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A. Background Since many centuries, literature as the language art has become the media of the people to express their mind, either in imaginative literature or in unimaginative literature. As the opinion of Wellek and Warren: Literature is an expression of society It is common place, trite and vague if it means only that literature depicts some aspects of social reality. A writer inevitably expresses his experience and total conception of life, but it would be manifestly untrue to say that he expresses the whole life or even life of given time completely and exhaustively. (1973: 95) In line with this opinion, Henry Van Dyke in Jheza (2011) argues that literature consists of those writings which interpret the meaning of nature and life, in words of charm and power, touched with the personality of the author, in artistic form of permanent interest. Then Imam Jafar al-Sadiq in Jheza (2011), Muslim scholar and philosopher, stated that literature is the garment which one puts on what he says or writes so that it may appear more attractive. One unique way to utilize literature in writing is by composing it in beautiful and fiction form. Novel as the instance is the long fictional written story which presents the more complexity than the other kinds of prose. Literary work, in this term the novel depicts social reality. This is because, human being and literature are intertwined each other. They have interrelationship where literary work can be the representation of social reality and the literary work itself can influence the society. For example, the novel by P.A Daum Ups and

Downs of Life in the Indies which describes social life of colonial in Indies. This means that it is made base on colonials social reality. Then novel which in the contrary influences the society, as instance novel by Dan Brown The Davinci Code, which has invited controversy especially among the Christians. We can conclude that literary work is from and for the society. Novel has contributed beneficial advantages for the development of peoples mind. Not only to entertain, but also to inform and educate the readers. One type of novel that is very useful for entertaining, informing, and educating is historical novel. Goethe in Gaarder (2010: 23) stated that he who cannot draw on three thousand years is living from hand to mouth. So, history is not only past moments which pass away and just become the invaluable story; it is more as the life learning. It becomes more attractive when it is presented in fiction. Sophies World by Jostein Gaarder is one of the examples of this historical novel. But, it is exceptional because Jostein Gaarder presents the history of philosophy from the beginning until the recent in 20th century in one book and also fascinating because it uses mystery genre where the readers will be brought to discover philosophy with the different way. It is about Sophie Amundsen a fourteen years old girl who at first receives a letter consisted of philosophical questions from a mysterious philosopher. At the same day she also received a peculiar postcard from a father which addressed it for his daughter, Hilde Moller Knag but through her. Who are Hilde and her father is the big question here. The strange events that she experienced during her philosophical subject make us in suspense when reading this novel. Just like reading detective story actually. So

there are two different sides in this novel, about Sophies life which is fully fiction and about history of philosophy which is fully reality. Although for many people philosophy is difficult, but this novel enlightens it sagaciously with the simple description, so we can understand more about philosophy easier. Dr. Abbas Hamami Mintaredja, the dean of Philosophy Faculty in UGM, in Indonesian version of this novel Dunia Sophie: Sebuah Novel Filsafat (Gaarder, 2010) said that the expressing of philosophical thought pattern in this novel uses the simple language so that it is undemanding to be comprehended by the people who poor hand at philosophy. It is also equal with the statement in Newsweek about this novel: Extraordinary The book will serve as a first-rate introduction for anyone who never took an introductory philosophy course and as a pleasant refresher for those who have (Pitcock 2007:1) In the growth of philosophy, peoples mind automatically also grows. From thinking about the nature, human, and then society. From making own story about the Gods such as Thor, Zeus, Apollo, and Athena, and Their correlation with natural phenomenon and human disease, believing it as the mythology, then transforming to be more scientific in thinking. Afterward, their thought pattern developed more to think about how to create good constitutional kingdom or state to make more prosperous social life. Wright Mills in Haviland (1994) argued that we all live in a particular society and during a specific period of history. Thus, the features of that society and the character of that period of history naturally affect how each individual acts and reasons. In the relation with this historical novel, we can see that there are the

significant changes related with the society of ancient Greece until modern society in 20th century where the philosophy was growing in Europe. About this social change, accordingly William F. Ogburn in Muin (2004: 86), social change includes the elements of culture either material or immaterial. By reading this novel, we will conceive that social changes occurred because of the differences growing in society which influence each other in the term of creating the better and truer life. As an example the advance in science of Roman in the Middle Ages as the result of social influence of Muslims scholars in Spain and Northern Italy. Social change is also caused by the social conflicts that arise in the society, where because of the complexity of human beings thought, appear the frictions among them. For instance the conflict between Roman and the Church authority before Renaissance where encouraged social change. These conditions also prove the theory of social change called Cyclical Theory by Oswald Spengler completed by Ronald Toynbee that social changes occur because of the progression and the deterioration of the civilization, and how the society responds the challenges in their social environment Social aspect itself is the important aspect that we should appreciate because in our lives, we cannot stand without maintaining relationship with the other, and from the history we can learn many things about it such as the way how to build a good condition in our social life and how to live in peace beside the other. So, this social aspect will be the researchers focus in this research.

B. Problem Statement Based on the background above, the researcher formulates research questions as follow: 1. What are the social aspects in Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World? 2. How are the social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World?

C. Objective of the Research Objectives of the research based on the problem statements are as follow: 1. To identify the social aspects in Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World. 2. To explain the social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World

D. Significance of the Research The result of this research expectantly will present useful information about social aspects and valuable life learning about social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era which exist in this Jostein Gaarders historical novel Sophies World, also as the beneficial reference for the readers especially for them who also want to research social aspect or the same novel.

E. Scope of the Research The scope of the research is limited to discuss about social aspects and social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World.


A. Novel 1. Definition of Novel The English word novel is derived from Italian novella similar with the French word new and small. Novel refers to a representation of real life and as an extensive work of written, narrative, prose fiction, and generally in story form. In line with the opinion of Watt in book the Rise of the Novel: The novel thus the logical literary vehicle of a culture which in the last few centuries has set an unprecedented value on originality, on the novel; and it is therefore well named. (2001: 13) Novel is about 40.000 words and onwards. This is more complex than either the short story or the novella, is not bound by the structural and metrical restrictions of plays and poetry, and is not usually composed of the traditional plots of myth and legend. In many cases a novel is about characters and their actions in everyday life, often the writer's present.

2. Elements of Novel a. Theme Theme is what the author is trying to tell the reader. For example, the belief in the ultimate good in people or those things is not always what they seem or the moral of the story, if we will. According to Gill in Halim and Sultan (2008) the theme may emerge from the variety of ways, among others are: the title of the fiction,

common theme, symbol, important words, construction of plot and important events.

b. Plot A plot or storyline is the rendering and ordering of the events, actions, and ideas of a story. Plot consists of action and reaction, also referred to as stimulus and response. Plot is often depicted as a curve with a zigzag line to represent the rise and fall of action. The story of the novel progresses through various plots. Charters in Istiqamah (1996: 12) divides plot into four parts: 1) Exposition is the part in which the author introduces the characters, scene, time, and situation. 2) Rising action is the dramatization of events that complicate the situation (complication) and gradually intensify the conflict. 3) Climax is where the rising action (complication and conflict) come to further development and to a moment of crisis. 4) Falling action is the problem or conflict proceeds toward resolution. In general, there are two ways for the author to end up the story. If he decides or closes the story for the reader by stating clearly the destiny of the characters, like they live happily ever after, or the murderer was convicted and hanged, this is called close plot. On the other hand, sometimes the story ends at the climax, and the reader is left to make a decision what he thinks the resolution or ending of the story might be, this is called open plot.

c. Character A character is a participant who acts in the story. Character can be fictional or based on real, historical entities. It can be human, supernatural, mythical, divine, animal, or personifications of abstraction whose existence originates from a fictional work or performance. Whereas characterization is a technique used by the author to depict his fictional character. In The Encyclopedia Americana, the term of character is: Character in literature, a personage in a novel, short story, or poem. The term of character also denotes the essential qualities or personality traits of functional or real individual. (1976: 290) Characters may be of several types: 1. Point-of-view character is the character by whom the story is viewed. It may or may not also be the main character in the story. 2. Protagonist is the main character of a story. 3. Antagonist is the character who stands in opposition to the protagonist 4. Major character is all the important characters in a story 5. Minor character is a character that interacts with the main characters. They help the story move along.

d. Setting Setting is the locale and time and also the situation of a story. The setting is often a real place, but may be a fictitious city or country within our own world. Gill in Halim and Sultan (2008) has suggested a broader domain of setting are:

a. The place in which characters appear b. The social context of characters such as their families, friend and class c. The custom, belief, and rules of behavior that give identity to a society d. The particular locations of events e. The atmosphere, mood and feeling that all the above elements create.

e. Point of View Point of view refers to particularly created person who will describe the story. It is important to remember that the narrator is not identical to the writer. It simply refers to the person who tells the story. In his writing, the author usually chooses one or more characters performing as narrators. In An Introduction to Fiction by Kennedy (1987: 20), point of view might be divided into two groups: 1) Narrator a participant (writing in the first person) a) A major character b) A minor character 2) Narrator a non participant (writing in the third person) a) All knowing (seeing into any of the characters) b) Seeing into one major character c) Objective (not seeing into any character) A story can be told from one of the four different points of view and sometimes it may shift. The author may begin with a certain point of view and ends the story with others.

B. Social 1. Definition of Social In the absence of agreement about its meaning, the term "social" is used in many different senses and regarded as a fuzzy concept, referring among other things to: attitude, orientations, or behaviors which take the interests, intentions, or needs of other people into account (in contrast to antisocial behavior) has played some role in defining the idea or the principle. For instance terms like social realism, social justice, social psychology and social capital imply that there is some social process involved or considered a process that is not there in regular, "non-social" realism, justice, psychology, or capital. (Anonym, 2011) The term social is related to people or society or human beings who live in society. It talks about the people as the institution, it is also related to the social interest, social usage, social happiness, social task, and even this is also used often in political discourse. We can conclude that social is all about human relation.

