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GIS SPATIAL ANALYSIS

Dr Abdullah Hisam Omar


ANALISIS LIS
• Analisis Spatial adalah subsistem ketiga didalam LIS/GIS

1) Data Input;
2) Storan Data ;
3) Manipulasi & Analisis Data ;
4) Paparan Data.

Data Storan Analisis Paparan


Input Data Data Data

LIS/GIS

• Fungsi analisis spatial menjawab persoalan spatial seperti:

• Dimana (Where) – letaknya FKSG di dalam kampus UTM


• Berapa(What) – jumlah keluasan kawasan pertanian tersebut
• Mengapa (Why) – lot A lebih sesuai didirikan bangunan berbanding lot B
• Manakah (Where) – laluan terbaik paip air dari Skudai – Kota Tinggi.

SGU3633
What is spatial analysis?
• Methods for working with spatial data
– to detect patterns, anomalies
– to find answers to questions
– to test or confirm theories
• deductive reasoning
– to generate new theories and generalizations
• inductive reasoning
• "a set of methods whose results change when the
locations of the objects being analyzed change"
What is Spatial Analysis (cont.)
• Methods for adding value to data
– in doing scientific research
– in trying to convince others
• Turning raw data into useful information
• A collaboration between human and machine
– Human directs, makes interpretations and inferences
– Machine does tedious, complex stuff
• Terdapat kesilapan menggunakan analisis spatial seperti :

Ο Melakukan analisis spatial menggunakan kombinasi data dari skala kecil dan besar ,
serta mengganggap hasilnya adalah setepat data skala besar.
Ο Menjalankan perbandingan skala pengukuran spatial diantara data jenis nominal (jenis
tanaman, pokok dll) dengan data nisbah (harga tanah, jumlah pendapatan dll).

Set Pertanyaan
• Suatu definasi yang jitu iaitu merujuk kepada pemilihan yang dikehendaki.

• Pembentukan set pertanyaan melibatkan atribut,operator dan pengiraan.

• Kebiasaannya, set pertanyaan akan menggunakan kolum (field name) dan


konstan(nilai tertentu)

o POP_1990 > 17000


o MUKIM <> “ Skudai”
o POP_1990> POP_1980 *1.2
o ([AREA] >= 100) and ([AREA] <= 200)
---- POP_1990, MUKIM, AREA adalah nama kolum
----- 17000,Skudai,100 & 200 adalah konstan.
1) “String” Pertanyaan – seperti nama

• [State_Name] = “Johor”
• [State_Name] = “* J*” * = wild card
• [Owner_Name] = “?mad Bakri”

2) Operator

a) Mathematical Operators

+ Plus A +B
- Minus A-B
* Multiply A*B
/ Divided by A/B
∧ Exponentiation ∧
A B

b) "String " operators


+ "kaitan" - - menghubungkan strings dengan penyataan

Penyataan (expression) Hasil (result)


"Ms" + Last_Name Ms. Haliza, Ms.Aliyah, Ms. Janet
"Hello" + "World" Hello World
"4" + "5" 45
c) Comparison Operators
= Equal
<> Not equal
> Greater than
< Less than
>= Greater than or equal to
<= Less than or equal to

1) Numerical comparisons = based on numerical values & constants


i) Med_Age =42
ii) Amount <>2300

2) String comparisons = based on character contents of the string


i) Vendor = "Esri"
ii) Vendor <> "Esri"

3) Date Comparisons
Format English = October 9,1991 ( month,day,year)
i) Received = "10-9-91"
ii) Recived > "10-9-91

4) Logical Comparisons
"T" = True , or "F"= False
cth ; dari kolum Deliver = "T"
Deliver = "F"
5) Geographic Operators

-Memilih objek berasaskan hubungan spatial kepada objek yang lain.

A
A A
B
B
B

Obj A contain Obj B Obj A intersect Obj B Obj A contains entire Obj B
Obj B within Obj A Obj B intersect Obj A Obj B entirely within Obj B

3) Logical Operators
Is “true” if both of its argument (expressions) are true. A record
AND
must satify both of these conditions if it is to be selected
Is “true” if either one or both of its argument are true. A record

OR need satisfy only one of these conditions if it is to be selected. It is


also selected if both of its conditions are satisfied.
NOT Is “true” if its argument is false. A record is selected if it does not
meet the stated condition.

