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Menentukan taraf karja dan kekuatan bagi satu bancuhan konkrit

Bagi menentukan sesuatu bancuhan konkrit itu memenuhi spesifikasi yang telah ditetapkan, kebiasaannya 2 jenis ujian diajalankan untuk tujuan ini. Ujian ujian tersebut ialah seperti ujian runtuhan kon, angkadar kepadatan, dan ujian vebe konsistensi. Manakala ujian konkrit keras seperti ujian kekuatan mampatan kiub dan ujian lenturan rasuk. Ujian konkrit keras ini boleh dijalankan pada umur 3, 7, 14, 21, dan 28 hari selepas direndam.

KIUB PIAWAIAN BERSAIZ 150 150mm ( 6 6 6 )

150

BATANG KELULI PIAWAIAN BERSAIZ 25 25mm

MINYAK PELINCIR MESIN MAMPATAN AMSLER

SUDIT

a) Acuan konkrit disapukan dengan minyak pelincir di bahagian dalam permukaannya. b) Acuan itu dipenuhkan dengan 3 lapisan konkrit dan tiap tiap lapisan itu dipadatkan 35 kali dengan menggunakan batang keluli. c) Apabila konkrit memenuhi acuan itu, ia diratakan dengan menggunakan penyudit. d) Langkah a, b, dan c diulang untuk menyediakan 1 lagi kiub kokrit. e) Konkrit dibiarkan mengeras selama 24 jam dan barulah acuan dibuka. f) Tarikh bancuhan untuk tiap tiap kiub itu dicatatkan. g) Kiub kiub tersebut direndam dan dibiarkan selama 7 hari.

Tujuan utama ujian ini ialah untuk menentukan kemudahan kerja (degree of workability) bagi sesuatu campuran konkrit. Nisbah bahan-bahan konkrit sudah ditentukan seperti yang dikehendaki. Kekuatannya bergantung kepada cara konkrit itu dituangkan. Oleh itu, konkrit yang hendak digunakan mestilah mudah dituang dan berkeadaan padat.

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kemudahan kerja adalah seperti berikut: a) Kandungan air b) Sifat batu baur - saiz, kekerasan, bentuk dan corak permukaan c) Nisbah air/simen

Acuan digunakan ialah berbentuk kun di mana tingginya ialah 305mm.Lihat gambar rajah 1 di bawah. untuk gambar acuan berbentuk kun.

Ambil contoh konkrit dan penuhkan acuan dalam masa 2 minit dalam 4 lapisan yang sama. Padatkan tiap-tiap lapisan 25 kali menggunakan rod keluli. Lihat gambar di bawah untuk gambar rod keluli .

Permukaan di atas diparaskan dan segala kebocoran di tapak acuan dibersihkan. Dengan tidak membuang masa, acuan diangkat dengan perlahan-lahan dalam keadaan tegak. Ukurlah pemendapan 6 mm yang terdekat. Jika pemendapan riceh atau roboh berlaku, ujian hendaklah diulangi menggunakan contoh yang lain. Lihat gambar rajah dibawah untuk gambar ujian pemendapan. Catatkan segala keputusan Bersih acuan dan biarkan kering. Jangan sekali-kali acuan itu disapu minyak.

Pemendapan Sebenar telah mencapai kemudahan kerja (degree of workability) sesuatu campuran konkrit. Pemendapan Riceh (Shear Slump) jika ini terjadi, ujian hendaklah diulangi. Sekiranya pemendapan riceh berlaku pada tiap-tiap kali ujian ini berlaku bila campuran-campuran itu kekurangan air, ini menunjukkan bahawa campuran itu mempunyai kurang lekatan. Pemendapan Roboh (Collapse Slump) campuran-campuran yang tegar pada keseluruhannya akan mendapat pemendapan kosong. Sebaliknya, jika sesuatu campuran itu basah (terlalu banyak kandungan air) pemendapan roboh akan terjadi. Langkah-langkah yang perlu untuk mengurangkan kandungan air dalam campuran itu perlulah diambil.

Konsep ujian ini adalah untuk menekan masuk tetulang yang berada di dalam konkrit supaya tergelincir. Sampel konkrit diletakkan di atas platform yang berongga supaya tetulang yang di tekan masuk akan terkeluar di bahagian bawah sampel.

Beban akan ditambah secara seragam menggunakan pam pada bahagian atas yang tertonjol sehingga ikatannya dengan konkrit gagal. Dispalcement transducer turut dipasang bagi mengukur gelinciran.kegagalan ikatan boleh diketahui apabila kedengaran bunyi meletup atau pengurangan nilai beban secara tiba tiba. Pam serta displacement transducer ini disambungkan kepada pengelog data dan data direkodkan pada setiap selang 10kN.

Tegasan ikatan dianggap malar pada keseluruhan panjang efektif tetulang. Ia dikira dengan membahagikan daya di dalam tetulangdengan luas permukaan sentuhan. Persamaan bagi tegasan ikatan adalah seperti berikut :-

FS = fb x L

FS fb L

: : : :

daya di dalam tetulang tegasan ikatan saiz tetulang panjang efektif tetulang

Nilai tegasan ikatan muktamad fbu bolah didapati daripada persamaan berikut :fbu =
cu

fbu

: :

tegasan ikatan muktamad pemalar bergantung kepada jenis tetulang

Faktor faktor yang perlu dititikberatkan semasa ujian ini ialah :-

Keufukan tetulang di dalam konkrit

Kadang kala tetulang yang ditanamkan ke dalam konkrit sukar untuk dipastikan agar betul betul ufuk. Tetulang yang diletakkan sendeng akan menyukarkan pergerakkan tetulang untuk gelincir.

Sudut rib dari paksi utama tetulang

Semakin besar sudut rib, semakin sukar untuk tetulang tergelincir kerana lebih banyak konkrit yang akan mengisi ruang di antara rib.

In this study, finite element analysis was used to predict the CBR tests, based on modulus and strength parameters obtained from unconfined compression tests for 3% cemented sand. The cemented sand was modeled using linear elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive relationship with Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria. The ratio of predicted to measured CBR values varied from 0.69 to 1.07.

In the past decade researchers have conducted extensive laboratory and field-testing to establish correlations between CBR and other tests for a variety of soil types. Sawangsuriya and Edil (2005) used DCP, Soil Stiffness Gauge and CBR for evaluating the stiffness and strength of pavement materials, and they developed equations to correlate these test methods to pavement and subgrade modulus using the results of various researchers. Livneh and Ishai (1988) developed correlations between Vane test, SPT, Plate Bearing Test and CBR based on field testing carried out in three airport construction on silty subgrade. Another research about CBR was carried out by Guney et al. (2005) to investigate the geoenvironmental behavior of foundry sand amended mixtures which is used for highway subbases. These tremendous researches indicate the importance and capability of CBR as an in-situ and laboratory test. Numerical studies are also important to gain a better understanding and verify the experimental studies (Ismail 2005). In this study, PLAXIS software was used to verify the CBR values obtained from laboratory the tests.

The objective of this study was to use finite element method to model the CBR test withcemented sand.

The basic CBR test involves applying load to a small piston at a rate of 0.05 in per minute and recording the total load at penetrations ranging from 0.025 in. up to 0.300 in. Generally, the load at 0.1 inch penetration is used to compute the CBR value. The CBR value is defined as the ratio of the stress on piston at 0.1 inch penetration to that of the standard unit load for well graded crushed stone. A commercially available geotechnical finite element program (PLAXIS) was used to develop the FEM analyses. A 15 node, triangular elements were used in the axisymmetric analysis. The cemented sand was modeled as elastic perfectly plastic material, with Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria. Table 1 summaries the parameters used in the analysis. The model used to simulate the cemented sand behavior, required six input parameters-initial elastic modulus (E), Poissons ratio () , cohesion (c), friction angle (), dilatancy angle () and Proceedings CIGMAT-2008 Conference & Exhibition 2 unit weight () constant the friction angle and dilatancy angle, respectively at 38o and 5o, while varying elastic modulus (E) and cohesion (c) based on unconfined compression test results.

Finite element modeling of CBR test was done in two phases. In the first phase, a surcharge weight of 5 lbs was applied to the cemented sand which simulates an intensity of loading equal to the weight of the base material (ASTM D 1883). In the second phase the surcharge weight was kept constant and total prescribed displacement of 0.3 in. with 0.025 in. increments was given to the piston. The CBR value was predicted at prescribed displacement of 0.1 in of the piston and compared with the laboratory test results for 3% cemented sand

FEM was used to model the CBR test with 3% cemented sand (linearly elastic and perfectly plastic with Mohr-Coulomb yielding criteria) and the ratio of predicted to measured CBR value varied from 0.69 to 1.07.

This study was supported by the CIGMAT with funds from the Texas Department of Transportation. The funding agency is not responsible for any of the conclusions drawn herein.

This method of test outlines the procedure for determining the quantity of silt in fine aggregate.

A special No. 200 (75 m) mesh, 8 in. (200 mm) diameter wash sieve with the sieve cloth conforming to the requirements of AASHTO Designation M 92. A round wash pan of sufficient size to contain the sample covered with water, and to permit vigorous agitation without loss of any part of the sample or water. A balance accurate to within 0.1 percent of the mass of the sample to be tested. Oven or hot plate

Select the sample by the method outlined in Matls. IM 302, "Method of Test For Sieve Analysis of Aggregates." Select a representative sample sufficient to yield not less than the following weights of dried materials: Fine sand, 95% or more passing the No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve - 100 grams. Concrete sand or sands with 90% or more passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve 500 grams. Pit-run (fine sample) - 1000 grams.

a) Dry the sample to a constant mass and weigh to the nearest 0.5 gram. b) Place the test sample, after being weighed and dried, in the wash pan and c) cover with water containing a sufficient amount of methanol or other wetting agent to aid in the separation of the finer materials. d) Agitate the pan and its contents by a rotary motion so that the sample can be heard to scour the bottom of the wash pan. e) After approximately ten seconds of agitation, permit the wash water to settle for exactly 15 seconds before decanting on the special No. 200 (75 m) mesh wash sieve. f) Repeat the above operation and continue until the wash water is clear. g) Thoroughly rinse and wash back into the sample all of the material retained on the wash sieve. Allow it to settle again for 15 seconds, and drain as much water as possible by carefully pouring through the wash sieve. Rinse back into the sample again any material left on the sieve. h) Dry the sample to a constant mass and weigh to within 0.1 percent of the mass of the sample.

The loss in mass from the original dry mass is the amount of silt. Convert this loss in mass to percentage by dividing it by the original dry weight, and multiplying by 100.

%SILT =