2. Social Aspects Here there are some social aspects that include in society. These aspects influence the development of society and social change. a. Individual and Family Individual is the human being who lives and exists in this world. Individual cannot be separated from the society, because society is formed by the interaction or the individuals. Individual cannot stand without


interacting with the other. It is as the need of each individual. When there is no good interaction in society, it will make poor feeling of that individual. In the relationship with social aspect, each individual has his own natural personality that affects his way to interact. The relationship of the individuals will make new social rules that function to manage and keep the balance of the differences among those individuals. George Murdock in Neubeck and Davita (1996) defined family as a social group characterized by common residence, economic corporation, and reproduction. Family is the first place where individual interact. Here he will learn many things like the technical matters such as how to speak, how to walk, and so on, and the moral attitude that exactly will affect his way to act together in the outer society. But, there are also some people who have conflict in their family, where of course it will give impact to the society, because family exists in where society lives.

b. Custom Custom is the norms that caused by habit and becomes the rules or well-regulated habit of the society to act. Custom itself will influence the people in doing everything in the place where this custom is believed. It is as the rule that has to be considered. One who does social deviation will get the sanction that is appropriate in the custom. Custom will also influence the thought pattern of someone, because it has the quality to force and make the people habitual with that custom.


c. Religion or belief Religion is the system of belief that consists of the rules of moral and social, way to pray to the God, and the guide for improving self to be a kind human being. Religion also play role as the social control. Whereas, belief is almost same with religion but in connotation that belief is more traditional or primitive than religion, and generally belief to Gods or inanimate objects that is trusted have power, for examples of belief are animism and dynamism. Neubeck and Davita in book Sociology a Critical Approach (1996) stated that religion exist when the social group embraces a body of beliefs and practices that are concerned with the supernatural and the sacred and encourages its member to conduct themselves in accordance with moral perceptions associated with these beliefs.

d. Government Government is the large institution in national degree that has responsible to make the policy for the prosperity or safety of the people in the country where that government governs. Politics, economy, and the other policies for the society are arranged and managed by government. In the development of society, this aspect is very significant, because, it has power to manage the people and it also has role to grow the progress of the society. When the government cannot perform the responsible well, it will absolutely influence the prosperity of society and it will become social conflict.


e. Education When structural functionalist sociologists study the institution of education, they see a system whose manifest function is to transmit the skills that all young members of society need to become productive members of the economy as adults. Thus, the purpose of schools is to teach basic skills such as reading, writing, and math. Educational institutions can also be powerful mechanism for social change. When skills taught by schools include independent, critical and creative thinking, they produce the potential for challenges to society to alter inequalities and discrimination (Neubect and Davita, 1996). But here, we have to clarify that education not only found in institution but also can be found in the other places such as in social groups like organization or study club, in the place of worship or in the other public hall.

3. Definition of Social Change William F. Ogburn in Muin (2004: 86), stated that social change includes the elements of culture either material or immaterial. Then accordingly the cyclical theory by Oswald Spengler, social change is caused by natural cycle of the resurrection and deterioration of a civilization. The change doesnt always bring the goodness. Everyone or society definitely experiences the changes. Analyzing those changes is by seeing the social life of certain society in certain time and compared it with the social life in past time. As the opinion of Selo Soemardjan, that adopted by Soekanto in his book Sosiologi Suatu Pengantar (2006) as follow:


Perubahan-perubahan sosial adalah segala perubahanperubahan pada lembaga-lembaga kemasyarakatan di dalam suatu masyarakat, yang mempengaruhi sistim sosialnya, termasuk di dalamnya nilai-nilai, sikap-sikap, dan pola-pola perikelakuan di antara kelompok-kelompok masyarakat. Basically, social changes are the indication of society. Those changes can be as social values, social norms, behavior pattern, organization, structure of government or social agency, social stratification, authority, social interaction, and so on.

4. Theories of Social Change There are some theories that have been formulated by the sociologists about the causes why social changes occur. Here they are some theories in Muin Sosiologi Untuk SMA kelas X (2004: 87-89) as follow: a. Evolutionary Theory This theory stands on Darwins evolutionary theory and is influenced by Herbert Spencers thought. Influential prominent figures in this theory are Emile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tonnies. Durkheim thinks that changes which are caused by the evolution influence the way of social organizing, especially which is related with work. Whereas Tonnies looks that society changes from being unpretentious society who has close relation and cooperative to being big society who has specialized and impersonal relation. This theory has not satisfied many sides, because it has not been able to answer the question why the society changes.


b. Conflict Theory According to this theory, conflict comes from class contrast between the oppressed group in society and the rulers then aimed at social change. This theory is guided by Karl Marxs thought that said that social class conflict is the most essential source and it impacts to all kinds of social change. Ralf Dahrendorf said all those changes are the result of class conflict in society. He trusted that conflict and opposition would always exist in each part of society. In his view, the basic principle of conflict theory is that social conflict and social change always attach in society. c. Functionalist Theory This theory is success to describe moderate leveled social change. The concept of cultural lag by William Ogburn attempts to explain social change in the framework of functionalist. He argued that though social elements connected each other, some of these elements may change very fast whereas the other elements not, so that these elements will be left behind. This condition makes social and cultural discrepancy among the elements which change so fast and the elements which change slowly. This discrepancy will result social and cultural lag in society. d. Cyclical Theory Accordingly this theory, social change is a natural cycle of the resurrection and deterioration of a culture or social system. Oswald Spengler proposed his theory that each society grows through four growing steps: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old. He assumed that west


society had reached the big time in adulthood that was in Enlightenment 18th century. Since that, the deterioration of west culture could not be stopped toward old age. No one could stop this process. As what occurred in Babylonia, Egypt, Greece, and Roman which lost ground till finally fall. Arnold Toynbee, a historian from England gives addition that the resurrection and deterioration of a civilization can be explained through social concepts which are related each other, they are challenge and response. He said that if the society is able to respond and adapt with those challenge, so the society will keep standing and grow. In the contrary, if the society cannot adapt, that civilization will be collapse. Among the four theories of social change above, the researcher tends to use cyclical theory to analyze social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World.

5. Factors of Social Change Based on the theories above, we get the knowledge about the causes of social change. Selo Soemardjan in Soekantos book Sosiologi Suatu Pengantar (2006) explained the differences between the internal and external factors. These are those factors with the addition of some other explanations: a. Internal Factors 1) The increasing and decreasing of the number of population The increasing of population may make the change in the structure of society especially those which are related to the social institution. The decreasing of the population caused by the migration of inhabitants


from one place to the other place, for example from village to city and makes the vacuity in work distribution, social stratification, and so on. 2) New invention It is the important social and cultural process, but occurs in relatively not so long time. A new invention can cause the change in one field then spread in the other field. For example, the new invention of telephone by Alexander Graham Bell, it made the change in the peoples way to communicate. And after that invention, there would modification that is discovered by the other. 3) Conflict Conflict can be happen among the human beings or groups of people. For example the conflict between young generation and old generation where in the modern era, young generation is easier to accept cultural elements from outside. This condition can create the certain changes in society. Social conflict may caused by dissatisfaction toward values and resources determined in society. These conditions bring the lost of harmony and inequality of the elements in society. 4) Rebellion or revolution in society For example the revolution in Russia that caused the great changes there. The country that was an absolute kingdom, changed to be dictator proletariat based on Marxism doctrine. The other example in Seligman (1953), industrial revolution which caused the economic and


industrial development which was gathering strength and speed in the eighteenth century and produced modern industrialism. b. External Factors 1) Natural factor around the human beings For instances, deluge, earthquake, or the other natural disasters may cause the migration of the people and because of that, there will be change in social structure 2) War War can also create the changes, the win country will force the rules or culture to the lose country. There will be great changes in the society of that lose country. 3) Outer Culture The culture from the other country also can make the changes in the life style of a society. For example western culture that comes into Indonesia has made the changes especially to the peoples life style and thought pattern.

6. Forms of Social Change Social changes could be distinguished in several forms, as Soekanto (2006) said as follow: a. Social Changes Which Occur Gradually and Rapidly Changes which occur gradually are also named evolution. It is as the changes in long time, where there are sequences of small changes that follow each other gradually. These changes happen accidentally without


any plan. These are because the society tries to adapt with the new need, situation, and condition which appear in line with the growth of society. The rapid changes always called with revolution. These changes are about and caused by the basis of societys life, for instance the relationship between the laborer and the employer. These changes can be deliberate or not. b. Social Changes Which Have Small and Big Effect The changes which have small effect are the changes in the elements of social structure that dont bring the direct and significant effects to the society. And in the contrary with the changes which have big effects, it will cause important influences. c. Social Changes Which are Planned and Unplanned The changes which are planned or wanted are the changes that have been approximated or arranged by the party who aims to create the changes in a society. The unplanned changes are the changes that happen intuitively and take place beyond the societys supervision reach and can cause the social results that are not expected.

