ENGINEERING
Based on the ASME Y14.5M
1994 Dimensioning and
Tolerancing Standard
Tolerances
of Form
Straightness Flatness
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 6.4.1) (ASME Y14.5M1994, 6.4.2)
Circularity Cylindricity
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 6.4.3) (ASME Y14.5M1994, 6.4.4)
Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 0.1
25 +/0.25
0.1 Tolerance
0.5 Tolerance
25.25 max
24.75 min
MMC
MMC
MMC
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Straightness (MMC)
15
14.85
0.1 M
0.1 Diameter
15
Tolerance Zone
(MMC)
In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size
must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is
equal to the specified tolerance value at MMC. As each circular element
of the feature departs from MMC, the diameter of the tolerance cylinder
is allowed to increase by an amount equal to the departure from the local
MMC size. Each circular element of the feature must be within the
specified limits of size. However, the boundary of perfect form at MMC
can be violated up to the virtual condition diameter.
Flatness
0.1
25 +/0.25
25.25 max
24.75 min
90
0.1
90
In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a
tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the
specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the
limits of size and the circularity limit.
0.1
MMC
In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone
defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified
tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of
size and the cylindricity limit.
Angularity
(ASME Y14.5M1994 ,6.6.2)
Perpendicularity
(ASME Y14.5M1994 ,6.6.4)
Parallelism
(ASME Y14.5M1994 ,6.6.3)
Angularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)
20 +/0.5
0.3 A
o
30
A
19.5 min 20.5 max
o o
30 30
0.3 A
0.3 Circular
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone
o
60
A A
The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a
cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented
at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.
NOTE: Tolerance
applies to feature
at RFS
A 0.3 Circular
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone
45 o
Datum Axis A
0.3 A
0.3 Diameter
Tolerance Zone
A 0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone
Datum Axis A
0.3 A
25 +/0.5
0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone
Profile of a Line
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 6.5.2b)
Profile of a Surface
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 6.5.2a)
Profile of a Line
20 X 20
A1 B
20 X 20
A3
20 X 20
A2
1 A B C
17 +/ 1
1 Wide Profile
2 Wide Size Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone
18 Max
16 Min.
A1 B
20 X 20
A3
20 X 20
A2
C 2 A B C
23.5
A
2 Wide Tolerance Zone
Size, Form and Orientation
Nominal
23.5
Location
20 X 20
A3
20 X 20
A2
1 A B C
C
50
1 Wide Total B
Tolerance Zone
0.5 Inboard
0.5 Outboard C
50 Nominal Location
Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a
bilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone allows the trim edge variation
and/or locational error to be on both sides of the true profile. The tolerance
applies to the entire edge surface.
Profile of a Surface
(Unilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1 B
20 X 20
A3
20 X 20
A2
0.5 A B C
C
50
50 Nominal Location
Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a
unilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone limits the trim edge variation
and/or locational error to one side of the true profile. The tolerance applies to
the entire edge surface.
Profile of a Surface
(Unequal Bilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1 B
20 X 20
A3
20 X 20
A2
0.5
1.2 A B C
C
50
0.5 Inboard
0.7 Outboard C
50 Nominal Location
Location &
0.5 A Orientation
0.1 Form Only
25
25.25
24.75
0.5 A Location
0.1 A Form & Orientation
25
24.75
True Position
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 5.2)
Concentricity
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 5.12)
Symmetry
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 5.13)
Notes
Coordinate vs Geometric
Tolerancing Methods
8.5 +/ 0.1
1.4 A B C
8.5 +/ 0.1
Rectangular Circular Tolerance
Tolerance Zone Zone
+/ 0.5
1.4
+/ 0.5
Positional
tolerance zone
Y
cylinder
Actual feature Feature axis true
boundary position (designed)
Z= X2 + Y2
Z positional tolerance /2
Z = total radial deviation
X2 = “X” measured deviation
Y2 = “Y” measured deviation
Positional Tolerance Verification
(Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated)
X
Z
Feature axis actual
location (measured)
Positional
tolerance zone
Y
cylinder
Actual feature Feature axis true
boundary position (designed)
2X 0.5 A B C
C A
10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing
2X 6 +/0.25
Means This:
True Position Related
1.5 Wide to Datum Reference Frame
Tolerance
Zone
C
10
B
10 35 0.5 Wide
Tolerance Zone
Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone
basically located to the datum reference frame
Bidirectional True Position
Multiple SingleSegment Method
2X 6 +/0.25
1.5 A B C
0.5 A B
C A
10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing
Means This:
True Position Related
1.5 Wide to Datum Reference Frame
Tolerance
Zone
C
10
B
10 35 0.5 Wide
Tolerance Zone
Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone
basically located to the datum reference frame
Bidirectional True Position
Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept)
2X 13 +/0.25 2X 6 +/0.25
1.5 M A B C 0.5 M A B C
BOUNDARY BOUNDARY
C A
10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing
90 o
10 A
10 35 B
Composite True Position
Without Pattern Orientation Control
2X 6 +/0.25
1.5 A B C
0.5 A
C A
10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing
Means This:
1.5 PatternLocating
0.5 FeatureRelating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern location relative
pattern orientation relative to to Datums A, B, and C
Datum A only (perpendicularity)
C A
10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing
Means This:
1.5 PatternLocating
True Position Related Tolerance Zone Cylinder
pattern location relative
to Datum Reference to Datums A, B, and C
Frame
C
10
B 0.5 FeatureRelating
Tolerance Zone Cylinder
10 35 pattern orientation relative to
Datums A and B
15.95
15.90
As Shown on Drawing
Means This: Axis of Datum 0.5 Coaxial
Feature A Tolerance Zone
Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of
diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.5 cylindrical
tolerance zone. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of
datum feature A. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.
Location (Symmetry)
Datum Features at RFS
15.95
15.90
As Shown on Drawing
Means This: Center Plane of 0.5 Wide
Datum Feature A Tolerance Zone
Derived Median
Points
Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points
of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally
disposed about datum plane A, 0.5 apart. Symmetry can only be
applied on an RFS basis.
True Position Quiz
Answer questions #111 True or False
Circular Runout
(ASME Y14.5M1994, 6.7.1.2.1)
Total Runout
(ASME Y14.5M1994 ,6.7.1.2.2)
Features Applicable
to Runout Tolerancing
Internal surfaces
constructed around a
datum axis
External surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis Angled surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis
Datum axis (established
from datum feature
Surfaces constructed
perpendicular to a
datum axis
Datum feature
Circular Runout
Total Circular runout can only be applied on an
Tolerance RFS basis and cannot be modified to
MMC or LMC.
Maximum Minimum
Full Indicator
Movement
Maximum Minimum
Reading Reading Measuring position #1
(circular element #1)

