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DIMENSIONAL

ENGINEERING
Based on the ASME Y14.5M-
1994 Dimensioning and
Tolerancing Standard
Tolerances
of Form

Straightness Flatness
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.1) (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.2)

Circularity Cylindricity
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.3) (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.4)
Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance

0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where an element of a


surface or an axis is a straight line
Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max
24.75 min

0.1 Tolerance Zone

In this example each line element of the surface must lie


within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each
view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of
size and the applicable straightness limit.

The straightness tolerance is applied in the view where the


elements to be controlled are represented by a straight line
Straightness
(Surface Elements)
0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

In this example each longitudinal element of the surface must


lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
separated by the specified tolerance value. The feature must
be within the limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at
MMC. Any barreling or waisting of the feature must not
exceed the size limits of the feature.
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Straightness (MMC)
15
14.85
0.1 M

0.1 Diameter
15
Tolerance Zone
(MMC)

15.1 Virtual Condition

14.85 0.25 Diameter


(LMC) Tolerance Zone

15.1 Virtual Condition

Virtual Condition = MMC Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance

In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size
must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is
equal to the specified tolerance value at MMC. As each circular element
of the feature departs from MMC, the diameter of the tolerance cylinder
is allowed to increase by an amount equal to the departure from the local
MMC size. Each circular element of the feature must be within the
specified limits of size. However, the boundary of perfect form at MMC
can be violated up to the virtual condition diameter.
Flatness
0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance Zone

0.1 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max
24.75 min

In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance


zone defined by two parallel planes separated by the specified
tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the
limits of size and the flatness limit.

Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in


one plane. Flatness must fall within the limits of size. The
flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance.
Circularity
(Roundness)
0.1

90
0.1
90

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a
tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the
specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the
limits of size and the circularity limit.

Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the


surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common
axis are equidistant from that axis. The circularity tolerance
must be less than the size tolerance
Cylindricity

0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone
defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified
tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of
size and the cylindricity limit.

Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which


all points are equidistant from a common axis. Cylindricity is a
composite control of form which includes circularity
(roundness), straightness, and taper of a cylindrical feature.
Form Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The four form controls are ____________, ________,


___________, and ____________.
2. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of
size must have ____________at MMC.
3. ____________ and ___________ are individual line or circular
element (2-D) controls.

4. ________ and ____________are surface (3-D) controls.


5. Circularity can be applied to both ________and _______ cylindrical
parts.

straightness cylindricity angularity


straight flatness tapered profile
perfect form circularity true position

Answer questions #6-10 True or False

6. Form controls require a datum reference.

7. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size.


8. A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size
tolerance.

9. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature.

10. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form.


Tolerances of
Orientation

Angularity
(ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.2)

Perpendicularity
(ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.4)

Parallelism
(ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.3)
Angularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

20 +/-0.5

0.3 A

o
30

A
19.5 min 20.5 max

o o
30 30

0.3 Wide 0.3 Wide


A Tolerance
A Tolerance
Zone Zone

The tolerance zone in this example is defined


by two parallel planes oriented at the
specified angle to the datum reference plane.

Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a


specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum
reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.
Angularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)
NOTE: Tolerance applies
to feature at RFS

0.3 A

0.3 Circular
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone

o
60

A A
The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a
cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented
at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.

Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified


angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane,
within the specified tolerance zone.
Angularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)

NOTE: Feature axis must lie


within tolerance zone cylinder
0.3 A

NOTE: Tolerance
applies to feature
at RFS

A 0.3 Circular
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone

45 o

Datum Axis A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a


cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented
at the specified angle to the datum reference axis.

Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified


angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference axis,
within the specified tolerance zone.
Perpendicularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

0.3 A

0.3 Wide 0.3 Wide


Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone

A The tolerance zone in this example is A


defined by two parallel planes oriented
perpendicular to the datum reference
plane.
Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature
surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane, within
the specified tolerance zone.
Perpendicularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

0.3 Diameter
Tolerance Zone

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
C
0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone 0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone
0.3 C

The tolerance zone in this example is


defined by a cylinder equal to the length of
the feature, oriented perpendicular to the
datum reference plane.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right


angle to the datum reference plane, within the specified
tolerance zone.
Perpendicularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
0.3 A

A 0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Datum Axis A

The tolerance zone in this example is


defined by two parallel planes oriented
perpendicular to the datum reference axis.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right


angle to the datum reference axis, within the specified
tolerance zone.
Parallelism
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

0.3 A

25 +/-0.5

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

25.5 max 24.5 min

A The tolerance zone in this example


A
is defined by two parallel planes
oriented parallel to the datum
reference plane.
Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface
equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane,
within the specified tolerance zone.
Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

NOTE: The specified tolerance


does not apply to the orientation
of the feature axis in this direction

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS 0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone
0.3 A

A The tolerance zone in this example A


is defined by two parallel planes
oriented parallel to the datum
reference plane.

