. Electrode grounding conductor and connections shall comply with the following: a. A grounding conductor shall connect the top of each electrode to an accessible above ground connection point. Minimum size shall be No. 2 Awg (35 mm2). b. The connection point may be located on the structure or equipment to be grounded or on a nearby permanent structure to serve as a tie-in point for other grounding conductors. At tie-in points, conductors from electrodes shall be identified with corrosion resistant metal bands to facilitate their removal for test purposes. c. The grounding conductor shall be connected to the electrode by brazing or welding, and to the connection points by a bolted or screw type solderless connector. In ground wells the rod connection may use bolted or screw type connectors. SUBSTATION AND GENERATING STATION GROUNDS S 4.15 All grounding electrodes at substations and generating stations shall be interconnected by grounding conductors.

4.13

4.14

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IP 16-4-1
Page 4 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

4.16

Design of grounding systems shall provide protection from step, touch, mesh and transfer potentials at the following areas: a. Outdoor switchyards and main substations that are supplied by overhead lines at utility company voltage. b. Substations adjacent to a utility-supplied switchyard or main substation. c. Generating stations. d. Gas-insulated substations (GIS) Grounding system design shall be evaluated using the guidelines presented in ANSI / IEEE Std 80, or equivalent regional or national standard. Grounding system design for these areas shall be submitted to Owner's Engineer for approval.

SYSTEM NEUTRAL GROUNDS


GROUNDING CONDUCTOR SIZE R,O 5.1 Grounding conductors used to ground power transformer or generator neutrals shall have a cross sectional size not less than 2 Awg (35 mm2). In addition, the size shall limit temperature reached by the conductor, when carrying maximum ground fault current for the time allowed by the slowest responsive relay, to the following: a. For insulated conductors, to within the transient temperature for no damage to the insulation. b. For bare conductors: to 250C rise if connections to cable are made with pressure connectors; to 450C rise if connections to cable are brazed or welded. For copper conductor and 26C ambient, required size is: F I where: I t F = = = = = = t current, amp time, seconds 0.0106 for answer in kCM and 250C rise 0.0087 for answer in kCM and 450C rise 0.0054 for answer in mm2 and 250C rise 0.0044 for answer in mm2 and 450C rise

c. For impedance grounded systems, the grounding conductor ampacity for the time allowed by the lowest responsive relay shall be not less than the maximum current rating of the impedance and the minimum size specified by the applicable regulations. GROUNDING CONDUCTOR ROUTING I,R 5.2 For solidly grounded systems, the grounding conductor shall be routed as follows: a. If the neutral grounding connection is made at a transformer or generator, or at an adjacent neutral current transformer, the conductor shall be routed via the shortest path to ground. For transformers, the shortest path is usually via the transformer ground pad. b. If the neutral ground connection is made in the transformer or generator switchgear, route the conductor to ground via the switchgear ground bus. All connections in the grounding path between the neutral point and the outdoor ground shall be accessible for visual inspection. When specified, the conductor shall be insulated between the neutral and the grounding point in the switchgear. c. For grounded lighting systems having individual lighting transformers and panels, transformer neutral shall be grounded only at the transformer. For impedance grounded systems, the neutral impedance element shall be located as close as practicable to the neutral. The neutral grounding conductor should be routed from the impedance element via the shortest path to ground.

I,R

5.3

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Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

IP 16-4-1
Page 5 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

GROUNDING CONDUCTOR INSULATION AND PROTECTION S 5.4 For solidly grounded systems, the neutral grounding conductor shall be insulated for at least line-toneutral voltage where the conductor passes along or in the enclosure of electrical equipment. Specifically this applies to: a. Runs from transformer or generator terminal chamber or CT enclosure to transformer ground pad or generator grounding point. b. Runs from transformer or generator neutrals to switchgear neutral bus or ground bus. c. Runs from switchgear neutral bus to switchgear ground bus. For impedance grounded systems, the connection between neutral and impedance must be insulated for at least line-to-neutral voltage. Where required by regional or national standards, the connection shall be insulated for phase-to-phase voltage. Insulation color coding shall comply with requirements of the applicable regulations. Protective conduits for neutral grounding conductors, if used, shall be rigid aluminum or non-metallic conduit. Non-metallic conduit shall be heavy wall rigid polyvinyl chloride or high density polyethylene.

5.5

I R

5.6 5.7

ENCLOSURE GROUNDING
WIRING SYSTEMS S 6.1 Metal enclosures for wire and cable such as conduits, cable trays and raceways shall be grounded at their supply ends by connection to the switchgear or control center ground bus, when such equipment is used; or by connection to the grounded metallic equipment enclosures when switchracks are used. The wire and cable metal enclosures shall be metallically connected to utilization equipment enclosures at their load end. The electrical continuity of metal enclosures or wire and cable shall be assured between terminations. Non metallic conduit sections or fittings shall not be used in metal conduit systems unless bonding is provided across such section and fittings. Metallic armor and sheaths, and metallic insulation shielding of all cables shall be bonded together and grounded at the cable's supply end by connection to the switchgear or control center ground bus, when such equipment is used; or by connection to the grounded metal equipment enclosures when switchracks are used. Metallic armor and sheaths of multi-conductor cables shall be bonded and grounded per the following: a. Bonded together and grounded at each cable termination. b. Bonded together at each splice and bonded across each splice. R 6.5 c. Bonded together and to equipment metal enclosures at the load end. Metallic insulation shielding in shielded multi-conductor cables shall be grounded at each termination and shall be bonded to the cable metal sheath and armor (if any). If practicable, the insulation shielding of cables with multiple splices, also shall be grounded at each splice and bonded to the cable metal sheath and armor (if any). Single-conductor cables. Bonding and grounding methods for single-conductor cables having metallic armor, sheaths or insulation shielding must be engineered for the specific installation to avoid dangerous sheath or shield voltages or excessive heating due to circulating currents. Generally, singleconductor cables smaller than 500 kCM (240 mm2) with all three phases in the same duct may be bonded and grounded the same as multi-conductor cables. Armor, sheaths, and shielding of larger cables may require single point grounding with insulating joints between grounded sections.

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.6

EQUIPMENT S S 6.7 6.8 Metal enclosures of fixed equipment operating above 1000 volts between conductors shall be grounded by a connection to a ground in their immediate vicinity in addition to the ground return conductor. Metal enclosures of fixed equipment operating at 1000 volts or less between conductors and supplied from ungrounded or high resistance grounded systems shall be grounded by one of the conductor types specified in Par. 7.5. If supplied from solidly grounded systems, metal enclosures of fixed equipment operating at 1000 volts or less between conductors are considered grounded through their ground return path and do not require further grounding.

6.9

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IP 16-4-1
Page 6 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

6.10

6.11

S S

6.12 6.13

Main distribution equipment. Metal-clad and metal-enclosed switchgear, control centers and turnaround power centers shall be grounded by two separate connections from their ground busses to grounds in the immediate vicinity. The metal enclosures of the individual devices on switchracks shall be bonded to the switchrack frame, and the frame shall be grounded by two separate connections to grounds in the immediate vicinity. Equipment grounds in substations of grounded neutral systems shall be interconnected with the substation neutral ground. Metal enclosures of portable equipment shall be connected to a grounding conductor located within the same cable assembly as the line conductors supplying the equipment as follows: a. Grounding conductor shall be the same size as the line conductor. b. Grounding conductor shall be connected to the receptacle enclosure through separate contacts in the supply plug and receptacle, and shall be bonded to the plug enclosure. c. Plug and receptacle shall be polarized and arranged so that the ground connection makes first and breaks last. Note: For enclosed or confined conductive work spaces, applicable regulations may place specific restrictions on grounding and power supply for portable equipment used in these spaces. Metal enclosures such as fences, partitions, and grill work around equipment operating above 1000 volts between conductors, shall be grounded by connections to grounds in their immediate vicinity. Metal fences and grills enclosing the space under elevated substation buildings shall be grounded by connections to ground in their immediate vicinity.

GROUND RESISTANCE S 6.14 Grounds for enclosures shall have a resistance to earth not exceeding 15 ohms.

GROUND RETURNS
R,O 7.1 A ground return path is required for each circuit in the following: a. Solidly grounded systems. R,O R,O R,O I 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 b. Impedance grounded systems. If switchgear or control centers are used, the supply ends of ground return paths shall terminate at the switchgear or control center ground bus. If switchracks are used, the supply ends of ground return paths shall terminate by connection to the metal enclosure of the individual control devices. The load ends of ground return paths shall terminate by connection to a ground bus, when available, or to the metal enclosure of the equipment served by the ground path's circuit. Ground return paths shall be one of the following: a. Rigid metal conduit. b. Wire or cable conductors run as a separate conductor or as part of a cable assembly. c. Type MI cable copper sheaths. d. Copper wire cable armor or other armor types acceptable under the applicable regulations. e. Electrical metallic tubing, armor or sheaths of metal-clad cable used in circuits not more than 150 ft (45 m) in length and protected by overcurrent devices having a nominal rating of 20 amperes or less. Length restrictions apply to solidly grounded and low resistance grounded systems. f. Metal covered cable sheaths of circuits protected by ground fault relaying in solidly grounded and low resistance grounded systems and provided that the sheath is capable of carrying the maximum ground fault current without damage (to the sheath or cable) for the time allowed by the slowest responsive relay. g. Metal-enclosed bus duct enclosures where bus duct length does not exceed 25 ft (7.5 m). Length restrictions apply to solidly grounded and low resistance grounded systems. h. Ground return paths using a combination of the paths listed are acceptable subject to approval of the Owner's Engineer. For solidly grounded and low-resistance grounded systems the combined impedance of the ground return path and the supply circuit line conductors shall be low enough to insure operation of the circuit overcurrent protective device in less than 2 seconds on a single line-to-ground fault at the load end of the circuit. An arc voltage of 40 volts in phase with the line-to-neutral source voltage shall be assumed at the fault point.
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R,O

7.6

Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

IP 16-4-1
Page 7 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

GROUND RETURNS (Cont)


For receptacle circuits, the impedance of the plug connected portable cord shall be included in the combined impedance used to check operation of the protective device. Maximum cord length of 100 ft (30 m) shall be assumed. Notes: (1) For circuits protected by ground relaying, circuit lengths established by voltage drop limits in normal operation will generally result in ground return path impedances low enough to meet these requirements. (2) For circuits with phase protection only (not protected by ground relaying), normal circuit lengths may result in return path impedance too high to insure proper operation of the circuit overcurrent protective devices on ground faults. GROUND RETURN THROUGH FLEXIBLE CONDUIT R,O 7.7 Bonding jumpers shall be installed around flexible conduit connections used on solidly grounded and low resistance grounded systems whenever a conductor ground return is not provided within the flexible conduit.

CONDUCTOR GROUND RETURNS R,O 7.8 Wire or cable conductors used as ground return paths in metallic or non-metallic conduit systems shall be run within the same conduit as the circuit line conductors. The ground return conductors shall be jacketed if not located within the line conductor assembly. Such conductors are required with nonmetallic conduit systems. Generally such conductors are not required with rigid metal conduit systems but may be used to increase maximum circuit length in rigid steel conduit systems. When specified, one or more conductors may serve as the common (main) ground return path for a group of circuits in direct buried cable systems, in non-metallic conduit duct banks, or above ground cable raceways. In such cases, the following shall apply: a. Main ground return conductors shall be run within the same cable trench or above ground cable raceway as their line conductors. b. Main ground return conductors shall be run within separate conduits in the duct bank. c. It is preferred that common ground return conductors be tapped or connected to local ground bars and individual conductors run to the equipment enclosures along the route of the circuit conductors. Alternatively, the main ground return conductor may be looped and connected to each equipment enclosure. d. Insofar as possible, main ground return conductors and their branch conductors shall be arranged to maintain minimum spacing to their associated line conductors. e. If more than one main ground return conductor is used, they may be bonded together and a single conductor used for connection to equipment enclosures. f. Main and branch ground return conductors shall be bare stranded medium-hard-drawn copper with a minimum size of 2 Awg (35 mm2).