C. Europe Europe is one of the world's seven continents. Rank six in size among the continents, about 10.531.623 square kilometers. Water bounds Europe on the North Barents Sea, west Atlantic Ocean, and south Mediterranean Sea. The eastern land boundary is traditionally defined by a line following by Ural Mountains. (Encyclopedia of Knowledge, 1993). Europe, however, seems to be an extension


of Asia. In fact, geographically, Europe and Asia are sometimes regarded as a single great continent called Eurasia, with Europe as its peninsula. But, because Europe has distinctive history and culture, it is usually consider as separate continent. (The New Book of Knowledge, 1992: 340) Of Europe's approximately 50 states, Russia is the largest by both area and population (although the country has territory in both Europe and Asia), while the Vatican City is the smallest. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa, with a population of 731 million or about 11% of the world's population. ( In ancient Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess whom Zeus abducted after assuming the form of a dazzling white bull. He took her to the island of Crete where she gave birth to Minos, Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon. For Homer, Europe was a mythological queen of Crete, not a geographical designation. Later, Europa stood for central-north Greece, and by 500 BC its meaning had been extended to the lands to the north. ( Europe was the birthplace of ideas that helped shape the modern world. From ancient Greece came the idea of democracy and the spirit scientific inquiry. From Rome came the idea of just laws and the first attempts to unite Europe. In the northern European, lowlands people learned to rotate the corps they planted from year to year. This helped keep the soil fertile and made it possible to establish permanent settlements. Europeans were the first to make use of machines to replace human labor on a large scale. The industrial revolution in the 18th and early


19th centuries made Europe the worlds workshop. (The New Book of Knowledge, 1992: 341) Historically, religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art, culture, philosophy and law. The largest religion in Europe is Christianity as practiced by Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant Churches. Following these is Islam concentrated mainly in the south east (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, North Cyprus, Turkey and Azerbaijan), and Tibetan Buddhism, found in Kalmykia. Other religions including Judaism and Hinduism are minority religions. Europe is a relatively secular continent and has an increasing number and proportion of irreligious, agnostic and atheistic people, actually the largest in the Western world, with a particularly high number of selfdescribed non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Sweden, Germany (East), and France. ( The foundation of European culture was laid by the Greeks, strengthened by the Romans, stabilised by Christianity, reformed by the 15th-century Renaissance and Reformation, modernised by the 18th century Age of Enlightenment and globalised by successive European empires between the 16th and 20th centuries. (

D. Analytic Approach The analytic approach seeks to reduce a system to its elementary elements in order to study in detail and understand the types of interaction that exist between them. By modifying one variable at a time, it tries to infer general laws that will enable one to predict the properties of a system under very different conditions. To


make this prediction possible, the laws of elementary properties must be invoked (Rosnay, 1997). This approach not only explains the object but also gives the understanding of that object (Ratna, 2004). This enables one to understand the behavior of the multitude of disorganized complexity. According to Rosnay (1997), the traits of analytic approach are as follow: 1. Isolates, then concentrates on the elements 2. Studies the nature of interaction 3. Emphasizes the precision of details 4. Modifies one variable at a time 5. Validates facts by means of experimental proof within the body of a theory 6. Leads to action programmed in detail E. Synopsis of Jostein Gaarders Novel Sophies World Sophie Amundsen is fourteen years old when the book begins. She begins a strange correspondence course in philosophy. Every day, a letter comes to her mailbox with a few questions and then later in the day a package comes with some typed pages describing the ideas of a philosopher who dealt with the questions. Although at first she does not know, later Sophie learns that Alberto Knox is the name of the philosopher who is teaching her. He sends her packages via his dog Hermes. Alberto first tells Sophie that philosophy is extremely relevant to life and that if we do not question and ponder our very existence we are not really living. Then he proceeds to go through the history of western philosophy. Alberto teaches Sophie about the ancient myths that people had in the days before they tried to come up with natural explanations for the processes in the world. Then she learns


about the natural philosophers who were concerned with change. Next Alberto describes Democritus and the theory of indivisible atoms underlying all nature as well as the concept of fate. At the same time, Sophie receives a strange postcard sent to Hilde Mller Knag, care of Sophie. The postcard is from Hilde's father and wishes Hilde happy birthday. Sophie is confused, and more so when she finds a scarf with Hilde's name on it. She does not know what is happening but she is sure that Hilde and the philosophy course must somehow be connected. She learns about Socrates, who was wise enough to know that he knew nothing. Then Alberto sends her a video that shows him in present day Athens and somehow he seems to go back in time to ancient Athens. She learns about Plato and his world of ideas and then about Aristotle, who criticized Plato, classified much of the natural world, and founded logic and our theory of concepts. Then, as Sophie's education continues, the Hilde situation begins to get more complicated. Sophie finds many more postcards to Hilde, and some of them are even dated June 15, the day Sophie will turn 15. The problem is that June 15 is still more than a month away. Sophie discovers some of this with her best friend Joanna, and one of the postcards tells Hilde that one day she will meet Sophie and also mentions Joanna. Strange things are happening that the girls cannot understand. Sophie's relationship with her mother becomes somewhat strained as she tries both to cover up the correspondence with Alberto and to practice her philosophical thinking on her mom. Meanwhile, Alberto teaches Sophie about Jesus and the meeting of Indo-European and Semitic cultures. She learns about St.


Augustine, St. Aquinas, and the Christianization of Greek philosophy in the middle Ages. By this time, Sophie has met Alberto and he begins hinting that the philosophy is about to get extremely relevant to the strange things that are happening to her. Sophie learns about the focus on humanity in the Renaissance and the extremes of the Baroque and Alberto focuses on the most important philosophers. Urgently, he teaches her about Descartes, who doubted, and who by doing so knew at least that he could doubt. They move on to Spinoza as it becomes clear that Hilde's father has some awesome power over them. Then Sophie learns about the empiricists. Locke believed in natural rights and that everything we know is gained from experience. Hume, an important influence on Kant, showed that our actions are guided by feelings and warned against making laws based upon our experiences. But, Berkeley is most important to Sophie because he suggested that perhaps our entire lives were inside the mind of God. And Alberto says that their lives are inside the mind of Albert Knag, Hilde's father. At this point the story switches to Hilde's point of view. On June 15, the day she turns fifteen, Hilde receives a birthday gift from her father entitled Sophie's World. She begins to read and is enthralled. We follow the rest of Sophie's story from Hilde's perspective. Hilde becomes certain that Sophie exists, that she is not just a character in a book. Alberto has a plan to escape Albert Knag's mind, and they must finish the philosophy course before that can happen. He teaches Sophie about the Enlightenment and its humane values, and about Kant and his unification of empiricist and rationalist thought. Things in Sophie's life


have become completely insane but she and Alberto know they must find a way to do something. It will have to occur, about a week after Hilde's 15th birthday when Hilde's father returns home. They learn about the world spirit of Romanticism, Hegel's dialectical view of history, and Kierkegaard's belief that the individual's existence is primary. Meanwhile, Hilde plans a surprise for her father on his return home. Sophie and Alberto rush through Marx, Darwin, Freud, and Sartre, desperate to come up with a plan to escape even though everything they do is known by Hilde's father. Then at the end of Sophie's World, the book that Hilde is reading, while at a party for Sophie on June 15, Alberto and Sophie disappear. Hilde's father comes home and they talk about the book, and Hilde is sure that Sophie exists somewhere. Meanwhile, Sophie and Alberto have a new existence as spirit. They have escaped from Albert Knag's mind but they are invisible to other people and can walk right through them. Sophie wants to try to interfere in the world of Hilde and her father, and at the end of the book she is learning how to do so. (Anonym, 2007)



A. Research Design The researcher tended to use descriptive method in this research. Descriptive method is a method that is intended to describe everything related to the topic of the research.

B. Source of Data The researcher collected by using method of library research. The source of data in this research consists of two: 1. Primary data is the main data to collect and analyze as an object of the research. The primary data in this research is the entire novel Sophies World by Jostein Gaarder 2. Secondary data is some literatures that support the research. The secondary data that is used by the researcher is any references, for example books and electronic articles related to the research.

C. Technique of Data Collection The next, here the method of collecting data that had been used by the researcher: 1. The researcher first read the novel Sophies World carefully and intensively. Through this way, the researcher found the history of philosophy from the ancient philosophy in sixth century BC until modern philosophy.


2. The researcher analyzed the social aspects and social changes in this novel carefully. 3. While analyzing, the researcher collected some related literatures Such as about Europe, philosophy, and etcetera to support the object that was being analyzed.

D. Technique of Data Analysis In this research, data were analyzed by using analytic approach. This is an approach that seeks to reduce a system to its elementary elements in order to study in detail and understand the types of interaction that exist between them.


CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS As the statement before in background that Sophies World novel by Jostein Gaarder is the combination of two sides in the term of its form, fiction and fact. Where fiction is presented in Sophie Amundsens life and fact is presented in the history of philosophy that Sophie was learning from Alberto Knox, a philosopher all at once as Sophies philosophy teacher. Their introduction was begun when Alberto Knox sent her a mysterious letter consisted of philosophical questions: who are you? and where does the world come from?. He sent it without writing his name. These questions as the opening questions to recognize the base of philosophy. Still in that day, she then received a strange postcard for Hilde Moller Knag a girl that she didnt know who, sent from a father that she also didnt recognize, but addressed to her home in 3 Clover Close and her name also written there. In the next days, Alberto sent her the package in print out form about the explanation of what philosophy is, continued about the history of philosophy begins in the mythological world picture before sixth BC until the advance of philosophy and humans modern life style in twentieth century in Europe. In chapter about Socrates, he finally introduced his complete name as Alberto Knox. Alberto also received the strange postcard from Hildes father. This was the reason why he sent Sophie those letters, because he was asked by Hildes father to teach Sophie about philosophy. But who was he? There are many strange events during Sophies philosophy subject with Alberto Knox. Such as when she got Hildes necklace in her own bed, when Alberto intuitively said to Sophie Happy Birthday


Hilde, or when Sophie met with Winnie the Pooh in the forest. Later, she and Alberto knew that both of them and their strange lives, included the history of philosophy that they discussed were only in Hildes father, Albert Knags thought. They then realized that they were just the characters in a novel arranged by Albert Knag titled Sophies World for Hildes fifteenth birthday present. In that both sides of Sophies World there are social aspects that we can find. First, the most we can find them in the history of the growth of philosophy in Europe. Where automatically in all history, there are the influences and change of society there. As Hegel (Gaarder, 2010) said that history created because there are the differences in thinking of the society where that history takes place, means that it depends on the context. The second one, we can find them of course in Sophies life, because Sophie herself is the part of her society. This chapter is divided into two prominent parts, first is social aspect and the second one is social change. Social aspect here is as the classification of kinds of social aspects in this novel, whereas social change here is as the history of social development in Europe. In the previous chapter, it is said that the objectives of this research are to identify social aspects and to explain social changes in this novel. So, here in this chapter is the analysis of those objectives.