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant


along its length from the datum reference plane, within the
specified tolerance zone.
Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surfaces)

0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone 0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone
0.3 A B

The tolerance zone in this example is


A defined by a cylinder equal to the
A
length of the feature, oriented parallel
to the datum reference planes.

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant


along its length from the two datum reference planes, within
the specified tolerance zone.
Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)
The tolerance zone in this example is
defined by a cylinder equal to the
length of the feature, oriented
parallel to the datum reference axis.

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
0.1 Circular
Tolerance Zone 0.1 A

0.1 Circular Datum Axis A


Tolerance Zone

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along


its length from the datum reference axis, within the specified
tolerance zone.
Orientation Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three orientation controls are __________, ___________,


and ________________.

2. A _______________ is always required when applying any of


the orientation controls.

3. ________________ is the appropriate geometric tolerance when


controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum
reference.
4. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are _________.

5. Orientation tolerances do not control the ________ of a feature.

perpendicularity datum target datum reference


datum feature location parallelism
angularity identical profile

Answer questions #6-10 True or False


6. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form.

7. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical.


8. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle
must be indicated as a basic dimension.

9. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size.

10. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must


be indicated as a basic dimension.
Tolerances
of Profile

Profile of a Line
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2b)

Profile of a Surface
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2a)
Profile of a Line
20 X 20

A1 B

20 X 20

A3

20 X 20

A2

1 A B C

17 +/- 1

1 Wide Profile
2 Wide Size Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone

18 Max

16 Min.

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two


parallel lines oriented with respect to the datum reference
frame. The profile tolerance zone is free to float within the
larger size tolerance and applies only to the form and
orientation of any individual line element along the entire
surface.

Profile of a Line is a two-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a


part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as
a single entity is not required or desired. The tolerance applies to the line
element of the surface at each individual cross section indicated on the
drawing.
Profile of a Surface
20 X 20

A1 B

20 X 20

A3

20 X 20

A2

C 2 A B C

23.5

A
2 Wide Tolerance Zone
Size, Form and Orientation

Nominal
23.5
Location

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel


planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile
tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part
surface to vary equally about the true profile of the feature.

Profile of a Surface is a three-dimensional tolerance that can be applied


to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature
surface as a single entity is desired. The tolerance applies to the entire
surface and can be used to control size, location, form and/or orientation
of a feature surface.
Profile of a Surface
(Bilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1 B

20 X 20

A3

20 X 20

A2

1 A B C

C
50

1 Wide Total B
Tolerance Zone

0.5 Inboard
0.5 Outboard C

50 Nominal Location

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes


oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance
zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to
vary equally about the true profile of the trim.

Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a
bilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone allows the trim edge variation
and/or locational error to be on both sides of the true profile. The tolerance
applies to the entire edge surface.
Profile of a Surface
(Unilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1 B

20 X 20

A3

20 X 20

A2

0.5 A B C

C
50

0.5 Wide Total B


Tolerance Zone

50 Nominal Location

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes


oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance
zone is located and aligned in a way that allows the trim surface to vary
from the true profile only in the inboard direction.

Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a
unilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone limits the trim edge variation
and/or locational error to one side of the true profile. The tolerance applies to
the entire edge surface.
Profile of a Surface
(Unequal Bilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20
A1 B

20 X 20

A3

20 X 20

A2

0.5

1.2 A B C

C
50

1.2 Wide Total B


Tolerance Zone

0.5 Inboard
0.7 Outboard C

50 Nominal Location

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes


oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance
zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to
vary from the true profile more in one direction (outboard) than in the
other (inboard).
Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control
the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. Typically when
unequal values are specified, the tolerance zone will represent the actual
measured trim edge variation and/or locational error. The tolerance applies to
the entire edge surface.
Profile of a Surface

Location &
0.5 A Orientation
0.1 Form Only
25

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

25.25
24.75

Composite Profile of Two Coplanar


Surfaces w/o Orientation Refinement
Profile of a Surface

0.5 A Location
0.1 A Form & Orientation

25

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone


25.25

A 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

24.75

Composite Profile of Two Coplanar


Surfaces With Orientation Refinement
Profile Control Quiz
Answer questions #1-13 True or False

1. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference.

2. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control.

3. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control


trim edges on sheet metal parts.
4. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC.

5. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size.


6. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric
controls such as flatness to control a feature.

7. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface.

8. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements.

9. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface.

10. Composite profile controls should be avoided because


they are more restrictive and very difficult to check.

11. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or


unilateral to a feature.

12. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and


restrained datum conditions.

13. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite


profile feature control frame control the location of a
feature to the specified datums.
Profile Control Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The two types of profile tolerances are _________________,


and ____________________.
2. Profile tolerances can be used to control the ________, ____,
___________ , and sometimes size of a feature.
3. Profile tolerances can be applied _________ or __________.
4. _________________ tolerances are 2-dimensional controls.
5. ____________________ tolerances are 3-dimensional controls.
6. _________________ can be used when different tolerances are
required for location and form and/or orientation.
7. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of
a feature, a _______________ must be included
in the feature control frame.

8. When using profile tolerances to control form only, a ______


__________ is not required in the feature control frame.
9. In composite profile applications, the tolerance shown in the upper
segment of the feature control frame applies only to the ________ of
the feature.

composite profile bilateral virtual condition


profile of a surface primary datum orientation
datum reference unilateral profile of a line
location true geometric counterpart form
Tolerances
of Location

True Position
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.2)

Concentricity
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.12)

Symmetry
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.13)
Notes
Coordinate vs Geometric
Tolerancing Methods
8.5 +/- 0.1
1.4 A B C
8.5 +/- 0.1
Rectangular Circular Tolerance
Tolerance Zone Zone

10.25 +/- 0.5 10.25


B

10.25 +/- 0.5 10.25 C

Coordinate Dimensioning Geometric Dimensioning

+/- 0.5
1.4

+/- 0.5

Rectangular Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone

Circular Tolerance Zone


57% Larger
Tolerance Zone
Rectangular Tolerance Zone

Increased Effective Tolerance


Positional Tolerance Verification
(Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated)
X
Z
Feature axis actual
location (measured)

Positional
tolerance zone
Y
cylinder
Actual feature Feature axis true
boundary position (designed)

Formula to determine the actual radial


position of a feature using measured
coordinate values (RFS)

Z= X2 + Y2
Z positional tolerance /2
Z = total radial deviation
X2 = “X” measured deviation
Y2 = “Y” measured deviation
Positional Tolerance Verification
(Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated)
X
Z
Feature axis actual
location (measured)

Positional
tolerance zone
Y
cylinder
Actual feature Feature axis true
boundary position (designed)

Formula to determine the actual radial


position of a feature using measured
coordinate values (MMC)
Z = X2 + Y2
Z +( actual - MMC)
2
= positional tolerance
Z = total radial deviation
X2 = “X” measured deviation
Y2 = “Y” measured deviation
Bi-directional True Position
Rectangular Coordinate Method
2X 1.5 A B C

2X 0.5 A B C

C A

10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing
2X 6 +/-0.25

Means This:
True Position Related
1.5 Wide to Datum Reference Frame
Tolerance
Zone
C

10
B
10 35 0.5 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone
basically located to the datum reference frame
Bi-directional True Position
Multiple Single-Segment Method
2X 6 +/-0.25
1.5 A B C
0.5 A B

C A

10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing

Means This:
True Position Related
1.5 Wide to Datum Reference Frame
Tolerance
Zone
C

10
B
10 35 0.5 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone
basically located to the datum reference frame
Bi-directional True Position
Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept)

2X 13 +/-0.25 2X 6 +/-0.25
1.5 M A B C 0.5 M A B C
BOUNDARY BOUNDARY

C A

10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing

5.75 MMC length of slot


Means This: -0.50 Position tolerance
Both holes must be within the size limits and no 5.25 maximum boundary
portion of their surfaces may lie within the area
described by the 11.25 x 5.25 maximum
boundaries when the part is positioned with 12.75 MMC width of slot
respect to the datum reference frame. The -1.50 Position tolerance
boundary concept can only be applied on an 11.25 Maximum boundary
MMC basis.
True position boundary related
to datum reference frame

90 o
10 A
10 35 B
Composite True Position
Without Pattern Orientation Control
2X 6 +/-0.25
1.5 A B C
0.5 A

C A

10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing

Means This:
1.5 Pattern-Locating
0.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern location relative
pattern orientation relative to to Datums A, B, and C
Datum A only (perpendicularity)

10 True Position Related


B
to Datum Reference
10 35 Frame

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously


Composite True Position
With Pattern Orientation Control
2X 6 +/-0.25
1.5 A B C
0.5 A B

C A

10
B As Shown
10 35 on Drawing

Means This:
1.5 Pattern-Locating
True Position Related Tolerance Zone Cylinder
pattern location relative
to Datum Reference to Datums A, B, and C