Example;

i) Mukim =” skudai” AND Value >=250000


ii) NOT (Mukim = “skudai” AND Value >= 250000)
iii) Mukim = “Skudai” OR “Kulai”
iv) NOT (Mukim = “Skudai”) AND Value >= 250000
4) Boolean Operators

A B

A B

Intersection Union

Contoh pertanyaan; spatial, atribut dan set pertanyaan


SQL in Data Analysis
• structured or standard query language
• SELECT FROM counties WHERE median value > 100,000
Zon Penimbal (Buffer)
• Satu jenis analisis kehampiran

• Kawasan/zon yang dijanakan dari jarak sesuatu objek peta yang diberi.

• Boleh dijanakan untuk sesuatu objek berdasarkan nilai attribut objek-objek tersebut.

• Dua kaedah buffering:

• 1 buffer untuk kesemua objek

• 1 buffer untuk setiap objek

• Buffer menjurus kepada analisis spatial atau menentukan kawasan kritikal bagi sesuatu analisis.
GIS ANALYSIS
Buffering
• Buffer • Most commonly the
– The creation of a zone buffer is created by
of interest around a defining a radius
geographic entity around all features of
– Can be a zone of interest.
exclusion or inclusion.
• A circle around points,
an area around lines or
polygons.
Point Buffers
• Distance from Station
in meters
Line Buffering
• Buffers at
100 m
intervals to
500 m from
Bank Street
Buffering
• distance or proximity analysis
• constant or variable width from input
features
Buffering
• Wizard-based
Buffering
• Can create a new shapefile
Buffering
• Can create a simple graphical primitives
• Buffer inside, outside or both
Buffer untuk setiap objek
Buffer untuk kesemua objek

Buffer keatas garisan


Network Analysis

Network as Schematics:
Mathematician view

Network as Geographic Database:


Geographer view
Network Data Models and Structures
NODE x (optional) y (optional)l NODE VALENCY LIST OF NODES LIST OF LINKS

1 58 100 3 3 1,2,5 –b, –a, d


Node Attribute Table
2 0 87 5 5 3,4,6,10,11 –d, –c, e, f, g

3 56 96
12 4 7,11,13,18 –h, –m, n, s

Table of Nodes * Valency = incident links(or node) forming intersections

LINK FROM-NODE TO-NODE SHAPE POINT COORDINATES


(optional in schematic)

a 2 3

Table of Arc (Links)


b 1 3

c 4 5

LINK STREET NAME ADDRESSES (L) ADDRESSES (R) CLASS LENGTH (km) LANES SPEED LIMIT (km/h)

c El Camino Real=Hwy101 — — Freeway 1.42 3 100

–c El Camino Real=Hwy101 — — Freeway 1.44 3 100

m Hollister Ave 1201-1299 1200-1298 Arterial 0.23 2 80

t Walnut Lane 598-200 599-201 Residential 0.68 1 45

Arc (Link) Attribute Table (record key is Link ID or pair of nodes)


Network Analysis Application
Analisis Permukaan
• Analisis permukaan si ketiga bagi melibatkan proses menganalisis taburan pembolehubah
(variables) yang dapat dipersembahkan sebagai dimensi ketiga data spatial.

• Ketinggian adalah contoh semulajadi pembolehubah dimensi ketiga kerana perubahan didalam
ketinggian menghasilkan permukaan muka bumi.

• Pemprosesan asas maklumat permukkan adalah interpolasi spatial.

• Interpolasi spatial membolehkan permukaan yang bersambungan dijanakan dari set titik-titik.

• Terdapat dua cara berbeza untuk mempersembahkan dimensi vertikal ( dimensi ketiga) di dalam
GIS : 2.5-D dan 3-D

i) 2.5 D

o Persembahan 3-D yang sering dilakukan di dalam pakej perisian komersil GIS
o Nilai Z (kebiasaannya ketinggian) direkodkan sebagai attribut bagi setiap titik (x,y)
o Nilai Z boleh digunakan untuk plotan persepktif bagi menjanakan paparan 3 D
o Bukan paparan 3-D yang sebenarnya kerana ketinggian bukan pembolehubah yang bebas ( is
not independent variable )
o Sistem hanya boleh menerima 1 nilai Z diatas permukaan pada sesuatu lokasi/kedudukan
Persembahan 2.5 D

o Satu cara yang menarik untuk memaparkan data topografi dan permukaan yang
bersambungan dari DEM or TIN
o Plotan perspektif dikira dari sebarang titik pandangan
o Lapisan tambahan ditindihkan ( "draped“) keatas permukaan dengan menggunakan warna

ii) 3-D

o menyimpan data di dalam struktur yang merujuk kepada lokasi sebenar ruang 3D (x,y,z)
o Z adalah elemen lokasi bagi sesuatu titik, ianya bukan atribut
o Data sesuatu titik boleh direkodkan dengan koordinat (x,y) yang sama dan berlainan nilai Z
cth., pelan srata,kedalaman/ketinggian di laut atau atmosfera, lapisan geologikal telaga
Model Ketinggian Berdigit (Digital Elevation Model/DEM)
• Definasi: model perwakilan 3 dimensi permukaan rupabumi yang mengandungi koordinat X,Y,Z
yang disimpan dalam bentuk berdigit.