0
+
Full Part
Rotation
Measuring position #2
(circular element #2)
When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset to zero at each measuring position
along the feature surface. Each individual circular element of the surface is independently
allowed the full specified tolerance. In this example, circular runout can be used to detect 2
dimensional wobble (orientation) and waviness (form), but not 3dimensional characteristics
such as surface profile (overall form) or surface wobble (overall orientation).
Circular Runout
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)
0.75 A
50 +/0.25
o o
50 +/ 2
As Shown
on Drawing
Collet or Chuck
When measuring circular
runout, the indicator must
be reset when repositioned
Datum axis A
along the feature surface.
360 o Part
Rotation
50 +/0.25
As Shown
on Drawing
Datum axis A
50 +/0.25
As Shown
on Drawing
A B
As Shown
on Drawing
Machine
center
Single circular element
Datum axis AB
Machine
center
360 o Part
NOTE: Circular runout in this example will
Rotation
only control variation in the 2dimensional
circular elements of the surface (circularity and
coaxiality) not the entire feature surface
Circular Runout
(Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis)
A
B
0.75 A B
50 +/0.25
As Shown
on Drawing
360 o Part 
0
+
Collet or Chuck
Rotation
Datum axis B
Maximum Minimum
Full Indicator
Movement
Maximum Minimum
Reading Reading
+
0

+
0

When measuring total runout, the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface
while the part is rotated about the datum axis. It is also acceptable to measure total runout by
evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the part
is rotated about the datum axis. Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire surface, the
indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position. In this example,
total runout can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface wobble (overall
orientation).
Total Runout
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)
0.75 A
A
50 +/0.25
o o
50 +/ 2
As Shown
on Drawing
Means This: The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is
equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric
When measuring total runout, the
indicator must not be reset when shape of the feature surface when the part is
repositioned along the feature rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is
surface. moved along the entire length of the feature

0
+ surface.
Collet or Chuck
0.75 A
10
35
50 +/0.25
A
As Shown
on Drawing
Means This: The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface
indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the
feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis
and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature
surface within the area described by the basic dimensions.