Frame
C

10
B 0.5 Feature-Relating
Tolerance Zone Cylinder
10 35 pattern orientation relative to
Datums A and B

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously


Location (Concentricity)
Datum Features at RFS

6.35 +/- 0.05


0.5 A
A

15.95
15.90

As Shown on Drawing
Means This: Axis of Datum 0.5 Coaxial
Feature A Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points of


Diametrically Opposed Elements

Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of
diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.5 cylindrical
tolerance zone. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of
datum feature A. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.
Location (Symmetry)
Datum Features at RFS

6.35 +/- 0.05


0.5 A
A

15.95
15.90

As Shown on Drawing
Means This: Center Plane of 0.5 Wide
Datum Feature A Tolerance Zone

Derived Median
Points

Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points
of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally
disposed about datum plane A, 0.5 apart. Symmetry can only be
applied on an RFS basis.
True Position Quiz
Answer questions #1-11 True or False

1. Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns


of features of size.
2. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the
functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes.

3. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the


minimum size of a feature required for assembly.

4. True position tolerances can control a feature’s size.


5. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC, LMC, or
RFS basis.
6. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided
because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check.

7. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied


to patterns of related features.

8. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a


composite true position feature control frame applies
to the location of a pattern of features to the specified
datums.

9. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a


composite true position feature control frame applies
to the location of a pattern of features to the specified
datums.

10. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity


11. True position tolerances can be used to control center
distance relationships between features of size.
True Position Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)
1. Positional tolerance zones can be ___________, ___________,
or spherical

2. ________________ are used to establish the true (theoretically


exact) position of a feature from specified datums.

3. Positional tolerancing is a _____________ control.


4. Positional tolerance can apply to the ____ or ________________ of
a feature.

5. _____ and ________ fastener equations are used to determine


appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details

6. _________ tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener


interference in mating details.

7. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true


position feature control frame is called the ________________
tolerance zone.
8. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true
position feature control frame is called the ________________
tolerance zone.
9. Functional gaging principles can be applied when __________
________ condition is specified

surface boundary floating feature-relating


pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical
3-dimensional basic dimensions projected
location maximum material axis fixed
Tolerances
of Runout

Circular Runout
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.7.1.2.1)

Total Runout
(ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.7.1.2.2)
Features Applicable
to Runout Tolerancing
Internal surfaces
constructed around a
datum axis

External surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis Angled surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis
Datum axis (established
from datum feature

Surfaces constructed
perpendicular to a
datum axis
Datum feature
Circular Runout
Total Circular runout can only be applied on an
Tolerance RFS basis and cannot be modified to
MMC or LMC.

Maximum Minimum

Full Indicator
Movement

Maximum Minimum
Reading Reading Measuring position #1
(circular element #1)
-
0
+

Full Part
Rotation

Measuring position #2
(circular element #2)

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset to zero at each measuring position
along the feature surface. Each individual circular element of the surface is independently
allowed the full specified tolerance. In this example, circular runout can be used to detect 2-
dimensional wobble (orientation) and waviness (form), but not 3-dimensional characteristics
such as surface profile (overall form) or surface wobble (overall orientation).
Circular Runout
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

0.75 A

50 +/-0.25

o o
50 +/- 2
As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular


element is equal to the total allowable movement
of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the
Allowable indicator true geometric shape of the feature surface when
reading = 0.75 max. the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
( Full Indicator
Movement ) axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently
to each individual measuring position along the
-
0
+ feature surface.

Collet or Chuck
When measuring circular
runout, the indicator must
be reset when repositioned
Datum axis A
along the feature surface.

360 o Part
Rotation

NOTE: Circular runout in this example only


controls the 2-dimensional circular elements
Single circular (circularity and coaxiality) of the angled feature
element surface not the entire angled feature surface
Circular Runout
(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)
0.75 A

50 +/-0.25

As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular


element is equal to the total allowable movement
of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the
true geometric shape of the feature surface when
the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently
to each individual measuring position along the
Single circular feature surface.
element
-
0
+ When measuring circular runout, the indicator must
be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

360 o Part Allowable indicator


reading = 0.75 max.
Rotation

Datum axis A

NOTE: Circular runout in this example will


only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the planar surface (wobble
and waviness) not the entire feature surface
Circular Runout
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)
0.75 A

50 +/-0.25

As Shown
on Drawing

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal


Means This: to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a
position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature
surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each
individual measuring position along the feature surface.
+
0
-
When measuring circular runout,
Allowable indicator the indicator must be reset when
reading = 0.75 max. repositioned along the feature
surface.