7.9

OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION FOR POWER SYSTEMS


R 8.1 Power systems with supply circuits or distribution circuits subject to over-voltages from lightning or switching surges shall be protected against over-voltage by the use of lightning arresters and, if needed, capacitors. Arrester ground connections on dry type transformers having sheet metal enclosures shall be made by grounding conductors run in as direct a path as possible to the transformer grounding pad. The ground terminals of lightning arresters which are installed at the junction of insulated cables and overhead spacer cables or open wire lines, shall be grounded per the following: a. Metallic sheaths of multi-conductor cables and multiple-grounded metallic sheaths of single conductor cables shall be connected to the lightning arrester grounding conductor. b. Single point grounded metallic sheaths of single conductor cables shall be connected to the lightning arrester ground terminals and the arrester shall be grounded through an isolating gap. c. Metallic conduits shall be connected to the lightning arrester grounding conductor.

R R

8.2 8.3

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IP 16-4-1
Page 8 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION FOR POWER SYSTEMS (Cont)


d. For situations not covered by subpar. a., b., or c. above, a ground return conductor within non-metallic sheathed multi-conductor cables shall be connected to the lightning arrester grounding conductor, or e. Alternatively, a ground return conductor within the non-metallic duct carrying non-metallic sheathed cables shall be connected to the lightning arrester grounding conductor. f. Grounding conductors shall run in as straight and short a path as possible from arrester grounding terminals to the grounding electrode. g. Conductors on wood poles shall be covered from arrester terminals to below ground by weatherproof jackets, insulation or wood ground moldings.

STRUCTURE LIGHTNING PROTECTION


I S 9.1 9.2 Any structure within a zone of protection may be considered to be adequately shielded against lightning so that further protection is not required. For structures which do not contain appreciable quantities of flammable and combustible material or which are not part of process or offsite facilities, the zone of protection is: a. For 50 ft (15 m) heights and lower, the space under a cone with apex at the highest point of a properly grounded metal structure, mast, wire or air terminal with radius twice the height if the height does not exceed 25 ft (7.5 m), or radius equal to height if the height does not exceed 50 ft (15 m). b. For heights above 50 ft (15 m), and alternatively for 50 ft (15 m) and lower, the space underneath a rolling sphere. The space can be determined using the relationship in par. 9.3. Since ANSI/NFPA 780 Chapter 3 uses 150 ft (45 m) striking distance, 300 rather than 200 is used in the relationship. For structures containing appreciable quantities of flammable and combustible materials or which are part of process or offsite facilities, the zone of protection is: a. The space underneath a rolling sphere as determined by the relationship: d d h1 h2 C 9.4 = = = = h1 (200 h1) h2 (200 h2 ) horizontal distance protected height of the properly grounded structure, mast, wire or air terminal, 100 ft maximum height of structure or equipment to be protected

9.3

Striking distance is 100 ft (30 m) as specified in ANSI/NFPA 780 Chapter 6. Metallic structures for storage of liquids that can produce flammable vapors or for storage of flammable gases that are electrically continuous, tightly sealed to prevent the escape of liquids, vapors or gases and have thickness not less than 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) sheet steel are inherently self-protecting and need no additional lightning protection. For the purposes of this paragraph, fixed and floating roof atmospheric storage tanks, and any vessels or pressure storage spheres equipped with pressure relief valves discharging to atmosphere shall not be considered tightly sealed and shall meet the requirements of Par. 9.7. Important structures not within a zone of protection (i.e., not shielded) or are not inherently selfprotecting shall be protected against damage from lightning. The following structures are considered important. a. Structures which are normally occupied by personnel. b. Structures which contain appreciable quantities of flammable and combustible materials. c. Structures which if seriously damaged could result in a major loss either in the structure itself or from the effect on other facilities. Most substations are in this category. d. For structures not covered above, risk assessment procedures are provided in regional and national standards and shall be used to determine if lightning protection is required.

9.5

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Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

IP 16-4-1
Page 9 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

9.6

Important structures which are not within a zone of protection (i.e., shielded) or are not inherently self-protective shall be protected as follows:
STRUCTURE a. Metallic Structures: (including storage tanks, vessels, and buildings with metallic frames or metallic siding) Non-Metallic Structures: (includes buildings with non-metallic frames and siding) LIGHTNING PROTECTION METHOD Ground as required by Par. 9.7

b.

Per ANSI / NFPA 780 or an equivalent national standard

9.7

Lightning protection requirements for metallic structures shall be per the following:
FOUNDATION TYPE 1. Tank bottom resting on non-reinforced concrete pad GROUNDING REQUIREMENTS Ground at perimeter spacing intervals not exceeding 100 ft (30 m) with at least 2 locations at opposite extremities None (Adequate grounding) Note: If tank is resting on an impermeable membrane, the requirements of Par. 9.7 a.1 shall be met. None (Adequate grounding)

STRUCTURE a. Storage Tanks

2.

Tank bottom resting on any of the following types of pad construction: reinforced concrete; ringwall construction; asphalt, oiled sand, crushed stone pads

b.

Vessels or Pressure Storage Spheres

1.

Column or skirt supports resting on a reinforced concrete foundation which meets all of the following: (a) The below grade footing contains at least 20 linear feet (6 m) of reinforcing bar which is not less than 1/2 in. (12 mm) diameter. (b) The piers or pedestal includes vertical bars or lapped dowels which continue into the footing. (c) The anchor bolts are embedded in the concrete, and have metallic contact with the vessel.

2.

Supports resting on foundations not meeting all of the above (Item 1)

Ground at perimeter spacing intervals not exceeding 100 ft (30 m) with at least 2 locations at opposite extremities Ground at perimeter spacing intervals not exceeding 100 ft (30 m) with at least 2 locations at opposite extremities

c.

Structure, or Building

Construction with metallic frames or metallic siding

9.8

9.9

9.10

Bonding of metallic structures. a. Floating roof tanks: Bonding between roof and shell shall be provided by the tank vendor for those designs requiring it (for example: pantagraph type). Provisions shall include the requirements for both primary and secondary seals. b. Buildings: All metallic parts forming the roof and main framework shall be bonded to each other. c. Metallic bodies of considerable size located inside of metallic structures and which are within 6 ft (2 m) of the structure roof or frame: the metallic body shall be bonded to the structure if not inherently bonded. Cables connecting metallic structures to grounding electrodes shall be routed in as straight and direct path as possible. Spacing of approximately 2 ft (600 mm) shall be maintained, where possible, between artificial grounding electrodes and concrete or masonry foundations. Grounds shall be buried conductors, concrete encased electrodes, artificial grounding electrodes or combinations. Resistance to earth shall not exceed 15 ohms.

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IP 16-4-1
Page 10 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

SECONDARY EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING R,I 9.11 The basic lightning protection system provides the required low impedance metal path required to intercept, conduct and dissipate the main lightning discharge of strikes on the protected structure. It does not assure safety for all equipment and circuits, particularly electronic systems using solid state components, from the possible secondary effects of lightning strikes on the structure, the adjacent area, or on interconnected structures. Additional provisions may be required to protect against inductive and resistive overvoltages which may be produced on circuits and at equipment by the main discharge current or by currents entering on utility services, and on control, communication and data transmission circuits. Regional and national standards contain information covering assessment and recommendations for coping with the secondary effects.