0
+
When measuring total runout, the indicator
10 
0
+ must not be reset when repositioned along the
feature surface.
Full Part
Rotation Datum axis A
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)
General Equation Applies to
Each Part Individually
A H=F+T or T=HF
B H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)
General Equation Applies to
Each Part Individually
A H=F+T or T=HF
B H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter
10 A H=F+2T or T=(HF)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter
A
H = F + 2T
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10.00
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.80
0.8 M P 10
H = 10.00 + 2(0.8)
H = _____
B
Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional
tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the
appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to
ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zerointerference” fit when the features
are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example
the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.)
10 A H=F+2T or T=(HF)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter
A
H = F + 2T
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10.00
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.80
0.8 M P 10
H = 10.00 + 2(0.8)
H = 11.60 Minimum
10 A H=F+2T or T=(HF)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter
A
H = F + 2T
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.8
0.8 M P 10
H = 10 + 2(0.8)
H = 11.6 Minimum
10 A H=F+2T or T=(HF)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter
A
T = (H  F)/2
H = Minimum Hole Size = 11
Nominal Size 2X M10 X 1.5 F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
(MMC For Calculations)
0.5 M P 10
T = (11  10)/2
T = 0.50
10 A
H=F+(T1 + T2)
H = Min. diameter of clearance hole
F = Maximum diameter of fastener
B T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2=
Positional tolerance (Part B)
A
H=F+(T1 + T2)
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = 0.50
1 M P 10 T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 1
H = 10+ (0.5 + 1)
H = ____
B
Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional
tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the
appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to
ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zerointerference” fit when the features
are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example
the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.)
10 A
H= F+(T1 + T2)
H = Min. diameter of clearance hole
F = Maximum diameter of fastener
B T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2=
Positional tolerance (Part B)
A
H=F+(T1 + T2)
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = 0.5
1 M P 10 T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 1
H = 10 + (0.5 + 1)
H = 11.5 Minimum
B
H F
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
P A F= Maximum diameter of pin
T1= Positional tolerance (Part A)
T2= Positional tolerance (Part B)
D B D= Min. depth of pin (Part A)
P= Maximum projection of pin
H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
A F = Max. pin size = 10
T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = 0.5
2x 10.05 +/0.05 T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 0.5 D
0.5 M = Min. pin depth = 20. P
= Max. pin projection = 15
H F H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
P A F= Maximum diameter of pin
T1= Positional tolerance (Part A)
T2= Positional tolerance (Part B)
D B D= Min. depth of pin (Part A)
P= Maximum projection of pin
H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
A F = Max. pin size = 10
T1 = Positional tol. (A) = 0.5
2x 10.05 +/0.05 T2 = Positional tol. (B) = 0.5 D
0.5 M = Min. pin depth = 20 P
= Max. pin projection = 15
11. A free state datum modifier applies to “assists” & “rests”. TRUE
4. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five degrees
of freedom.
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True Position Quiz
Questions #19 Fill in blanks (choose from below)
1. Positional tolerance zones can be rectangular, cylindrical,
or spherical
14 +/ 0.5
1M A B C
A
C
XX.X
XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing
Virtual Condition
1 Positional
Inner Boundary
( )
Tolerance Zone at
Maximum Inscribed
MMC
Diameter
True (Basic)
Position of Hole
Other Possible
Extreme Locations
14 +/ 0.5
1M A B C
A
C
XX.X
XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing
( Minimum Circumscribed
Diameter ) LMC
True (Basic)
Position of Hole
Other Possible
Extreme Locations
14 +/ 0.5
1M A B C
A
C
XX.XX
XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing
( Minimum Circumscribed
Diameter ) MMC
True (Basic)
Position of Feature
Other Possible
Extreme Locations
14 +/ 0.5
1M A B C
A
C
XX.X
XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing
Resultant Condition 2 Positional
Inner Boundary
( )
Tolerance Zone at
Maximum Inscribed LMC
Diameter
True (Basic)
Position of Feature
Other Possible
Extreme Locations
25.1
25 (LMC)
(MMC)
25.1
(LMC)
MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25
(MMC)
25.1
(LMC)
25
24.9 (MMC)
(LMC)
24.9
(LMC)
MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25
(MMC)
24.9
(LMC)
25.1 25
25 (LMC) 24.9 (MMC)
(MMC) (LMC)
25.1 24.9
(LMC) (LMC)
MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25 25
(MMC) (MMC)
25.1 24.9
(LMC) (LMC)
E
N
D
Notes
Notes
Notes