Single circular element

360 o Part Datum axis A


Rotation

NOTE: Circular runout in this example will


only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the surface (circularity and
coaxiality) not the entire feature surface
Circular Runout
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)
0.75 A-B

A B

As Shown
on Drawing

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal


Means This: to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a
position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature
surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each
individual measuring position along the feature surface.
+
0
-
When measuring circular runout,
Allowable indicator the indicator must be reset when
reading = 0.75 max. repositioned along the feature
surface.

Machine
center
Single circular element
Datum axis A-B

Machine
center
360 o Part
NOTE: Circular runout in this example will
Rotation
only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the surface (circularity and
coaxiality) not the entire feature surface
Circular Runout
(Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis)

A
B
0.75 A B

50 +/-0.25

As Shown
on Drawing

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is


Means This: equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed
in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the
feature surface when the part is located against the datum
surface and rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The
tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual
measuring position along the feature surface.
Single circular element
Allowable indicator
reading = 0.75 max.
Stop collar

360 o Part -
0
+
Collet or Chuck
Rotation

Datum axis B

When measuring circular runout,


the indicator must be reset when
repositioned along the feature
surface. Datum plane A
Total Runout
Total Total runout can only be applied on an
Tolerance RFS basis and cannot be modified to
MMC or LMC.

Maximum Minimum

Full Indicator
Movement

Maximum Minimum
Reading Reading

+
0
-

Indicator Full Part


Path Rotation

+
0
-

When measuring total runout, the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface
while the part is rotated about the datum axis. It is also acceptable to measure total runout by
evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the part
is rotated about the datum axis. Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire surface, the
indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position. In this example,
total runout can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface wobble (overall
orientation).
Total Runout
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

0.75 A
A

50 +/-0.25

o o
50 +/- 2
As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is
equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric
When measuring total runout, the
indicator must not be reset when shape of the feature surface when the part is
repositioned along the feature rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is
surface. moved along the entire length of the feature
-
0
+ surface.

Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.


-
0
+
(applies to the entire feature surface)

Collet or Chuck

Full Part Datum axis A


Rotation

NOTE: Unlike circular runout, the use of total runout


will provide 3-dimensional composite control of the
cumulative variations of circularity, coaxiality,
angularity, taper and profile of the angled surface
Total Runout
(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)

0.75 A
10

35
50 +/-0.25

A
As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface
indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the
feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis
and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature
surface within the area described by the basic dimensions.

-
0
+
When measuring total runout, the indicator
10 -
0
+ must not be reset when repositioned along the
feature surface.

35 Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.


(applies to portion of feature surface indicated)

Full Part
Rotation Datum axis A

NOTE: The use of total runout in this example


will provide composite control of the cumulative
variations of perpendicularity (wobble) and
flatness (concavity or convexity) of the feature
surface.
Runout Control Quiz
Answer questions #1-12 True or False

1. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control.

2. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts.

3. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements .

4. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC.

5. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right


angles to the datum reference.

6. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire


feature surface.

7. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference.

8. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to


surface relationships.

9. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part.

10. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit


“wobble” of a rotating surface.

11. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size.

12. Total runout can control circularity, straightness, taper,


coaxiality, angularity and any other surface variation.
Notes
Notes
Fixed and
Floating
Fastener
Exercises
Floating Fasteners
In applications where two or more mating details are assembled, and all parts
have clearance holes for the fasteners, the floating fastener formula shown
below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance
requirements to ensure assembly. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit
when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance

2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)
General Equation Applies to
Each Part Individually

A H=F+T or T=H-F
B H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter

2x 10.50 +/- 0.25


?.? M Calculate Required
Positional Tolerance
T=H-F
H = Minimum Hole Size = 10.25
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
T = 10.25 -10
A
T = ______
remember: the size tolerance must be
??.?? +/- 0.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to
Calculate 2x obtain the correct nominal value.
Nominal Size
0.5 M
H = F +T
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
T = Positional Tolerance = 0.50
B H = 10 + 0.50
H = ______
Floating Fasteners
In applications where two or more mating details are assembled, and all parts
have clearance holes for the fasteners, the floating fastener formula shown
below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance
requirements to ensure assembly. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit
when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance

2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)
General Equation Applies to
Each Part Individually

A H=F+T or T=H-F
B H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter

2x 10.50 +/- 0.25


0.25 M Calculate Required
Positional Tolerance
T=H-F
H = Minimum Hole Size = 10.25
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
T = 10.25 -10
A
T = 0.25
remember: the size tolerance must be
Calculate 2x 10.75 +/- 0.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to
Nominal Size obtain the correct nominal value.
0.5 M
H = F +T
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
T = Positional Tolerance = 0.5
B H= 10 + .5
H= 10.5 Minimum
REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC
Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional
tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the
appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to
ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features
are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example
the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED


2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When


Positional Tolerances Are Equal

10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter

remember: the size tolerance


Calculate Required must be added to the calculated
Clearance Hole Size. 2x ??.?? +/- 0.25
MMC size to obtain the correct
0.8 M nominal value.