A. Social Aspect Social aspect here is as the classification of what kind of social aspects included in this novel. It is divided into five parts. They are family, custom, religion, government, and education. Here both Sophies life and history of philosophy in Europe are included.


1. Family a. Sophies Familial Conflict Family here only refers to Sophies family. In this novel, Sophie is described as a clever, stubborn, but kind girl. At first reading the way Sophie communicates to her mother, we will assume that Sophie spoke a bit impolite. She was also introvert to her mother and sometimes had negative thought about her. It is seen when she kept her secret about the mysterious letter about philosophical questions and strange postcard for Hilde Moller Knag c/o Sophie Amundsen, 3 Clover Close that she received from unknown senders. Even when she received a package about philosophy subject from one who sent him the letter about philosophical questions before, Alberto Knox, she still kept it alone without telling her mother about that experience. In page 30, Sophie is confuse how to answer her mothers question about that letter, even she let her mother to think that that letter is a love letter. Arent you going to open it? She had to find an excuse. Have you ever heard of anyone opening a love letter with her mother looking over her shoulder? Let her mother think it was a love letter. Although it was embarrassing enough, it would be even worse if her mother found out that she was doing a correspondence course with a complete stranger, a philosopher who was playing hideand-seek with her. (Gaarder, 2007: 30) Sophie was an only child in her family. She didnt have sibling at all. Her father was a sailor and always sailed around the world during the years. Her mother worked until late in the afternoon. To console Sophie


during the day without her parents, the pets like Sherekan the cat, Govinda the turtle, and Goldtop, Red Ridinghood, and Black Jack the three goldfishes are given to her. But, although the relationship between Sophie and her mother seemed not so close, actually her mother loved and cared her so much. It was seen when she was afraid if Sophie consume drugs after noticing her daughters strange behavior. Her anxious become higher when she sees the stranger attitude of Sophie day by day when her mother says: Now I want the truth. Were you out all night? Why did you go to bed with your clothes on? Did you sneak out as soon as I had gone to bed? Youre only fourteen, Sophie. I demand to know who you are seeing! (Gaarder, 2007: 98) Sophie often missed her father. She was closer to her father then her mother. About her strange experience, she felt that she really wanted to tell all about it with her father. She said that if only her father is there at home, she would tell much about it. The reason why Sophie didnt really close with her mother, in fact because of the inharmonic relation between her parents: Maybe I should start asking some questions instead. Why is Dad never home? Is it because you havent got the guts to get a divorce? Maybe youve got a boyfriend you dont want Dad and me to know about and so on and so on. Ive got plenty of questions of my own. (Gaarder, 2007: 213) Sophie felt disappointed because of the inharmonious relation between her mother and her father. She thought that her mother has a new boyfriend out side. One day, she clashed with her mother and went to her bedroom playing possum, but her mother knew that. Her mother stroked

her hair softly and then they began to talk about other thing. And her mother explained about her relation with Sophies father: Yes, we shall. And Sophieit is true that things havent always been easy between Dad and me. But there was never anyone else ... (Gaarder, 2007: 217) After that time, the relation between Sophie and her mother became better and Sophie began to close with her mother about Alberto Knox, her philosophy teacher and about philosophy subject itself. b. Hildes Harmonious Family Different from Sophie, in the contrary, Hildes family is very harmonious. The similarity between her and Sophie is that both of them are an only child. She had a father who really loved her, Albert Knag. Albert Knag is a sailor in UN Battalion Norway in Lebanon who had high social personality and strong interest in philosophy. Thats why he made a novel with the same title with this novel Sophies World, about Sophie Amundsen who is learning philosophy and Alberto Knox as her teacher. He made this novel as the best present for his daughter Hilde in her fifteenth birthday. Through this novel, he wanted to teach his daughter about the history of philosophy in Europe. He wanted her daughter to become more mature in thinking. We can see in page 472 where he didnt want to let her believing in illogical things like superstition. Each time, her father had lectured her about superstition and her critical faculty, but he had waited until now for the final blow. His counterattack was deadly accurate. Clearly, his daughter would not be allowed to grow up without a thorough warning against that kind of thing (Gaarder, 2007: 465)


He made that novel as interesting and unique as possible by included his postcard to Hilde in the plot of that novel. In that postcard it is really clear how his longing to his daughter. Dear Hilde, I cant wait to come home to Lillesand I would much rather have arrived in time for your 15th birthday but Im under military command of course. To make up for it, I promise to devote all my loving care to the huge present you are getting for your birthday. With love from someone who is always thinking about his daughters future. (Gaarder, 2007: 143) Hildes father also really loved his wife. It is seen from how his attitude to his wife, Marit. Hilde is too big to sit on my knee any more. But youre not! With that he caught Marit round the waist and drew her onto his lap. (Gaarder, 2007: 496) Here we see that although Hildes father was busy in UN Battalion Norway, but by optimizing his time when he was at home with the intimacy among him and his wife and daughter, that family would be harmonious time by time. Maintaining the communication in long distance is also essential. Although the distance apart the family, it is not the reason to break that family if the communication by letter for example still maintained.

2. Custom a. Traditional Birthday Morning Ritual In Norway, there is a certain ritual to commemorate the birthday. Parent of a child who has birthday, in the morning of that day will come into his bedroom, saying happy birthday while bringing tray with rolls


and soda and they also will pack out the presents. In the morning of Sophies birthday, they also do the same ritual. When she came back she was carrying another tray with rolls and soda. She put it on the end of the bed. It was the signal for the traditional birthday morning ritual, with the unpacking of present (Gaarder, 2007: 303) Buttered rolls and soda on the tray also brought by Hildes mother into Hildes room in the morning of Hildes birthday Her mother stood leaning over the bed with the tray. On it were lighted candles, buttered rolls with shrimp salad, and a soda. There was also a small package. Her mother stood awkwardly holding the tray with both hands, with a flag under one arm. (Gaarder, 2007: 289) Buttered rolls and soda are food and drink that usually consumed in Norway and other countries in Europe. The presents from family will be brought too and pack out also in that morning in the daughters room. b. Midsummer Eve Party Midsummer is the special moment for Europeans. They usually make party in the evening by setting off firework or bonfires and eating together in the garden or yard. In this novel, Midsummer also the occasion when Sophie made her fifteenth garden party for celebrating her birthday. It is also the time when Alberto and she escaped from Albert Knags imagination or in the other word it is the time setting where Albert Knags novel titled Sophies World ended. Then Sophie and Alberto in their invisible substance came to Oslo invisibly looking for Hilde and Albert Knag in Bjerkely. In that Midsummer Eve, along the road, they saw how merry that eve.


They drove southward outpast Lysaker, Sandvika, Drammen, and down toward Lillesand. As they drove they saw more and more Midsummer bonfires, especially after they had passed Drammen. Its Midsummer, Sophie. Isnt it wonderful? (Gaarder, 2007: 483) Midsummer is the moment where the weather is good. So that the Europeans who have four seasons really appreciate this moment by the happiness in the form of party.

3. Religion and Belief a. Mythology Before Christianity came into Europe, most of the society believed in the power of the Gods such as Thor, Zeus, Athena, Apollo, and etcetera. We call the story about it mythology. They believed that those Gods influence the natural phenomenon. If raining, and there is thunder, they believed that that was because Thor was tapping his hammer. Before Christianity came to Norway, people believed that Thor rode across the sky in a chariot drawn by two goats. When he swung his hammer it made thunder and lightning. The word thunder in NorwegianThord0n means Thors roar (Gaarder, 2007: 24) They also believed that the diseases were from the evil spirit. Because of that, in treating the disease they believed some certain rituals like offering ceremony must be done for giving more power to the gods like Thor and Odin: For example, mortals had to make offerings to the gods to give them the strength to conquer the forces of chaos The offering to Thor was usually a goat. Offerings to Odin sometimes took the form of human sacrifices (Gaarder, 2007: 25)


b. Judaism Judaism cannot be separated from the history of Christianity in Europe. It is because the center where Christianity appeared for the first time is in Jerusalem where Judaism had been the common religion in that time. Paul, the missionary who brought Christianity in the land of Greece also a Pharisee who believed on Judaism at first. Bible, the holy book of Christians consists of two, Old Testament and New Testament which Old Testament is from Judaism. Actually, three of the largest religion- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have same root of culture, Semite. Three of those religions also consider Jerusalem as the holy city. Unfortunately, this city becomes conflict place instead. The city comprises prominent (Jewish) synagogues, (Christian) churches, and (Islamic) mosques. It is therefore deeply tragic that Jerusalem should have become a bone of contentionwith people killing each other by the thousand because they cannot agree on who is to have ascendancy over this Eternal City. (Gaarder, 2007: 152) c. Christianity Christianity is the largest religion in Europe, remembering that historically, Paul spread Christianity successfully in Greece. In that time, Greece is the land with very good progress in civilization. Of course this is the strategic beginning for spreading Christianity especially among the Europeans. Accordingly this religion and also in this novel, in the first century, Jesus from Nazareth came as Messiah to teach the people in Jerusalem to be more human. But, Jerusalem in that time defeated by Roman imperialism. Israeli felt suffer with that condition and waited for


the Messiah who can bring them in the glory. But most of them saw that what he taught was only about human and that had no use for retaking their position from Roman imperialism. The different precept that he said from God made him died on the cross in the hand of Roman imperialism. After his death, Paul a Pharisee moved to Christian and became missionary in Greece and Roman. He came to Athena and delivered a speech in Acropolis about the only one God. After some decades, Christians more and more in the important cities in Greco-Roman such as Athena, Rome, and Alexandria. About three or four hundred years, Christian became the religion in the whole Hellenistic. He made Christian growth fast by writing letters for the congregation. Paul continued his missionary activities. A few decades after the death of Jesus, Christian congregations were already established in all the important Greek and Roman citiesin Athens, in Rome, in Alexandria, in Ephesos, and in Corinth. In the space of three to four hundred years, the entire Hellenistic world had become Christian. (Gaarder, 2007: 160) In the growth of Christian in Middle Ages, there were some problems where the Church held the authority on the society where science is delimitated. It encouraged the protest and reformation in fifteenth century where Martin Luther as one of the pioneers. Then appeared new Christian sect, called Protestant. d. Islam Islam has become the part of European culture. The prove is that in Europe mainly in the south east like Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania,