BONDING AT TANK TRUCK, TANK CAR, OR CONTAINER LOADING STATIONS


S 10.1 Bonding is required only when all of the following loading conditions exist: a. Loading is through open domes or into open drums, caps, cylinders or similar metallic containers. b. The product loaded: (1) has a closed cup flash point below 100F (37.8C); (2) is handled within 15F (8C) of or above its flash point, or (3) is switch loaded into a tank truck or tank car previously carrying material with a closed cup flash point below 100F (37.8C). c. The product is classified as a static electrical charge accumulator. Bonding is not required around flexible metallic joints or swivel joints or when loading conditions are as follows: a. If tank car or tank truck loading is through a closed system. b. If container filling is through a closed system, or if the filling nozzle is in electrical contact with the container and will remain so throughout the filling operation. Tank truck bonding conductors, when required, shall be provided at each loading or unloading position as follows: a. One end of the conductor shall be permanently connected directly to the fill stem, or to other points on the piping or steel loading rack which are electrically connected to the fill stem (either inherently or through bonding connections). b. A battery type clip (or equivalent) shall be connected to the other end of the bonding conductor. Conductor shall be long enough to permit attachment of the clip to the truck at a point that is in metallic contact with the cargo tank being loaded or unloaded. c. Bonding conductor shall be a 6-Awg (16 mm2) single conductor rope-stranded copper cable. Cable shall have a thermosetting jacket for mechanical protection of the conductor. Tank car bonding, when required, shall be as follows: a. Insulating rail joints shall be provided to isolate from the main track the track section upon which cars will stand while being loaded or unloaded. Their joints are to isolate stray currents resulting from signal or power systems on the main track. b. Joints shall be located to avoid being bridged by standing cars not loading or unloading. c. Bond around all rail joints in the track section upon which cars will stand while being loaded or unloaded. d. Bond both rails of the track section upon which cars will stand while being loaded or unloaded to the loading rack steel structure. If not inherently bonded together, the loading and unloading piping shall be bonded to the loading rack steel structure. Container bonding, when required, shall keep the filling nozzle and container at the same electrical potential to prevent a possible static spark in the area of a flammable mixture. Bonding shall be as follows: a. When the filling nozzle may not be or remain in electrical contact with the container, the container shall rest on a metal base plate while being filled. This base plate shall be bonded to the supply piping. b. If the filling nozzle is inherently bonded to the supply piping, such as by the use of metallic hose or pipe, no additional bonding to that specified in (a) is required. c. If the filling nozzle is not inherently bonded to the supply piping, such as when a nonmetallic hose or pipe is used, an additional bond shall be provided between the nozzle and supply piping. d. All metallic parts of the fill assembly shall form a continuous electrically conductive path downstream from the point of bonding on the supply piping.

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

Grounding and Overvoltage Protection


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

IP 16-4-1
Page 11 of 11 Rev. 2 June 2000

PROTECTION AT MARINE TERMINAL LOADING STATIONS


C S 11.1 11.2 Bonding is not required between tankers or barges and the marine pier. Electrically insulated flanges are required to electrically isolate on-board (tanker or barge) piping from the pier piping: a. At cathodically protected marine terminals. b. Where marine loading arms or electrically bonded oil cargo hoses are used. c. For loading and unloading products having a closed cup flash points below 100F (37.8C), or which are at a temperature above or within 15F (8C) of their flash point.
9/68 1/73 12/94 3/98 6/00 Original Issue of Basic Practice Revision 1 Revision Memo 1/79 6/81 Revision 2 Revision 3

Revision 0 - Original Issue of International Practice Revision 1 Revision 2 Par. 1.2 alerts Contractor to instrumentation needs in the earthing system. Pars. 2.1 and 2.2 reference made to additional standards. Par. 3.6 early streamer lightning protection was deleted and lightning arrester was added. Par. 4.11 added IEEE Std 837 type connectons. Par. 4.15 deleted extraneous wording. New Par. 4.16 specifies areas requiring special grounding system design and OE approval. Par. 9.4 added clarification regarding storage tanks and vessels with pressure relief. Par. 9.7a.2 now requires grounding at all storage tanks with impermeable membrane. Par. 11.2 purpose code changed from R to S. Exxon Research and Engineering Company, 1998, 2000

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.