A
H = F + 2T
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10.00
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.80
0.8 M P 10
H = 10.00 + 2(0.8)
H = _____

B
Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional
tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the
appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to
ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features
are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example
the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED


2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When


Positional Tolerances Are Equal

10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter

remember: the size tolerance


Calculate Required must be added to the calculated
Clearance Hole Size.
2x 11.85 +/- 0.25
MMC size to obtain the correct
0.8 M nominal value.

A
H = F + 2T
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10.00
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.80
0.8 M P 10
H = 10.00 + 2(0.8)
H = 11.60 Minimum

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC


Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional
tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the
appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to
ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features
are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example
the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED


2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When


Positional Tolerances Are Equal

10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter

remember: the size tolerance


Calculate Required must be added to the calculated
Clearance Hole Size.
2x 11.85 +/- 0.25
MMC size to obtain the correct
0.8 M nominal value.

A
H = F + 2T
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.8
0.8 M P 10
H = 10 + 2(0.8)
H = 11.6 Minimum

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC


Fixed Fasteners
In applications where two mating details are assembled, and one part has
restrained fasteners, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to
calculate appropriate hole sizes and/or positional tolerances required to ensure
assembly. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are
at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note: in this example the
resultant positional tolerance is applied to both parts equally.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED


2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When


Positional Tolerances Are Equal

10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
B F= Maximum diameter of fastener
T= Positional tolerance diameter

2x 11.25 +/- 0.25


Calculate Required
0.5 M Positional Tolerance .
(Both Parts)

A
T = (H - F)/2
H = Minimum Hole Size = 11
Nominal Size 2X M10 X 1.5 F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
(MMC For Calculations)
0.5 M P 10
T = (11 - 10)/2
T = 0.50

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC


Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional
tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the
appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to
ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features
are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example
the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED


2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)
General Equation Used When
Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal

10 A
H=F+(T1 + T2)
H = Min. diameter of clearance hole
F = Maximum diameter of fastener
B T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2=
Positional tolerance (Part B)

remember: the size tolerance must be


Calculate Required added to the calculated MMC hole size to
Clearance Hole Size. 2x ??.??+/- 0.25
obtain the correct nominal value.
0.5 M

A
H=F+(T1 + T2)
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = 0.50
1 M P 10 T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 1
H = 10+ (0.5 + 1)
H = ____
B
Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional
tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the
appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to
ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features
are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example
the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED


2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)
General Equation Used When
Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal

10 A
H= F+(T1 + T2)
H = Min. diameter of clearance hole
F = Maximum diameter of fastener
B T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2=
Positional tolerance (Part B)

remember: the size tolerance must be


Calculate Required added to the calculated MMC hole size to
Clearance Hole Size. 2x 11.75+/- 0.25
obtain the correct nominal value.
0.5 M

A
H=F+(T1 + T2)
Nominal Size
F = Max. Fastener Size = 10
2X M10 X 1.5 (MMC For Calculations) T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = 0.5
1 M P 10 T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 1
H = 10 + (0.5 + 1)
H = 11.5 Minimum
B

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC


Fixed Fasteners
In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated, it is
necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size
combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the
fastener. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to
calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure
assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at
MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance.

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED

H F
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
P A F= Maximum diameter of pin
T1= Positional tolerance (Part A)
T2= Positional tolerance (Part B)
D B D= Min. depth of pin (Part A)
P= Maximum projection of pin

remember: the size tolerance must be


Calculate 2x ??.?? +/-0.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to
obtain the correct nominal value.
Nominal Size 0.5 M

H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
A F = Max. pin size = 10
T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = 0.5
2x 10.05 +/-0.05 T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 0.5 D
0.5 M = Min. pin depth = 20. P
= Max. pin projection = 15

H = 10.00 + 0.5 + 0.5(1 + 2(15/20))


B H= __________
Fixed Fasteners
In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated, it is
necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size
combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the
fastener. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to
calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure
assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at
MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance.

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED

H F H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole
P A F= Maximum diameter of pin
T1= Positional tolerance (Part A)
T2= Positional tolerance (Part B)
D B D= Min. depth of pin (Part A)
P= Maximum projection of pin

remember: the size tolerance must be


Calculate 2x 12 +/-0.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to
Nominal Size obtain the correct nominal value.
0.5 M

H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
A F = Max. pin size = 10
T1 = Positional tol. (A) = 0.5
2x 10.05 +/-0.05 T2 = Positional tol. (B) = 0.5 D
0.5 M = Min. pin depth = 20 P
= Max. pin projection = 15

H = 10 + 0.5 + 0.5(1 + 2(15/20))


B H= 11.75 Minimum

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC


Answers to Quizzes
and Exercises
Rules and Definitions Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1. Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance. FALSE

2. The use of GD&T improves productivity. TRUE

3. Size tolerances control both orientation and position. FALSE

4. Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form. TRUE

5. A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS. TRUE

6. A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC. FALSE

7. Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions. FALSE

8. A surface on a part is considered a feature. TRUE

9. Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions. TRUE

10. A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance. FALSE

11. A free state datum modifier applies to “assists” & “rests”. TRUE

12. Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size. FALSE


Material Condition Quiz
Fill in blanks

Internal Features MMC LMC

10.75 +0.25/-0 10.75 11


23.45 +0.05/-0.25 23.2 23.5
123. 5 +/-0.1 123.4 123.6
.895 .890 .895
.890

External Features MMC LMC

10.75 +0/-0.25 10.75 10.5


23.45 +0.05/-0.25 23.5 23.2
123. 5 +/-0.1 123.6 123.4
.890 .890 .885
.885

Calculate appropriate values


Datum Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1. Datum target areas are theoretically exact. FALSE

2. Datum features are imaginary. FALSE

3. Primary datums have only three points of contact. FALSE

4. The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D, F/A, & C/C. FALSE

5. Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool. TRUE

6. Datum simulators are used to represent datums. TRUE

7. Datums are actual part features. FALSE

8. All datum features must be dimensionally stable. TRUE

9. Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom. TRUE

10. Tertiary datums are not always required. TRUE

11. All tooling locators (CD’s) are used as datums. FALSE

12. Datums should represent functional features. TRUE


Datum Quiz
Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference


frame are called primary, secondary, and tertiary.

2. An unrestrained part will exhibit 3-linear and 3-rotational degrees


of freedom.

3. A planar primary datum plane will restrain 1-linear and 2-rotational


degrees of freedom.

4. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five degrees
of freedom.

5. The primary, secondary and tertiary datum planes together will


restrain all six degrees of freedom.

6. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to restrain movement


of a part in a gage or tool.

7. A datum must be functional, repeatable, and coordinated.


8. A datum feature is an actual feature on a part.
9. A datum is a theoretically exact point, axis or plane.
10. A datum simulator is a precise surface used to establish a
simulated datum.

restrain movement five coordinated repeatable


tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational
three functional one datum simulator 1-linear
datum feature datum secondary 3-linear six
Form Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The four form controls are straightness, flatness,


circularity, and cylindricity.
2. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of
size must have perfect form at MMC.

3. Straightness and circularity are individual line or circular


element (2-D) controls.

4. Flatness and cylindricity are surface (3-D) controls.


5. Circularity can be applied to both straight and tapered cylindrical
parts.

straightness cylindricity angularity


straight flatness tapered profile
perfect form circularity true position

Answer questions #6-10 True or False

6. Form controls require a datum reference. FALSE

7. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size. TRUE

8. A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size TRUE


tolerance.

9. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature. FALSE

10. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form. TRUE


Orientation Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three orientation controls are angularity, parallelism,


and perpendicularity.

2. A datum reference is always required when applying any of


the orientation controls.

3. Perpendicularity is the appropriate geometric tolerance when


controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum
reference.
4. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are identical.

5. Orientation tolerances do not control the location of a feature.

perpendicularity datum target datum reference


datum feature location parallelism
angularity identical profile

Answer questions #6-10 True or False


6. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form. TRUE

7. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. TRUE

8. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle FALSE


must be indicated as a basic dimension.

9. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. FALSE

10. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must TRUE


be indicated as a basic dimension.
Runout Control Quiz
Answer questions #1-12 True or False

1. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control. FALSE

2. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. TRUE

3. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . TRUE

4. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. FALSE

5. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right TRUE


angles to the datum reference.

6. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire FALSE


feature surface.

7. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. TRUE

8. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to TRUE


surface relationships.

9. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. FALSE

10. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit TRUE


“wobble” of a rotating surface.

11. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size. FALSE

12. Total runout can control circularity, straightness, taper, TRUE


coaxiality, angularity and any other surface variation.
Profile Control Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The two types of profile tolerances are profile of a line, and


profile of a surface.
2. Profile tolerances can be used to control the location, form,
orientation, and sometimes size of a feature.

3. Profile tolerances can be applied bilateral or unilateral.


4. Profile of a line tolerances are 2-dimensional controls.
5. Profile of a surface tolerances are 3-dimensional controls.
6. Composite Profile can be used when different tolerances are
required for location and form and/or orientation.

7. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of


a feature, a datum reference must be included in the feature control
frame.

8. When using profile tolerances to control form only, a datum


reference is not required in the feature control frame.

9. In composite profile applications, the tolerance shown in the upper


segment of the feature control frame applies only to the location of the
feature.

composite profile bilateral virtual condition


profile of a surface primary datum orientation
datum reference unilateral profile of a line
location true geometric counterpart form
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True Position Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)
1. Positional tolerance zones can be rectangular, cylindrical,
or spherical

2. Basic dimensions are used to establish the true (theoretically


exact) position of a feature from specified datums.

3. Positional tolerancing is a 3-dimensional control.


4. Positional tolerance can apply to the axis or surface boundary
of a feature.

5. Fixed and floating fastener equations are used to determine


appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details

6. Projected tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener


interference in mating details.

7. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true


position feature control frame is called the pattern-locating
tolerance zone.

8. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true


position feature control frame is called the feature-relating
tolerance zone.

9. Functional gaging principles can be applied when maximum


material condition is specified

surface boundary floating feature-relating


pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical
3-dimensional basic dimensions projected
location maximum material axis fixed
Virtual and
Resultant
Condition
Boundaries
Internal and External
Features (MMC Concept)
Virtual Condition Boundary
Internal Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

A
C
XX.X

XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing

Virtual Condition
1 Positional
Inner Boundary

( )
Tolerance Zone at
Maximum Inscribed
MMC
Diameter

True (Basic)
Position of Hole

Other Possible
Extreme Locations

Boundary of MMC Hole True (Basic)


Position of Hole Axis Location of
Shown at Extreme Limit
MMC Hole Shown
at Extreme Limit

Calculating Virtual Condition


13.5 MMC Size of Feature
1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance
12.5 Virtual Condition Boundary
Resultant Condition Boundary
Internal Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

A
C
XX.X

XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing

Resultant Condition 2 Positional


Outer Boundary Tolerance Zone at

( Minimum Circumscribed
Diameter ) LMC

True (Basic)
Position of Hole

Other Possible
Extreme Locations

Boundary of LMC Hole True (Basic)


Position of Hole Axis Location of
Shown at Extreme Limit
LMC Hole Shown
at Extreme Limit

Calculating Resultant Condition (Internal Feature)


14.5 LMC Size of Feature
2 Geometric Tolerance (at LMC)
16.5 Resultant Condition Boundary
Virtual Condition Boundary
External Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

A
C
XX.XX

XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing

Virtual Condition 1 Positional


Outer Boundary Tolerance Zone at

( Minimum Circumscribed
Diameter ) MMC

True (Basic)
Position of Feature

Other Possible
Extreme Locations

Boundary of MMC Feature True (Basic)


Position of Feature Axis Location of
Shown at Extreme Limit
MMC Feature Shown
at Extreme Limit

Calculating Virtual Condition


14.5 MMC Size of Feature
1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance
15.5 Virtual Condition Boundary
Resultant Condition Boundary
External Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5
1M A B C

A
C
XX.X

XX.X
B
As Shown on Drawing
Resultant Condition 2 Positional
Inner Boundary

( )
Tolerance Zone at
Maximum Inscribed LMC
Diameter

True (Basic)
Position of Feature

Other Possible
Extreme Locations

Boundary of LMC feature True (Basic)


Position of Feature Axis Location of
Shown at Extreme Limit
LMC Feature Shown
at Extreme Limit

Calculating Resultant Condition (External Feature)


13.5 LMC Size of Feature
2 Geometric Tolerance (at LMC)
11.5 Resultant Condition Boundary
Extreme Variations of Form
Allowed By Size Tolerance
25.1
25

25.1
25 (LMC)
(MMC)

25.1
(LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25
(MMC)

25.1
(LMC)

Internal Feature of Size


Extreme Variations of Form
Allowed By Size Tolerance
25
24.9

25
24.9 (MMC)
(LMC)

24.9
(LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25
(MMC)

24.9
(LMC)

External Feature of Size


Extreme Variations of Form
Allowed By Size Tolerance
25.1 25
25 24.9

25.1 25
25 (LMC) 24.9 (MMC)
(MMC) (LMC)

25.1 24.9
(LMC) (LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25 25
(MMC) (MMC)

25.1 24.9
(LMC) (LMC)
E
N
D
Notes
Notes
Notes