Kosovo, Kazakhstan, North Cyprus, Turkey and Azerbaijan, most of the society there are Muslims ( Roman Empire in the Middle Ages expanded its dominance to North Africa and also to Middle East. Then in seventh century, after the death of Prophet Muhammad, both of North Africa and Middle East became Islam khilafah regions and automatically cultured Arabic either in language or in religion. Afterward, Spain also became part of Islams khilafah or government. However, North Africa and the Middle East had also been part of the Roman Empire. This area developed during the Middle Ages into an Arabic-speaking Muslim culture. After the death of Muhammad in 632, both the Middle East and North Africa were won over to Islam. Shortly thereafter, Spain also became part of the world of Islamic culture (Gaarder, 2007: 170) Much of the old Greek science was inherited by the Arabs. In the Middle Ages, the Arabs were major in high sciences such as mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, and medicine. In a number of areas Arabic culture was superior to Christian culture. 4. Government Governmental system in Europe has been developing century by century. After about 450 BC, societys interest moved to governmental system. Democracy was the system that the society in that time used in managing social problems. Popular assemblies and courts of law were also created then. In Athens, interest was now focused on the individual and the individuals place in society. Gradually a democracy evolved, with popular assemblies and courts of law. In order for democracy to work, people had to be educated enough to take part in the democratic process. (Gaarder, 2007: 62)


It grew more and more appropriate with the progress of social life. From the authoritative system in fifth century where Socrates had to die because of his uncommon thought, until in the modern era where it is more democratic and liberal in capitalism system in most of the countries Europe or socialism growing in Berlin by Karl Marx. The conflict between the low class society and the government authority had influence the appearance of the new governmental system in Europe. 5. Education The first academy in Europe is in Greece in founded by Plato (428-347 BC). This academy was named Academus based on the name of legendary hero in Greece named Academus. So the term academy in English as absorption word from that name. In the first centuries of Roman Imperialism on Greece about 3 B.C until before 4 century, education especially science and philosophy more and more growth. Alexandria became the center of science with the large library, and Athena still become the center of philosophy study The town of Alexandria played a key role here as a meeting place between East and West. While Athens remained the center of philosophy with still functioning schools of philosophy after Plato and Aristotle, Alexandria became the center for science. With its extensive library, it became the center for mathematics, astronomy, biology, and medicine. (Gaarder, 2007: 128) In the middle age, studying activity was held by Church. In 529, Academy Plato was closed by the church. It seemed that philosophy considered as the forbidden material by the church in that time. Even in Renaissance, the new thought and invention such as what Galileo Galilei and


Giordano Bruno said about nature also still strongly opposed by the church. The result is that both of them had to die because of that. Although church authority still existed, Renaissance itself is the era of the significant progress of knowledge especially for science, appeared the scientists like Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Kepler, and Nicolas Copernicus. In modern era like in 19th and 20th century, education became more develop in many fields, such as technology and psychology.

2. Social Change The theory that the researcher applies for analyzing this social change is Cyclical Theory which is developed by Oswald Spengler and completed by Arnold Toynbee. According to this theory, social change is caused by the progression and the deterioration of the civilization, and the how the society responds the challenges in their social environment. The following is the analysis of social change of the society in Europe, begun from before sixth B.C to twentieth century: 1. Before Sixth B.C a. Mythology Mythology was the most popular story handed by generation to generation which describes about the gods and their influence to explain about the phenomenon of life. Over the millennium there are a great many mythological explanations of philosophical questions spread across the world. The society in Europe had believed in the power of gods to manage the nature. They believed that the gods like Thor and Odin and the evils, the enemies of gods also play certain life in the invisible life far over the


heavens. The goodness trusted caused by the gods and badness trusted caused by the evils who intrude mankind or make troubles in the heavens. In Norway and Scandinavia for example, when thundering the people believed that the reason was because god Thor swung his hammer, then rain came. Of course that it was very useful for the farmers. So Thor was worshipped as the god of fertility. Then in dry season where there was no water from the sky to grow the plants, they believed that Thors hammer was stolen by the evil. But, then if rain came back, it meant that Thor had already retaken his hammer. The society especially the Vikings believed that the inhabited world was an island threatened by outside dangers. They called this island as Midgard, which means the kingdom in the middle. In Midgard lay Asgard, the realm of the gods. Then out of the Migdgard was Utgard, the domain of the giants who used to plan to destroy the world. the kingdom of Utgard, the domain of the treacherous giants, who resorted to all kinds of cunning tricks to try and destroy the world. Evil monsters like these are often referred to as the forces of chaos. (Gaarder, 2007: 24) The gods had to have strong power to bear down the giants or the evils. So, it was said that we had to give offering for them. The offering for the gods was usually the animals. Offering for Thor was usually a goat, for Odin sometimes was form of human sacrifices. This offering was also trusted for the gods to cure the disease. The name influenza was from the word influence that meant the belief that this disease was from the influence of supernatural power of the animals.


In Greece, mythology about the gods had spread heritably. They called the gods as Zeus and Apollo, Hera and Athene, Dionysos and Asclepios, Heracles and Hephaestos, to mention only a few of them. Around 700 B.C, much of the Greek mythology was written by Homer and Hesiod. This created the new situation where now that the myths existed in written form, so that it was possible to discuss them. b. Foreseeing the Fate The ancient Greeks believed that they could consult about their fate with famous oracle at Delphi. They believed that Apollo, the god of the oracle, could speak through his priestess named Pythia. When people came to Delphi they had to present their question to the priests of the oracle. That priest then sent it to Pythia. Her answer would be so ambiguous so that the priests had to interpret it. In that way, the people felt that they get the benefit of Apollos advice, believing that they could know about everything, even about their future. There were many heads of state who dared not go to war or take other decisive steps until they had consulted the oracle at Delphi. The priests of Apollo thus functioned more or less as diplomats, or advisers. (Gaarder, 2007: 54) This shows that the society especially in ancient Greece trusted in oracle so much. They were still so unscientific in thinking. But this also shows that they had strong faith in the greater power that managed the nature and knew everything. Unfortunately, this belief wasnt counterbalanced with their logical thought.


2. The Beginning of Philosophy (6 3 B.C) a. Thought Progression about Nature, Medical Treatment and History In these centuries, the philosophers in Greece began to pop out. They brought new thought especially about the nature and opposed the mythology. They disagreed with mythology written by Homer because the gods seemed like egoist and dishonest just like human. They argued that mythology was only story fiction made by human beings. Xenophanes was one of these philosophers who lived in about 570 B.C. It is said that society only made the gods in their mind based on their imagination. The aim of the early Greek philosophers was to find natural, rather than supernatural, explanations for natural processes. During this period, part of people began to think more scientifically especially in Greece. This cannot be separated by the role of the philosophers. The philosophers in this period who commenced the scientific thought about the natural phenomenon and didnt depend anymore with the imaginative story of mythology were like Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Democritus. They were also called natural philosopher, because of their focus on natural phenomenon. All the earliest philosophers shared the belief that there had to be a certain basic substance as the root of all natural changes. Thales was the first philosopher even we can say that he was the pioneer of natural philosopher, from Miletus. He had ventured on many lands included Egypt and was able to know the high of Pyramid by


measuring its shadow at the moment when his shadows high was same with his high. He also had ever been able to predict solar eclipse in 585 B.C precisely. His popular opinion is that the whole nature is made by the water. He maybe assumed this because of his experience in Egypt when he came to Nile River, and saw the fertile growth of the plants around that river. He maybe ever saw the frogs and worms appear from the wet soil. he may have believed that all life originated from water. During his travels in Egypt he must have observed how the crops began to grow as soon as the floods of the Nile receded from the land areas in the Nile Delta. (Gaarder, 2007: 34) Different from Thales opinion, Anaximenes, also from Miletus lived in 570-526 B.C thought that the basis of the nature was from the air or vapor. As example, rain falls as the result of condensed vapor, he assumed. He also said that fire was rarefied air. So he thought that earth, water, and fire were created from air. Empedocles premise seemed to unite Thales and Anaximenes. After considering, he argues that the root of nature was four substances; they were earth, air, fire, and wafer. Anaxagoras then also assumed that nature was from the super small units which bring the characteristic of thing it came from. As example when we take a cell from our skin, this will show the whole characteristic of our body such as our eyes, hair, and so on If I loosen a skin cell from my finger, the nucleus will contain not only the characteristics of my skin: the same cell will also reveal what kind of eyes I have, the color of my hair, the number and type of my fingers, and so on. (Gaarder, 2007: 40)

Democritus (460-370 B.C) came with his excellent thought about the nature. His opinion was that all the things are from the smallest units which cannot be parted anymore. He named that smallest unit as atom. Nowadays, we recognize also this atom term as the smallest unit which forms the material. But, the modern physics now adds certain explanation about this atom that an atom still has elemental particles protons, neutrons, and electrons. In the field of medical treatment, there was Hippocrates (460 B.C) who was called the founder of Greek medicine. Accordingly Hippocrates, the most important ways to prevent the disease were moderation and a healthy lifestyle. If we are sick, it means that there is imbalance in our physic or psyches. Our health is one of natural signals and the tips for healthy lifestyle are moderation, harmony, and a mensana in corpore sano or in healthy body there is healthy mind. Health is the natural condition. When sickness occurs, it is a sign that Nature has gone off course because of physical or mental imbalance. The road to health for everyone is through moderation, harmony, and a sound mind in a sound body. (Gaarder, 2007: 55) Then in history term, in this period the historians began to observe the cause of the historical change. They concluded that the history was not caused by the gods. The anger of gods so a country defeated in war was not as the acceptable reason anymore. The best known Greek historians in this period were Herodotus and Thucydides.


b. Democracy, Inhuman Dominance, and Development in Education and Science Started in 450 B.C in Greece, the focus of social change moved to the case about society and government. Democracy system grew, with popular assemblies and courts of law. Unfortunately this democracy seemed like only slogan. Inhuman dominance was the evidence. In 399 B.C, after Socrates sounded his many questions which made the high class people felt offended and many protests about for example condemning people to death, the court of law impeached him introducing new gods and corrupting the youth and decided that he had to drink hemlock. In the year 399 B.C. he was accused of introducing new gods and corrupting the youth, as well as not believing in the accepted gods. With a slender majority, a jury of five hundred found him guilty (Gaarder, 2007: 66) Plato, Socrates student and Aristotle, Platos student appeared with their different focus in philosophy. Same with Socrates, their thoughts focus also on human and society. Plato for example said that state built up exactly like the three parts of human body. Where the body has head, chest, and abdomen, the State has rulers, auxiliaries, and laborers like farmers, for example. Whereas according to Aristotle (384-322 B.C), there are three good forms of constitution. First is monarchy, or kingship, which means there is only one head of a state. But, the head of state is forbidden to govern the state for his advantage. Second is aristocracy, where there is a larger or smaller group of rulers. But, this system can be bad if the government only handed by certain group. The third is polity or


democracy. But this form also has its negative aspect. That if the governmental officials are not responsible, mob rule can develop quickly: A democracy can quickly develop into mob rule. (Even if the tyrannic Hitler had not become head of state in Germany all the lesser Nazis could have formed a terrifying mob rule) (Gaarder, 2007: 115) In the term of education, Plato became the first person who made an academy. He named his academy as Academus inspired by the legendary hero in Greece. The term Academy is from this name. In this academy, Plato taught his students about his philosophical thought about world of idea that we have perfect knowledge about the nature actually. Then there was Aristotle, who disagreed with Plato, his own teacher about world of idea. He argued that we know something by seeing and learning it first. This encouraged him to observe the organism in the nature and got conclusion about Organism Classification. Now, in our Biology material in our school, we study about what Aristotle had discovered about this classification. He also called as the first Biologist in Europe. 3. Hellenistic (3 B.C 1 A.D) a. Development in Science and Skepticism in Belief Because of the subjugation of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) the king of Macedonia and also the student of Aristotle - in Persians, Egypt, east countries until India, Greece culture had dominated in those many countries as long as 300 years. This period named Hellenistic, where Greece culture played the main role. But, in 50 B.C, Roman had more


power in politic and military. Roman conquered Greece then, and Greece became the own of Roman Empire. Nevertheless, Roman actually the part of Greece culture before. So that, Greece culture still played important role in Europe though its power in politic had ended. The characteristics in this period were the progression in science and the skepticism in belief, different from the culture of ancient Greeks who had strong faith in the gods. These conditions were caused by the smelting of cultures. The beliefs from other east country like Egypt, Persians, and Syria came into Greece culture which created the syncretism or fusion of creeds. This condition then created many versions of beliefs in society and made the skepticism about what the truth is. Another characteristic was the effort to be free from the scare of death. Philosophy was considered able to answer the solution of this scare. So, there was no the constraint between philosophy and belief. Philosophic insight, it was now thought, did not only have its own reward; it should also free mankind from pessimism and the fear of death (Gaarder, 2007: 127) In the field of science and education, Hellenistic science was influenced too by the compound of knowledge from those various cultures. Alexandria played a key role here as a meeting place between East and West. Alexandria also became the center for science. With its large library, it became the center for mathematics, astronomy, biology, and medicine. While Athens still became the center of philosophical study with still the schools of philosophy of Plato and Aristotle.


b. New Philosophical Trends The syncretism had created some new philosophical trends. Each of these philosophical trends had tried to give solution of the scare of death that many people felt and how to get happiness. There were the Cynics, who emphasized that true happiness is not found in external advantages such as material luxury, political power, or good health. True happiness means that we are not being dependent on momentary things. So everybody can reach it. The term cynicism was based them. Nowadays the terms cynical and cynicism have come to mean a sneering disbelief in human sincerity, and they imply insensitivity to other peoples suffering. (Gaarder, 2007: 129) Then Stoics (around 300 B.C) emphasized that all natural processes, such as disease and death, must be follow the laws of nature. The human must learn to accept his destiny. One of Stoic famous person is the orator, statesman, and philosopher Cicero who created the concept of Humanism. Different from Epicureans who argued that death does not concern us, because as long as we exist, death is not here. And when it does come, we no longer exist. The term epicurean nowadays used for a negative sense to describe someone who lives only for pleasure. Neo-Platonism in second B.C then brought different idea. Plotinus, the main figure in this philosophical trend said that we can feel fusion with the god. This called mystical experience. Everything is one for everything is God. It was also as effort to get the true happiness. Nowadays, there are some religions who believe this fusion.


4. The Growth of Christianity (1 A.D 4 A.D) According to Christian religion, first A.D or in the year of one is the moment where Jesus the Messiah was born in Nazareth. In that time, the Jews in Jerusalem were in Roman dominance. In Old Testament, it was said that there will be the Messiah come for bringing the salvation in Jerusalem. Then Jesus came, but different from the Jews want, Jesus came with his peace and human teaching. Many of Jews felt that this teaching wont be useful to make them retake their land from Roman. Beside that, the Roman Empire also thought that Jesus spread the new tenet which was different from their belief in that time. So Jesus then caught by the Roman and died on the cross. After the death of Jesus, before second century, a Pharisee named Paul moved to Christianity and became the famous missionary. He then came to spread this religion to Europe. First he came to Athena in Greece which is the center of philosophy. He came to synagogue and discussed with the Epicurean and Stoics in, afterward they brought him on the Aeropagos and asked him to explain about the new religion he spreading. He said: Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. (Gaarder, 2007:159) Paul introduced the new form of God to the Greeks. The God who was not sold in markets or made from the gold. Although at that time part of the society didnt want to believe him, but in three to four hundred years, the entire Hellenistic world in Greece-Roman had become Christian.


Greece and Roman culture had been united with Christianity. As example, in the Old Testament, it is forbidden to draw or make the Gods statue but we can see in many Catholic Churches nowadays consist of many statues as the influence of Greece and Roman culture which is special in sculpture. 5. Middle Ages (4 A.D 14 A.D) a. Influence of Islam and Arabic Culture In 395 when The Great Constantine was the king, Roman Imperialism divided into two. West imperialism with Rome as the center, and East imperialism with Constantinople (now Istanbul in Turkey) as the center. North Africa and the Middle East also had been part of the Roman Empire. These both domains then became the part of Islam in the glory of khilafah, Islamic government after the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. Not so long after that, Spain and Alexandria became part of Islamic culture. The influence of the Arabs of Spain began. The Arabs had kept the Aristotelian tradition. In the end of the 12th century, Arab scholars began to arrive in Northern Italy at the invitation. The Arabs successfully developed high science such as mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, and medicine. the Arabs also took over the ancient Hellenistic city of Alexandria. Thus much of the old Greek science was inherited by the Arabs. All through the Middle Ages, the Arabs were predominant hi sciences (Gaarder, 2007: 170) The progression of Arabian culture especially in science next to a certain degree had influenced the societys movement to Renaissance. Nowadays we can see some of countries in Europe which most of their


societies are Muslims such as in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, North Cyprus, Turkey and Azerbaijan, most of the society there are Muslims ( b. Church Authority In these middle Ages, the church had handed the dominance in Rome. In 529, church closed Platos academy in Athena. This was as the symbol of how the church opposite the philosophy. Middle ages also called The Dark Ages. The first centuries after the year 400 really were a cultural crisis. When in the Roman period there was high culture, with big cities that had sewers, public baths, and libraries, and beautiful architecture, in the early centuries of the Middle Ages this entire culture dissolved. So did its trade and economy. In the Middle Ages, in the term of payment, people returned to bartering system. The economy in that time characterized by feudalism, means that there are a few nobles who own the land, and the slaves have to work there so they can still live. The freedom of thinking was really limited. It might be influenced by the view of St. Agustin who said that there is no salvation outside the church. There is no salvation outside the Church, it was now said. St. Augustines City of God eventually became identical with the established Church. Not until the Reformation in the sixteenth century was there any protest against the idea that people could only obtain salvation through the Church (Gaarder, 2007: 175) In education, many cathedral schools built and monastery school got the monopoly to organize the education. But many historians argued that Middle Ages is the moment of Europe germination. As instance,


around the year 1200 the first universities were founded, and the subjects to be studied were grouped into various faculties, just as they are today.

6. Renaissance and Reformation (Begun in 15 A.D) a. Progression in Science The authority of the church which limited the freedom of the society to giving opinion in Middle Ages had encouraged the society to strive against it. In 14 A.D, the church had begun lost its authority. The break in the culture of Christian unifier had begun to appear. Science and philosophy started to be parted from Christianity. These conditions impacted to the creativity to create more new methods in science and also new spirit in religiousness, begun in 15 A.D the century of Renaissance. The characteristic of Renaissance was like a human who had just gone out from the prison. The people really respected themselves as human beings and this referred to the new form of Humanism called Renaissance Humanism. They were proud of themselves so much and it gave impact to the unrestrained veneration to their own thought. The interest moved to body anatomy and science in general. They believed that their observation and thought could answer many questions about nature. Now it was said that every investigation of natural phenomena must be based on observation, experience, and experiment. We call this the empirical method. (Gaarder, 2007: 199) The empirical method which developed rapidly in Renaissance was characterized by the existence of many new scientists like Nicolaus


Copernicus, Johannes Kepler astronomical scientist from Germany, Isaac Newton from England, and Galileo Galilei an Italian with his famous words Measure what can be measured and make measurable what cannot be measured. Galileo came with Law of Inertia which accordingly he, a body remains in the state which it is in, at rest or in motion, as long as no external force compels it to change its state. This is proved when we throw something up, it will back to ground. It means there is gravity of the earth. Then Nicolaus Copernicus from Poland in 1543 claimed that it was not the sun that moved round the earth, it was vice versa. Then Isaac Newton tried to give final description of this solar system and the planetary orbits. He formulated what we call the Law of Universal Gravitation. This law states that every object attracts every other object with a force that increases in proportion to the size of the objects and decreases in proportion to the distance between the objects. Thats why all planets in solar system move through their orbits round the sun. b. The Authority of Church Still Exist In the process of change, of course it needs steps. The very strong power of church authority in Middle Ages could not suddenly vanish without process. In 1600, there was still church authority in Roma. Giordano Bruno who said the universe was infinite, had been punished very severely. He was burned at the stake in Romes Flower Market: Giordano Bruno was a dramatic example of this He was punished very severely for his ideas He was burned at the stake in Romes Flower Market in the year 1600 (Gaarder, 2007: 198)


During the Renaissance, anti-humanism flourished too. It was done by authoritarian power of State and Church. But this did not stop the society to express their protest more and more. c. Reformation the Resurrection of Protestant Renaissance resulted new spirit in religiosity. When philosophy and science separated from theology gradually, a new Christian faithfulness developed. Then the Renaissance arrived with its new view of man. This gave effect on religious life. The individuals personal relationship to God was more important than his relationship to the church as an organization. This encouraged Reformation. One of the famous figures in this reformation was Martin Luther in Germany. He went away from Catholic Roma Church and critic the system of payment for sin amnesty. In his opinion, for getting Gods amnesty, the people didnt have to pay or asked the church interfere in it. The amnesty is about the private relation between human and God. His amnesty doesnt depend on the indulgences letter from the church. Then in 16 A.D, these indulgences letters were forbidden to sell anymore by Catholic Church. This protest created new ideology in Christianity called Protestant. Luther distanced himself from many of the religious customs and dogmas that had become rooted in ecclesiastical history during the Middle Ages. He wanted to return to early Christianity as it was in the New Testament. The Scripture alone, he said (Gaarder, 2007: 209) But, Luther had negative view about human. He had proclaimed that human was totally depraved after Adam came out of heaven. He


believed only through the grace of God human could be saved, because the wages of sin is death. This view used by part of Christians nowadays.

7. The Baroque (Began in 17 A.D) a. Political Conflicts and Class Difference in Society The word baroque comes from a word that used to describe a pearl which has irregular shape. Baroque characterized by the irregularity of art, which was richer in creative forms than the simple and harmonious art in Renaissance. The seventeenth century was also characterized by tensions among a lot of contrasts. In one side there was the optimism from Renaissance to change the life and in the other side there were also many people who had chose the opposite attitude by focusing within religion only and cringing worldly life. In this period, there were also a lot of religious and political conflict which for instance between Catholic and Protestant that impacted to the Thirty Years War in Europe:
Europe was ravaged by wars. The worst was the Thirty Years War which raged over most of the continent from 1618 to 1648 To a great extent they were wars between Protestants and Catholics. But they were also about political power (Gaarder, 2007: 224)

The Thirty Years War was the worst war in Baroque period which had involved almost all continents from 1618 to 1648. In reality, it was a series of wars which especially damaged Germany so much. As the result of that war, France gradually became the dominant power in Europe. The seventeenth century was also the period of class differences in society. For examples French aristocracy and the Court of Versailles,

poverty of French society, and display of magnificence presupposes a display of power. In short, the political situation was typified by materialistic, intrigue, social discrepancy, and homicide. b. Progression in Theatre and Science Life is a theatre was the popular words in seventeenth century. It actually really described the art in that time. This period was the birth of modern theater with all its modern scenery and theatrical. In the theater, one created an illusion on the stage to expose that the theatre on that stage was only an illusion. This theater became a reflection of human life in general. It could show that the arrogance would cause the failure and reflect the contemptible of human beings. There were a lot of dramatists in Baroque period such as Petter Dass from Norway, Calderon de la Barca from Spain and the most famous figure in the field of theatre was William Shakespeare. His works were full of passages about life as a theater. One of them is As You Like It: All the worlds a stage, And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts. (Gaarder, 2007: 225) In the field of science and philosophy, there was Rene Descartes from France with his famous words Cogito ergo sum means that I am thinking thats why I exist. He was called as father of modern philosophy. He was also a great mathematician. He is considered the father of analytical geometry, and he made important contributions to the science of mathematic. He died in 1950 because of pneumonia.


8. The Enlightenment (18 A.D) a. French Revolution The center of the civilization advancement in Europe in the eighteenth century was in England in the first half, in France in the middle, and in Germany until the end of it. In England for example there were some philosophers who had contributed extraordinary views like John Locke, David Hume, and Berkeley. Many of the French Enlightenment philosophers visited England, which was more liberal than France. They inspired by the English natural sciences, especially Newton and his universal physics. But they were also motivated by British philosophy, particularly by John Locke and his political philosophy. When they came back in French, they became ever more opposed the old authority. Their oppositions especially referred to the king, nobility, and clergyman. Because, those three had handled the government authoritatively in French. Then in 1789 French Revolution came. The opposition to authority was not least directed against the power of the clergy, the king, and the nobility. During the eighteenth century, these institutions had far more power in France than they had in England Then came the French Revolution. (Gaarder, 2007: 310) Humans intellect was the important thing that most of society especially the philosopher respected in this period. Thats why French Enlightenment is often called the Age of Reason. The Enlightenment philosophers thought that it was their duty to built foundation for morals, religion, and ethics based on humans reason.


People thought that poverty and oppression were the fault of foolishness and superstition. They had great attention on the education of children and people. Here, the science of pedagogy also founded during the Enlightenment. One of the most significant works in this period is Encyclopedia which published in 1751 to 1772: The greatest monument to the enlightenment movement was characteristically enough a huge encyclopedia. I refer to the Encyclopedia in 28 volumes published during the years from 1751 to 1772. All the great philosophers and men of letters contributed to it (Gaarder, 2007: 311) In religious, appeared a lot of materialists who did not believe in God, and chose the atheism. But most of the philosophers in Enlightenment thought that it was so irrational to imagine a world without God. According to them, religion needed to be liberated from all the irrational dogmas or doctrines that had attached to Jesus simple teachings during the religious history. Thats why there were many people who held on to Deism which refers to a belief that God created the world ages and ages ago, but has not revealed Himself to the world since that. He only reveals Himself to mankind through nature and natural laws, never in any supernatural way. The French Enlightenment philosophers were not only focus on theoretical views about humans place in society. They also struggled actively for the rights of the citizen. At first, this was aimed as campaign against censorship for liberty of the press. Not only that, they also fought in the problem of religion, moral, politic, and humanity such as for slaves right and freedom of thought and utterance.


freedom of thought and utterance had to be secured. They also fought for the abolition of slavery and for a more humane treatment of criminals. (Gaarder, 2007: 313) Then this culminated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen adopted by the French National Assembly in 1789. But until nowadays actually still a lot of people still have to fight for these rights b. Feminism During the Revolution in 1789, women also totally struggled actively to fight against the old feudal regime. As an example, it was women who led the demonstrations that forced the king away from his palace at Versailles. Womens groups were formed in Paris. Beside that, they also demanded for the same rights between women and men in the term of politic, for the change of marriage law, and for the better of the women social condition. But, all of their buffetings in demanding the equality of their rights didnt result the success as fast as they wished. As the new regime ruled, the domination of men occurred again. In 1791 two years after the revolution she published a declaration on the rights of women. The declaration on the rights of the citizen had not included any article on womens natural rights. Olympe de Gouges now demanded all the same rights for women as for men. (Gaarder, 2007: 315) Until 1791 two years after revolution, there was Olympe de Gouges as the woman who fought hardest to support women rights during French Revolution. In that year, because of her dissatisfaction to the declaration on the rights of citizen which didnt include womens right at all, she then


published declaration on the rights of women. Olympe de Gouges now demanded all the same rights for women as for men. But, unfortunately, in the next two years, she was pushed with her death as the punishment. In that 1793, she was beheaded and all of womens political activities were forbidden. What happened? She was beheaded in 1793. And all political activity for women was banned. (Gaarder, 2007: 315) Again, the rules seemed like only the formalistic written text without realization. Feminism had just really moved forward in 19th century, not only in French but also in the entire Europe. This struggle gave the wished result little by little. 9. Romanticism (End of the 18th Century - the Middle of the 19th Century) As the explanation before that the center of civilization in the end of 18th century was in Germany. The period in the end of this 18th century toward the middle of 19th century was called Romanticism. It was because Peoples thought seemed like more interested in something imaginative and romantic here. Literature, music, and history were the three fields which developed rapidly in Romanticism period especially in Germany. The individuals were totally free to interpret the life by their own way. This caused the veneration to ego. Most of them expressed their ego in artistic work. Thats why in this period, the people seemed gave the high glorification to the artistic genius. There was no distinct constraint between the imagination and the reality.


As the results of this thought, there were a lot of artistic works which was born in this period either in prose form or in music. In musical field, there was Bethoven the famous composer in this period. Then Novalis was also one of the German writers who was very popular in this period. There was also The Brothers Grimm who wrote Grimms Fairy Tales such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Rumpelstiltskin, The Frog Prince, Hansel and Gretel. The pioneers of Romanticism were the young generations in about 1800. Most of them were the university students who were not always serious in studying. They considered the police as the materialistic man and enemy. They named their Romanticism movement as the first European rebellion. Later, they seemed like the hippies, the young men with long hair who liked to strum their guitars and lay around. The first generation of Romantics were young in about 1800, and we could actually call the Romantic Movement Europes first student uprising. The Romantics were not unlike the hippies a hundred and fifty years later (Gaarder, 2007: 344) The other writer was like Goethe who had created a novel with love theme about unrequited love in 1774 titled The Sorrows of Young Werther which ended with the suicide of the man named Werther. As the result, the number of suicide cases increased after that novel was published. In Norway, this novel is banned. In Romanticism, there were many of the Romantics died in young age, usually of tuberculosis. Some of them committed suicide. Historical field was also the important and interesting matter in this period. There was Hegel with his view that history created because there are the differences in thinking of the human beings where that history takes place.


10. Nineteenth Century a. Socialism Karl Marx was also a philosopher who was really interested in history like Hegel. But, here he had different opinion from Hegels opinion. He argued that social change in history was not determined by the difference of two or more opposite thoughts like Hegel said. But he said that this because of the change of material where then creates social conflict between higher class and lower class and encourages change. It didnt mean that immaterial didnt important. To him, material, economic, and social relations were the basis of society. The other like laws, religion, morals, art, philosophy, and science were societys superstructure. He was not only a philosopher, but also a historian, sociologist, and economist. His thought aimed to practical or political purposes. There was no other philosopher who was really influential in political practice besides him. But, about Marxism, it is not too right to say that Marx is Marxism with his own thought. He himself said that he had just been Marxism in 1840. Because Marxism was not philosophical trend which made by him. In the middle of nineteenth century, capitalism had resulted the high conflict and the fight of social class. Marx by seeing the discrepancy of social class between the lower and the higher class, or between the slaves or proletariats and the feudalistic landlords created the new political and economical system which named Socialism. The system where the materials of society are managed by dividing them based on the needs of


each individual. The system which was aimed to opposite capitalism, and he said that the way to sort out this problem was only through revolution. But in Marxs own time, in what he called a bourgeois or capitalist society, the conflict was first and foremost between the capitalists and the workers, or the proletariat. So the conflict stood between those who own the means of production and those who do not. Since the upper classes do not voluntarily relinquish their power, change can only come about through revolution (Gaarder, 2007: 392) He had given argumentation of his thought through his observation about the lower class workers under capitalistic system: Under the capitalist system, the worker labors for someone else. His labor is thus something external to himor something that does not belong to him. The worker becomes alien to his workbut at the same time also alien to himself. He loses touch with his own reality. (Gaarder, 2007: 393) The workers under capitalism used to be paid so low or paid with cheap liquor, and always, the salary couldnt complete their daily needs. This condition caused new more conflicts in society where the women also had to work hard even though they are pregnant, and the girls chose to prostitute themselves to earn more money. In many places, part of the wages was paid out in the form of cheap liquor, and women were obliged to supplement their earnings by prostitution. Their customers were the respected citizenry of the town. (Gaarder, 2007: 393) In 1848, he published Communist Manifesto as the Manifesto to move the proletariats to fight against the ruling class. Then in certain periods, there was a new social class where the proletariats suppressed the bourgeois forcefully. But after a transition period, the dictatorship of the proletariat was replaced by a classless society, in where of production are


owned by all. In this kind of society, the policy was from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs. b. New Thought in Biology and Progression in Psychology In this nineteenth century, there were also the changes which were caused by a form of new invention by the experts. Theres Sigmund Freud, who had developed depth psychology or psychoanalysis as description of the human mind in general as therapy for nervous and mental disorders. His psychoanalysis result sub-consciousness is from mans animal instinct. Then Charles Darwin from England had brought new thought based on his observation that mankind was the result of a slow biological evolution. In his 22 ages, he had sailed around the world by Beagle to observe the organism in southern coasts of South America. Then in 1859 he published a book titled The Origin of Species which brought the controversy among the society and hard protest from the church. In that book, Darwin assumed that evolution was caused by natural selection. He implied through that book that human was from the animal. Since that, society forced to use new approach to revise Bible, the Book of Genesis. A distinguished scientist expressed a similar thought: An embarrassing discovery, and the less said about it the better People were suddenly obliged to revise their whole approach to the Book of Genesis (Gaarder, 2007, 413) Both Freud and Darwins ideas are still in use now. Freuds invention of psychoanalysis has been applied in psychology and Darwins theory then becomes one of materials in Biology and History in schools in the world. But nowadays, the rejections to his theory are more and more.


11. Twentieth Century Twentieth century had come with its new innovations in Europe. This period was characterized by the rapid progression of technology. There were lot of sophisticated products such as televisions, VCRs, and satellite dishes to mobile phones, computers, and fax machines. These made the people didnt have to go far to get information. Sitting in front of television or computer had made them able to enter almost all humans experiences in the world. Liberalism views resounded more. Friedrich Nietzsche from Germany who lived in 1844 to 1900 was a famous atheistic philosopher who brought this kind of liberalism view. He stated that Christianity and traditional philosophy only offered the unclear hopes to the people. He then became important philosopher whom the ideas were influential in twentieth century. One of figures in this period who was really influenced by Nietzsches idea was JeanPaul Sartre (1905-1980). He brought his idea about atheistic existentialism, means philosophical trend which emphasize humans role in his existence in this world without depending himself on religious rules. Both Kierkegaard and some of this centurys existential philosophers were Christian. But Sartres allegiance was to what we might call an atheistic existentialism. His philosophy can be seen as a merciless analysis of the human situation when God is dead. The expression God is dead came from Nietzsche. (Gaarder, 2007: 450) Sartres thought seemed affected also to societys thoughts. In one side, his atheistic existentialism brought humanism idea that the human beings cannot be blamed of their weakness or mistake. Human has liberty to choose the deeds that he thinks are right, but he has to responsible to his deeds. In


another side, his thought opposed the beliefs in religion. He said that sometimes the people blame Adam, the imaginative figure, of their mistakes. We can never lay the blame on human nature, or human frailty or anything like that. Now and then it happens that grown men behave like pigs and then blame it on the old Adam. But there is no old Adam. He is merely a figure we clutch at to avoid taking responsibility for our own actions (Gaarder, 2007: 451) Other characteristic of twentieth century showed when Alberto and Sophie walked around the book shop, they saw that most of the books sold there were about mysticism and pornography. Much of it is humbug. But it sells as well as pornography. A lot of it is a kind of pornography. (Gaarder, 2007: 460) The society had been really interested in something about pornography and mysticism like UFO. They began to seek the other different objects which could make them feel comforted, to break their boredom, although actually those things are not so important and educated. The producers will produce everything related to pornography and mysticism as long as the society like it to get more income. So materialistic and hedonic life style growth more.
Publishing such books is a big commercial enterprise. Its what most people want They obviously desire something mystical, something different to break the dreary monotony of everyday life. But it is like carrying coals to Newcastle. (Gaarder, 2007: 460)

The people then became farther from religion, and beside the progression of technology which had caused the over freedom in society, another serious problem was the problem of environment. Technology had created the sophisticated machines which had brought negative effects to the environment. And these conditions can be still seen nowadays.



A. Conclusion Having analyzed Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World, the researcher comes to several conclusions as follow: 1. Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World is rich with social aspects. Five social aspects mentioned in Review of Related Literature: family, costume, religion, government, and education exist in this novel. 2. There have been changes in Europeans social life. From thinking primitively before 6 B.C, beginning to think more scientifically in 6 B.C, experiencing deterioration of civilization in Middle Ages, then were born back to be more free and developed in science and art began in Renaissance 15th century. But, unfortunately, the growth of unrestrained technology caused environmental problem in twentieth century. The society also became more interested in something uneducated which could comfort them like pornography and mysticism, and this condition made them hedonic and far from religion. 3. The collapse of Greek culture in Middle Ages and church authority in Enlightenment, also the change of societys interest and attitude during the centuries show us the proofs of Cyclical Theory, that social changes occur because of the progression and the deterioration of the civilization, and how the society responds the challenges in their social environment.


B. Suggestion This thesis is about social aspects and social changes of Europeans from ancient Greece to modern era which are exist in Jostein Gaarders historical novel Sophies World. Social aspect and historical novel themselves cannot be underestimated although there have been the other thesis about these terms before. Because, in researchers opinion, thesis is not only the requisite for graduation, but also as the useful work that brings certain values. By learning social aspect, we will know how to place our role in society correctly. Then by having historical knowledge, we will be able to aim ourselves in life, and Europe in novel Sophies World has the history of civilization which can give valuable life learning to us. So, the researcher suggests for the next researchers to consider not only aesthetic value but also benefit principle for others and for ourselves in composing a thesis. Remembering that literary work is rich with a lot of aspects, hopefully in the future particularly in English Literature Study Program in FBS UNM, thesis will be more varied and creative. It will show that by literary works, we can talk about everything, about any fields related with human beings life. The researcher also suggests in order that this thesis can be used as beneficial reference about social aspects and social changes in Europe or about Jostein Gaarders novel Sophies World for others especially for them who also want to analyze same object or novel. Expectantly, these suggestions are functional the readers and for better growth of English Literature Study Program.



It has often been said that the political situation in the Baroque period was not unlike its art and architecture. Baroque buildings were typified by a lot of ornate nooks and crannies. In a somewhat similar fashion the political situation was typified by intrigue, plotting, and assassinations


Greece and Roman culture had been united with Christianity. As a prove, in the Old Testament, it is forbidden to draw or make the Gods statue