1) Kaedah perolehan Data DEM

i) Kaedah pengukuran dilapangan – tekimetri


ii) Fotogrammetri dan remote sensing - gambar udara dan imej satelit
iii) Ukur GPS
iv) Pendigitan garis kontur – peta topografi
v) Pengimbasan garis kontur – peta topografi

Pemilihan sesuatu kaedah bergantung kepada beberapa faktor;

i) Saiz kawasan
ii) Ketepatan yang diperlukan
iii) Jenis maklumat yang diperlukan
iv) Kos dan masa

Stop pada 12 02 06
2) Interpolasi DEM

• Interpolasi diperlukan apabila wujud:


o Penukaran struktur data rawak ke grid
o Penukaran struktur kontur ke grid
o Penjanaan garis kontur yang baru

• Interpolasi dilaksanakan dengan anggapan:


o Setiap data nilai Z adalah bersifat bersambungan
o Setiap data nilai Z bergantung kepada nilai ketinggian jirannya.

3) Penggunaan Data DEM Didalam Analisis Permukaan

i) Penjanaan kontur
ii) Penjanaan peta kecerunan
iii) Penjanaan peta aspek – arah permukaaan cerun menghadap ( Utara, selatan, Timur, Barat)
iv) Penjanaan polygon Thiessan
v) Kiraan isipadu/ profil
vi) Kajian kesalingnampakan – berguna dalam aplikasi telekomunikasi & ketenteraan. Tujuannya
ialah untuk mencari tempat yang boleh kelihatan dari satu titik cerapan.
vii) Pembentukkan Model 3D (pandangan perspektif, bird view) & simulasi ( flying through)
Peta Kecerunan (Slope)
Peta Aspek (Aspect)

Kajian Kesalingnampakan
Permukaan Grid

DEM
Pandangan Persepktif 3D
Analisis Paparan
• Lokasi, teks dan simbol digunakan untuk membentuk pandangan “real world” (geografi) di dalam
minda pengguna.
• Keberkesanan translasi ini adalah hasil ketepatan peta, teks yang mudah dibaca, kejelasan simbol dan
dan kesesuain pemilihan teknik pemetaan
• Analisis paparan juga melibatkan pengukuran lokasi, kawasan, jarak dan ketinggian.
• Analisi paparan perlu menitikberatkan 3 elemen keindahan peta seperti berikut;

i) Harmoni – hubungan antara maklumat peta iaitu bagaimana maklumat peta kelihatan diantara
satu sama lain.
ii) Komposisi- penyusunan maklumat dan keseimbangan struktur
iii) Kejelasan- pengguna mudah untuk mengenalpasti maklumat peta

• Elemen-elemen diatas boleh diwujudkan dengan;

i) Generalisasi – melakukan permudahan pada maklumat


ii) Simbolisasi – keindahan dalam persembahan grafik
iii) Warna – menunjukkan keseimbangan
iv) Tataletak (layout) – komposisi susunan
v) Penghurufan – kenampakan teks
Elemen-elemen Keindahan Peta

Contoh: Analisis Visualisasi (3D)


Analisis Tindihan (Overlay)
• Analisis tindihan adalah analisis yang melibatkan multi-lapisan atau multi objek. Operasi analisis
dilakukan ke atas multi-lapisan secara serentak.Ia berdasarkan kepada hubungan logikal diantara
lapisan/objek data.

• Operasi tindihan:
o data vektor - sangat komplek dan memakan masa
o data raster - mudah dan cepat

• Jenis operasi tindihan:


o tindihan CAD - paparan sahaja
o tindihan aritmatik - dalam data raster
o tindihan topologikal - menjana poligon, topologi dan atribut baru
Proses tindihan secara manual
Tindihan raster
Tindihan Topologi
Proses Tindihan: Menghasilkan "Real World"

(a) (b)

Hasil Tindihan: (a) Lapisan-lapisan objek; (b) Hasil tindihan


Analyzing spatial relationships

• Relationships between features


– Proximity
– Containment
– Overlap
• All based on feature geometry_
Selecting points near a line
(proximity)
• Find gates near streams
Selecting adjacent features
(proximity of 0)
• Stands adjacent to other stands
Line-on-polygon selection
(intersection, proximity of 0, overlap)

• Roads and streams within stands


Polygon-on-line selection
(intersection, proximity of 0, overlap)

• Stands traversed by streams


Point-in-polygon selection
(containment)
• CFI plots within 30-40 years old stands
Point-in-polygon selection
• Spatial selections can be used to examine
attribute data

30-40 year old stands are underrepresented in inventory


Polygon-on-point selection
• Where are all stands with unsampled plots?

query for “no sample”


Polygon-on-polygon selection
(containment, overlap)
• Stands overlapping with unstable soils
query for unstable soils
Spatial join
• Theme attribute tables are joined on the
shape field
• Features are related and compared for
distance and containment
• Based on feature geometry
Spatial join: containment
• Records are joined for features within other
features polygon attributes are
attached to points

related fields can be


used for display
Spatial join: proximity
• Appends tables and automatically adds distance
field

distance from plot centers to roads

distance used as
display field
Spatial merge

• A special case of the tabular summary


• Features with identical attribute values are merged
together

• Table records are joined

• A new theme is created_


Spatial merge
• Uses the Merge_Shape summary statistic
summarize the
Age_Class_1999
field

creates a new theme


a single feature for each
unique age class
Spatial merge
• Merges features as well as records

multiple objects,
one record
Topological Overlay: Overview

• Uses arc-node topology data model for


theme-to-theme relationships
• Relationships of containment
• Various analytical functions
• Quantify length/area of overlap
• All functions are accessed with
GUI/wizards
Topological Overlay: Arc/node
topology data model
Topological Overlay: Overview
• Always uses polygon as the overlay theme
• Output is the same as the input
Topological Overlay: How it works
• polygons are from • new nodes are created
separate themes • topology is rebuilt
• no explicit spatial • spatial relationship is
relationship made explicit
between Streams & Stands
Topological Overlay: How it
works
• lines are split at polygon boundaries
• lines take on attributes of overlapping
polygons
Topological overlay: Dissolve
• removes boundaries between polygons or
nodes between arcs
• features with same attributes are dissolved
• identical to spatial merge
Topological overlay: Dissolve
• Wizard based
Topological overlay: Union
• all input features from both themes remain
• attribute values are assigned by containment
• polygon & polygon only
Topological overlay: Union
• Wizard based
Topological overlay: Identity
• all features from input theme persist
• attributes from both themes exist
where there is overlap
• order of input and overlay matters

• polygon on polygon, line, or point


Topological Overlay: Identity
• Xtools based
• Input definition
Topological Overlay: Identity
• Output definition
Topological Overlay: Identity
both input attribute
data sets

new theme
Topological Overlay: Intersect
• only features from overlap area exist in
output
• attributes from both themes exist
• order of input and overlay does not matter
• polygon on polygon, line, or point
Topological Overlay: Intersect
• Wizard based
Topological Overlay: Intersect
• new theme is created
Topological Overlay: Intersect
• Because geometry fields are not
automatically updated,
must use other methods of calculating
geometry values
• Sample script(s), Xtools
Topological Overlay: Update

• all features exist in output


• “underlapping” features from input are erased
• attributes only from input theme exist in output
• order of input and overlay matters
• polygon on polygon only
Topological Overlay: Clip
• “cookie cutter”
• only input theme features and attributes
exist in output
• polygon on polygon, line, or point
Topological Overlay: Clip
• Wizard based
Topological Overlay: Clip
• Select input & overlay themes
Topological Overlay: Clip
• Specify output theme
Topological Overlay: Erase
• “cookie cutter”
• only input theme features and
attributes exist in output
• order of input and overlay matters
• polygon on polygon, line, or point
Topological Overlay: Erase
• XTools based
Topological Overlay: Erase
Spatial Relations in ArcView
• Are Completely Within - selects features in the target
themes that are completely within one or more of selected
features of the active theme.
• Completely Contain - selects features in the target themes
that completely contain one or more of the active theme.
• Have their Center In - selects features in the target themes
if their center falls inside the features of the active theme.
• Contain the Center Of - selects features in the target
themes that contain the center of one or more of the active
theme features
• Intersect - selects features in the target themes that intersect
the features in the target. At least one common point. If the
active and target are the same, Intersect will select adjacent
features.
• Are Within Distance Of - selects features in the target
themes that are within a specified distance of the active
theme features. You can specify the type of distance units in
the View Properties dialog box.
SOME EXAMPLES
AND APPLICATIONS
SATELLITE IMAGES: K.SELANGOR
Facilities Management
Crop Management
Crime Analysis
Road Management
Military Application: